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Looking to bridge the gap between modernisation and preservation, this new desire line acts as a disturbance within the physical and economic grid of Manhattan. This new grain runs counter to the anodyne landscape of uninhabited signature buildings within the heart of Little Italy, inscribing onto the surface of the urban archipelago that brings into question current processes of hyper-gentrification whilst giving form and depth to something that was once ephemeral and ever-shifting. Whilst the thesis asserts a position where creation supersedes demolition, identifying vacant condominiums as opportunistic moments of programmatic interventions, a series of discrete architectures mould, route and rebound into and against this newly excavated Scapeland (landscape), welcoming the fringes of the Little Italy enclave to bask in the gloriousness of their “undesirability” amongst the newly formed public space in an island metropolis founded on estrangement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Through the process of making, the thesis of Going Against the Grain reveals the island of Manhattan as a palimpsest of cartographies that evidence the role of neoliberal politics through de-industrialisation, redlining and urban renewal. Through an enactment of drawing processes – of uncovering through fabrication and drawing - a new urban seam has carved itself out of this fissile ground within the realms of Little Italy, offering a new processional route for The Feast of San Gennaro. “Little Italy Is Very Little, and Not Very Italian:” New York is being systematically reconstructed to embrace a small segment of humanity and exclude the rest. Caught within this compression, the neighbourhood of Little Italy has found itself in a skirmish for the borderlines between the affluent and the working class for decades; with China Town encroaching to the south, and the artificial NoLIta impinging at the north, Little Italy and its inhabitants continue to be compressed by consumerism.


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Field Model (i) The Creative Destruction of Manhattan

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Going Against the Grain 1:500 Processional Plan

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Vivian Maier 1950s Projector

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Island Territories VI Definitions will be highlighted using italics throughout the Design Report.


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Like the protagonist Vivian Maier who enjoyed the playfulness of reflections in shop windows, or mirrors, or car doors, the exhibition was designed to reenact this idea. Using a 1950s projector, a photograph captured by Vivian Maier shone through the glass produced in the original Plane Table (i) with the original Broadway walking route, now layered with the new processional route plan of Going Against the Grain, enhancing the idea of palimpsest.


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This glossary of terms offers an introduction to the working methodology within the studiolo, looking to be further explored within the remainder of this report. Here, a conventional dictionary definition goes hand in hand with a thesis definition of Going Against the Grain within the world of Island Territories VI.

e.g. [ * ( ! ' (noun) 1. Dictionary definition ! Going Against the Grain Definition Island Territories VI Definition (represented in the remainder of this document using italics)

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+ . " ' ` " , # + ' * ` ' # , & ' % " & & , ( * ' (verb) 1. The Feast of San Gennaro (in Italian: Festa di San Gennaro) is an Italian-American festival. Originally a one-day religious commemoration, the festival was first celebrated in the United States in September 1926, when immigrants from Naples congregated along Mulberry Street in the Little Italy section of Manhattan in New York City to continue the tradition they had followed in Italy to celebrate Saint Januarius, the Patron Saint of Naples. His feast day is September 19 in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. ! Today, The Feast of San Gennaro personifies the practice of white-washing that is evident throughout the island of Manhattan. With City Hall cracking down on the festivities, the feast has become incredibly commercialised, enhanced with the branding of NoLita. It’s gotten too big and too crowded. It’s no longer authentic because it includes foods and products that aren’t even Italian. It goes on for too many days. The New Yorker magazine in 1957 described what was then a six-day feast as “a scene of colossal, assured, offhand pandemonium.” & " $ % . Z * G ( . * * ! # ' (verb) 1. a district or community within a town or city. ! New York City encompasses over 400 neighborhoods of varying size and structure. With notoriously murky boundaries, the city’s neighborhoods are continuously growing, declining, and resurfacing anew. Despite the nostalgia and favoritism New Yorkers might feel for their native neighborhoods, these communities are perpetually transforming. Redefined by the city’s growth, changing populations, and the plans of real estate developers, New York City neighborhoods are ever-evolving entities. 3 $ + + 3 " ' $ +, 3A 1. Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave populated primarily by Italians or people of Italian ancestry, usually in an urban neighbourhood. The concept of “Little Italy” holds many different aspects of the Italian culture. ! there are shops selling Italian goods as well as Italian restaurants lining the streets. A “Little Italy” strives essentially to have a version of the country of Italy placed in the middle of a large non-Italian city. This sort of enclave is often the result of periods of immigration in the past, during which people of the same culture settled together in certain areas. As cities modernized and grew, these areas became known for their ethnic associations, and towns like “Little Italy” blossomed, becoming the icons they are today. & * 3 $ + , ' (noun) 1. NoLita > Little ITaly *portmanteau” “the pressure group’s aim was to see the proposals enacted” ! coined by the real estate industry, the use of the nickname reportedly first appeared in a times article in 1996, heralding the initial signs of gentrification, mostly along Little Italy’s Elizabeth Street. NoLita continues to encroach on the neighbourhood boundary of Little Italy filled to the brim with boutique shops. . A )" (b % " & + ( $ ` $ - ,+ $ *& 1. Excssive gentrification: The restoration and upgrading of deteriorated urban property by middle-class or affluent people, often resulting in displacement of lower-income people. ! Although not unique to Manhattan, hyper-gentrification is used to emphasise the force that drives the city’s undoing - a global pandemic, a seemingly unstoppable virus attacking much of the world. Luxury condos, mass evictions, hipster invasions, a plague of tourists, the death of small local businesses, and the rise of corporate culture. `($&%" 1. An ornamental border of threads left loose or formed into tassels or twists, used to edge clothing or material. 2. The outer, marginal, or extreme part of an area, group, or sphere of activity. ! New York cannot escape its geological makeup as evident in the disparity of its skyline, nor the impacts of its urban renewal and displacement has on the character, the soul and the atmosphere of the city. The question of placelessness in a historically transient city, how to preserve cultural and economic diversity in face of homogenizing neoliberal economic development? We need rebel cities, with open space where artists can make art, where the fringes of society can bask in the gloriousness of their undesirability.


- ( " , + $ 4 " ' ! " # + ( G - + $ * & ' (verb) 1. Used by Max Page to describe the process of urban renewal and modernization within the Manhattan. ! The oxymoron “creative destruction” suggests the tensions that are at the heart of urban life: between stability and change, between particular places and undifferentiated spaces, between market forces and planning controls, and between the “natural” and “unnatural” in city growth. Page investigates these cultural counterweights through case studies of Manhattan’s development, with depictions ranging from private real estate development along Fifth Avenue to Jacob Riis’s slum clearance efforts on the Lower East Side, from the elimination of street trees to the efforts to save City Hall from demolition. ), 3 $ a ) # "# + ' )( "# " ( 4,+ $ *& 1. a manuscript or piece of writing material on which later writing has been superimposed on effaced earlier writing. something reused or altered but still bearing visible traces of its earlier form. “Sutton Place is a palimpsest of the taste of successive owners”

! suggests the necessity of keeping the successive layers of urban form alive rather than simply effacing and rebuilding, for that keeps a city’s history alive. Translated as a verb within Going Against the Grain as ‘layering’. " & , - + $ & % ' (noun) 1. put into practice (an idea or suggestion). “the pressure group’s aim was to see the proposals enacted”

to time, season and tide, creating a thickness. The act of composing a series of architectural moves which are guided by contextual themes and conditions; mining the work for discoveries and juxtapositions. - ( , - ^ # (verb) 1. break or cause to break without a complete separation of the parts. 2. a line on the surface of something along which it has split without breaking apart. An arrangement whereby vehicles may turn left (or right) while other traffic waiting to go straight ahead or turn right (or left) is stopped by a red light 3. pass (a liquid, gas, light, or sound) through a device to remove unwanted material ! cracks allow us to see things hidden from a casual view that is likely to lead to misunderstandings. Pavements appear as something solid, nondescript and drab - much like the poor slum areas. But a crack in the pavement reminds us that nothing is permanent, that something which appears to be solid actually experiences change; yet this change does not compromise the whole pavement. Plus, these cracks provide us with an opportunity to view something heretofore unobservable. At the margins of socioeconomic life, cracks allow us to peak into a world and discover new aspects of the human condition. h ( " i b # - , 3 $ & % ' (verb) 1. represent in proportional dimensions; reduce or increase in size according to a common scale. ! the act of miniaturising or exaggerating to alter a spatial or experiential quality.

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+ * ' & , ( ( , + " (verb) 1. to give a spoken or written account of. ! to narrate the ongoing tale of Manhattan by employing palimpsest preservation, giving voice to the past and the present in the architecture of diverse programmes that redefine the use of public space by guiding the procession and maintaining the cultural diversity of Little Italy.

! The religious significance in celebrating Saint Januarius, and cultural one in telling the tale of Napelse and Sicilian immigrants becoming Italian Americans and traditionally involving street performance. + * ' ( " $ & 4 " & + (verb) 1. to change (something) so much that it appears to be entirely new. ! to take up a radically new job or way of life. at the macro-scale, to reinvent deals with the activation of new programmatic functions within existing anodyne, sometimes vacant and soulless buildings by implementing discrete architectures which reference a ritual that has been lost to the neighbourhood of Little Italy. Concurrent with this is the reinvention and reuse of materials suited to the aesthetic character of Little Italy. The consequence of this move – when taken completely seriously – destabilizes the buildings of Little Italy, leaving them waiting in anticipation for the newly implemented gates to act as buttresses in the form of waffle trusses, facade retention systems and retaining walls.

! During the Feast of San Gennaro the streets of Little Italy are transformed

by the procession. Lasting eleven days, performers, vendors, tourist and locals unite in a shared cultural tradition.

+ * ' - . " ( $ # . (verb) 1. to protect and care for (someone) lovingly. 2. to hold (something) dear. 3. to keep (a hope or ambition) in one’s mind. ! the proposals draw on the ideas of Jane Jacobs, emphasizing the importance of pedestrianised streets activated by changes in level -a new processional route is activated whilst encouraging preservation of existing buildings and their diverse occupations. Cherishing recognises the necessity of keeping the successive layers of urban form alive rather than simply effacing and rebuilding, for that keeps a city’s history alive.

! The proposal draws on ideas of Jane Jacobs, emphasizing the importance of a pedestrian street in landscape activated by the change of level and a new processional route, the preservation of existing buildings and their diverse occupation, financial and other aid to locals affected by gentrification. Cherishing the character of in Little Italy at various architectural scales. + * ' ) ( * + " - + (verb) 1. keep safe from harm or injury. ! Going Against the Grain seeks to protect the traditions of The Feast of San Gennaro, its residents and the urban fabric of Little Italy. Its differing levels of landscape gives a permanent footprint to the processional path and the programmes prompted by the festival, which throughout the year offer a public contribution whilst being smuggled into the private realm of existing buildings .Architecturally thinking, inhabited retaining walls, light-wells, glass block walls and purposely-designed sight-lines protect the environment, atmosphere, security and continuity of these traditions.

! San Gennaro is the patron of protection. In prayer for his protection/patronage + * ' ( " a " ! A (verb) 1. to set right (an undesirable situation). ! as an island condition, Manhattan’s relationship to water is inextricable. Two conditions are significant to Little Italy: its marshland ground conditions and the inevitable evolution of slums as well as and its high building density making light a scarcity. In order to heal, Going Against the Grain provides sun-exposed public spaces, glass block walls and light vaults whilst seeking to reuse, filter and control rainwater using water channels and surge tanks in its canyons- a symbolic reincarnation of the liquification of the blood of St Janarius.

! San Genaro celebrates the recurrent miracle of the liquification of blood of St Janarius, stored in ampoules displayed at the Cathedral Dumo in Naples. The first known occurrence of the blood phenomenon was in 1389. This is an act faith, which brings together families and communities in celebration and prayer for the protection of the patron saint, from natural and human disasters. + * ' . * # + (verb) 1. a person who receives or entertains other people as guests. ! to host is understood through an examination of the concept of hospitality. hospitality is an interesting word: hospitable. A social agenda of care and concern, caring for people, providing hospitality to displaced citizens of the island.

! Little Italy plays host to the crowd of tourists and paraphernalia that comes with its festivities. The yearly celebration of San Genaro transforms the streets of Mulberry, intensifying the density and social interaction within little Italy.

during the procession, money is pinned to the statue of San Gennaro. The money is collected, stored and redistributed to the needing in the community. The statue is once again secured until the next celebration.


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` $ " 3 ! ' (noun) Field at its most earthy, Field is used to describe the cultivated skin of the planet. It is fertile, yet its productivity is best achieved through a process of constant working – tilling, furrowing, rotating, aerating and compacting. This is a process that yields what is intended – the crop or harvest - but can also disinter the unexpected - an archaeology of finds or a forgotten corpse. It is a crafted form of representation that seeks to reveal the urban, spatial, programmatic, material and tectonic potential of territories. It draws heavily on research bringing it directly into contact with the multifarious spatial, historical and cultural layers of the territory.

% & * a * & (noun) 1. A gnomon is the angular spike or fin that casts a shadow onto the calibrations of a sundial. It is simple yet it is often exquisitely crafted from resilient stable cast or worked materials. Although simple, it does an extraordinary thing, it transposes “the perceived regularity of the heavenly motions onto the human world” – it scales unimaginable forces and distances onto the surface of the ground, wall or plinth, surfaces that we can walk upon or touch. As a consequence, it is often used as a metonymic device – something small that embodies something extraordinary. It is this aspect of the Gnomon that we place emphasis on here - not its common form or materiality but its ability to embody and act out things that are far greater, more complex and mysterious than itself. The way it can cast the intangible world onto the surfaces of the space we physically occupy. 3 * - ^ ' (noun) A micro-urbanism that engages tightly within the grain of the identified territory and performs and negotiates a material, spatial shift between one experiential condition and another. The Lock is embedded, it is set, it is housed, it is engaged with something other than itself. ) 3 , & " ' + , Z 3 " ' (noun) The Plane Table lacks the precision of its counterpart, the theodolite, which undertakes the survey in the numerical form of measurements and coordinates. It is this empirical abstraction that sets the two surveying processes apart. A survey developed through the use of a Plane Table develops the first draft of a map in the field. It evolves through a direct engagement with a process of drawing. A map developed upon the surface of a Plane Table, on the other hand, emerges live during the moment of observation. It bypasses many of the requirements of empirical measurement and, instead, relies more directly, more bodily, on looking as a performative, intentional act where something is produced, created, through the act of observation itself. ) ( * F " - + " ! ' ( * * a ' (noun) A ‘room’ identified for its key engagement within the overall thesis programmatic. This does not necessarily mean that it is the largest space or the grandest space rather, it is a space where the form, materiality and environmental conditioning is most exacting. Here the ergonomics of the programme, the conditioning of the environment, the acoustics, the lighting the methods of protection against fire are at their most exacting, the most precise and indeed, the most different to the conditions outside the building. #-,)"3,&!'

