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pmMunfhwdkufESifhokwynmXme jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH

EkdifiHawmfor®wESifh0efBuD;csKyfrsm;tw¬KyÜwåd (1948 ckESpfrS 1988ck ESpf txd) jyKpk o l armifrif;rif;pkd;

0d Z Æ m bG J U (Oya') 2006 ckESpf


pmMunfhwdkufESifhokwynmXme jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH?

EkdifiHawmfor®wESifh0efBuD;csKyfrsm;tw¬KyÜwåd (1948 ckESpfrS 1988ckESpf txd)

jyKpkol

armifrif;rif;pk;d

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1?1/

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1?2/

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1?3/

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1?4/

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1?5/

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n-#

1?6/

pmwrf;pDpOfyEkH iS t hf usKH ;0ifrI

1?7/

toH;k jyKxm;aomoauFwESit hf wkt d rSwt f om;rsm;

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1?8/

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tydkif;(2) jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfor®wrsm;ESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\tw¬Kyw Ü då (1948-1988) 2?1/

or®wrsm;\tw¬Kyw Ü (då 1948-1988)

2?1?1/ p0fa&Tou dk f (1896-1962)

1-10

2?1?2/ a'gufwmbOD;(1887-1963)

11-21

2?1?3/ OD;0if;armif(c)ref;0if;armif(1916-1989)

22-27

2?1?4/ OD;ae0if;(1911-2002)

28-55

2?1?5/ OD;pef;,k(1918-1996)

56-65

2?1?6/ OD;pdev f iG (f 1924-2004)

66-70

2?1?7/ a'gufwmarmifarmif(1925-1994)

71-77

2?1?8/ OD;apmarmif(1928-1997)

78-98


2?2/

0efBu;D csKyrf sm;\tw¬Kyw Ü (då 1948-1988)

2?2?1/ OD;Ek(1907-1995)

99-119

2?2?2/ OD;AaqG(1915-1987)

120-132

2?2?3/ OD;pde0f if;(1919-1993)

133-140

2?2?4/ OD;armifarmifc(1920-1995)

141-146

2?2?5/ ol&OD;xGef;wif(1923-

)

147-151

tyk d i f ; (3) 3/

ed * H k ; ES i f h t BuH j yKoH k ; oyf c suf

152-154

usrf;ukd;pm&if;

155-161

aemufqufwGJ &Jabmfo;kH usyd f 1943 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f (1) &ufaeY *syefay;aomvGwv f yf a&;acwftyk cf sKycf sKyaf &;tzGUJ

162 163

1948 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv(4)&ufaeY jynfaxmifpo k r®w

164

jrefrmEkid if aH wmftpk;d &tzGUJ 1958 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv (28)&uftrd af pmift h pk;d &tzGUJ

165

1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv (2)&ufaeY jynfaxmifpo k r®w

166

jrefrmekid if aH wmf? awmfveS af &;aumifpD 1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv (2)&ufaeY jynfaxmifpo k r®w

167

jrefrmekid if aH wmf? awmfveS af &;tpk;d &tzGUJ 1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv 4 &ufaeYjynfaxmifpo k r®w

168

jrefrmEkid if aH wmf? awmfveS af &;tpk;d tzGUJ 1968ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 4 &uf jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if H jynfwGif;nDnTwfa&; tBuHay;tzGJU

169


1974 ckEpS ?f jynfaxmifpq k &dk , S v f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf

170

tpk;d &tzGUJ Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ

171

a'gufwmarmifarmifa&;cJah ompmtkyrf sm;

172

OD;Eka&;cJah ompmtkyrf sm;

173

OD;AaqGa&;cJah ompmtkyrf sm; uG,fvGefNyD;aomyk*¾dKvfrsm;\ema&;aMumfjim

174 175

tñTef; jrefrmpmtñTe;f t*Fvyd pf mtñTe;f

176-228 229


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teaEÅmteEÅig;yg;ukd OD;xdyfxm;í þusr;f pmjzifh uefawmhtyfygonf/


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aus;Zl;wifvTm yxrOD;pGm uG,fvGefavNyD;aomrdbrsm;jzpfMuonfh zcifOD;ausmfvSESifhrdcif a':cifqif?h 0dZmÆ bGUJ (Oya')&&So d nftxd ausmif;xm;ay;cJah om awmifomNrKd UrS trBu;D rsm; tm;aus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf/ 'kw, d taejzifh pmMunhw f u dk Ef iS o hf w k ynmbGUJ vGe'f yD vkrd moifwef; okYd apvTww f ufa&mufciG ahf y;cJah om Ekid if aH wmfumuG,af &;wuúov dk f ausmif;tkyBf u;D tm; aus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf/ jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf? Ekid if aH wmfor®wrsm;ESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\tw¬Kyw Ü då pmwrf;ukd wifoiG ;f cGijhf yKc&hJ o kH mru uk, d w f idk Bf u;D Muyfvrf;nTerf aI y;cJah om pmMunfw h u dk Ef iS hf okwynmXmerS ygarmu©? XmerSL; OD;ode;f vGiEf iS hf ygarmu© OD;ode;f a&TwUdk tm;vnf;aumif;? q&mBu;D \vufaxmuftul tjzpfteD;uyfBu;D Muyfay;cJah om pmMunfw h u dk Ef iS hf okwynmXme vufaxmufuxdu q&mra':vJv h 0hJ if;tm;vnf;aumif;? pmMunfw h u dk Ef iS hf okwynmXme rS q&m? q&mrrsm;tm;vnf;aumif; aus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf/ þpmwrf;jyKpk&mvkdtyfaomtcsuftvufrsm;ESifhpmtkyf^pmwrf;rsm;ukd apwemxufoefpGmjzifhtultnDay;cJhaom ppfynm*sme,frS nDi,ftm;vnf;aumif;? orkdif;okawoepmMunfhwkdufrS vufaxmufñTefMum;a&;rSL; a':aqGaqGjrifhESifh wuúokdvfrsm;A[kdpmMunfhwkdufrS pmMunfhwkduf(vufaxmuf-1)a':oif;oif;pkd; tm; vnf;aumif;? xkdenf;wlpGm tultnDay;cJhMuaom EkdifiHawmfumuG,fa&;wuúokdvf avhusifha&;XmrS taygif;toif;rsm;ESifh pmMunfhwkdufrSoli,fcsif;rsm;tm;vnf;aumif;? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmf armfuGef;wkdufrSL;&Hk;? trsdK;om;armfuGef;wkduf? trsdK;om; pmMunfhwkduf? wuúokdvfrsm;A[kd pmMunfhwkduf? pmMunfhwkdufESifhokwynmXme pmMunfhwkduf? ta0;oifwuúokdvf pmMunfhwkduf? pmayAdrmefpmMunfhwkduftoDoD;rS 0efxrf;rsm;tm; aus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf/ ausZ;l wifxu dk o f rl sm;tm;vH;k ukd þpmwrf;jzifh ½kad opGm*g&0jyKí rSww f rf;wif tyfygonfusrf;jyKpkol armifrif;rif;pkd; cHktrSwf- 2 'D po 13 pmMunfw h u dk Ef iS o fh w k ynmXme


*

ed'gef; ]] tw¬KyÜwåd }} qkdonfha0g[m&pum;vHk;\ teuft"dyÜg,fESifhtrsdK;tpm;ukd t"dymÜ ,fziG q hf &dk rnfqv dk Qi-f taMumif;t&m\jzpfjcif;}} [kt"dygÜ ,fziG q ygVdpum;vH;k \teuft"dygÜ ,ft& ]]taMumif hf dk ygonf/ ,if;ygVdpum;vH;k uk, d í l jrefrmpmayüyk*Kd¾ vw f pfO;D wpfa,muf\b0jzpf&yfwu Ydk dk a&;om;wifjyonfph maytrsKd ;tpm;ukd tw¬Kyw Ü då [lívnf;aumif;? wpfenf; ]] tw¬Kyw Ü }f } [lívnf;aumif; a,bk,stm;jzihf ac:qkdMuygonf/ ]]'EÅZtu©&m}} xqifxl;rS ]]Ak'¨Ztu©&m}} X0rf;bJajymif;í tXKyÜwåd[lí vnf;aumif;? tXKyw Ü [ f í l vnf;aumif; ac:qkMd uygao;onf/ ,if;okx Yd qifx;l rS X0rf;bJ ajymif;í qkjd cif;rSmvnf; a&S;a[mif;ygVdusr;f *ef t&yifjzpfygonf/1 yk*Kd¾ vw f pfO;D wpfa,muf\ b0ESiphf ½ku d w f u Ydk dk azmfjyonfph monftw¬Kyw Ü då yif jzpfygonf/ tw¬Kyw Ü då ukzd wfvQif pmzwfoo l nf pdw0f ifpm;rI&&SEd idk Nf y;D rdrt d wGut f usKd ;rsm; rnfh tcsut f vufrsm;ukv d nf; od&edS m;vnfEidk o f nft h jyif tjcm;aomyk*Kd¾ vrf sm;\b0jzpf&yf rdrpd &ku d u f dk jyefvnfo;kH oyfNy;D jyKjyifomG ;oifo h nfudk jyKjyifomG ;Ekid yf gonf/ twk,o l iho f nfudk twk,o l mG ;Ekid yf gonf/ pGeyYf ,foifo h nfudk pGeyYf ,fomG ;Ekid yf gonf/ okjYd zpfí tw¬Kyw Ü pdå may a&;&mwGif 1/ ½k;d ½k;d tw¬Kyw Ü då ? 2/ uk, d af &;tw¬Kyw Ü då 3/ 0w¬Koabmygttw¬KyÜwåd 4/ rSwfwrf;oabm ygaomtw¬KyÜwåd [lí (4)rsdK;cGJjcm;Ekdif aMumif;od&&dS ygonf/2 þtw¬Kyw Ü pdå mwrf;trsKd ;tpm;rSm ]]rSww f rf;oabmygaomtw¬Kyw Ü }då } jzpfí yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;\ b0wpfavQmufvHk;wGif jzpfysufonfh pdwf0ifpm;zG,ftjzpftysuf wpfuu G u f jdk zpfap? wpfuu G x f ufruaomtjzpftysuu f jdk zpfap a&;om;wifjyxm;onfh trsKd ;tpm;yifjzpfygonf/ rSww f rf;ygaom tw¬Kyw Ü då rSmrl yk*Kd¾ vw f pfO;D wpfa,muf\b0wpfcv k ;kH ukd NcKH í a&;om;jcif;rsKd ;r[kwb f J b0\ta&;ygonft h pdwt f ykid ;f wpfcck t k aMumif;ukd a&;om;wifjy xm;jcif;rsdK;jzpfavonf/ ta&;cHtw¬KyÜwåd &Sif\trsdK;tpm;vkdufvnf;tw¬KyÜwåd trsKd ;tpm;ukd cGjJ cm;Ekid yf gao;onf/ ta&;cHtw¬Kyw Ü då &Sirf sm;rSm a,bk,stm;jzifh bmoma&; qkid &f myk*Kd¾ v?f Ekid if aH &;qkid &f myk*Kd¾ v?f &mZ0ifqidk &f myk*Ld¾ vf? vlraI &;qkid &f myk*Kd¾ v?f ynma&;qkid &f m yk*Kd¾ vf [lí trsKd ;rsKd ;tpm;pm; &SMd uavonf/ 1

OD;vSBuKd i(f yg&*l)? ]]tw¬Kyw Ü pdå may}}/ a&;ol OD;vSBuKd i(f yg&*l)ESit hf jcm;? (&efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1971) pm 1-3/ 2 ,if;pm/


C þpmwrf;&St d w¬Kyw Ü &då iS rf sm;rSmrl Ekid if aH wmfudk uk, d w f idk u f , dk u f s wm0ef,Ol ;D aqmif tkycf sKycf MhJ uaom Ekid if aH &;qkid &f myk*Kd¾ vrf sm;yif jzpfygonf/ þtw¬Kyw Ü då pmwrf;ukad &;om;&mwGif ta&;tom;tqifwefqmryg? tzGUJ tEGUJ r&S?d 0guswu dk av;rsm;ukd oH;k í vkw d &dk iS ;f a&;om;xm;ygonf/ a&;om;&mwGif tw¬Kyw Ü då &Si\ f &mxl;? Xme? tvkyt f ukid ?f pGr;f aqmifcsu?f tdraf xmifzuf? yg0ifcahJ omtzGUJ tpnf;? arG;aeY? Zmwd&yfajr? rdbtrnf? ynmoifcahJ omausmif;? ynmt&nftcsi;f ? om;orD;rsm;ESihf ae&yfvyd pf mwku Yd dk azmfjyxm;ygonf/ tw¬Kyw Ü då pmayukad &;om; jzpfcMhJ u&onfo h rkid ;f aMumif;ukMd unfv h Qif urÇmph may orkdif;wGif a,bk,stm;jzifh EkdifiHwkdif;vkdvkdtoHk;jyKaeMuaom tw¬KyÜwåd pmayonf olawmfpifw\ Ydk tw¬Kyw Ü då (Hagiography)ESib hf &k ift h w¬Kyw Ü w då rYdk S pwifaMumif;od&&dS ygonf/ t*Fvdyfpmay\tOD;qHk;tw¬KyÜwåd rSm a,bk,stm;jzifh pdef(Saint)ac:onfh olawmfpifw\ Ydk tw¬Kyw Ü då rsm;omjzpfaMumif; awG&Y &dS ygonf/ jrefrmwk\ Yd tw¬Kyw Ü då pmayonfvnf; bk&ifw\ Ydk tw¬Kyw Ü då ESihf &[ef;awmfw\ Ydk ax½kyÜwådrsm;rS tpjyKvmaMumif;awGU&ygonf/ yk*Hacwfjrif;uyg*lajymufBuD;bk&m; ausmufpm? &mZukrm&fausmufpm(jrapwDausmufpm)wkdYonf jrefrmEkdifiH\tapmqHk; tw¬Kyw Ü rdå sm;tjzpfrw S , f El idk yf gonf/ ygVdpmayvm &[ef;ax&mtyg"mef('gef)? &[ef;arax&Dtyg"mef('gef)rsKd ;wGif vnf; awG&Y EdS idk yf gonf/ xif&mS ;ausmMf um;aomvly*k Kd¾ vrf sm;ukv d nf; vltrsm;pku pdw0f ifpm;Muygonf/ xkduJhokdY xif&Sm;ausmfMum;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm;onf uREkfyfwkdYjrefrmEkdifiHukd tkyfcsKyfcJhaom or®wrsm;ESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\ twk,zl , G &f mvkyif ef;ESiphf rG ;f aqmifcsurf sm;yg od&EdS idk &f efomru tm;usb, G &f mrsm;ukv d nf;twk,El idk af p&ef þtw¬Kyw Ü pdå mwrf;ukd jyKp&k jcif;jzpfygonf/


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jrefrmEkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;orkdif; þpmwrf;onf jrefrmEkid if u H dk tkycf sKycf o hJ rl sm;\tw¬Kyw Ü pdå mwrf;jzpf aomaMumifh jrefrmEkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;orkdif;wpfpdwfwpfa'oukd avhvmítusOf;rQwifjyxm;jcif;jzpf ygonf/ urÇmo h rkid ;f rwifraD cwfumvrSpwifí tkycf sKyyf t kH qifq h ifo h nf jzpfwnfvm cJyh gonf/ orkid ;f wifacwfrpS wifí tkycf sKyaf &;pepftrsKd ;rsKd ;&Scd &hJ m bk&ifpepf tkycf sKyaf &; rS onf rsuaf rSmufacwfor®wtkycf sKyaf &;pepfrsm;xd &Scd o hJ nfuadk vhvmawG&Y dS cJ&h ygonf/ jrefrmEkid if t H ygt0if urÇmEh idk if t H oD;oD;wGif tkycf sKyaf &;pepftrsKd ;rsKd ;&Scd yhJ gonf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH&Sd tkyfcsKyfa&;pepftrsdK;rsdK;ajymif;vJvmyHkukd avhvmygu a&S;acwfa[mif;umvrsm;utkycf sKyaf &;(Administration)onf tkypf ;kd olrsm;\tmPmpOf vrf;aMumif;(Authoritarism)jzifh tpysKd ;cJNh y;D ?aESmif;ydik ;f umvrsm;wGif Edik if aH &; tawG;tac:rsm; ajymif;vJ vmrI ESit hf wltyk cf sKyaf &;oabmw&m; (Administrative Concepts)rsm;vnf;vdu k yf g ajymif;vJvmaMumif;awGU&ygonf/ bk&ifpepftkyfcsKyfa&;? or®wpepfjzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;? 0ef B uD ; csKyf p epf j zif h t k y f c sKyf a &;? tzG J U tpnf ; jzif h t k y f c sKyf a &;?ppf t k y f c sKyf a &; ponfjzifph epftrsKd ;rsKd ;udak wGU&S&d ygonf/ ¤if;jyif jrefrmEkid if [ H k owfrw S jf cif;r&Sad o;onft h csed rf sm;uyifpí rif;qufrsm; tkycf sKyv f mcJ&h m tkycf sKyo f w l \ Ydk tkycf sKyyf o kH rkid ;f rSww f rf;rsm;t& orkid ;f wifco hJ nfrsm;ukd tusO;f rQavhvmazmfjy&aomf jrefrmEdkifiHya'o&mZfacwftkyfcsKyfa&; onf jrefrmEdik if H [k owfrw S o f nft h csed rf pS í ordik ;f tpOftquftvku d f ud, k yf ikd , f Ofaus;rIEiS hf wpfpw k pfpnf; wpfcw k nf;aomyx0D0ifEidk if jH zpfco hJ nf/ wdik ;f &if;om;tcsi;f csi;f cspMf unf&if;ES;D pGm NrKd UjyEdik if H tjzpfrif;{u&mZftyk cf sKyaf om jynfaxmifBu;D rsm;toGipf nf;&H;k wnfaxmifvmNy;D vufeuf Edik if aH wmfBu;D txdus,jf yefv Y mcJo h nf/ ax&0g' Ak'b ¨ mom\,Ofaus;rIt&vTr;f rd;k cJo h jzifh rsuaf rSmufb0Bu;D yGm;csr;f omrI&adS om ya'o&mZftyk cf sKyrf pI epfrsm;rSmvnf; jynf0h aom tkycf sKyaf &;pepfjzpfaMumif; awGU&S&d ygonf/ NAw d o d Qtyk cf sKyaf &; &;ukd tusO;f rQavhvmwifjy&aomf NAw d o d QwUkd onf jrefrmEdik if u H kd usL;ausmfppfyGJtjzpf(3)Budrfwdkifwdkif qifETJcJhojzifh 1885-86 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHonf NAw d o d QvufatmufoaYkd &muf&o dS mG ;onf/1886-89ckEpS w f iG jf refrm wdik ;f rif;Bu;D csKyf (Chief Commissioner) wpfO;D cefx Y m;í NAw d o d Qb&k ifEiS hf NAw d o d Qtpd;k &tzGud UJ , k pf m; jrefrmEdik if u H kd tkycf sKyyf gonf/ 1897-1919ckEpS w f iG f 'dik t f mcD tkycf sKyaf &;csed jf zpfNy;D jrefrmEdik if AH [dt k pd;k & tBu;D tuJjzpfaom wdik ;f rif;Bu;D csKyu f kd jrefrmjynfe,f 'kw, d bk&ifcH tjzpfw;kd jri§ v hf u kd o f nf/