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In his essay Scapeland (1989) Jean-François Lyotard suggests that: ‘there would appear to be a landscape whenever the mind is transported from one sensible matter to another, but retains the sensorial organization appropriate to the first, or at least a memory of it. The earth seen from the moon for a terrestrial, the countryside for the townsman; the city for a farmer. ESTR ANGEMENT

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(dépaysment) would appear to be a precondition for landscape.’ Scapeland, here, is coined Going Against the Grain, referring to the new seam that has been etched and carved out of the new urban landscape within Little Italy - a set of public spaces and landscapes that make accessible that which is currently vacant and of investment value only.

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% ,+ " Gates are moments of extraordinary architectural intensity that go beyond the pragmatic concerns of function and programme. They are thresholds that allow a transition from the spatial and sensorial orders of the outside, public domain toward a new arrangement of spatial and environmental conditioning. They don’t just allow access to something new, they prepare us for something new. The traditional gatehouse of a country estate or school often presents itself to us as an elaborate, complexly detailed, architecture whose fenestrations, and reliefs far outweigh the humble programme of gardener or janitor’s dwelling. Their primary role is to introduce us to something much larger, something that is presently concealed from view. The Gate transforms us, it prepares us, it allows us to move from one condition to another without jarring. A gate, therefore, often slows us down and prolongs the moment of ingress.


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The formatting of this design report is such that it allows the reader to understand and experience the ways in which architecture of different scales have been implemented throughout the Scapeland of Going Against the Grain. Deriving from the process of making - of discovering through fabrication and drawing - verbs are used to describe particular actions and occurrences that have influenced the programmatic concerns of the architectures within the Scapeland. The values of protection, nurturing, hospitality, reflection, reminiscence embodied in the transient festival of The Feast of San Gennaro are ones we seek to give a permanent footprint to within the neighbourhood. These verbs structure the chapters within the report. These programs are the merging point between the surreal yet real exposed landscape which shaped lower Manhattan and the real street scape of little Italy. " & ,-+ $ & %'*`'+ . "')3 , & "'+, Z 3 "

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In 2000, the U.S. Census reported just 1211 Italian-Amerian residents in the neighbourhood. By the turn of the twenty-first century, Little Italy had been gradually shrinking for more than fifty years, as one group of poor immigrants gave way to another. That has been the history of downtown Manhattan. The Irish and Germans moved out, the Italians moved in, and then they moved out and the Chinese moved in, each group jostling for space, clustering together in affordable tenements and storefronts where they held on to their native culture. Their histories and stories have implanted a palimpsest upon Little Italy’s marshland soil. But for the first time in nearly two hundred years, no wave of poor immigrants came to downtown Manhattan in the 2000s. Instead, Little Italy saw an influx of wealth Americans who weren’t moving to Little Italy, but to a fashionable new neighbourhood called “NoLita.” This festival is a narrative that underpins a bigger thesis - a small stimulus for a bigger brief. The prompts taken from the festival have been analysed against the factual and abstract investigation of Manhattan, arriving at a set of values guided expressed in a verb. Each of the 6 programmes embody a specific verb in relation to a wider concern relevant for Little Italy, and it is also considered at various scales and programme specific ways across the other architectural programmes.

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In Little Italy, The Annual Feast of San Gennaro has spanned the length of Mulberry Street since 1926. For eleven days every September, the streets fill with vendors hawking food, games, souvenirs; the air fills with the fragrance of sausage and peppers, fried dough, bracciole; and of course, there’s a cannoli-eating competition. Singers perform on a portable stage, of course there is always a nostalgia band and a Sinatra impressionist in a dark fedora. Draped in fluttering garlands of dollar bills, the statue of San Gennaro parades through the streets, accompanied by the brass and drums of the Red Mike Festival Band, a motley group of men led by Red Mike’s widow, Louise Acampora, bedecked in miles of blue eye shadow, crashing her cymbals through a Godfather tarantella. Every day and night the streets are packed. So it has been for nearly a century. Then, in the 2000s, the feast become a problem - for some.


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Walk along Mott or Elizabeth, though, and the fiction is quickly exposed; Chinatown has jumped Canal and Bowery streets and is a much bigger presence. From the north comes another menace: gentrification. Above Kenmare Street, you’re far more likely to find hipsters than wiseguys. Even the Little Italy parts of Mulberry Street are mostly a tourist trap, filled with souvenir shops and mediocre Italian restaurants. Little Italy is no longer itself.

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In 2004, Bill Tonelli from New York magazine stated that “Today, Little Italy is a veneer—50 or so restaurants and cafés catering to tourists, covering a dense neighborhood of tenements shared by recent Chinese immigrants, young Americans who can’t afford Soho, and a few remaining real live Italians.

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The number of apartments being used as pieds-à-terre and short-term vacation rentals in this hyper-gentrified city has spiked by over 20,000 in the last three years, representing 2.1% of all housing in New York City. According to the most recent Housing and Vacancy Survey the number of houses vacant because of "seasonal, recreational, or occa- sional use" - termed pieds-à-terre - is now 74,945 which represents 2.1% of all housing in New York City. This is the highest number of these vacant buildings recoded by the Regional Plan Association (RPA) since they began tracking it in 1991. According to Moses Gates, the director of community planning of RPA, this is more than enough to house the city's entire homeless population. In effect, housing is continuously removed from the market during the ongoing housing crisis. Furthermore this trend drives up rents and sale prices. Buildings left empty for most of the year become ‘ghost towers’ dark at night, with few actual residents on each floor and which in turn is detrimental to any business along the street. In Little Italy, the average price per foot squared has risen from 500$ (2004) to 2500$ (2020)- performing high above Manhattans average price which is testament to the gentrification of the area. The analysis of blocks quickly reveals the saturation of the neighbourhood with Airbnb’s, hotels and condos- and numerous art galleries which too contribute to the increasing price of rent. Inevitably, the disparity of income and rent price leads to the eviction of local persons.

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$&+"(4"&+$*&'ZG$3!$&%# (North to South) 199 Bowery - Nolita Place Condominiums - il tesoriere 180 Bowery - Development/conversion opportunity at $21.5 million - il badante 152 Elizabeth Street - Tadao Ando-Designed Condominium - il padrone di casa 359 Broome Street - Holy Trinity Ukranian Church - il guaritore 196 Grand Street - NOBLEDEN Hotel - il artigiano 155 Mulberry Street - pre: Italian-American Museum / post: Oved Group and Nexus Building 12-apartment Condominium - la nonna

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,- - *a a *!,+ $ *& ' ` *( ' - $ + $ m " & ' ! $ # )3 ,- " a " & + Manhattanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s struggle for space resulted in sky rocketing rent prices which continue to lead to the dislocation of local communities, which is perceived by the thesis as both a tragedy to the individuals but also a homogenising and alienating phenomena for the diversity and culture of Manhattan. With statistically 363, 340 people and poverty rate of 17.46 % the housing crisis is unavoidable topic. The eviction of Adele Sarno, a character prompting one of the architectural proposals in Going Against the Grain, is one of many narratives specific to Little Italy. Hence the proposal incorporates accommodation, intended specifically as shelter for displaced locals, stuck in eviction limbo.

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, & ' " g- ,4,+ " ! ' # - , )" 3 , & ! The historical, political and geological conditions which shaped the gentrification of Manhattan are illustrated in the agglomeration of historical narratives in land use, ethnicity, land value, building height. These are transferred and recorded into the plaster within the Plane Table (ii). One image after another, a new dense topography emerges, a palimpsest landscape of multiple histories and present conditions of the island.

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Six characters (gates) have been smuggled into the new grain of the city, routing down into the newly formed landscape below (fields), their activities underpinning the bigger thesis of Going Against the Grain. They are a sequence of programmes that relate to the paraphernalia of the festival: a storytelling centre, a glass and brick recycling workshop, a contemplation centre, a dining house, a centre of care and a treasury. Alongside these gates are their individual parterres moulded within the new Scapeland, enhancing these programmatic concerns.

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$ 3 ' , ( + $ % $ , & *' th e c ra f t e r He moulds himself underneath the boutique Noble Den Hotel, finding comfort within the nooks and crevices of the Scapeland around him, imagine hot liquid filling its mould, whilst setting himself up as a new hub for creativity, crafting and reinvention within the mainland of Manhattan. Inhabiting this space are The Little Italy Merchants Association (LIMA) who work tirelessly to preserve the character of the area by enhancing the narrative of the ethnic roots of Little Italy through the beautification of the historic area including paving the streets in stone instead of asphalt, and installing old-fashioned street lights. A glass workshop reuses the mass of discarded elements from the festival each year, forming and moulding new lights for the arches of the San Gennaro festival as well as the historical vault lights of Little Italy.


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$3'%G,($+*(" th e h e a l e r A sunken pavilion that rises just 1.5 metres above walking level, he poses a furniture-like piece of architecture within the city as a meditative space away from the commotion of the festival. The thin, dish-like roof allows the collection of water during rainfall, or the congregation of parishioners outside of the Holy Trinity Ukrainian Church during times of worship. The water cascades from the roof into the underbelly of the tranquil, dark and almost damp meditation spaces, travelling deeper into the Scapeland until it reaches the gravel bed, filtering out for the inevitable re-distribution to the surrounding houses.


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$3'),!(*&"'!$'-,#, th e h os t He is a character who has opportunistically walked into the circulation tower of 152 Elizabeth Street with a great amount of heft, sitting himself down comfortably into the newly constructed, gridded condominium building designed by Tadao Ando. This character has brought with him a new programme, prompted from the organisation of the Feast of San Gennaro Festival, in order to permeate himself within what has become tax-haven vacant luxury apartments. His responsibilities as padrone act at three different scales: the vessel provides a guild for the Society of San Gennaro who meet consistently throughout the year to organise the festival, he also activates a new programme within the condominiums that is to offer hospitality to those displaced within Little Italy due to gentrification, finally his positioning within the condominium acts at the scale of the desire line, opening up the ground floor to encourage the public to Go Against the Grain.


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$3'Z,!,&+" th e m i n d e r il badante carves himsel within The Doroma Kitchen on The Bowery; yet another plot out for sale in the increasingly gentrified Little Italy. Supported by the waffle truss, the heavy ground is lifted to form a roof which offers protection to its users while creating a public square. The square connects this program to new local retail and otherwise locally alienated lobby of new Citizen M Hotel (which host many, albeit temporary visitors). Depending on the needs of the users, a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;hot-deskâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; space climbs up into the existing building. The levels of the landscape offer a balance of interconnection and separation, as for example in the lowered play area which benefits from spontaneous protection and vigilance of the pedestrians. The thick walls and excavated semi-level rooms are paired with light sliding partitions which respond to light movement.


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$ 3 ' + " # * ( $ " ( "' th e t r e a su r y He is a character who receives and protects the money pinned to the statue of Saint Jaunarius during the parade of the Feast of San Gennaro. His responsibilities act at three different scales: the vessel activates a new programme within an existing vacant condominium whilst acting as a treasury for the money collected and distributed to the adjacent Common Ground Andrew Transitional Housing. She also provides an unconventional theatre which echoes the previous occupation of the site by the Theatre which hosted Jewish and Italian theatre companies. Finally, her positioning within the grounds of the condominium acts at the scale of the desire line which is opened up and manipulated through the reading of shadows and etchings recorded by the Plane Table, offering a new route and acting as a theatre to the festival and the city beyond. Her locality within the Scapeland is of paramount importance, being at the end of the parade and located next to the Mâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Finda Kalunga Garden within Sara D. Roosevelt park, a congregation point for the participants of the festival.


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Going Against the Grain has dramatically transformed the section of Manhattan. The importance of this new section, for the thesis, is to unveil the evolutionary history of Manhattan. There’s a few layers to it – they are topographical – they cut they dig, expand up, one layers floats above the other - it’s a thick landscape. As such it is a cross-section of social political cultural and geological layers of the city. There is a new condition that is neither a landscape or an urban scape, but something new within a city where public space is a premium. The temporary traditions and values of The Feast of San Gennaro are given a permanent footprint in the form of 6 proposals. As they intervene into selected buildings, there is a shift of private space (black) into a public / publicly contributing space. The change in levels in section could echo the city of Edinburgh, where the studiolo was located. As Robert Loiuis Stevenson remarked: “To look over the South Bridge and see the Cowgate below full of crying hawkers, is to view one rank of society from another in the twinkling of an eye.”


th e n a r ra t o r

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Direction of the procession


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Throughout the evolution of Going Against the Grain there has been a development in the unique and individual architectural practices via two main threads: From a shared interest in the socio-political role of architecture we calibrated an architecture concerned with social contexts that is sensitive to the occupation of Manhattan and its communities. Focusing on Little Italy, a node along the path determined through acts of mapping, tracing, scaling, and enacting, we formed a response to the threats faced by this neighbourhood- the effacing of historic building fabric and traditions, the eviction of its tenants, the under-use of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ghostâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; buildings including condominiums and hotels, as well as homogenisation resulting in gentrification; that at once pushes out locals and their businesses. The architectural response - a scapeland; a seam cutting against a grain of the city, a landscape that materialises the unseen realities of the island (uncovered through cartographic research), and sculptural architectures which hold and occupy underused buildings or protect ones of value. The architectural response was discovered through a series of moves: from continuous making, reworking, layering, mapping, tracing, scaling, and enacting of architectural drawings, films and photographs, sketches and model.


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Communicaton via sketch


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The working methodology of the studio encouraged a diversion from reductive and diagrammatic analysis, instead to investigate and test the ground of Manhattan through continuous palimpsest and reworking of the Plane Table, that would reflect the complexity of its dense city and overlapping social, political and environmental realities. The Plane Table has been an instrumental tool, a receiving frame into which each new discovery, moves and decisions was reworked to determine the next move.

MANHATTA 1921 Paul Strand & Charlie Sheeler

500mm

1000mm

1500mm

1000mm

The workings received upon the surface of the Plane Table are as follows: - Tracings, Tools and Transects - Palimpsest - Enactments - Scaling - Grounding

500mm

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Semester 1

NO. 5, VOL. 2, P. 1, December 1, 1819. Pen and ink with watercolor on paper

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John Randel Jr

(ii)

Semester 2 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

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(iii)

Semester 3

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

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Semester 4

(iiii)


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Addition, reinvention and palimpsest within the Plane Table and Exhibitions.


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()*%,+ * &(#?*%7*'(+6,(#" $%" >%;&$)&( (&$ Such an oxymoron suggests a knowing overwriting of the past to fulfil the immediate needs of the present - a process with its own rationale in the tight clutches of economic power. In order to read the ‘real’ city of Manhttan, a formal, cultural and programmatic fracturing and transecting of Lower Manhattan established a methodology - a close dissection of the city’s fabric, enacted according to the film angles from the 1921 avant-garde film Manhatta and their interaction with the socially observant cones of vision of the 1950s photographer Vivian Maier. Cuts, fractures and folds reveal hidden narratives embedded within the body of the island. The Plane Table provides a calibrated discipline to the choreography of dissection. It is at once a form of micro-architecture and a speculative garden within which interactions draw out possible futures. An orthogonal re-imagining of the film strips across the metropolis inform ten drawing arms that register the flood projections of the island, the early development of the skyscraper and the subsequent 1916 zoning law that determines the passage of light. The drawing arms move according to time, season and tide to cause a burring of the table’s fissile plaster surface, forming a disturbance within the morphology of the grid tattooed upon its skin.

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The 1950s photographer Vivian Maier 1921 Avant-Garde Film Manhatta

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tracings, tools and transects


+(,&#"-+#'*`'+."'-$+A Broadway as the Central Axis of Manhattan: Broadway was originally the Wickquasgeck trail, carved into the brush of Manhattan by its Native American inhabitants. This trail originally snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island allowing tribes to travel from the southern end of the island to the northern reaches. Broadway resisted against the Commissionersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Grid Plan of 1811, and remains today as a thoroughfare throughout the island. Over time, Broadway now symbolises wealth and prosperity within Manhattan Island, while the fringes of society are displaced further and further away from this central axis.

CREATIVE DESTRUCTION 1865 - Present Manhattan

[Group work with Adam Legge and Jennifer Fauster]


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tracings, tools and transects


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Own photographs of Manhattan captured on a Rolliflex camera - the same used by Vivian Maier - during Manhattan Trip in 2018


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tracings, tools and transects


+(,&#"-+$&%'*`'+."'-$+A This page shows the recordings of our journeys, or rather deviations from the original intent of travelling the length of Broadway upon our arrival in Manhattan. Our minds understand the urbanism that unfolds within the city, reasoning the memories of the field trip in conjunction with major landmarks or indiscriminate moments. Thus the accumulation of this work functions as one of the group’s markers, in the same way as the crater of the grid - John Randel Jr’s - marker allowed him to position himself within the city. Broadway acted as a meridian to orientate ourselves.

UNITED NATIONS BUILDING Charles Edouard Jeanneret [Le Corbusier]

DISCUSSION WITH TUTOR Raised public space PUBLIC HOTEL Opened 2017 - Owned by Ian Shraeger - Guided Tour INTERSECTION Cameron’ Line and Bowery

COOPER UNION Morphosis CHRYSLER BUILDING Art deco was the world’s tallest building for 11 months and reamins the world’s tallest brick building

SPRING STREET TO GRAN 6 Line - Towards Pelham Bay Par

ASTOR PLACE

42 ST / GRAND CENTRAL TO ASTOR PLACE 4 Line / Towards New Lots Avenue - 2 Stops GRAND CENTRAL TO HUDSON YARDS 7 Line - Towards 34 ST / Hudson Yards - 3 Stops

STRAND BOOKSTORE

ONE VANDERBILT Guided Tour from KPF arcchitect; engineer - Due to be completed in 2020 - went as high as 34th floor

ALEY PARK Offers a quiet oasis to the city” EMPIRE STATE BUILDING Built on the the site previosuly owned by the astor family, the building marks a NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY cycle The New York Public Library. Astor and Tilden Foundations, wasof a farm, to the Waldorf Astoria, to the tallest building in the city developed in the 19th century, founded from bibliphiles and the wealthy. ROCKEFELLER CENTER Compelx built Rockefeller - comprises of 19 buildings - went to 66th floor - 260m high

PIZZA TUTOR DISCUSSIOn Bryant Park 42 ST / BRYANT PARK

34 ST TO 47-50 ST / ROCKEFELLER CENTER F Line - Towards Jamica Center / 179st - 2 Stops

9 ST TO JOURNAL SQUARE 14ST ST TO 42 ST / BRYANT PARK PATH - Towards Journal Square - 4 Stops 14 F Line - Towards Jamica Center / 179st - 2 stops

H&M Halloween ‘18 TIME SQ / 42 ST TO WTC CORTLAND N Line - Towards Coney Island / Stillwell Ave - 9 Stops TIMES SQUARE Approximately 330,000 people pass through the intersection each day

14 STREET / 8 AVENUE TO SPRING ST E Line - Towards Euvclid Avenue - 3 Stops

CHELSEA MARKET Former NABISCO factory complex - Oreos invented and produced there

WHITNEY MUSEUM Renzo Piano

HIGH LINE James Corner, Diller Scofidio + Renfro & Pier Oudolf

HUDSON YARDS

[Group work with Adam Legge and Jennifer Fauster]

CHRISTOPHER


DUMBO Gentrified Area

MANHATTAN BRIDGE Originally called “Bridge No.3”

PIER 15

BOWERY

LOMBARDIS Pizza’s MUNICIPAL FERRY PIER LITTLE ITALY

ND CENTRAL rk- 6 Stops SPRING STREET TO GRAND CENTRAL 6 Line - Towards Pelham Bay Park- 6 Stops

NEW YORK COUNTY SUPREME COURT Built 1919-27 - Architect Guy Lowell 40 WALL STREET Trump Tower

INTERSECTION Cameron’ Line and Broadway 101 SPRINT STREET Purchased by American artist Donald Judd in 1968 - A five storey cast iron buidling - severed as residence and studio

EQUITABLE BUILDING Completed in 1915, was the largest office bilding in the world

TRINITY CHURCH Often referred to as the whale, this church has been through various iterations - dates back to the 1830s

56 LEONARD ST Built by Herzog & De Mueron WTC OCULUS Designed by Santiago Calatrava CANAL ST

CANAL ST TO 50 ST BROADWAY 1 Line - Towards 137st / City Collage - 9 Stops

CORTLAND ST TO 50 ST BROADWAY 1 Line - Towards Van Cortland Park - 242st - 12 Stops GROUND ZERO Designed by Handel Architects, Peter Walker & Snohetta

INTERSECTION Cameron’ Line and Canal Street WATT STREET COBBLES

SPRING ST SALT SHED Stores 4,000 tons of salt in 6ft in thick walls

R ST

PIER 40

Joseph Mitchell from The New Yorker: Arriving just as the Depression set in, he heeded the advice of one of his first editors, at the Herald Tribune: walk the city; get to know every side street and quirk and character. He did this, obsessively, for the rest of his life. [See Chapter: To Narrate]

BATTERY PARK Dating back to the 17th century Dutch settlement, this park served as a battery location

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NEW MUSUEM

INTERNATION CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPHY MUSEUM

tracings, tools and transects

CHINATOWN


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Th e M a nha t t a R ul e Emerging from the study of the avant-garde film Manhatta, and the interaction with the socially observant cones of vision of the 1950s photographer Vivian Maier, cuts, fractures and folds reveal the hidden narratives embedded within the body of the islands. A key tool that began this study was the Manhatta Rule, which carefully recorded the angle of deviation from North and displaced this notation into a tool for understanding the city.


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tracings, tools and transects


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These are a series of plough lines which are the orthogonal re-imagining of the film strips which have lost their geographical location within the city. Their future is that they will be used as drawing arms that will scribe into a plaster surface, from a position of moving backwards and forwards or pivoting on an evolving plaster floor


tracings, tools and transects !"#$%&'()*+,)-").%,/) The Rotunda

One World Trade Centre

Brooklyn Bridge

Stock Exchange

Equitable Building

Woolworth Building

City Hall Park

63 Nassau Street

Jane Jacobs

Transient Waterfront


T O OL S : Cul t i v a t i n g th e Pl a n e Ta bl e ( i i) The Plane Table acts as a catalyst and a tool for examining the immediate neighbourhood of a particular territory in Manhattan in considered detail, engaging with strategic approaches to the particular environmental concerns of its urban field. The Plane Table engaged with issues of temporality â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the linear evolution of the project over time and the cyclical seasonality of the environmental and ecological context in which it operates. Therefore, emerging from the study of the avant-garde film Manhatta, and the interaction with the socially observant cones of vision of the 1950s photographer Vivian Maier, a new layering of cuts, fractures and folds according to this information reveal the hidden narratives embedded within the body of neighbourhood islands - forming a palimpsest of cracks within the city. F : 8 7 = ' - 6 B ; 7 B 5 ' \ ) 7 B > : H =' S > 7 ' 8 6 = S ' X 6 B 8 : S < U 7 ' : ; I' O B 7 : S < U 7 ' : O S ' 6 X ' : ; P ' I 7 = < ? ;' H B 6 O 7 = = T ' X < B = S ' I < = O J 6 = < ; ?' :;I'S>7;'=S:?<;?'S>7'O6;E I < S < 6 ; = ' X 6 B ' S > 7 ' 7 8 7 B ? 7 ; O 7' 6X';7@'B7:J<S<7=]L

[Group work with Adam Legge]


tracings, tools and transects

me Fra

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lock' - ( , - ^ # ' $ & ' + . " ' ) , 4 " a " & + [see chapter: to cherish]

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There are several layers and scales of cracking that have taken place within New York, as demonstrated in the Field Drawing (i) opposite: Manhattan is an island, having once geologically estranged itself from its counterparts through the age of time. Within the island of Manhattan, the ground has been calibrated and re-cultivated by the implementation of John Randell Jrâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Grid in 1811; fracturing the ground by removing its once hilly and topographical make-up of ground, the grid serving to crack the island into individual blocks, grids and streets. Within these streets, individual neighbourhoods or districts have sprouted through the mass immigration to New York throughout history. However, the boundaries of these cracks have both naturally and artificially shifted over time according to different immigration patterns as well as government implementation. The urban development of the 20th century metropolis was largely shaped by a political policy favoring demolition followed by urban renewal (creative destruction) that has fostered a notion of estrangement and displacement of the geological and social landscape of the island. The question of placelessness in a historically transient city, and how to preserve the cultural and economic diversity in the face of homogenizing neo-liberal economic development is at the heart of this thesis.

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tracings, tools and transects

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+."'!(,[$&%',(a# Informed by the dissection caused by the displacement of Manhattaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s filming angles, ten drawings arms extract information from the city in terms of the flood projection of the island, the early development of the skyscraper and the subsequent 1916 zoning law that determines the passage of light.


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tracings, tools and transects


()*%,#( :%&'%-&8#;-'*'( In t r o d u c t i o n “Palimpsest preservation” suggestS the necessity of keeping the successive layers of urban form alive rather than simply effacing and rebuilding (as refered to previously as creative destruction), for that keeps a city’s history alive. No city without a tangible, tactile history, without the capacity for denizens and visitors to reach into the past while experiencing the present, can be truly vital. Preservation is essential for the health of the city, and the nation, for it preserves ideas, experience, and values no less than buildings and places. Maintaining a dialogue between past and present is essential for a citizen’s sense of identity. Palimpsest preservation would rightfully imply a mandate to maintain the layers of history, and with them, the layers of meaning. Urban vitality should mean more than mere economic prosperity, public safety, and a healthy environment, though those aspects are certainly essential to any city. Historian Marvin Bram remarked that “To extract the past layer by layer from the city is to replace depth with surface; and however pleasing the surfaces might be, they cannot replace depth.” Lose depth and we sever our intimate connection to a living past.

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,'),3 $a)#"#+'*`'-,(+*%( ,). A The historical, political and geological conditions which shaped the gentrification of Manhattan are illustrated in the agglomeration of historical changes in land use, ethnicity, land value, building height. These are transferred and recorded onto the fissle plaster surface within the Plane Table (ii). One image after another, a new dense topography emerges, a palimpsest landscape of multiple histories and present conditions of the island. Within the receiving frame of the Plane Table (ii) of season; social climate linked to ethnic redlining, water; intrinsically linked to land value, programme; the act of deindustrialisation and land use and time; geology which unconsciously offers ground for â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;pied a terriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ghost towers- form Field (ii) of Going Against the Grain where neighborhood and the gates emerge.


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Ethnicity (Redlining) 1919 Ethnicity Map Map No. 2 of New York showing the Distribution Principal

Land Uses (Deindustrialisation) Contemporary Land Uses 1929 Regional Plan

Building Heights (Ghost Town) Contemporary Building Heights Geology Map

Land Value 1923 Land Value Contemporary Land Value Map

("-"$4$&%'`( ,a"',#'),3 $a)#"#+ Palimpsest is an ideal metaphor for the living city â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a writing tablet on which layer after layer of messages was inscribed, always legible yet never completely erasing what was written before. But a palimpsest should never be confused with a blank slate. However well-conceived, any project which demands the erasure of preceding generations to accomplish its goal will never be embraced by those of us who love the city. Press delete, and we lose the palimpsest.