p xdkYtjyiftdE´d,EdkifiH&SdtwGif;0ef&Hk; udkwdk;csJUíjrefrmjynfe,f 'kwd,bk&ifcHESifhjrefrmjynf twGi;f 0ef&;kH udzk iG v hf pS yf gonf/(1908)ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmEdik if H twGi;f 0ef&;kH ud"k Oya'udjk y|mef;í 4if;Oya't&twGi;f 0efcsKyf onftpd;k &tzGUJ udw k m0efcH ítaxGaxGtyk cf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;rsm; wm0ef,laqmif&GufcJhygonf/ xkdpOfujrefrmEdkifiH\EdkifiHa&;rSm NAdwdoQwdkY\ tkyfcsKyfrIudk jrefrmtrsKd ;om; tiftm;pkrsm;u qefu Y siv f yI &f mS ;qJumvjzpfí NAw d o d Qwo Ykd nftyk cf sKyaf &; cdik rf matmif BuKd ;yrf; wnfaqmufqu J mvjzpfygonf/ 1919ckEpS 'f ikd t f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &; ukad y;&mwGif tdE, d´ Edik if H (pD&iftyk cf sKyrf )I Oya't& NAdwdoQtpdk;&u tdEd´,EdkifiHwGif tkyfcsKyfa&; tqifhjr§ifhay;csdef wGifjrefrmrsdK;cspfwdkY\ BudK;yrf;rIaMumifh (1923)ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv(2)&ufaeYwGifjrefrmEdkifiH onftjcm;aom tdEd´,jynfe,frsm;uJhodkY 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;&cJhonf/ 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;onfNAdwdoQ vufatmufcH tdE, ´d tpd;k & uomtkycf sKyrf t I mPm usio hf ;kH cJh aMumif;awGU&ygonf/ 1935ckESpf(91)XmetkyfcsKyfa&; wGif NAw d o d QygvDrefu (1935)ckEpS ?f tdE, ´d tufOya' jyKvkyfí jrefrmjynfukd csefvSyfítdEd´,udk(91)XmetkyfcsKyfa&;ay;cJhonf/ jrefrmjynfolrsm;u uefYuGufMuíjrefrmjynfukd tdEd´,rScGJxGufcGifhjyKNyD;(1935)ckESpf? jrefrmEdik if t H ufOya'(The Government of Burma Act-1935) jy|mef;í(91)Xmetkycf sKyaf &; ay;onf/ 1937 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHudktdEd´,EdkifiHA[dktpdk;& jynfe,ftjzpfrS cGJxGufNyD; aemufjrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&onf tkyfcsKyfrI0efBuD;Xmersm;zGJUpnf;&mjynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme tygt0if(10)Xme&Sdonf/jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme\tBuD;tuJrSm twGif;0efcsKyfjzpfí A[dt k qifw h iG t f axGaxG tkycf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;udw k m0ef,í l e,frsm;wGif A[dt k pd;k &ud, k pf m; wdik ;f rif;Bu;D ? c&dik 0f ef? e,fyikd ?f NrKd Uydik Ef iS o hf Bl u;D rsm;uwm0ef,&l onf/ 1942-1945 *syefacwftyk cf sKyaf &; ukd avhvmwifjy&aomf 'kw, d urÇmppfonf jrefrmEdkifiHodkUul;pufíjrefrmEdkifiHonf *syefvufatmufa&muf&SdcJhonf/ 1942ckESpfwGif *syefppfaoeywdcsKy*f sief &,ft'D g;u jrefrmjynf A[dt k yk cf sKyaf &;tzGUJ udk zGUJ pnf;ay; ygonf/ tkycf sKyaf &;tzGUJ wGiaf 'gufwmbarmf acgif;aqmif í 0efBu;D (10)OD;yg0ifyg onf/4if;tzGUJ onf *syefw\ Ykd &kyaf o;tpd;k &jzpfí trSepf ifppfwiG f tkycf sKyrf t I mPmonf *syef\vufxw J iG f &So d nf/ xkpd Ofue,frsm;wGi, f ciftwdik ;f tkycf sKyaf &; 0efxrf;rsm;u qufvufaqmif&u G f Muonf/ 1945-1948 tkyfcsKyfa&; üppfNy;D acwftyk cf sKyaf &;wGit f ydik ;f (3)ydik ;f &Syd gonf(u)

(1944)ckEpS Mf o*kwv f rS(1945) ckEpS af tmufwb kd mvtxd ppftyk cf sKyaf &;/


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(1945) ckESpfatmufwdkbmvrS (1946) ckESpftxdpuúLjzLpmwrf; tkycf sKyaf &;/

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(1946) ckEpS f pufwifbmvrS (1948) ckEpS Zf efe0g&Dv txdtrsKd ;om; tpdk;&,m,DtkyfcsKyfa&;/

'kwd,urÇmppfNyD;*syefrsm;qkwfcGmNyD;aemuft*Fvdyfrsm; jyef0ifvmum ppftyk cf sKyaf &;jzifh tkycf sKyyf gonf/xdaYk emuf(1945)ckEpS t f ukew f iG Nf rKd Ujytkycf sKyaf &;(Civil Service h yk cf sKyyf gonf/tqdyk gumvrsm;wGif A[dük bk&ifco H nf Affair CSA(B)-Burma) tzGUJ jzift tkycf sKyaf &;tmPmudw k pfO;D wnf; udik w f , G us f io hf ;kH íe,frsm;wGiNf Aw d o d Q vlrsKd ;tkycf sKyaf &; 0efxrf;rsm;uwm0efcH aqmif&u G yf gonf/ 1948-1958 tkyfcsKyfa&; umvrsm;ukad vhvm&mü 1948 ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmEdik if H vGwv f yfa&;&cJyh gonf/ 1948 ckEpS t f xdomygvDref tkycf sKyaf &; umv[kowfrw S Ef ikd yf g onf/ 1947ckESpfjynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHzGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya't&A[dkwGif tkyfcsKyfa&; tzGUJ om ajymif;vJcyhJ gonf/ tpd;k &\ vkyu f idk Ef idk o f nfh enf;pepfrmS 1941 ckEpS ?f rwfv(15) &ufaeYü twnfjyKa&;qGJonfhtwGif;0ef&Hk; vufpGJygtwdkif; qufvuftoHk;jyKonfh enf;pepfjzpfygonf/ 1957 ckEpS w f iG t f pd;k &onf twGi;f 0efcsKyw f m0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk jyefvnfowfrw S f &mü twGi;f 0efcsKy\ f yif;&if;Xmeudjk ynfxaJ &;0efBu;D Xmetpm; 0efBu;D csKy&f ;kH vufatmufoYkd ajymif;vJowfrSwfcJhygonf/,if;owfrSwfcsuft& 1958 ckESpf? ZGefv(13) &ufaeYrSpí jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D XmetwGi;f 0efonf taxGaxGtyk cf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;rsm;\ tBu;D tuJtjzpf wm0ef,cl yhJ gonf/ 1958-1960 tk y f c sKyf a &; u@ü1958) ckESpfwGifwdkif;jynf\tajctae t&yf&yfaMumifh Edik if aH &;tpd;k &rS tdraf pmift h pd;k &zGUJ pnf;Ny;D wdik ;f jynfwm0ef ukd tdraf pmift h pk;d & tm; vTt J yfcyhJ gonf/1958ckEpS ?f atmufwb kd mv(28) &ufaeYygvDreftxl;tpnf;ta0; wGiftdrfapmifhtpdk;&tzGJU udk wyfrawmfESifhe,fzufqdkif&m yk*d¾KvfBuD;(14)OD; OD;aqmifí zGJUpnf;cJhygonf/tdrfapmifhtpdk;& tzGJUonfNidrf0yfydjym;rI &&Sd&ef tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUrsm; zGUJ pnf;ítkycf sKyrf I tmPmudk vkyif ef;pOf(4) &yfjzifh csrw S af qmif&u G cf yhJ gonf/ ¤if;wkrYd mS (u)w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;ESifh Nidrf0yfydjym;a&;/ ( c )a&G;aumufyGJ usif;ya&;/ ( * )aexdkif pm;aomufrI p&duaf vQmch sa&;/ (C)pD;yGm;a&; ysujf ym;aejcif; udk jyefvnfjyKjyifa&;wkjYd zpfonf/ 1958 ckESpf?Edk0ifbmv(3)(4)(5) &ufaeYrsm; wGif usif;yaom tpnf;ta0;rSEdkifiHawmf Nidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;pDrHudef;udk csrSwfíazmfjyygtwkdif; taumiftxnfazmf