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Between 1880 and 1930, over 27 million

In the first decade of 1900’s nearly 50 percent of New York’s population worked in manufacturing, which offered work opportunities to immigrants and oppressed African Americans. In The Assassination of New York Robert Fitch describes the deindustrialization of New York, through the 1929 Regional Plan, as a reaction of bankers and real estate developers under the title ‘ Regional Plan Association’ against the rising interracial, working class or the blue collar population. While providing new roads and transportation, the industrial areas were zoned away in favor of finance, insurance, and real estate instead of serving its community. The choreography of all enactments assembled into a single programme, corresponds with neoliberal agenda which resulted in the rezoning of Manhattan.

people emigrated to the US, almost 12 million moving through Ellis Island. The promise of the New World and industries providing work opportunities continued to increase in the immigrant population, fostering diverse communities. In 1938 the Federal Housing Assocation set up Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC), who devised residential security maps that showed investment risk of neighborhoods in New York. 4th grade ‘hazardous’ neighborhoods were marked out with a red line (‘redlined’). The redlined districts, including south Bronx, North Brooklyn, Lower East Side, Harlem, Chelsea, Hells Kitchen, Harlem) were characteristically ethnic neighborhood and were denied loans and investment in home ownership and business, forcing ethnic groups to move out to the suburbs. Only 30 years later the US Commission for Civil Rights called these policies out as ‘white noose’. It is evident in the contemporary map that the policies lead to the whitewashing much of the Manhattan Island as seen in the palimpsest of the map. Here ‘season’ is understood a shifts in the “social climate”

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i) 1919 Neighborhood Map

i) Zola NYC Zoning and Land Use

displacement. Mindy Thompson Fullilove

ii) Map No. 2 of New York showing the Distribution

ii) 929 Regional Plan

describes the sense of displacement as ‘Root

Principal

of Manhattan and homogeneity caused by

Shock’; “Neighborhood is an emotional ecosystem. The displacement of physical and

emotional

ecosystem,

destabilizes

relationships, destroys social, emotional and financial resources”.

iii) 1890 Ethnicity Map iv) 1938 HOLC Map


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The map overlays the heights of Manhattans buildings with its geological makeup, indicating the relationship between the urban section and the three primary strata: Manhattan Schist, the Inwood Marble, and the Fordham Gneiss. Furthermore considering the flood risk, Manhattan is built with the assumption of the central axis being most financially prosperous. The center once occupied by industries was replaced by private real estate, while communities and enclaves have continuously been pushed to the outskirts. Increasingly real estate is used for money laundering, supper skinny condos which act as pied-a-terre and hotels which offer contemporary accommodation representing extremely temporary or underused space within increasingly expensive island of Manhattan. This temporarily is enacted against the deep time considering its geology.

Cracks allow us to see things hidden from a casual view that is likely to lead to misunderstandings. Pavements appear as something solid, nondescript and drab much like the poor slum areas. But a crack in the pavement reminds us that nothing is permanent, that something which appears to be solid actually experiences change; yet this change does not compromise the whole pavement. Plus, these cracks provide us with an opportunity to view something heretofore unobservable. At the margins of socioeconomic life, cracks allow us to peak into a world and discover new aspects of the human condition.

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i) Contemporary Building Heights Map 2015

i) 1923 Land Value

ii) Geologic Subsurface of Manhattan

ii) Contemporary Land Value Map

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Z G $ 3 ! $ & % ' . " $ % . + # [ghost town]


With each drawing arm corresponding to a specific angle from a scene in the film Manhatta 1921, we enacted the plane table (ii) according to the chronological ordering of the film, with the corresponding scene projected when that drawing arm performed. Shadow imagery from the plane table (ii) begins to demarcate inhabitable spaces.


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" & ,-+ $ & % ' n< o 5 ' , ' 3 ,A " ( $ & % ' *` ' ), 3 $ a ) # "# + Maintaining the dimensions of the tracing wall from Plane Table (i), there was a conscious effort in reformatting the ideas of a ‘tracing’ into the long plaster surface that situates itself in the centre of Gate (i): Hortus Conclusus. Plaster’s materiality offers an exciting possibility for the act of drawing. Often plaster’s fragility restricts its utilization to only pristine objects, yet as a drawing surface it behaves differently, with even a pencil mark leaves a noticeable mark. Press harder, an one scores the surface, with the subsequent burring of the mark occurring. Thus alongside providing a surface for compression of ideas, a palimpsest, drawings, and more, it also provides an active surface that is very respondent to the drawing encounter from the armatures. Moving according to time, season and tide to cause a burring of the table fissile plaster surface, the enactment of Gate (i): Hortus Conclusus, was an moment of intense doubling of the city based upon the rich analysis compressed into the drawing arms. As a result, there was an abundance of possible ways to interpret the fruits of this process. In order to not lose the basic ideas of the moment, in which we projected a specific scene from Manhatta 1921 in coordination with moving its counterpart in the drawing arm, the subsequent pages record the methodology of Act (i): Time, Act (ii): Water.


With each drawing arm corresponding to a specific angle from a scene in Manhatta 1921, we enacted the enclosed garden according to the chronological ordering of the film, with the corresponding scene projected when that drawing arm performed.

Strip 6

Strip 3

Strip 9

Strip 5

Strip 2

Strip 7

Strip 4

Strip 8

Strip 1

Strip 10

0:52

1:02

1:12

1:22

2:49

4:02

5:34

7:57

9:00

9:05

Manhatta 1921

Manhatta 1921

Continiously Playing

Continiously Playing

0:00

0:39

"City of the world (for all races are here) / City of tall facades of marble and iron, Proud and passionate city."

344°

301°

0:52 - SHOT FROM FERRY [TOWARDS WHITEHALL] North Deviation - C / 301° _ CW / 59°

1:02 - SHOT FROM GOV. ISLAND [TOWARDS WHITEHALL TERMINAL] North Deviation - C / 344° _ CW / 16°

1:08 - SHOT FROM MANHATTAN BRIDGE North Deviation - C / 241° _ CW / 119° 1:12

241°

"When million-footed Manhattan unpent, desends to its pavements."

1:22 - SHOT FROM WHITEHAll TERMINAL [TOWARDS EAST RIVER] North Deviation - C / 135° _ CW / 225°

135°

1:22 Whitehall Terminal 2:37

"High growths of iron, slender, strong, splendidly uprising towards clear skies."

2:49 - SHOT FROM EMPIRE BUILDING [PAN OF WOOLOWORTH BUILDING] North Deviation - C / 2° _ CW / 358°

3:16

"The buildings of cities - the shovel, the great derrick, the wall scaffold, the walls and ceilings."

3:54

"Where our tall topt marble and iron beauties range on opposite sides."

301° 4:02 - PAN OF EQUITABLE BUILDING North Deviation - C / 301° _ CW / 59°

4:22 Breathing City 5:14

"City of hurried and sparkling waters, City nested in bays."

5:20 Steamships in Bay 5:34 - SHOT FROM 14 WALL ST [TOWARDS GOV ISLAND] North Deviation - C / 156° _ CW / 204°

156°

"This world all spanned with iron rails."

6:22

"With lines of steamships threading every sea."

7:54

"Shapes of the bridges, vast frameworks, girders, arches."

7:38 Effluvia

5:48

7:57 - BROOKLYN BRIDGE North Deviation - C /104° _ CW / 356°

104° 8:10

"On the river the shadow group, the big steam tug closely flank'd on each side by barges"

8:39

29° 9:20

"Gorgeous clouds of sunset! Dench with your splendour me or the men and the women generations after me."

9:53

Strip 6

Strip 3

Strip 9

Strip 5

Strip 2

Strip 7

Strip 4

Strip 8

Strip 1

Strip 10

0:52

1:02

1:12

1:22

2:49

4:02

5:34

7:57

9:00

9:05

! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , ) - " ) . % , / ) ena c t ing

En a c t i n g : A c t ( i) Ti m e

Strip

Ac t I I

[WATER]

Projection: Vivian Maier’s Mar time Building Ph otog ra ph [ Ni kon D3 3 0 0 ]

2:49


En a c t i n g : A c t ( i i) Wa t e r

Arrival at Martime Building Vivian Maier

With several scenes in the film Manhatta feature the presence of water, four out of the ten rulers were utilized. Juxtaposing the first enactment, Act 2 also featured the presence of Vivian as when the drawing arm moved across the her vision cones, the drawing arm rotated, causing a burring of the plaster’s surface.

rip 8

Strip 1

Strip 10

57

9:00

9:05

Manhatta 1921 Continiously Playing

0:00

0:39

"City of the world (for all races are here) / City of tall facades of marble and iron, Proud and passionate city."

344°

301°

0:52 - SHOT FROM FERRY [TOWARDS WHITEHALL] North Deviation - C / 301° _ CW / 59°

1:02 - SHOT FROM GOV. ISLAND [TOWARDS WHITEHALL TERMINAL] North Deviation - C / 344° _ CW / 16°

1:08 - SHOT FROM MANHATTAN BRIDGE North Deviation - C / 241° _ CW / 119° 1:12

241°

"When million-footed Manhattan unpent, desends to its pavements."

1:22 - SHOT FROM WHITEHAll TERMINAL [TOWARDS EAST RIVER] North Deviation - C / 135° _ CW / 225°

135°

1:22 Whitehall Terminal 2:37

"High growths of iron, slender, strong, splendidly uprising towards clear skies."

2:49 - SHOT FROM EMPIRE BUILDING [PAN OF WOOLOWORTH BUILDING] North Deviation - C / 2° _ CW / 358°

3:16

"The buildings of cities - the shovel, the great derrick, the wall scaffold, the walls and ceilings."

3:54

"Where our tall topt marble and iron beauties range on opposite sides."

301° 4:02 - PAN OF EQUITABLE BUILDING North Deviation - C / 301° _ CW / 59°

4:22 Breathing City 5:14

"City of hurried and sparkling waters, City nested in bays."

5:20 Steamships in Bay 5:34 - SHOT FROM 14 WALL ST [TOWARDS GOV ISLAND] North Deviation - C / 156° _ CW / 204°

156° 5:48

"This world all spanned with iron rails."

6:22

"With lines of steamships threading every sea."

7:38 Effluvia 7:54

"Shapes of the bridges, vast frameworks, girders, arches."

7:57 - BROOKLYN BRIDGE North Deviation - C /104° _ CW / 356°

104° 8:10

"On the river the shadow group, the big steam tug closely flank'd on each side by barges"

8:39

29° 9:20

"Gorgeous clouds of sunset! Dench with your splendour me or the men and the women generations after me."

9:53

rip 8

Strip 1

Strip 10

57

9:00

9:05 Act II

[WATER]

Pro j e c t i o n : Vi v i a n Ma i e r’s Ma r t i m e Bu i l d i n g Ph o t o g ra p h [ Ni k o n D 3 3 0 0 ]

Strip 2

Strip 4

Strip 5

Strip 6

2:49

5:34

1:22

0:52

Act I

[TIME]

Pro j e c t i o n : Wa t e r i n Ma n h a t t a 1 9 2 1 Photog ra p h [ Nik on D3 3 0 0 ]


En a c t i n g : A c t ( i i i) Se a so n

All Acts

"City of the world (for all races are here) / City of tall facades of marble and iron, Proud and passionate city."

344°

301°

1:02 - SHOT FROM GOV. ISLAND [TOWARDS WHITEHALL TERMINAL] North Deviation - C / 344° _ CW / 16°

1:12

241°

"When million-footed Manhattan unpent, desends to its pavements."

1:22 - SHOT FROM WHITEHAll TERMINAL [TOWARDS EAST RIVER] North Deviation - C / 135° _ CW / 225°

135°

1:22 Whitehall Terminal 2:37

"High growths of iron, slender, strong, splendidly uprising towards clear skies."

2:49 - SHOT FROM EMPIRE BUILDING [PAN OF WOOLOWORTH BUILDING] North Deviation - C / 2° _ CW / 358°

3:16

"The buildings of cities - the shovel, the great derrick, the wall scaffold, the walls and ceilings."

3:54

"Where our tall topt marble and iron beauties range on opposite sides."

301° 4:02 - PAN OF EQUITABLE BUILDING North Deviation - C / 301° _ CW / 59°

4:22 Breathing City 5:14

"City of hurried and sparkling waters, City nested in bays."

5:20 Steamships in Bay 5:34 - SHOT FROM 14 WALL ST [TOWARDS GOV ISLAND] North Deviation - C / 156° _ CW / 204°

156°

"This world all spanned with iron rails."

6:22

"With lines of steamships threading every sea."

7:54

"Shapes of the bridges, vast frameworks, girders, arches."

7:38 Effluvia

5:48

7:57 - BROOKLYN BRIDGE North Deviation - C /104° _ CW / 356°

104° 8:10

"On the river the shadow group, the big steam tug closely flank'd on each side by barges"

8:39

29° 9:20

"Gorgeous clouds of sunset! Dench with your splendour me or the men and the women generations after me."

9:53

Strip 2

Strip 4

Strip 7

Strip 10

2:49

5:34

4:09

2:39

Act I I I

[SEASON]

Projec tion : Eq uita bl e Buil din g in 1 9 1 2 Fire Photog ra ph [ Nikon D 3 3 0 0 ]

Overl ay

Scal e 1 : 1 0

0:39

0:52 - SHOT FROM FERRY [TOWARDS WHITEHALL] North Deviation - C / 301° _ CW / 59°

1:08 - SHOT FROM MANHATTAN BRIDGE North Deviation - C / 241° _ CW / 119°

[PROGRAMME]

0:00

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On a chilled winter night of 1908 the Equitable Building, one of the walnut buildings on several strips, caught fire. Selecting a photograph that juxtaposes the seasonal impact on the city with the impact of the fire, Act 3 is an enactment that deliberates how the city interacts with nature, an often overlooked relationship in Manhattan.