Z aqmif&Guf&efpDpOfcJhygonf-(u)EdkifiHawmfvHk; qdkif&m aqmif&Gufa&;/ (c)A[dktpdk;& &Hk;pdkuf&ma'owGifaqmif&Gufa&;/(*)wdkif;tqifhwGif aqmif&Gufa&;/ (C)c&dkifESifhNrdKUe,f tqifw h iG af qmif&u G af &;wkjYd zpfygonf/ 1960-1962 tkyfcsKyfa&; ukdavhvm&mü 1960)jynfhESpf?azazmf0g&DvwGif a&G;aumufyt JG Edik &f aom Edik if aH &;tzGUJ odUk tkycf sKyaf &; vTaJ jymif;ay;í0efBu;D (13)OD;yg0ifaom jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &rS qufvuf aqmif&u G yf gonf/tkycf sKyaf &;yHpk rH mS xl;jcm;ajymif;vJrrI &Sad y/ 1962-1972ckESpftxdtkyfcsKyfa&; onf xl;jcm;pGmajymif;vJcyhJ gonf/ 1962 ckESpfwGifawmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf ,kd,Gif;vmaomEdkifiHawmf\tajctaet&yf&yfudk xdef;odrf;cJhygonf/awmfvSefa&; aumifpDonfEdkifiHawmfvGwfvyfa&; t"GefY&Snfa&;? tcsKyftjcmwnfwHh cdkifNrJa&;? w&m;rQwrI&Sdaomom,m0ajymonfhqdk&S,fvpfvlUabmif wnfaqmufa&;[laom &nfrSef;csufjzifh EdkifiHawmfudkjyefvnfwnfaqmufcJhygonf/ ,if;&nfrSef;csuf rsm;t&atmufygrl0g'rsm;udkcsrSwf cJhygonf-(u)tkyfcsKyfrItmPmudk awmfvSefa&; aumifpDu usifhoHk;jcif;/( c ) EdkifiHawmfvHkNcHKa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfrIpDrHudef; csrSwfaqmif&Gufjcif;/ ( * )tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopfazmfxkwfjcif;/(C)qdk&S,fvpf'Drdkua&pD tavhtusirhf sm; ysKd ;axmifjcif;/ xdaYk emufawmfveS af &;aumifpo D nf(1962)ckEpS ?f rwfv(9)&ufaeY aeYpyJG g aMunm csuf trSwf(20)jzifhOya'jyKrItmPm?tkyfcsKyfrItmPm?w&m;pD&ifrI tmPmrsm;ukd awmfveS af &;aumifpD uusio hf ;kH aMumif;aMunmcJyh gonf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf 1962 ckESpf?rwfv(2)&ufaeYpGJyg aMunmcsuf trSwf(2)jzifh awmfvSefa&;tpdk;&tzGJUudkzGJUpnf;cJhygonf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuúX tm;tkyfcsKyfrItmPmtyfESif; íusifhoHk;cJhygonf/tpdk;&\tkyfcsKyfrIqdkif&m ta&;,l aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;ESifhywfoufí 12-3-62 &ufpGJygaMunmcsuftrSwf(23)jzifh 0efxrf; tzGUJ tpnf;udw k m0efay;tyfí 1972 ckEpS t f xd usio hf ;kH cJyh gonf/ 1972-1974ckESpftkyfcsKyfa&;pepf üjrefrmEdik if \ H tkycf sKyaf &;onf (1948) ckESpfvGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemuf jyKjyif ajymif;vJrIrsm;r&SdcJh ojzifhwdkif;&if;om;rsm;udk tusdK;rjyKEdkifjcif;? qdk&S,fvpfpepfxlaxmif&mwGif vdkufavsmnDaxGjzpfap&eftwGuf tkycf sKyaf &;pepfjyKjyif&efvt kd yfjcif;wdUk aMumifh awmfveS af umifpo D nf15-3-72&ufpyJG g aMunm csut f rSwf (97) jzift h yk cf sKyaf &;pepfopfwpf&yf azmfxw k af qmif&u G cf yhJ gonf/ 1974-1988ckEpS x f t d yk cf sKyaf &; umvonf A[krd OS ;D aqmifí tkycf sKyo f nfph epfjzpf cJyh gonf/ 1974ckEpS w f iG jyf nfaxmifpq k &kd , S v f pfor®w jrefrmEdik if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'


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(c)

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( * ) &yfuu G Ef iS ahf us;&Gmtkypf jk ynfoUl aumifprD sm;wGif tvkyt f rIaqmiftzGUJ ESihf w&m;olBu;D tzGUJ wpfzUJG pDxm;&Sjd cif;/ 1988-ckESpftxdtkyfcsKyfa&; ukad vhvmwifjy&aomf 1988 ckEpS w f iG 'f rD u kd a&pD awmif;qdkqE´jyrIrsm;ESifhtwl rif;rJhp&dkufrsm; ay:aygufvmNyD; EdkifiHawmftkyfcsKyfa&; ,EÅ&m;&yfqikd ;f oGm;cJyh gonf/jynfwiG ;f jynfy tzsut f arSmihyf a,m*rsm;aMumifh 19-9-88 aeYwGifwyfrawmfuEdkifiHawmftmPm t&yf&yfudkxdef;odrf;cJhygonf/ 1988 ckESpfrSpí jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&;? wdkif;&if;om; pnf;vHk;nDñGwfrI rNydKuGJa&;? tcsKyftjcmtmPm wnfwhHcdkifNrJa&; qkdonfhtrsdK;om;a&; 0g'csrSwfvsuf ,if;trsdK;om;a&;0g'udk umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef twGufOya'jyKrI tmPm? pDrHcefYcGJr I(tkyfcsKyfa&;)tmPm? w&m;pD&ifrI tmPmrsm;usifhoHk;rnfjzpfaMumif; EdkifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&; tzGJU\ 27-7-90&ufpGJyg aMunmcsuf1^90 udkxkwfjyefí jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH\ tkycf sKyaf &;ukd wm0efvaJT jymif;,lcyhJ gonf/ þuJo h t Ydk yk cf sKyaf &;pepftrsKd ;rsKd ;jzift h yk cf sKycf &hJ mwGif 1948ckEpS rf S 1988 ckEpS t f xd jrefrmEkid if v H w G v f yfa&;&&SNd y;D aemufyidk ;f rSpí tpOftqufO;D aqmiftyk cf sKycf ahJ om or®wrsm; ESifh0efBuD;csKyfrsm;\tw¬KyÜwådtaMumif;rsm;ukdavhvmwifjyygonf/ olrsm;taMumif; avhvmí þpmwrf;rSazmfjycJhjcif;jzpfygonf/ xkdokdYavhvmwifjy&mwGif ouf&Sdxif&Sm; &Sdaomolrsm;jzpfaeygu ukd,fwkdif oGm;a&mufar;jref;íwifjyygonf/ xkdokdUtajctae ray;ygu rSwfwrf;rsm;t&aomfvnf;aumif;avhvmí wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ tw¬KyÜwådukd wifjy&mwGif acwfumvtapmqHk;jzpfonfh 1948 ckESpfrSpwifí acwfESifh pepftrsdK;rsdK;ukd ESpftpOfvkdufwm0ef,lxrf;aqmifcJhonfh yk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm;ukd tpOfvkduf avhvmpDpOf wifjyxm;ygonf/


n

&nf&G,fcsuf toufarG;0rf;ausmif;ynm&yftvku d x f ;l cReo f rl sm;? xifay:ausmMf um;olrsm;\ b0ukd &ke;f uefc&hJ yH?k Bu;D yGm;wk;d wufvm&yHw k o Ydk nf omrmefvw l b Ydk 0xuf pdw0f ifpm;zG,&f m yifjzpfonfudk awG&Y &dS ygonf/ ¤if;wkv Yd yk &f yfrsm;atmifjrifrrI sm;ukt d m;usjcif;? erlem,lvjdk cif; wkdYaMumifh þtw¬KyÜwådpmwrf;ukd a&;om;jzpfygonf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHwGif acwftqufqufwm0efxrf;aqmifcJhMuaom EkdifiHawmf tBuD;tuJrsm;ukd EkdifiHol^ EkdifiHom;rsm;taejzifh xm0pOf od&SdrSwfom;Ekdif ap&efomru twk,ltm;uszG,f&m rsm;ukv d nf; pHerlemxm;twk,v l u dk ef mMuap&efvnf; &nf&, G yf gonf/ EkdifiHawmftBuD;tuJrsm;\tw¬KyÜwådpmayrsm;ukd wpfOD;csif;wpfa,mufcsif; jzpfap? tzGUJ tpnf;vku d jf zpfap jyKpx k m;&Srd eI nf;yg;ojzifh jynfaxmifpjk refrmekid if o H rkid ;f ukd avhvmaeMuaom vli,frsm;? okawoDrsm;twGuf wpfaxmifw h pfae&mrS rSww f rf;rSw&f m wpfct k aejzifh wnf&adS eap&efvnf;&nf&, G yf gonf/ pmMunfw h u dk ½f aI xmift h aejzifv h nf; &nfñTef;trsdK;tpm;jzpfaom tw¬Kywåd tbd"mef(Biographical Dictionaries )uJhokdYaom EkdifiHawmftBuD;tuJrsm;\tw¬Kywådudk tw¬Kywådaygif;csKyftaejzifhwifjyxm;aom þpmwrf;onf aemiftcgtrsdK;om;tw¬Kywåd tbd"mef(Dictionary of National Biography)jyKpk & mwG i f wpf p d w f w pf a 'otaejzif h taxmuf t yH h j zpf a p&ef v nf ; &nf&, G yf gonf/ þpmwrf;onf tBuD;tuJrsm;\tw¬KyÜwådrsm;rSefuefwdusrI&Sdap&efESifh tBuD;tuJrsm;tay:rSefuefonfhoabmxm;rsm;ukd wwfEkdiforQ&SmazGpkaqmif;jcif;? qifjcifoHk;oyfjcif;jyKum tusOf;&Hk;íomwifjyEkdifygonf/ ,if;okdYwifjy&mwGif EkdifiHESifh trsKd ;om;a&;rSwpfyg; rnfonfh yk*Kd¾ vpf ?JG 0g'pGu J if;&Si;f pGmjzihf wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf/ tw¬Kywård nfaomusr;f rsm;onf &mZ0iforkid ;f \wpfpw d w f pfa'oyifjzpfí pmayavmu wGif tzk;d xku d w f efaom usr;f rsKd ;jzpfygonf/ Ekid if aH wmfwiG x f if&mS ;aom Ekid if aH &;? pD;yGm;a&;ESihf pmayqkdif&m? ppfrIppfa&;qkdif&m ponfhynm0ef;usift&yf&yfrS toD;oD;aomxl;cRef ajymifajrmufonfh yk*¾dKvfrsm;\taMumif;t&mrsm; aysmufuG,froGm;ap&eftwGuf þpmwrf;ukd jyKpjk cif;jzpfygonf/ þEkid if aH wmftBu;D tuJrsm;tw¬Kyw Ü pdå mwrf;onf pmayavhvmvku d pf m;olrsm; ESihf xl;cReaf omyk*Kd¾ vrf sm;taMumif;ukd raysmufrysuo f v d rdk w S o f m;xm;vkad om okawoDwYdk twGuf taxmuftyHhwpfck&ap&eftwGufvnf; &nf&G,fygonf/ pmayavhvmvkdol yk*Kd¾ vw f idk ;f onf tcsed u f ek cf í H pmESUH atmif wyifwyef; &SmazGavhvmjcif;rjyKEidk af omaMumifh


# tcsed o f ufompGmjzifh vG,v f ifw h ul wpfpw k pfpnf;wnf;avhvm odrw S cf iG &hf Murnf qkv d Qif þusrf;jyKpkoltzkdY auseyf0rf;ajrmufrnf jzpfygonf/ ,ckacwfuJhokdYaom owif;ESifh enf;ynmwk;d wufxeG ;f um;aeaomumvwGif tcsed u f v dk í k vkyu f idk af qmif&u G af eMu&aom umvü twdwf\tarGukd vufvSrf;rDSorQ&weforQpkaqmif;okdrSD; xdef;odrf;vkdolrsm; twGufvnf; &nf&G,fygonf/ þtw¬KyÜwådtusOf;pmwrf;onf EkdifiHawmftwGuf tkww f pfcsyo f zG,o f w H pfyiG yhf rm taxmuftyHjh yKEidk v f rd rf nf[k arQmv f ifyh gonf/


X

pmwrf;pDpOfyHkESifhtusHK;0ifrI 1948 ckEpS rf S 1988 ckEpS t f xd jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfwiG w f m0efxrf;aqmif cJMh uaom Ekid if aH wmfor®wESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\tw¬Kyw Ü pdå mwrf;ukd t"dutm;jzifh tykid ;f Bu;D (5)ykid ;f cGí J pDpOfwifjyxm;ygonf/ tykid ;f (1)wGif &nfp;l vTm? aus;Zl;wifvmT ? ed'gef;? jrefrmEkid if t H yk cf sKyaf &;orkid ;f &nf&, G cf su?f pmwrf;pDpOfyEkH iS hf tusKH ;0ifr?I toH;k jyKxm;aomoauFwESit hf wkt d rSwrf sm;? yHt k ñTe;f [lí u@(8)ckjzifh wifjyxm;ygonf/ tykid ;f (2)wGif u@(2)ckcí JG wifjyxm;&m yxru@wGif Ekid if aH wmfor®w(8)OD;\ tw¬KyÜwådtm;azmfjyxm;NyD; 'kwd,u@wGif EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf(5)OD;\tw¬KyÜwådukd wifjyxm;ygonf/ xko d w Ydk ifjy&mwGif Ekid if aH wmftBu;D tuJrsm;\"gwfyrkH sm;ukd wpfO;D csi;f pD\ a&SUwGif OD;pGmazmfjyay;xm;ygonf/ Ekid if aH wmf tBu;D tuJrsm;\tw¬Kyw Ü u då dk arG;ouú&mZft& Bu;D pOfrjyKpyk J pwifwm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nfh ouú&mZfpOft& pDíjyKpx k m;ygonf/ pmwrf;wGifyg0ifaom EkdifiHawmftBuD;tuJrsm;\tw¬KyÜwådukd wifjy&mwGif t"dutm;jzifh acgif;pOf(7)ckjzifh cGJjcm;wifjyxm;ygonf/ i,fpOfb0? ynmoifb0? 0efxrf;b0? EkdifiHa&;b0? *kPfjyKcsD;usL;cH&jcif;? jynfyc&D;rsm;ESifh rdom;pk [lí wifjyxm;ygonf/ tBu;D tuJrsm;\ wm0efxrfaqmifco hJ nfh acwfumvtay: rlwnfNy;D t"duacgif;pOf(1)ckpD\atmufwGif vkdtyfygu acgif;pOfcGJi,frsm;jzifh qufvufwifjy xm;ygonf/ Oyrm? OD;ae0if;taMumif; wifjy&mwGif EkdifiHa&;b0 ü ]]&JabmfoHk;usdyf}}? ]]*syefacwfwm0efxrf;aqmifr(I 1942-1945)}}? ]]vGwv f yfa&; acwfwiG Bf uKd ;yrf;rI(19451948)}} ponfjzifah o;pdww f ifjyxm;ygonf/ tykid ;f (3)wGif þpmwrf;\ ed*;kH ESit hf BujH yKo;kH oyfcsurf sm;ukd wifjyxm;ygonf/ qufvufí þusrf;jyKpk&mwGif &nfñTef;ukd;um;xm;aompmtkyfrsm;ukd usr;f uk;d pm&if;tjzpfwifjyxm;Ny;D ? azmfjy&eftvkt d yfonf[, k q l xm;aom tzGUJ tpnf;rsm; \trnfpm&if;rsm;?tBuD;tuJrsm;a&;cJhaompmtkyfpm&if;rsm;? uG,fvGefvNyD;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm;\ema&;aMumfjimrsm;ukd aemufqufwGJtaejzifhwifjyxm;ygonf/ pmwrf;\ aemufqHk;tykdif;wGif þpmwrf;wGifyg0ifaomtaMumif;t&mrsm;xJrS xif&Sm;onfh tcsut f vufrsm; tvG,w f ulzwf½UI Ekid &f ef pmMunfw h u dk yf nm&yfjzifh ynm&yftrsKd ;tpm; tvku d cf jGJ crf;pdwjf zmNy;D tu©&m0vd pDíwifjyxm;ygonf/


!

toHk;jyKxm;aomtwkdaumufoauFwESifhtrSwftom;rsm; 1/

unz

u&iftrsKd ;om;nDñw G af &;tzGUJ csKyf

2/

p

pwkwå

3/

qpwu

qk&d , S v f pfp;D yGm;a&;wnfaqmufraI umfrwD

4/

w

wwd,

5/

wuo

&efuek w f uúov dk af usmif;om;or*¾

6/

wvnp

ArmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f mawmifov l ,form;nDñw G af &; tpnf;t&Hk;

7/

'k

'kw, d

8/

eu&z

Ekid if aH wmfaumufyo J ;D ESaH &mif;0,fa&;tzGUJ

9/

y

yxr

10/

yxp

jynfaxmifpt k zGUJ

11/

yrnw

jynfot Yl rsKd ;om;nDñw G af &;wyfaygif;pk

12/

zqyv

zufqpfqefu Y siahf &;jynfov Yl w G v f yfa&;tzGUJ csKyf

13/

Auo

ArmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGUJ csKyf

14/

Awvp

ArmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f mawmifov l ,form;rsm;tpnf;t&H;k

15/

Aru

ArmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾(A[kXd mecsKy)f

16/

Avrp

ArmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f mvGwv f yfa&;trsKd ;orD;rsm;tpnf;t½H;k

17/

A[kv d tu

A[kv d NkH cKH a&;ESit hf yk cf sKyrf aI umfrwD

18/

r'nw

trsKd ;om;'Dru dk a&pDnñ D w G af &;wyfaygif;pk

19/

rvny

jrefrmEkid if t H vkyo f rm;nDñw G af &;ygwD

20/

&uo

&efuek cf ½kid af usmif;om;or*¾

21/

&wvp

&Sr;f jynfawmifov l ,form;rsm;tpnf;t½H;k

22/

&yvz

&Sr;f jynfe,fv;kH qkid &f mtzGUJ csKyf


¡ 23/

&rnw

&ckid jf ynftrsKd ;om;nDñw G af &;wyfaygif;pk

24/

K.I.A

Kachin Independence Army

25/

K.N.D.O

Karen National Defence Organization

26/

K.N.U

Karen National Union


P

yHkt単Tef; apmarmif? OD;

78

pef;,k? OODD ;

56

pdev f iG ?f OD;

66

pde0f if;? OD;

133

p0fa&Tou dk f

1

xGe;f wif? OD;? ol&-

147

Ek? OD;

99

ae0if;? OD;

28

bOD;? a'gufwm-

11

AaqG? OD;

120

armifarmif? a'gufwm -

71

0if;armif? ref;-

22

0if;armif? OD;

22

armifarmifc? OD;

141


tydkif;(2) jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfor®wrsm;ESihf 0efBuD;csKyfrsm;\tw¬KyÜwåd (1948-1988)


1

yHk (1) p0fa&Tou dk f (or速w) [ 1948 ckESpf ]


2

p0fa&Tou dk f (or® w ) (arG arG ; 16-10-1896 uG,fvGef 21-11-1962) 1/

i,fpOfb0

or®wBuD; p0fa&Tokdufonf anmifa&TNrdKUü tif;wdefNrdKUpm; tz p0fcsHK ? trd p0feef;wkdYrS 1896 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 16 &ufaeYwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf/ p0fa&Tokduf\ trnf&if; rSm p0fa&Tqkduf jzpfonf/ taMumif;rSm 4if;arG;zGm;csdefwGif &Srf;jynfanmifa&T a'o&Sd wefckd;BuD;bk&m;wpfqljzpfaom azmifawmfOD;apwDawmfjrwfBuD; yGJawmfusif;y aecku d jf zpfonf/ xkt d csed t f wGif r,fawmfp0feef;Bu;D onf rD;rzGm;Ekid yf 'J u k a© wGv Y su&f ydS rkH mS 0rf;wGif;&SdoaE¨om;onf bkef;BuD;oljzpfíom arG;zGm;& cufcJonf[k ,lqMuojzifh avmuD,Mwmtjzifh a&Tx;D rk;d ay;cJah omfvnf; rD;rzGm;Ekid yf jJ zpfaeonf/ rD;wxdex f ed t f ;dk pnf AkHarmif;oHwnHnHjzifh vSnfhvnfvmaomf azmifawmfBuD;onf uefawmfukd vuf,m&pf vSnfhum apwDawmfjrwfBuD;tm; uefawmhOD;wkduf qkdufrdcsdefwGif arG;zGm;cJhaomaMumifh p0fa&Tqu dk [ f k trnfrn S chf o hJ nf/ p0fa&Tou dk f [k qku d rf S oku d t f oHoYdk ajymif;vJac:cJah Mumif; od&Sd&ygonf/1 2/

ynmoifb0

&Sr;f tBu;D tuJrsm;\om;rsm;twGuf awmifBu;D wGif zGiv hf pS x f m;aomausmif;ü ynmoifMum;cJhonf/ 3/

trIxrf;b0

yxrurÇmppftwGi;f u Armhaoewfuidk w f yf&if;wGif 0ifa&muftrIxrf;cJo h nf/ xkt d csed u f p0fa&Tou dk o f nf vpm 9 usyf 4yJ rQom&cJNh y;D rMumrD t&mcHAv dk t f qift h xd xkd;jr§ifhjcif; cH&onf/ xkdtcsdeftwGif yxrurÇmppfBuD;onf ta&SUtm&SokdYyg ul;puf awmhrnfh tajctaejzpfae onf/ jrefrmEkdifiHonfvnf; NAdwdoQvufatmufcH Ekid if w H pfct k aejzifh rufpu D adk w;rD;,m;okYd jrefrmEkid if rH S ppfwyfrsm;yk&Yd ef pDpOfvsu&f o dS nf/ p0fa&Tokdufonfvnf; ppfrsufESmokdYcsDwuf&ef &efukefNrdKUü oabFmxGufrnfh&ufukd apmifah rQmv f su&f adS epOf 4if;tpDtpOfrS y,fzsujf cif;cH&Ny;D jrefrmEkid if H a&Tbpdk pfXmecsKyo f Ydk axmufvSrf;a&;t&m&Sdi,ftjzifh ajymif;a&TUjcif;cH&onf/ p0fa&Tokdufonf jrefrmjynf\ 1 pmayAdrmefr*¾Zif;? twGJ 1? trSwf 1? (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1952) pm 153-165/