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+."'"a"(%"&-"'*`','&"['%(,$& An interconnected proposition of a new route within the fabric of Manhattan, Going Against The Grain, was a direct consequence of the enactment and etching of the Plane Table. Engagement between the stylus from the drawing arms and the fissile plaster surface caused a burr and a new plough line formed within the city between the neighbourhoods of The Civic Centre and Lower East Side. This new grain breaks through the urban grid in a reaction to its superimposition over the natural landscape of Manhattan. Claiming the organic silhouettes of the shadows enacted upon the Plane Table (i) against the Commissionersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Plan of 1811 suggests the imminent thickness of public activity along the new grain.


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#-,3"'/5fl000 Desire line dredging across underused and privatized buildings in Manhattan. Solidified shadows cast from the enactment of the plane table, marking out new public routes through the city.

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From the enacting of the Plane Table (i) at the scale of Manhattan island, a burring occurred within the fissility of the plaster surface, creating a strip within the topography of Manhattan that brushed against the grid implemented by John Randel Jr. in the early 1800s. Re-working the scales of the information in the receiving frame, two new scales become evident: working at the geographic scale of 1.2500 between the Civic Centre and Lower East Side then moving down to the smaller scale of 1.500 that encompasses the neighbourhood of Little Italy. Within this methodology there are chance meetings from where it has been clustered down from a bigger mapping of the city down to a point.

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The social, political, environmental and economic realities of Manhattan; derived from a palimpsest of maps, images and experiences; traced, rescaled and enacted are now grounded and excavated. The now thick, rich palimpsest surface of the plaster tablet within the Plane Table is translated into the real landscape of a thick, carved scapeland within Going Against the Grain, at the scale of Little Italy. The carvings follow the lines provided by the layering of the cartographies in the previous section. Consistent with the attitude of the overarching thesis, the gnomon model on the opposite page shows a carved mass from salvaged wood. Within the The etching of the city at different scales holds the memory of the investigation of Lower Manhattan and awaits a series of architectures that emerge at the scale of the neighbourhood. The city begins to fold into individual pieces of architecture.

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In the secondary enactment of the Hortus Conclusus, the moving images are overlaid over the Scapeland of Going Against the Grain. Here the projection feeds the other ‘real’ Manhattan, into the thesis. The series of filmed interviews place personal stories, memories and opinions within the heart of this newly formed landscape. Narrations (il nonna) from Italian-Americans who still reside within The Little Italy neighbourhood concerning evictions and high rent (il tesoriere), preservation of the community and their traditions (il ), the community (to cherish), the traditions (to host) and restoration (to reinvent) of Little Italy. In this way the life, the movement and these real New Yorkers inhabit the proposal represented in the physical model of Going Against the Grain.

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In the film “Mulberry- A New York Gentrification Story World Premeire 2016 Tribeca Film Festival,” native New Yorker Paul Stone creates a stunning picturesque tribute to Little Italy - the neighborhood he has called home for half his life. Retracing the immigrant journey from Italy to the Big Apple the film laments the loss of time-worn traditions and a unique cultural heritage to ever-rising NYC real estate values. Part funny, part sad, the film unfolds from stories of its long-term residents, and the striking black and white imagery capture the neighborhood before it is completely diminished. Will New York City lose another cultural touchstone to gentrification?

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#$(*+867* The prompts taken from the festival of The Feast of San Gennaro have been analysed against the factual and abstract investigation of Manhattan, culminating in a set of values expressed as individual verbs. Each of the 6 programmes and their associated architectures embody a specific verb in relation to a wider concern of culture, waste management, water treatment, hospitality, care and financial management relevant for Little Italy. Each of the verbs are considered across the remaining 5 programmes, in a scale and manner appropriate to its function. ' ( + # - % . ' b - < S P ' . : J J ' b ' + * ' & , ( ( , + " & (la nonna / the narrator)

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Designed by Joseph François Mangin and John McComb Jr. and completed in 1812, Manhattanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s City Hall is one of the finest architectural achievements of its period. The Landmarks Preservation Commission designated City Hall an individual landmark in 1966 and its central rotunda an interior landmark in 1976. It has provided a grand stage for the many people who have come to City Hall to attend ceremonies, celebrations, and even pay their respects to the deceased. Several narratives evolved on its grounds where, documents are held, protests made, laws passed, petitions signed, evictions approved and out in the city where these events had determined the social and urban order of the City. City Hall is representative of the political authority and government responsibility to protect the diversity and traditions of Manhattanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s diverse neighbourhoods.


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Like the grandmother Adele Sarno (the former Queen of narratives of a time lost to gentrification, so too is the narrator. Facing eviction due to the demolition of the Italian American Museum, she encompasses many responsibilities in both her programmatic features, as well as the narration of this design report. Initially, she opens her arms to the original grid level of Manhattan, welcoming people down into the Scapeland via a pre-cast concrete ramp. But before a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s journey within Going Against the Grain can begin, she offers a space for thriving performances and displays of affection of the memories of Little Italy in amongst her newly formed thick walls. She can be found dwelling inside the existing facades of 145 Mulberry Street and the Italian American Museum; her structure physically supporting the retained facades and her programme encouraging the retention of the soon-to-be demolished historic brick Italian American Museum in place for a new condominium.

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San Gennaro) who is emphatic in sharing her stories and


la nonna is a storytelling theatre whoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name embodies the soulful Little Italy resident, Adaele Sarno. In her youth she gained the title of Queen of San Gennaro and went on to become recognized as a symbol of the vanishing Little Italy upon eviction from her home above the Italian-American Museum situated on Mulberry Street, recently purchased in order to restore and expand the site into a 12-apartment condominium. The storytelling centre interrupts the demolition of the building, instead inhabiting its walls with a new programme which lends itself to the preservation of the festivalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s culture of performance. Situated at the southern end of Going Against the Grain at The Church of Most Precious Blood, a ramp elevates from the landscape in the act of an isostatic rebound. It threads its way in and out of the existing facade-retained buildings and interlaces the performance of the theatre with the drama of the everyday narratives of Little Italy. A projector room, designed to allow projection in and outside of the theatre activates the public realm throughout the year recalling the narratives of the past as the present story of the city unfolds. U * = < ! D % 9 ; & ! $ D ! % 9 ) G ! < & < ! % 9 ! < & < I ! B $ : G! % 9 ! B $ : G ! ( : G ! = < ( ; % ! % 9 ! = < ( ; % V ! W ! - : ! + ) G! 0H9%%$D=!2;9E<;AK

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As can be seen in the Floor Plan (-2) opposite, the processional route has moved along the ramp within la nonna and into the subterranean space underneath The Noble Den Hotel. A new route has carved its way underneath the boutique hotel, between two new workshops within il artigiano, so that processes within the main workshop can be experienced by those engaging with the procession during the festival or the storage of the San Gennaro arches by visitors to the Scapeland during the rest of the year. The processes within the workshops are narrated to the public through large storefront windows as well as a change in level, allowing the public to look down into the workshops. The narratives of the procession, the Noble Den Hotel and choreographies of the work undertaken within il artigiano are intertwined through the routes and sight-lines crafted into the levels of Going Against the Grain.


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This drawing shows the Church of Holy Trinity Ukranian Church located at 359 Broome street, originally known as San Salvatore. As more Italians arrived through Ellis Island and settled in the neighbourhood, the importance of this church grew. A chronicler William Smith Pelletreau noted this location as â&#x20AC;&#x153;the very heart of the Italian community and is easily accessible to the Italians in the down-town section of the city for many miles around.â&#x20AC;? The present day narrative here anticipates congregants spilling out into the city over a new public space, atop the roof of il guariatore. The priest, here, acts as the narrator of faith - conducting his service towards the city. Here, inhabitants of Little Italy - whether religious or not - can find a pocket of peace, a contemplation space below this canopy, within the busy city of Manhattan.


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2 $ , # ( 3 * # , - $ " + , " 4 # + ! . L ock Nos t a l g i c Po r t ra its of th e L u n a t i c Fr i n ge The Sunshine Cinema sits along a fault line within the city, whilst fault lines are starting to appear in the beliefs of New Yorkers who are now accustomised to the Creative Destruction of Manhattan. Houston Street plays a pivotol role within Manhattan; it marks the boundary between the “tale of two cities”. The landscape below Houston Street represents the old, traditional, historical Manhattan (or what is left) while the grid that was imposed by Randall represents a newer, more defined Manhattan. This idea of “the tale of two cities” can also be identified as the fringe or margin or society where two worlds collide. Nostalgic Portraits of the Lunatic Fringe is a proposition that situates itself within this fractured island territory of Manhattan. The project utilizes the metaphorical truth of the fractured land, lending towards a city that poses “Cracks in the Pavement.” It is an opportunistic moment of inhabiting the gap of destruction within Manhattan. Within this crack it is Joseph Mitchell, an American writer best known for his work in the new yorker, who documents these truths from obsessively observing the eccentrics and people on the fringes of society. Mitchell was an “excavator of losts souls and eccentric visionaries while his genius lay partly in the natural ability to connect with those living on the margins of society.” And it is along both Houston Street and a major fault line that runs through the landscape of within Lower Manhattan that the beloved Sunshine Cinema’s projector lights have gone dark, in order to make room within the dense fabric of manhattan for a nine-storey “boutique” office building, suffering at the hands of gentrification and eventual displacement of the city. For over a century, the building was a neighborhood cornerstone, first as a church, then as an athletic club, and later as a nickelodeon that drew hundreds of attendees a day to its Yiddish vaudeville performances. In 1909, the church was bought for $96,000 (or about $2 million in today’s money) and transformed into a theater run by Charles Steiner and Abraham Minsky, one of the Minsky burlesque brothers, Ms. Thissen said. They named the entertainment hall the Houston Hippodrome and it quickly flourished, drawing flocks of Jewish immigrants settling north of Houston Street. The owner of the cinema Mr. Nye said the theater “was doing incredible” financially. But they were paying $8,000 in monthly rent, which they expected would skyrocket at the end of their 25-year lease on Jan. 31. But for many, the cinema’s demolition is yet another example of old New York being steadily superseded. Within a larger architectural space, fixed behind the existing facade of the Sunshine Cinema, a retention system allows Joseph Mitchell to dwell within a quivering cabin, that seamlessly integrates everything he would need to carry out his work of translating everyday life: a writing desk, a bench, shelves full of books—even some plants and a hanging towel to indicate that this is a live work space. Like mitchell’s writing that depicts a city tied inextricably to its past, this lock offers an opportunity for the great chronicler to dwell within the cracks of the sunshine cinema’s facade and to preserve the poetic subconscious of the city, a micro-factory if you will.

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Three narratives are enacted alongside each other. il padrone drills down into an excavated landscape, spreading itself into the subterranean world that is adjacent to it to in order to offer a meat market to the inhabitants of Little Italy. Within Padrone the discussion between il Figli di San Gennaro & The Merchantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Association shape the yearly festival, bringing together the hosts and the inhabitants of the Tadao Ando Condominium. At a new, lower ground level the festival processional route moves above the subterranean market allowing the public to overlook the choreography of the meat preparation; the cutting, the rendering and the salting of meats. The working processes of the butchers and market vendors is narrated to the public.


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The Bowery is one of the oldest thoroughfares on Manhattan Island and, along with its surrounding neighbourhoods, encompasses a slew of notable venues boasting a rich narrative of stories - both past and present. Due to the effects of gentrification, a growing number of high-rise properties have been erected along the length of the streetâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;including the enormous CitizenM Bowery Hotel, and several art galleries which monopolise and arguably homogenises the use of this area. il badante positions himself upon the junction of Spring Street and The Bowery. The architecture creates a public square - enabling a pause in the procession which is activated by the implementation of programmes including a new Day-Care Centre, a flexible workspace and retail reserved for local businesses, as well as accommodation for displaced citizens. The design incorporates a ramp connected to the front of Citizen M, with the intent of inviting temporary hotel visitors to engage in local activity during The Feast of San Gennaro and the rest of the year.


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Now Morn, with bonny purpie-smiles, Kisses the air-cock o’ St Giles; Rakin their ein, the servant lasses Early begin their lies and clashes; Ilk tells her friend of saddest distress, That still she brooks frae scouling mistress; Whan Phoebus blinks wi’ warmer ray And schools at noonday get the play, Then business, weighty business comes; The trader glours; he doubts, he hums: The lawyers eke to Cross repair, Their wigs to shaw, and toss an air; While busy agent closely plies, And a’ his kittle cases tries - Auld Riekie, Robert Fergusson The Holyrood clockmaker is without doubt an artist, a humble man unlike Mr. Nevillle. Can clock draw time? Can it capture the stillness; of the stone buildings, the statues, the headstones at Canongate Chruchayard? The liveliness of present narratives; the breathing bypassers, different yet alike to those in Fergussons scottish couplets? Does the weather draw another narrative, a weather stamp? A landscape is a theatrical collection of the still and the moving, the intended and uncontrolled, past and present, of things repurposed: time tied and layered together. Image: George Dollond, Description of the Camera Lucida: An Instrument for Drawing in True Perspective, and for Copying, Reducing, or Enlarging Other Drawings (1830).

Lucid Canongate

5+6$,+ C A M ER A L UC I DA Now morn, with bonny purpie-smiles, Kisses the air-cock o’ St Giles; Rakin their een, the servant lasses Early begin their lies and clashes; Ilk tells her friend o’ saddest distress, That still she brooks frae scouling mistress; And wi her joe in turnpike stair She’d rather snuff the stinking air, As be subjected to her tongue, When justly censur’d in the wrong.

The Holyrood clockmaker is without doubt an artist, a humble man unlike Mr. Neville. Can clock draw time? Can it capture the stillness; of the stone buildings, the statues, the headstones at Canongate Church yard? The liveliness of present narratives; the breathing by-passers, different yet alike to those in Fergussons Scottish couplets? Does the weather draw another narrative, a weather stamp? A landscape is a theatrical collection of the still and the moving, the intended and uncontrolled, past and present, of things repurposed: time ties and layered together.

Agata Woloszyn

Camera Lucida,


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1 5 ! * / 0 + . 1 / . /! th e t r e a su r y

The site of Nolita Place Condominiums holds two interesting narratives. In the present, it is a neighbour to The Andrew’s which is one of 7 remaining shelters in Manhattan offering transitional housing to the homeless amongst sky-rocketing rents. It recalls the flophouses captured in the text “On the Bowery” by Lionel Rosigln and photographs within “Flophouse: Life on the Bowery” by Harvey Wang. It was also previously occupied by a Yiddish theatre, one of many in the Yiddish Theatre district. ‘People’s Theatre’ held minstrels, sideshow, and more serious theatrical works, performed by famous actors including Otto von Hoym, Henry Clay Miner and Antorio Majori and was the first playhouse in New York to replace gas with electricity. It was a melting pot between various districts meeting along the Bowery. The programme of the treasury feasts of these past and present narratives within the history of the landscape, and hopes to make a long term contribution to the mission of The Andrews, outwit its function during the San Genaro. The external amphitheater recalls the past occupation of the site by the People’s Theatre, celebrating the temporary performances of the artists of the Feast of San Gennaro and invites buskers during the remainder of the year. Palimpsest preservation, here, would rightfully imply a mandate to maintain the layers of history, and with them, the layers of meaning. With diverse adjacent programs of retail, housing, financial advice and treasury and the The Andrews, the space remains active throughout the year.


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"(&#)$*+)*" )-/13!4!"56!%7))78!)-/00The Rare 1857 Bogardus Survivor at No. 63 Nassau Street. James Bogardus had started out as a watchmaker and “machinest,” but in the 1840s began conceptualizing pre-fabricated cast iron facades. These could be quickly bolted to the brick fronts of buildings, could imitate carved stone, be easily cast with elaborate decorative elements and— most importantly—would be fireproof. Immediately upon acquiring the building at No. 63 Nassau, Curtis laid plans to reinvent it. In 1857 structure was reinvented with an updated cast iron façade. The logic of the beautiful cast iron building was to update it. Furthermore, it was home to various trades which share in common the making of artefacts.


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th e c ra f t e r il artigiano embodies the principles of 63 Nassau Street: he moulds himself underneath the boutique Noble Den Hotel, finding comfort within the nooks and crevices of the Scapeland around him; imagine hot liquid filling its mould whilst setting himself up as a new hub for creativity, crafting and reinvention within the mainland of Manhattan. Inhabiting this space are The Little Italy Merchants Association (LIMA) who work tirelessly to preserve the character of the area by enhancing the narrative of the ethnic roots of Little Italy through the beautification of the historic area including paving the streets in stone instead of asphalt, and installing old-fashioned street lights. A glass workshop reuses the mass of discarded elements from the festival each year, forming and moulding new lights for the arches of the San Gennaro festival as well as the historical vault lights of Little Italy.

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This is the principal character of reinvention: il artigiano invites the reinvention and implementation of light at the scale of the neighborhood, by repairing existing light vaults and the recycling of glass for light bulbs within the San Gennaro arches. Such design details are pivotal to the historic character of Little Italy. While this gate remains dedicated to the collecting, recycling and reinventing of collecting glass waste from the festival and omnipresent creative destruction in the surrounding areas, it too returns the practice of factories to the heart of the city centre, having been displaced to the suburbs within the state of New York throughout history. This gate encourages the act of collection, sorting, milling, crushing, mixing, moulding and firing for the invention of new materials.

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1S!@87/1-./0 th e h e a l e r Other than his role as a contemplative space, il guaritore connects to a wider system of water filtration and surge tanks introduced into the landscape of Going Against the Grain. This programme responds to the marshland geology of Lower Manhattan, and the flood risk which became most evident in the event of Storm Sandy in 2012. The section illustrates rainwater moving along the concealed channels and cascading into a water tank. There, the water is filtered through a natural gravel filter bed until it reaches the surge tank. The sloping roof and water channels embedded in the design of the housing, similarly allow the water to move down and be filtered by the landscape, and then reused by the housing. Settling tanks

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Collected in an artifical reservoir known as a settling tank. The water is allowed to remain there for 1 to 2 days. During this short period of storage natural purification takes place. About 90 percent suspended impurities settle down by gravity. 2

Filtration Filtration is the second stage in the purification of water and is very important stage because about 99 percent bacteria are removed at this stage. During filtration the clarified water from storage tanks is now admitted to the slow sand filters. The filter beds are water tight rectangular tanks made up of concrete.

3

Storage Water is stored waiting to be pumped to the apartments above.

4

Channels Water journeys to the apartments above via channels.

The fourth layer above the coarse sand layer is of fine sand. The thickness of this layer should be from 60 to 90 cm.

The third layer above the fine gravel is of course sand. The thickness of this layer should be 15 to 30 cm. The gravel layer gives support to the sand layer. Fine gravel. The total thickness of gravel layer is 15-30 cm. 4 cm size gravel or broken stones


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Il Padrone eats into an existing new condo designed by a famous architect Tadao Ando, reinventing the programme of the building from a condominium into discuss the details of the festival. A conscious disparity occurs between the two thresholds: the interface between the proposed dining house and the concrete shell of the condominium is indicated by a steel truss detail. It serves as a tectonic bracing whilst allowing light to shine vertically into the individual floors plates of the existing apartments.

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1S!_7;7%-0 th e m i n d e r il badante organically migrates its way up from the within the subterranean landscape below which occupies a large circular crevice for care giving, into an existing condominium building above in order to carve out necessary office space. Through careful planning, it offers a reinvention of programme to the existing building - flexible working space which can either be used by the minder below of by local businesses in need of support. Here, glass block is used on the vertical plane within the knew hollowing and along a core shared by the existing building an the new flexible offices. Similar to il tesoriere opposite, it activates the circulation core within the existing building and pulls light down into the heart of the work spaces. Embedded into the original brick facade of the condominium is a new concrete and glass block core, extending from the concrete vocabulary of the landscape, accentuating the idea of this mass crawling up into the void of the existing building and sitting itself down comfortably within.


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1S!-0)./10/0 th e t r e a su r e r The faรงade of il tesoriere reminisces the theatre elevation which once stood in its place, offering deep-set windows to provide temporary sheltered seating along the procession. The ante-space for the entrance of the architecture and the retail adjacent to the gate also provide shelter from the elements through via the walkways at grid level. The columns at the entrance are reinvented: the original column is offered a new lighter element in an additive attitude that underpins the approach of the studio working methodology.


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.*&(%%(#"4*$"5&6(#&34!$*)!! The density within Manhattan islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s flattened landscape causes tensions over the use of its streets. The ground plane shared between traffic, pedestrians, shops, hotel lobbies and apartment entrances is scarce for space. Going Against the Grain pragmatically addresses the conflict between the temporary architecture and festivities of The Feast of San Gennaro and the gentrifying occupiers at the north and south territories via a multi-leveled landscape. Both can coexist, overlook and extend into one another preserving the evolving economic and traditional condition of Little Italy.


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S7!%.%%7 th e n a r ra t o r Within la nonna water is collected on the light steel roof, and is moves through a channel, an interface between the existing brick and new, recycled concrete of the building connecting it to the surge tank that is introduced along the landscape. The workshop where operable glass block roof draws light into the tall, carved space where sets, wardrobe and props are prepared is also accessible through the lowered courtyard, allowing its public use for the needs of the festival. Faรงade retention is seen as a structural corset, dramatic and theatrical in its own right which allows for the reinvention of programme of the existing buildings; 145 Mulberry street condos, and 151 Mulberry street and the Italian American proposed for demolition in name of another uprising condo. The concrete ramp lacing between the buildings and supported by columns, connects the lower level of the landscape of Going Against the Grain with the existing city.


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"(&#)*)+, 2#&34!5!"!#6.!&-#7809 The Rotunda within the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House was designed by Cass Gilbert in 1907, representing the relationship of Manhattan to the water, recalling its days as a port city. The grand nature of the Custom House and the business conducted inside was displayed in the vast central rotunda, with help from a series of murals, painted by New York artist Reginald Marsh, depicting daily life in the harbour. The rotunda functions as the central focal point of the raised ground floor, the hub of all customs transactions, and the climax of the vistorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experience of the building - the light of the rotunda is juxtaposed against the darker rooms that precede it in the journey of the building.


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th e h e a l e r A sunken pavilion rises just 1.5 metres above walking level, posing a furniture-like piece of architecture within the city with light and water as its principal source in providing a meditative space away from the commotion of the festival. The thin, dish-like roof allows the collection of water during rainfall, or the congregation of parishioners outside of the Holy Trinity Ukrainian Church during times of worship. The water cascades from the roof into the underbelly of the tranquil, dark and almost damp meditation spaces, travelling deeper into the Scapeland until it reaches the gravel bed, filtering out for the inevitable re-distribution to the surrounding houses.

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3;!@79&3#-&. th e h e a l e r The roof of the healer meets the entrance of the church forming a stepped, external congregation space. The strong structure therefore also offers an informal rest space in the sunny days, while its underbelly protects from the rain. T he religious narrative of the liquification of the blood of the patron saint of Naples meets an environmental narrative within il guariatore who gathers rainwater, allowing the liquid to trickle down within the contemplation space where it meets the gravel of the newly formed landscape as a natural filter-bed. Moving into the proposed underground water surge tanks, the ground and rainwater is reused within the gates and fed back into the city - healing the greywater of the city. The gate offers a moment of pause contradictory to the flowing procession, acting as an eddy, in the 11 day procession of the feast of San Genaro and the every-day bustle of Manhattan. 2#&7=#7&.

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il padrone di casaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s adjoining market takes advantage of the curves and overhangs of the landscape upheld by columns and a waffle truss. The openings draw light into the depths of the meat market, while the overhangs offer them shade and shelter from rain. In times of need, fabric roofs can be extended over the openings. The light, drawn into the ground revives and gives life to numerous activities held there.


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3;!>9098#. th e m i n d e r Within the landscape of Going Against the Grain remedying deals with the provision of water and light. Within il badante the architectural features of balconies, glass block and sliding screens allow this verb to be embodied. On the horizontal plane the glass block roof signifies the entrance to the reception at the processional level. Glass block is used in the roof, with open-able mechanical panels, that brings light into the core space at the lower level.

At the heart of the space is a core with a form embraced from the landscape beneath. As well as a structural piece, this core functions as a beacon of light into the subterranean space as well as offering thick walls of storage for equipment, utensils, books, toys and folding beds where those in need can be offered temporary shelter. Like a gnomon which casts shadows from the sky onto a sundial, the moveable walls around the core allow a manual manipulation of light into the plan. With the first classroom positioned in such a way that morning light is able to penetrate, and the same for the last classroom - almost acting like a clock.

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At the level of inhabitation (level -3) three individual classroom areas are carved into the ground with slightly differing floor levels. This allows for permeable but distinguished spaces that can be sealed through sliding wall panels which move within the thickness of the waffle slab retaining the heavy landscape above. The idea is to integrate a range of ages, embodying the Italian idea of family an a merging of different generations: those who are younger can learn from the elders, and the elders can help take care of the young ones. Therefore, the seclusion of different rooms is unnecessary as well as small corridors for circulation.


7$+(7)+&!$+)7/18! Vault lights are a defining feature of former manufacturing districts like Little Italy and Tribeca, providing evidence that these districts were once industrial powerhouses, as opposed to the domain of wealthy property owners, shoppers and tourists that we see today. Vault lights and other types of prism glass are exactly the kinds of products that we should be using more of, because they bend and direct natural light, reducing the need for electric light. And with years of neglect, some of the metal frames began to corrode, and the tiny glass windows were deemed hazardous. Since then, many have been filled in with a variety of materials including concrete and stone. We propose a reinvention of this technology.

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3;!#.2-&3.&. th e t r e a su r e r Like much of the proposed housing accommodation, il tesoriere utilizes the water collected and stored in the underwater surge tanks. However, as demonstrated in the drawing, the introduction of the glass block core within the existing Nolita Place Condominium building seeks to activate the interior apartment layouts, encouraging those living within the tower to interact with one another when entering their apartments whilst retaining privacy within their home. Top light is cast from within the building down into the vaults of the treasury.


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;9!8-889 th e n a r ra t o r la nonna moves between internal and external spaces and celebrates both artificial light essential in theatre and projection but also natural light which enlivens architectural spaces. Light and air are drawn into the fly-tower theatre through a clerestory strip and the faรงade which opens out into the city and an outdoor theatre square with seating that links up to the processional level. One can imagine crowds resting in the sun in the outdoor amphitheater. The middle building, becomes a semi-external space with a retractable roof that shelters the informal external foyer underneath it, where a grand staircase leads up into the fly-tower theatre or to the right, not the re-housed gallery of artifacts of the Italian American Museum where the thickness of the retaining wall is used to create shelves. The ramp laces in and out of the building to the right, which is still partially occupied by 145 Mulberry condominiums, but which now gained a glass block wall and ceiling and a gallery connecting it to the installation space.


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3;!9&#3@398th e c ra f t e r il artigiano is the largest of the series of workshops introduced in the scapeland used to re-purpose waste material from the city. The recycling of glass is symbolic for its use in the festival street arches, and practical for the role of the festival and demolition waste prominent in the knickerbocker city, and utilises water from the surge tanks in this process. Through recycling waste it aims to heal the environment, reducing emissions and remaining considerate of depleting resources of sand globally. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sand and gravel are now the most-extracted materials in the world, exceeding fossil fuels and biomass measured by weight. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a key ingredient for concrete, roads, glass and electronics. Massive amounts of sand are mined for land reclamation projects, shale gas extraction and beach renourishment programs. Recent floods in Houston, India, Nepal and Bangladesh will add to growing global demand for sand.â&#x20AC;?