3 ta&SUajrmufykdif;ppfXmecsKyfü 1920jynfhESpfrS 1923ckESpftxdaqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1929 wGif OD;&D;awmf qmapmarmifewf&GmpHí anmifa&Te,f\ apmfbGm;tjzifh wifajr§mufjcif; cH&Ny;D 1929 ckEpS ?f rwfv 8 &ufaeYwiG f todtrSwf jyKjcif;cH&onf/ e,foel ,fom;rsm;\ cspfMunfav;pmrI ukd cHcJh&onf/ þokdYya'o&mZfbk&if apmfbGm;&mxl; t½kduft&mukd qufcHNyD;onfh aemuf 1937 ckESpf? ZGefvwGif odEDéapmfbGm;\ESrawmf p0f[kefcef;tm; r[ma'0Dtjzifh wifajrm§ ufchJ onf/ p0fa&Tou dk o f nf ppfraI &;&mrsm;om pdw0f ifpm;onf r[kwf abmvk;H uefjcif;? a&;ul;jcif;? a[mfuD u&duwf½u dk jf cif; ponfrsm;tjyif awmvku d f ypfcwfjcif; ukdvnf;0goemygcJhonf/ yxrurÇmppfBuD; NyD;aomtcg ppfrIxrf;tjzpfrS tem;,lcJhonf/ 'kwd,urÇmppfjzpfcgeD; 1939 ckESpfwGif ppfrIxrf;aqmif&efjyefvnfac: aqmifcJhojzifh 1942 ckESpfxd ArmhwyfawmfwGif trIxrf;cJhonf/ 4/

EkdifiHa&;b0

or®wBu;D p0fa&Tou dk o f nf 1945 ckEpS w f iG f 'kw, d urÇmppfBu;D Ny;D qH;k aomftcg NAdwdoQe,fcsJUt&if;&SifwkdYvufatmuf rS vGwfajrmuf&ef AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;wkdYESifhtwl wkid ;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nDnw T af &;&&Sad tmif txl;BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ jrefrmEkid if t H m; vGwv f yfa&;ay;&mwGif awmifwef;om;rsm;\qE´ rnfo&Ydk o dS nfudk vufawGUavhvmpHpk rf; Ek d i f & ef t*F v d y f e ef ; &if ; 0ef r pö w mtuf w vD u 'k d r D e D , H t wG i f ; 0ef u av; rpö w m tmomabmhweG v f D 1 ukd azazmf0g&Dvqef;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHokdY vTwfvkdufonf/ xkYdaMumihf AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf c&D;a&mufrqkdufyif1947 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 12 &ufaeYwGif yif v H k n D v mcH B uD ; uk d taqmwvsif usif ; y&jyef o nf / xk d y if v H k n D v mcH N uD ; ok d Y t*Fvdyft&m&Sdrsm;? tar&dueft&m&Sdrsm;? ucsifESifh csif;ukd,fpm;vS,fawmfrsm;? e,f&iS af pmbGm;rsm;? usridk ;f rsm;? &Sr;f vlxu k , dk pf m;vS,af wmfrsm;tjyif ppfbuft&m&Srd sm; ponf w k d Y w uf a &muf c J h M uonf / xk d n D v mcH B uD ; onf wk d i f ; &if ; om;vl r sd K ;rsm;\ pnf;vHk;rItiftm;ukdtxl;xif&Sm;apaom nDvmcHBuD; yifjzpfonf/ xkdnDvmcHBuD;u awmifwef;a'orusef jrefrmwpfEidk if v H ;kH BuKd ;yrf;rIorkid ;f wGif trSww f & armfueG ;f wkid Bf u;D wpfck taejzifh owfrSwfum azazmf0g&Dv 12 &ufaeYukd ]] jynfaxmifpkaeY }}[lí EkdifiHawmftpkd;&u owfrSwfxm;cJhonf/ 1947 ckESpfwGif EkdifiHawmfzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'rlMurf; a&;qGJa&;aumfrwD 1

(u) (c)

Mr. A. G. Bottomley.

AkdvfrSL; baomif;(armifokw)? ArmhawmfvSefa&;orkdif;/ &efukef? t½kPfOD;pmay? 1967/ pm 337/


4 tzGUJ 0ifEiS hf Oya'jyKtzGUJ OuúXwm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 1947 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 1 &ufaeYwiG f jrefrmEkdifiHukd wkdif;jyK jynfjyKvTwfawmfzGifhvSpfaomtcg p0fa&Tokduftm;OuúXtjzpf wnDwnGwfwnf;wifajr§mufcJhMuonf/1 ESif;aqmif;onfh jymokdNyDNyDavxJwGif ESif;rIHuav;rsm;ysH0Jvsufavmu"mwf wcGiv f ;kH ukd tat;"gwfp;dk rk;d okid ;f NcKH vsu&f adS v&m/ þav;em&Dx;dk tcsed o f nf omreftcsed f onfjzpfygrl txl;udpör&Sdygu rnfolrqkd rdrdwkdYtdyf&mpufcef;wGif aEG;axG;pGm tdyfpufvsufaeMurnfrSefaomfvnf;? þwe*FaEGaeY eHeuf 4 em&DtcsdefwGifrl Ekid if w H pf0ef;vH;k &Sd tdrw f idk ;f ü tdrw f cH g;rsm;ukzd iG ahf omtoHrsm;/ tdro f m;csi;f [pfatmf ac:EI;d aeMuaom toHrsm;ukdMum;&onf/ rnfonfhtaMumif;xl;&SdaomaMumifh þokdYcsrf;at; vSaom t&kPfrwufrDtcsdefBuD;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHawmfol EkdifiHawmfom; taygif;wkdYonf vIyfvIyf&G&G xx<u<u jzpfaeMuygoenf;/ taMumif;um;xl;vSonf/ woufEiS w hf uk, d rf u q,foufEiS q hf ,fu, dk yf if BuHKawmif BuHKcJvSaomtaMumif;xl;BuD;wpfck&SdcJhygonf/ xkdtaMumif;xl;BuD;rSmum; þwe*FaEGaeYeeH uf 4 em&D rdepf 20 tcsed w f iG f olwyg;vufatmuf uReo f abmuftjzpf ES i f h tES p f 60-ausmf a evmcJ h a om jref r mvl r sd K ;onf tcsKyf t csmtmPmyk d i f vHk;0vGwfvyfaomvlrsdK;tjzpfokdYa&mufMuawmhrnf[laom taMumif;xl;BuD;aywnf;/ &kwfw&ufyDwdzHk;í tNyHK;BuD;NyHK;um 0rf;omvHk;qkdYaeMu&mrS owdukd qnfvkdufEkdifaom wcPwGif ]]vGwv f yfNy.D ..'kw Yd awGvw G v f yfNyD }} [kwpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D ½Tiv f ef; 0rf;ajrmufpmG ajymvkdufMuaom pum;oHrsm;rSm r*Fvm&SdvSayonf/ jrefrmEkdifiHawmfvGwfvyfa&;atmifyGJtcrf;tem;wGif yg0ifqifEGJ&eftwGuf? eHeuf 4 em&DtcsdefwGif wkdif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmfrsufESmpm&SdtvHwkdif\&ifjyifjrufcif;ü EkdifiHawmf,m,D or®wBuD; p0fa&Tokdufonf ukd,f&HawmfAkdvfrsm;jzpfMuaom ume,fjrifhodef;? ume,fxifpD? xkdYjyif twGif;0ef OD;a&Tabmf? tdrfawmf0ef OD;pHazwkdYESifhtwl<u a&mufvmNyD;onfhaemuf? ,m,Dtpdk;& 0efBuD;csKyf? ,m,DygvDref(wkdif;jyKjynfjyK vTwfawmf)OuúX/ ,m,Dtpdk;&0efBuD;rsm;ESifh [kdufukwfvTwfawmfw&m;0efBuD;csKyf? r[mrif;BuD;rsm;/ EkdifiHjcm;txl;oHwrefrsm;/ z-q-y-v trIaqmifvlBuD;rsm;? ,m,DygvDref(wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmf)trwfrsm;? ,m,DygvDref (wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmf) t&m&Srd sm;? wkid ;f rif;Bu;D rsm;? &mxl;0eftzGUJ OuúXESi&hf mxl;0efrsm;? tpk;d &XmetBu;D tuJrsm;? 1

armifaZ,sm? jrefrmvlausmf 100 yxrwGJ/ (&efukef? EG,feDpmay? 2002) pm 175-177/


5 twGif;0efrsm;? a'oEÅ&tzGJUukd,fpm;vS,frsm;? a&SUaea&SU&yfqkdif&mukd,f pm;vS,frsm;/ ukefonfBuD;toif;av;oif;rSukd,fpm;vS,frsm;/ aejynfawmf&mZ0wfw&m;olBuD;rsm; ausmapmudwåd&Sdaomtjcm;{nfhonfrsm; a&muf&Sdpk&Hk;vsuf&SdMuonf/ EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;onf taqmifta,mifESifh vTwfawmfqif0ifa&SUokdY xGuv f monfwiG f pnfawmfo&H yfpo J mG ;avonf/ or®wBu;D onfy;dk tjzLa&mifa&Tcsnx f ;dk abmif;ukd qif,ifvsuf ykd;okd&if;jzLESifh pum;0gEka&mifa&Tcsnfxkd; ykqkd;awmif&SnfwkdYukd oyfoyf&yf&yf cefYcefYnm;nm; qifjref;xm;cJhonf/1 ,m,Dor®wBuD; p0fa&Tokduf ukd,f,Hawmfrsm;OD;aqmifvsuf Munf;wyf? a&wyf? avwyf? aomif;usef;rI ESdrfESif;a&;wyf ESifh vufeufukdifykvdyftzGJUrsm;ukd wpfwyfNyD;wpfwyf vSnfhpm;½Ipm;avonf/ xkdtcsdefwGif u&iftrsdK;om;wyfu bifc&mwD;rIwfavonf/ ,m,DygvDref vTwfawmfa&SU&Sd tvHwkdifay:rS? NAdwdoQwkdY\ ,le, D *H sut f vHrmS eHeufcif;tcsed w f oHo k w kH u dk cf wfvsuf &Sad om aqmif;avat;aMumifh wzsyfzsyfvIyf&Sm;vsuf&Sdonf/ eHeuf 4em&D 19 rdepftcsdefwGif <ua&mufvmaom y&dwfowftm;vHk; NidrfoufpGmaeMu&ef rD;a&mifjyítcsufay;vkdufavonf/ eHeuf 4 em&D rdepf 20 wdwt d csed w f iG f &efuek jf rpfqyd u f rf;ü qku d u f yfaeaom bmrif[rf ppfoabFmBu;D rS tcgawmfMum;tajrmufrsm;ypfazmufvu dk o f nfEiS w hf NyKd ief uf u&ifbifc&mtzGUJ u xH;k pHtwkid ;f wD;rIwí f NAw d o d Qa&wyfAv dk w f pfO;D u NAw d o d Q,el , D *H suf tvHukd wjznf;jznf;qGJcsav onf/ xdktcsdefwGif t*Fvdyfbk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;rsm;rS acgif;avmif;oHrsm; oabFmOMoqGJoHrsm;? aoewfazmufoH? rD;tkd;-aAsmuftkd;oHrsm; wNrdKUvHk;NcdrfUNcdrfUtHk;rQ qlnHoGm;avonf/ rD;usnfrD;yef;rsm; vnf; aumif;uif,HwGif ½lrNiD;atmif xdefvif;aeayonf/ NAd w d o Q,l e D , H * suf t vH u k d csNyD ; onf E S i f h wNyd K if w nf ; Armh a &wyf r S m t&m&Sdapmcspfpdef\ vufwGif;rS jynfaxmifpkArmhtvHawmfBuD;onfxkd;xGufvsuf? wk d i f x d y f o k d Y w jznf ; jznf ; wuf o G m ;avonf / xk d t csd e f w G i f ppf w D ; 0k d i f ; rS trsdK;om;oDcsif;oHonf r*Fvmtaygif;ESifh NidrfYNidrfYav;av;ay: xGufvmonf/ tvH a wmf B uD ; onf wk d i f x d y f o k d Y a &muf o nf E S i f h wNyd K if e uf yk P Ö m ;awmf r sm;onf c&koif;rsm;ukd wD;rIwfumqkdif&mwyfzGJUtoD;oD;ESifh rif;y&dwfowf taygif;wkdYonf 1

jrefrmEkdifiH?jyefMum;a&;ESifhtoHvTifhXme jrefrmEkdifiHawmfvGwfvyfa&; atmifyGJ/ (&efukef? &efukefa*ZufvDrdwuf? 19 -) pm-4/


6 tvHawmfukd tav;jyKMuonf/ pnfawmfukdvnf; &Grf;vsuf&Sdonf/ þokdYjzifh anmifa&TapmbGm;BuD; p0fa&Tokdufonf 1948 ckeSpf Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYwGif vGwfvyfa&; &aomtcg jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;xJrS yxrqHk;aom jrefrmEkdifiHor®wBuD;tjzpf wifajr§mufjcif; cH&jcif;jzpfNyD;EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD; yxrqHk; opömqkdcsufrSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf]] uREkfyfp0fa&Tokdufonf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH\ zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'ukd wnfNraJ tmif xde;f odr;f í jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if \ H w&m;Oya'rsm;ukd apmifha&Smufygrnf/ uREkfyfonf zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya' ESiw hf uG w&m;Oya'wkEYd iS ahf vsmn f pD mG rdr\ d wm0ef0wå&m; rsm;ukd ,HkMunfav;jrwf ajzmifhrwfrSefuefpGmaqmif&Gufygrnf/ jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if H ab;&eftEÅ&m,f taygif;wku Yd dk wGe;f vSezf ,f&mS ; &ef BuD ; pG m aom owd 0 d & d , jzif h tm;xk w f y grnf / uREk f y f o nf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH\tusdK;iSm jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHtm; uREkfyf\toufESifh ukd,fukd tyfESif;onf[k av;eufwnfMunfpGm ausnmí uwdopömjyKonf/}}1 EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;\aMunmcsufwGif ]] jrefrmor®wEkid if aH wmfBu;D onf vGwv f yfaom wkid ;f jynfjzpfonfEiS hf tnD wpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D ESyd pf ufjcif;? wpfO;D ukw d pfO;D aMumuf&UT &H jcif;rSpí raumif;aom tavhqkd;rsm;ukd vHk;0y,fzsuf&ef uREkfyf&nf&G,fonf/ &mZ0ifwiG f a&S;tcgupí a&S;rif;rsm;\ tmPmpufaMumifh 'Ge;f p@m;? olawmif;pm;? bk&m;uRe?f ausmif;uRe?f oifcsD ponfwu Ydk dk ,aeYrpS í a&S;rif;wk\ Yd tmPmukd uREykf f y,fzsuí f xko d w l \ Ydk vkyu f idk Ef idk Mf uap[l í uREk f y f t rd e f Y c srS w f o nf / þjynf a xmif p k E k d i f i H a wmf twG i f ; &S d & S d o rQaom Ek d i f i H o m;rsm;onf zG J U pnf ; tk y f c sKyf y H k Oya'wG i f yg&So d nft h wkid ;f wpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D tcGit hf a&;wlnMD uap}}2[kyg&So d nf/ or®wBu;D p0fa&Tou dk v f ufxuf vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D jrefrmjynfwiG f zqyvtpd;k &

1

&JabmfvSrsdK;? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;0ifpmcsKyfpmwrf; rsm; rsm;/ (&efukef? vSrsdK;pmay? 1968) pm 294/ 2/ ,if; pm/


7 ukd jzKwcf sí Ekid if aH wmftmPmukd &,lvadk om ocifoef;xGe;f acgif;aqmifonfh uGejf rLepf ygwDonf zqyvtpk;d & &,lcahJ om vGwv f yfa&;onf tppfr[kw/f twkomjzpfonf[k pGypf í JG wku d cf u dk cf o hJ nf/ &uftenf;i,ftwGi;f rSmyif uGejf rLepfygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;onf vufeufpu JG idk yf ek u f ef awmhrnf[al om owif;uk&d &So d nfEiS w hf NyKd ief uf 1948 ckEpS ?f rwfv 28 &ufaeYeHeufwGif uGefjrLepfygwD0ifacgif;aqmifrsm;ukd zrf;qD;&ef ta&;,l&mwGif vGefcJhaom nuyif awmckdoGm;cJhaMumif;od&onf/1 uGefjrLepfygwD0ifwkdY awmckdoGm;NyD; aomtcg jynfolY&Jabmf wkdYu zqyvESifh uGefjrLepfwkdYukd aphpyfay;&ef BudK;pm;cJhonf/ uGefjrLepfwkdUonf olwkdYEkdifacs&Sdonf[k wGufqcJhMuonf/ jynfolY&Jabmf wkdYutpwGif aphpyfa&;ukad rQmv f ifMh uaomfvnf; zqyvuGejf rLepfrsm; vufeufuidk v f rf;pOfudk pGeNYf y;D rS om awGq Y akH qG;aEG; Ekid rf nf[k qko d nf/ tay;t,lrwnfyh J tmCmwjyif;xefaecsed w f iG f jynfolY&JabmfwkdYuGJí Akdvfzkd;uGef;? Akdvfxdef0if;ESifh AkdvfxGef;vif;wkdYacgif;aqmifaom &J a bmf j zLrsm;onf ZG e f v 26 &uf a eY w G i f awmck d M u onf / Ak d v f r S L ;atmif ? Akv d pf ed rf eS w f aYdk cgif;aqmifaom &Jabmf0gwkt Yd zGUJ onf zqyvESiu hf secf o hJ nf/2 o&ufNrKd UESihf r*Fvm'HkwGif toD;oD;wyfpGJaeonfh wyfrawmfwyf&if; 1 ESifh 3-rS uGefjrLepfwkdYESifh &JabmfjzLwkdY\ 0g'oabmxm;atmufü &kef;xGufír&aom wyfom;rsm;onf 1948 ckESpf? Mo*kwfvqef;wGif awmckdoGm;Mujyefonf/ vGwfvyfa&;&cgp jrefrmEkdifiHwGif a&mifpHkolykefrsm; qlyl aomif;usef;vmcJhojzifh wkdif;jynftajctaerSm twkdif;rodqkd;0g; vsuf&Sdonf/ txl;ojzifhaemufqHk; ü u&ifolykefwkdY\ aomif;usef;rI ay:aygufvm aomtcgwG i f wjynf v H k ; aoG ; acsmif ; pD ; avawmh o nf / Ek d i f i H j cm;owif ; pmrsm;u ]]&efukeftpkd;&}} [kac:a0:cH&avmufatmifyif (&efukefNrdKUteD;ywf0ef;usif rSwyg;) wwkid ;f jynfv;kH ukd a&mifpkH aomif;use;f olrsm;u odr;f yku d x f m;Ekid cf ahJ vonf/ 1948 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 19 &ufaeYnbufwiG f Ekid if aH wmf or®wBu;D onf jrefrmjynftajctaeqk;d okYd a&muf&adS eNyD jzpfaMumif;ESihf ta&;Bu;D aom raumif;qk;d 0g; b0a&mufaeNyjD zpfaMumif;ukd jrefrmjynftoHvTifhXmerSaeí aMunmcJhonf/3 or®wBuD; p0fa&Tokduf vufxufwGif tcuftcJrsm;pGmESihf &ifqidk cf &hJ onhMf um;rSyif 1948-1949 ckEpS rf sm;wGif a&mifpo kH yl ek w f Ydk 1

odef;azjrifh? awmfvSefa&;umv tawGUtBuHKrsm; rsm;/ 'k- Budrf? (&efukef? ,rkem pmay/ 1967)? pm 403/ 2 a'gufwmarmifarmif? jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efukef? yk*H pmtkyfwkduf? 1969)? pm 308/ 3 OD;jrifha0 (wyfrawmfjrifhoEÅm)? ArmhawmfvSefa&;tbd"mef/ (&efukef?py,fOD;? pmay? 1972)? pm 129/