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th e h os t

il padrone is the key character of hospitality within Going Against the Grain. Scaling from the dining room for the meetings held by il figli di San Genaro to the everyday public who can make use of the market, and the bustling butchers providing Italian specialties, il padrone embodies the idea of hospitality. Adjacent to this character, apartments provide homes for citizens who have been displaced alongside their belongings; both the people and their cherished belongings that embody their history are considered and given a home within the thickness of the landscape.

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3>!49?20:+!?3!69&9 th e h os t il padrone di casa is comprised of a series of concrete shells, wrapped in timber lining to indicate quieter inhabitation and circulation throughout the building. The curved forms encourage a continuous journey throughout the building, according to the Italian meal structure. Thick concrete walls allow for larder temperatures to store meat temporarily after hoisted from the lower levels of the market. It is this overarching concrete structure that holds these pieces of timber as a secondary skin. The land-form carved from Going Against the Grain reaches into il padrone where some walls are thick, some walls hold something, some enclose something and some store items at particular temperatures. It is within these walls that the organisation of il figli di san gennaro meet to discuss the preparations of the festival over dinner.

Mezzanine Level with Timber encasing / following the journey throughout the building.

Retractable Walnut Timber Wall /allowing different levels of enclosure between il padrone di casa and the Tadao Ando Condominium.

Dining Table /a secondary track system allows the table to extend or close according to the needs of its users. This allows for simultaneous activities including eating and working.

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3>!A9?9:#+ th e m i n d e r As seen in the processional plan, il badante hosts several adjacent activities. At the processional level the crowds of San Genaro can comfortably move along the desired route, leaving il padrone di casa and moving towards il tesoriere. They can rest in the large square of seating provided at their left-hand side and overlooking the playground sunk a level below or turn into the outdoor courtyard of il badante hosting gatherings of parents and care takers. The pavement offers physical clues to moving and resting space. At the level of the original city, the lobby of the Citizen M hotel is offered a ramp that connects it to the processional level and invites the integration of this otherwise integrated programme with the city and il badante. Within the minder the active reception and the flexible workspace activities are seen.

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3>!#+&023+2+ th e t r e a su r y While the responsibility of il tesoriere is to ensure that the finances of the festival are managed fairly, its long term contribution to the community is in the financial aid and advice it offers, particularly in relation to The Andrews Halfway House adjacent to the condominium that il tesoriere seats beneath. These meetings are hosted at the half-story, lowered level, where booths are carved into the wall and clad in timber to create a cozy yet sheltered atmosphere.


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la nonna hosts not only the processional route and theatre performances; it also welcomes the public of adjacent buildings including church of Most Precious Blood, existing housing, new retail/business opportunities and il artigiano workshops into its new squares, semi-exterior rooms and the walking route along the ramp and the landscape interconnecting them. It is designed to host performances flexibly. To this end along with a formal auditorium theatre , it places seating within the fly gallery â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a mechanized stage moves up fly tower of down to the lower level allowing these spaces to function on different occasions as smaller or larger venues. Unlike a conventional theatre, there is no back to the stage and instead a large glass façade allows the formal theatre to look out into the city, and possibly open up into the external amphitheatre. Hence the theatre can spill out into the city, and the city can be drawn into it through a multiple level courtyard.

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The crafter plays host to the Noble Den Hotel guest who now moves on top of the glass-work gallery to access the building, the procession which moves between the workshops, the locals and specialists using the workshops to repair and reinvent glass objects, the physical remnants of demolished buildings, the arches of The Feast of San Genaro and those spilling from the theatre courtyard of la nonna.

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*$"$6,0&/$!%.+*,7,0" In 2015 Forbes Magazine listed Little Italy as the third most expensive zip code in the nation. There are currently 40,000 rent-regulated apartments remaining in Little Italy, as opposed to 900,000 in 2003 and 848,000 in 2008. Meantime, rent continues to rise at 3% each year. The landlords of Adele Sarno are looking to increase her rent from $820-a-month to the market rate of $3,500 a month - for a two bedroom apartment.. ‘The negative press that this has caused is so detrimental to the spirit of the Italian immigrant,’ said Lou Di Palo, whose family has run an Italian specialty foods shop in Little Italy for over a century. ‘I’m upset over it.’


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3>!;C923#02+ th e h e a l e r Various activities in this program are bound by their relationship to water. The church where the congregation celebrates the liquification of the Saint Januarius, and traditionally the holy water. The Contemplation space which offers a roof where the mass may spill to the exterior of the church, and underneath which there is a gathering of contemplative but not necessarily religious spirit. To the left, above the surge tanks and filter beds a series of pop up retail spaces connected by bridges which follow the lights of the lightwells of the existing buildings is another gathering hosted by the gate. Finally, the housing where water informs the aesthetics and the sustainable aspects of the proposal.


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th e m i n d e r The Feast of San Gennaro is a procession that cherishes the community as much as religious tradition. Hence, each year the money collected during the procession is redistributed to those who most need it and to local schools. il badante offers a permanent footprint to this by providing all-year day care and night shelter, aiding both the youth and their guardians. il badante carves itself within The Doroma Kitchen on The Bowery; yet another plot out for sale in the increasingly gentrified Little Italy. Supported by the waffle truss, the heavy ground is lifted to form a roof which offers protection to its users while creating a public square. The square connects this program to new local retail and otherwise locally alienated lobby of new Citizen M Hotel (which host many, albeit temporary visitors). Depending on the needs of the users, a hot-desking space climbs up into the existing building. The levels of the landscape offer a balance of interconnection and separation, as for example in the lowered play area which benefits from spontaneous protection and vigilance of the pedestrians. The thick walls and excavated semi-level rooms are paired with light sliding partitions which respond to light movement.

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3=!97<78.1 th e m i n d e r As seen in this worms eye view, the day care centre sits comfortably within the landscape of Going Against the Grain, using the waffle truss system to uphold the public square above. Adjacent to the day care centre are some flexible work spaces. While proposing a new programme, it is conscious of its context, proposing an active core which connects it to the existing building and a path directly into the archives of il tesoriere.


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3=!.14/23121 th e t r e a su r e r While the drama of the parade and the paraphernalia of the procession is underway, there are behind the scenes movements of a theatre, and it is at il tesoriere where financial advice is received by the inhabitants of Little Italy. Found at the intersection between The Bowery and Spring Street, the grid level of 199 Bowery was previously occupied by an exclusive, private high end bar Vandal and a private entrance to the condominium while a neighboring The Andrews Halfway Housing was given very little street presence. il tesoriere bank and financial aid, new housing, external amphitheater and retail seen at level -1 re-imagine the ground floor level as a diversely occupied and intensively used public route. The retail in particular offers the inhabitants of The Andrews a legitimate opportunity for not only advice, but opportunity for employment. The roof of Vandl, previously a dead zone, becomes a public terrace, where the condominiums can be accessed and the drama of the festival observed from a slightly higher level. 407=1!V;YWX

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Roof - 5mm sheet metal, 10mm DPC, 150 mm insulation; - Vapour Barrier,55mm metal structure fixed to 50mmx50mm steel space frame structure; - Automatic Fire detecting system, with glass louvers around the fly-tower grid. Wall - Existing exterior brick wall supported by faรงade retention; - 240 HSB x 240 USB beams with resin plates bolted to the existing brick; - Uninsulated service corridor floor with steel deck; - Interior wall incorporating insulation and seating with perforated wooden acoustic panels. Floor - 20mm hardwood, 30mm cork-board, 30mm plasterboard, 240mm steal beam, acoustic ceiling panel. 7:<3./23:@

Stage - 20mm hardwood parquet; - 20mm acoustic underlay; - 100mm rock-wool; - Steel platform; - Pneumatic lift raising the stage between level -4 and -2; - Ventilation underneath seating linked with plenum that draws air through the chimney.

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At the scale of the neighborhood, La Nona invites the cherishing of landmark buildings such as the American Italian Museum and neighboring 151 Mulberry Street. As seen in the technical section it utilizes faรงade retention, which much like a corset maintains the structure. It also introduces a concrete tower, alike to the thick retaining walls of the landscape which houses the control room and projector rooms that activate the interior of the building as well as the public ramp walkway. The projector room works to project onto the outside of the building, as the procession of San Genaro or everyday New Yorkers move along the ramp which laces in and out of the storytelling theatre. Peering in and out of the storytelling center, the ramp creates opportunities for the casual by passer to view cultural performances either passing by or taking a seat within the fly tower gallery. The existing faรงade acts a rainscreen and back passage to the second layer of the wall with insulation, integrates acoustic panels and seating.


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3 $ ) # ( 4 , # ) * $ " + ) " 5 # + ! - L ock 02 70\4!38!. ,1!57U1@18 . “Creative Destruction: Cracks in the Pavement” is a proposal for a mechanism hidden within the anchorage of Brooklyn Bridge. Within a newly cracked island territory, the mechanism serves to revive and record the social and architectural histories of the bohemian underworld of Lower Manhattan, prevalent in the photography of Vivian Maier. Its narrative begins with examining the roots of the fringe ‘underworld’, identifying a geological relationship between the marshes and growth of slums in Lower Manhattan. The 5 Points Slum was home to poorest immigrants entering New York, the African Slaves and Irish escaping the potato famine. Within this diverse, estranged and fractured immigrant community a moment of cultural fusion occurs, as Irish Folk dance meets African dance, leading to the emergence of tap dance. Here enters our protagonist, a tap dancer, who becomes representative not only of a beautiful theatrical performance but as a merging point within a socially fractured society. Caught in the shot of Paul Strands ‘Manhatta’ and studied during the field trip, Brooklyn bridge offers a curious home for this character. The bridge, symbolically a connecting element itself, has large, sealed anchorages on either side of the Hudson. The strength of this first suspended bridge was tested through a parade of 21 elephants crossing its length. The massive wires holding the structure are hidden in the anchorage, which has further curious histories as a cold war bunker, a wine cellar and speakeasy that hosted prohibition parties. Drawing on all these narratives the lock ties the concept of fracturing into a program of a dance floor archive, a kinetic stage and a speakeasy where the tap dancer performs. A thin, steel structure of a rigged archive stores custom dance floors that train particular tap moves sand and elephant bones collected from the Hudson river to practice the shuffle, hoofing and tap on a plaster floor. The counterweight mechanism is installed in spirit of stage design and referring the anchorage of the bridge. When a panel is removed a shift of weight activates a movement, hence a performance of the archive. The dance floors realized of different materials record movement in the tradition of the tracing floor. Rails fixed to the ground allow the dance to push each stage onto an elevator. The elevator shaft works in tandem with a polished marble facade: the polished material acts as a mirror. A clock mechanism activates locks that stop the elevator at a level corresponding with the existing windows. Ventilation crates allow for the sound, powder and sand of the floor to escape into the arch without revealing the practicing performer. The effluvia indicate the ongoing performance. Arriving at the level of the speakeasy with two stages the performer may compete against another in the tradition of dance cellars of the Five points. As the stage is set during the prohibition, the gin bar in the underground vault is accessed through pivoting shelves where the pivot acts as a gin tap. The ideas of juxtaposing performance and concealment, much like those of fracture and fusion are explored. The materiality and the kinetic nature of the proposal respond to the marble makeup, the aerial qualities of tap dancing and the construction of the bridge, the transient nature of New York city and many of its street performers seen during the field trip.

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The Arches of San Gennaro designed in the 1940s are symbolic to the feast, festival and Little Italy as a whole. The recycling centre cherishes this historical ornament by storing and displaying them throughout the year. They are suspended off a mechanical system which allow them to be moved up and down, discretely installed into the thick retaining wall which also holds back the landscape. A bridge which moves along the arches, allowing their repair is the main route down to the lowest level of the recycling workshops (level -3).

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The retaining wall of the landscape of Going Against the Grain is used in an instrumental way in each proposal, by offering its depth to house and store items characteristic to the program. In this instance, a discrete channel runs within the wall and below a seat, embedded in its depth were an individual can rest. It is a precious moment, of a stream of water in a sky of rain, and an individual in a city of millions.


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3=!57<2/81!<3!0747 th e h os t Along the length of il padrone di casa, the landscape is activated by the market intended for local trade and congregation, giving a permanent footprint to events typical to The Feast of San Gennaro. As such, it is at the heart of the spirit of hospitality in the landscape of Going Against the Grain.


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"(&%#(")*" 6 # 4 7 3 ! 8 ! " ! # 9 & ! & : ; 7 #< . = & ! . ; 7 = > 7 ? @ The Equitable Building was designed by Ernest R. Grahamâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the successor to D. H. Burnham & Companyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;with Peirce Anderson as the architect-in-charge. Built as the headquarters of the Equitable Life Insurance Company, the Equitable Building, when it was completed in 1915, was the largest office building in the world and became controversial because of its lack of floor level set-backs, which in turn prohibits sunlight reaching the large valley of streets at grid level. This contributed to the adoption of the first modern building and zoning restrictions on vertical structures in Manhattan, the 1916 Zoning Resolution: the first citywide zoning legislation in the US. Hence the recognizable, stepped Manhattan skyline represents both the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability and responsibility to protect the wellbeing of New Yorkers. The building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978 and a New York City landmark in 1996- another legislation which in turn protects the historical fabric of the city.


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th e t r e a su r e r Saint Jaunarius is the patron of protection. In return for his protection/patronage during the procession at The Feast of San Gennaro, money is pinned to his statue. The money is collected, stored and redistributed to those in need within the community. The statue is once again secured until the next celebration. As an architectural character, he receives and protects the money pinned to the statue of Saint Jaunarius during the parade of the Feast of San Gennaro. His responsibilities act at three different scales: the vessel activates a new programme within an existing vacant condominium whilst acting as a treasury for the money collected and distributed to the adjacent Common Ground Andrew Transitional Housing. She also provides an unconventional theatre which echoes the previous occupation of the site by the Theatre which hosted Jewish and Italian theatre companies. Finally, her positioning within the grounds of the condominium acts at the scale of the desire line which is opened up and manipulated through the reading of shadows and etchings recorded by the Plane Table, offering a new route and acting as a theatre to the festival and the city beyond. Her locality within the Scapeland is of paramount importance, being at the end of the parade and located next to the Mâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Finda Kalunga Garden within Sara D. Roosevelt park, a congregation point for the participants of the festival.

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7 = ! # & 6 2 4 7 & 4 &! th e t r e a su r e r Saint Gennaro is the a patron saint of Naples encompassing all values of protection and preservation. During the Feast of San Gennaro, the money collected during the processional walk through Little Italy is pinned to the statue of St. Jaunarious, which is eventually collected and redistributed to those in need within the Italian-American community, namely schools. After the event, the statue is once again protected until the following September. The regulation of sunlight, or rather protection, is expressed within the programme of il tesoriere. On one hand it acts to oversee the previously corrupt finances by those once in charge of the festival proceesings, the treasury also aims to provide financial advice for the inhabitants of the community. In a city which owns one of the most expensive real estate in the world, such advice is paramount for its citizens - Little Italyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s median sale price is the 4th largest of neighbourhoods on the island, with a 100% year-after-year price increase. It activates the core of the Nolita Condominiums, through a glass block. The view shows the way the landscape allows the everyday viewer to look into the underground vault, without being able to directly access it. The walls and ground are excavated to create vaults and storage rooms with the concrete waffle truss to support the existing building above.


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la nonna preserves not only the historic buildings due for demolition but also the tradition of San Genaro by creating a path that begins at starting point of the procession at Church of Most Precious blood, interlaces through the new program and connects the new levels of the landscape. The buildings are preserved through a corset-like facade retention. The thick retaining walls offer storage for the rehousing of the artefacts of San Genaro. The program includes an unconventional theatre, with seating in the fly tower and formal seating downstairs. With a large glass faรงade, the theatre is also able to open up into the landscape, and a large external seating staircase. The historic building at 151 Mulberry is used as a semi external installation gallery, giving cover to the informal foyer lowered in the landscape. The existing condos located in 145 mulberry street are integrated into the proposal, where a large glass block wall is introduced into the core, drawing light into the apartments and the underground gallery that rehouses the artefacts of American Italian Museum.

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Going against the Grain emerged from the layering of various scales, timelines, cartographies and narratives of the Island Territory of Manhattan centred around- a rich palimpsest. In this abstract plan, la nonna - scale 1:500 - is layered on top of The Civic Centre - scale 1:2500 - developing a dialogue between the vulnerable locals of Little Italy and various political justice institutions. As such it reminds us that the city should offer attention and unity to its versatile enclaves, such as Little Italy.


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The recycling center occupies the landscape which eroded underneath the Noble Den hotel. The architectural idea of preservation and invention is expressed in the concrete chimneys which rose from the curvature of the landscape and the waffle truss roof that supports the existing building. The procession passes between the two spaces, and underneath the Noble Den, overlooking the reinvention processes. The waffle truss that holds this footpath, carves into the landscape to connect two workshop spaces; one dedicated to storage of San Genaro Arches and one which houses the machinery and workshops of the recycling centre. The workspaces can be accessed at multiple points, one being a courtyard where the glasswork gallery meets an adjacent new retail space and a square that opens to la Nona.


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7=!@;<47#24& th e h e a l e r He protects the contemplative and reflective element of the procession of San Genaro. Much like the viles of the Saints blood, solid turned liquid the architecture melts into the landscape and uses rainwater to create pools of cascading water. Preservation is manifested architecturally in the recycled mosaic pavement, along which water channels running from the canopy and down into the landscape.

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In the various levels of the landscape, the choreography of cutting, rendering, slating, storing and selling of the meat take place. Within the lowest level of the market, the thick retaining walls with their undulating crevices, offer an ideal, cool environment for the storage and preservation of the meat. The meat is brought in from the original city level through an elevator within a glass block wall, that also provides this deep space with light. A fragment of the waffle slab is visible, as it supports and carves into the landscape to allow for services and lighting to be installed while giving the space a strong architectonic presence.


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7=!.<><?#& t o ch e r i sh il badante takes advantage of the form of the landscape to provide in equal measure openness and security. Part of the roof of the day care center forms a ramp which connects the rest of Manhattan to this new landscape, and the main procession that moves at this level. In the depth of the ground, the day centre offers a safe space with a publicly visible playground, but with controlled access through the daycare centre.


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Children playing safely in an over-looked environment


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Reading the city through a set of tools, choreographed moves and historic maps, we discovered a thick landscape of social, political and environmental factors which underpinned the formation of immigrant enclave of Little Italy (and Lower Manhattan) and of the reasons for its current gentrification. The first is perceived as a catalyst of diversity and character of New York, the latter as the force character. We began to question the agents of gentrification; not only increasingly homogeneous but genuinely empty condo buildings, used as pied-a-terres, which are contested for their detrimental effect on the already troubled housing market, skyrocketing rent, local business and the community. Simultaneously, these buildings often replace historic buildings promoting wasteful demolition that eradicates the character of the city, in trade for a questionable contribution. Tracing, cutting, scaling and enacting the thesis materialised these unseen but very real layers of the city into a ‘new’ physical landscape- Scapeland. Out of this we set out to provide socially concerned architecture that would preserve one of the oldest traditions of Little Italy- ‘ The Feast of San Gennaro’ threatened by gentrification, and protect a small fragment of the neighbourhood. The scheme moves across 5 blocks between Mulberry and The Bowery, reclaiming the terrain of Little Italy. The carved landscape creates a new pedestrian level for the use of the procession and recalibrates the high street level for its social value as much as economic capacity. It is densely populated by six diverse, mixed-use programs achieved by smuggling public functions into pied-a-terres and buildings sentenced to become them. La nonna, il artigiano, il guariatore, il padrone di casa, il badante and il tesoriere all take prompt for a socially valuable functions of the festival and identify a particular long term function in areas of culture, waste management, water treatment, hospitality, care and financial support and management that aim to maintain the wellbeing of Little Italy. These are surrounded by retail space dedicated for local business, protecting them from buy out by chain stores and developers. It introduces housing at the heart of the festival, that addresses the eviction crisis resulting from rising rents, where a novel approach is taken by providing workshops- places where inhabitants are given a field of manoeuvre to take responsibility for their homes and neighbourhood. The architectural and structural considerations of these manoeuvres are represented throughout the Design Report. Through a dense, diverse and considered programme the design proposal satisfies the objectives of the thesis at various architectonic scales by locating opportunities for public function within underused, privatised space. It is aware of the limitations of architecture, and the necessity of legal protection against gentrification in the form of landmark and historic district protection and pied-a-terre tax (which are in place and underway). The thesis contests the homogenisation of population based on financial status, but remains aware that change, especially concerning demographic shifts, is a constant in urban environments. The neighbourhood specific architectures bound by a path of Going Against the Grain, thus holds a transferable vision of an urban design- where historic and local neighbourhoods regain their prominence. One could imagine a series of such empowering landscapes, protecting other immigrant enclaves of Manhattan.

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Taking on the methodology of research through making the thesis investigated the historical, topographical, environmental, cultural, biographical and ecological layers of Manhattan through a ‘made’ experimentation. This has developed and informed a material, spatial and constructional attitude – an architectural language- which was offered back to the city in the critical urban proposition of Going against the Grain. The continuous investigation ‘landscape’, was both poetic and practical considering the context of a city where land is of prime value.


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$a,%"# Romano Cristina The Feast Of San Gennaro, Little Italy, Manhattan, . Photograph. PHOTOS: San Gennaro through the Years. New York. N.A. Accessed September 23, 2017. https://abc7ny.com/2424388/.

San Gennaro, Little Italy, 1952. Photograph. New York’s Little Italy through the Years. New York: Lista, 2013. N.A. https://www.listal.com/list/1new-yorks-little-italy.

A growing presence of high-end residential buildings, upscale restaurants and expensive designer boutiques Photograph, NoLiTa/Little Italy Apartments, Condos and Real Estate. CityRealty. Accessed May 11, 2020. https://www.cityrealty.com/nyc/nolita-little-italy. Creative Destruction Captured by Vivian Maier. Photograph. Vivian Meier. New York, n.d.. N.A. http://www.vivianmaier.com.

Joseph Mitchel. Photograph. ‘Man in Profile: Joseph Mitchell of The New Yorker,’ by Thomas Kunkel. New York: New York Times, May 19, 2015. N.A. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/24/books/review/man-in-profile-joseph-mitchell-of-the-new-yorker-by-thomas-kunkel.html.

A Palimpsest of Advertisements Uncovered by a Process of Creative Destruction . Photograph. Ghost Signs. flikr, 2010. N.A. https://www.flickr. com/photos/jeffs4653/5312742720/in/faves-44190443@N04/.

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Street Performer at the Festival in 1980. Photograph. New York’s Little Italy through the Years. New York, September 19, 2013. https://www.listal. com/list/1-new-yorks-little-italy. 63 Nassau Street Building. LPC, John Barrington Bayley .1965. Photograph. 63 Nassau Street Building. Landmarks Preservation Commission, 2007. http://s-media.nyc.gov/agencies/lpc/lp/2213.pdf.

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“New York City Private Tour: Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House.” New York City Private Tour: Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom Hous. The rotal Oak Foundation. Accessed May 5, 2020. https://www.royal-oak.org/events/2019-spring-nyc-alexander-hamilton/. Ampoule of Blood of San Gennaro. Photograph. Liquefaction of the Blood of Saint Januarius. CahtolicsSaint.Info. Accessed May 5, 2020. https:// catholicsaints.info/liquefaction-of-the-blood-of-saint-januarius/. “Design Green Architecture Say Goodbye to New York’s Glorious Glass Sidewalks.” Design Green Architecture Say Goodbye to New York’s Glorious Glass Sidewalks. New York. Accessed May 5, 2020. https://www.treehugger.com/green-architecture/say-goodbye-new-yorks-gloriousglass-sidewalks.html?fbclid=IwAR3BRY4MUaxmkkB1tgE_DoVsKLnlHXMHBRqEgZgRai2TAcA0IlC7llvg9ts. The Last Beam of Sunlight - Man with Tanning Mirror, 1954. “Official Website of Vivian Maier: Vivian Maier Portfolios, Prints, Exhibitions, Books and Documentary Film.” Vivian Maier Photographer. Accessed May 5, 2020. http://www.vivianmaier.com/.

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New York Stock Exchange. Photograph. New York Stock Exchange. New York: Encyclopedia Britanica, April 2, 2020. https://www.britannica. com/topic/New-York-Stock-Exchange. Friends gather to talk at the Cafe Bella Napoli on Mulberry Street, 1944. Depiction of the Fringes of Society. “Official Website of Vivian Maier: Vivian Maier Portfolios, Prints, Exhibitions, Books and Documentary Film.” Vivian Maier Photographer. Accessed May 5, 2020. http://www.vivianmaier.com/.

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Jane Jacobs. Photograph. Jane Jacobs and How Cities Work. Chicago: Madsen Pirie, 2019. https://www.adamsmith.org/blog/jane-jacobs-and-howcities-work. The Minder of Children.“Official Website of Vivian Maier: Vivian Maier Portfolios, Prints, Exhibitions, Books and Documentary Film.” Vivian Maier Photographer. Accessed May 5, 2020. http://www.vivianmaier.com/.

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The Equitable Building Render 1913. Photograph. Zoning Arrived 100 Years Ago. It Changed New York City Forever. New York: The New York Times, July 26, 2016. n.a. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/26/nyregion/new-yorks-first-zoning-resolution-which-brought-order-to-a-chaoticbuilding-boom-turns-100.html. The Statue of San Gennaro. Photograph. Little Italy. Jochem Schmidt photography. Accessed May 11, 2020. https://www.jochemschmidt.com/lancaster-park-tavern. Children playing safely in an over-looked environment. “Official Website of Vivian Maier: Vivian Maier Portfolios, Prints, Exhibitions, Books and Documentary Film.” Vivian Maier Photographer. Accessed May 5, 2020. http://www.vivianmaier.com/.


(",!$&%# Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, A division of Random House, Inc., 2011. Kroessler, Jeffrey A., "The City as Palimpsest" (2015). CUNY Academic Works. https://academicworks.cuny.edu/jj_pubs/42 Moss, Jeremiah. Vanishing New York: How a Great City Lost Its Soul. New York: Dey Street Books, 2018. Page, Max. The Creative Destruction of Manhattan, 1900-1940. Chicago (Ill.): The University of Chicago Press, 2008.

["Z#$+"# Eviction Lab. “Eviction Map & Data.” Eviction Lab. Accessed May 11, 2020. https://evictionlab.org/map/#/2016?geography=cities&bounds=74.31,40.66,-73.644,40.901&type=er&locations=3651000,-73.878,40.717. “Lights out: New York City's Ghost Apartments Multiply.” Brick Underground, March 27, 2018. https://www.brickunderground.com/rent/pied-aterre-airbnb-affordable-housing-crisis-nyc. “NoLiTa/Little Italy Apartments, Condos and Real Estate.” CityRealty. Accessed May 11, 2020. https://www.cityrealty.com/nyc/nolita-little-italy. “The World Is Running Out of Sand.” Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Institution, September 8, 2017. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/sciencenature/world-facing-global-sand-crisis-180964815/. Margino, Megan. “Researching New York City Neighborhoods.” The New York Public Library. The New York Public Library, August 14, 2015. https://www.nypl.org/blog/2015/05/12/researching-nyc-neighborhoods. San Gennaro (Saint Januarius). Accessed May 11, 2020.https://www.italyheritage.com/traditions/calendar/september/19-san-gennaro.htm.

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Sánchez-Jankowski, Martín, and Martín Sánchez-Jankowski. Cracks in the Pavement: Social Change and Resilience in Poor Neighborhoods. University of California Press, 2008.


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Profile for Katie Hackett

Masters of Architecture Thesis: Going Against The Grain  

Masters of Architecture Thesis: Going Against The Grain  

Profile for kthackett
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