8 onf tpkd;&ukdtikdufzrf;í NrdKU&Gmrsm;ukdodrf;NyD; qufum qufum atmifyGJcHEkdifcJh aomfvnf; 1950 ckESpfa&mufaomtcg wyfrawmf\xkd;ppfukd cHEkdifpGrf; r&Sdawmhay/ ,if;wkdYodrf;ykduf xm;cJhaom NrdKU?&Gmrsm;ukd wpfckNyD; wpfckvufvTwfcJh&onf/ 1951 ckESpfukefcgeD;wGif a&mifpHkolykefwkdY\ qlylaomif;usef;rI,kwfavsmhusqif;oGm;ojzifh EkdifiHawmf Nidrf;csrf;a&; onf pdwfat;zG,f&m jzpfvmcJhonf/ okdYaomf jynfyusL;ausmfrI udpw ö pf&yf ay:aygufvm jyefonf/ 1950 ckEpS ?f rwfv 1 &ufaeYwiG f autrfww D yfom; 17,000 cefYonf usdKif;wHka'owGif;okdY tvHk;t&if;jzifh 0ifa&muf vmMuonf/ 1951 ckESpf? arv 25 &ufaeY wGif twifh&Jvmaom autrfwDrsm;onf jrefrme,fpyf&Sd usLukwNf rKd Uukd wku d cf u dk zf suq f ;D cJMh u onf/1oHviG jf rpf\ ta&SUbufa'o&Sd rkid ;f qwfNrKd Uukd tcdkiftrm wyfpGJaeonf/ jynfaxmifpktpkd;&u ,if;wkdYtm; vufeufcs&ef(okdYr[kwf) azmfrkdqmokdYjyefykdYay;jcif;ukd oabmwl&ef &mZoHay;onfukd vufrcHcJhay/ xkdYaMumifh tpkd;&rS ukvor*¾okdYwkdifMum;í wzufwGif jrefrmwyfrawmfu ]]bk&ifhaemif}} ]]&efBuD;atmif}} ]]e*g;Ekdif}} ppfqifa&;rsm;jzifh autrfwDwkdYtm; acsrIef;wkdufckdufEkdifcJhNyD; or®wBuD; p0fa&Tokdufonf 1951 ckESpf? ZGefv 12 &ufaeYrSpwifNyD; ygvDref a&G;aumufyGJukdusif;yay;EkdifcJhonf/ or®wBuD;p0fa&Tokdufonf aA'ifynmukd t,HktMunfr&Sd twdwfedrdwf t,lonf;rIukd vnf; rBudKufay/ &ckdifjynfokdYwkdif;cef;vSnfh&ef tdrfawmfrSxGufcJhpOf ajreDukef;t0kdif;teD; ü ukd,f&Hawmfrsm;vkdufygcJhaom *spfum;arSmufojzifh ukd,f&Hawmf wpfOD; 'Pf&m&&SdcJhonf/ or®wBuD;onf ukd,fwkdifoGm;a&mufMunfh½INyD;aemuf r*Fvm'Hk avqdyo f Ydk c&D;qufco hJ nf/ wpfzef avqdyw f iG f av,mOfysx H u G rf nft h jyKwiG f av,mOfysH puftenf;i,fcRwf,Gif; aeojzifh &kwfw&ufwGufír& jzpfcJhjyefonf/ or®wBuD; p0fa&Tou dk o f nf edrw d t f wdwpf onfrsm;ukd r,HMk unfojl zpfojzifh c&D;pOfudk rzsucf ahJ Mumif; od&Sd&ygonf/ or®wBu;D onf bmoma&;uko d uf0if,MkH unfow l pfO;D jzpfNy;D Ekid if aH wmfor®Bu;D tjzpfESifhyif om;awmfrsm;tm;omoemabmifokdYoGwfoGif;csD;jr§ifhay; cJhonf/ or®wBuD; ukd,fykdifaiGjzifh yJcl;a&Tarma"mapwDawmfjrwfBuD;tm; 666 usyfwdwdESifh urÇmat; apwDawmfjrwfBuD; tm; 333 usyf vSL'gef;cJhonf/ jrefrmowif;q&mwpfOD;rS or®wtjzpf&aomvcESifhywfoufí ar;jref;&m 1

OD;oefY? jynfawmfomc&D;('kwd,ykdif;))/ (&efukef? jrefrmEkdifiHbm omjyefpmaytoif;? 1961) pm246-247/


9 ]] or®wtjzpf vc 7000 usy&f w,f? 'gayrJh 4 ESpMf umor®wvkyNf y;D vkYd pm&if;&Si;f vku d af wmh wpfjym;rSrpkaqmif; rdwt hJ jyif &Sr;f jynfu,lvm wJh 5 aomif;avmufyg ukefcef;wmukdawGU&w,f? bmawGukefrSef;vJ rodbl; 'DvkdbJ wwdwd b,fa&mufukef;rSef;rodbl; }} 1 [kajzMum;cJh ygonf/ 1952 ckEpS ?f rwfv 12 &ufaeYwiG f or®woufwrf;ukeq f ;kH aomtcg vlrsKd ;pk vTwaf wmfem,uBu;D tjzpf a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&onf/ 1959 ckEpS ?f atNyv D 29&uf aeYwGif tjcm;e,f&Sif p0fzvHkwkdYESifhtwl apmfbGm;qkdaom tmPmukdpGefYvTwfcJh&onf/2 5/

*kPfjyKcsD;usL;cH&jcif;

or®wBu;D p0fa&Tou dk o f nf trsKd ;bmom omoemynmwGif BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwrf I aMumifh t*¾r[moa&pnfolbGJUtjyif t*¾r[moD&dok"r®bGJUwHqdyfukdyg csD;jr§ifhjcif;cH& onf/ 6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

1929-30wGif t*Fvef? Oa&my? a[mifaumif? w½kwfEkdifiHokdY oGm;a&muf cJo h nf/1947ckEpS w f iG f tJvZD Aufrif;orD;\ vufxyfyt JG crf;tem;okYd r[ma'0DEiS t hf wl oGm;a&mufco hJ nf/ 1931 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmvwGif t*Fvefü usi;f yonfh jrefrmjynftwGuf oD;jcm;rsuEf mS pHn k D tpnf;ta0;okYd wufa&mufonfu h , dk pf m;vS,f 23 OD;wGif wpfO;D tyg t0ifjzpfonf/ 1958 ckESpf? arv 22 &ufaeYwGif w&kwfokdYoGm;cJhonf/ 1960jynfhESpf? Mo*kwfvwGif jrefrmhcspfMunfa&;tzGJUukd acgif;aqmifí csufukdpvkdAufuD;,m;EkdifiH okdYoGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 7/

rdom;pk

1937 ckESpf? ZGefvwGif ajrmufodefeDapmfbGm;\ESrawmf p0f[kef;crf; ESifh vufxyfcNhJ y;D OD;,l*si;f oku d (f c) p0faq;0kid (f c)p0fqv dk efz tygt0if om;orD; (11)a,muf 1

pmayAdrmefr*¾Zif;? twGJ 1? trSwf 1? (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1952) pm 153-165/ 2 a&TOMo? wpfcsdefuxif&Sm;cJhaomacgif;aqmifBuD;rsm; rsm;/ 'kBudrf? ( &efukef? 0if;jrifhatmifpmay? 1997) pm 51-53/


10 xGef;um;cJhonf/ om;awmftBuD;qkH; p0fpHzonf t*Fvefjynfbk&ifhwuúokdvf ? urf;b&pfcsfuifwm&D wuúokdvfwkdUrS ynmoifcJhonf/ 4if;\nDawmfp0fpHtkef;uvnf; uif;b&pfcsEiS hf x&de'd uf wuúov dk rf S ynmoifMum;cJMh uonf/ om;awmfBu;D p0fpzH onf anmifa&Te,fawmftm; tkyfcsKyfae&mrS tcGifh,lí t*Fvefjynfü tem;,laecJhonf/ om;awmfp0fpt H ek ;f onf anmifa&Te,f\ pku d yf sKd ;a&;t&m&St d jzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ orD;awmfp0fpH'g;onf t*Fvefjynf urf;b&pfcsfwuúokdvfü ynmoifcJh onf/ jrefrmjynfwGif or®wBuD;ESifh twlaecJhaomom;orD;rsm;rSm -p0fqkdcHz? p0fqkdvkHz? p0feef;&if&if? p0feef;a[rm? p0frnfrnf? p0fjynf;jynf;? p0feef;,if;,if; wkdYjzpfMuonf/ or®wBu;D p0fa&Tou dk o f nf 1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv 2 &ufaeYawmfveS af &;aumifpt D yk cf sKyaf &; vTJajymif;,lNyD;aemuf xkdESpf Ekd0ifbmv 21 &ufaeYwGif uG,fvGefcJhonf/trSwf(74)? urÇmat; bk&m;vrf;? &efukefwGif aexkdifcJhaMumif;od&Sd&ygonf/


11

yHk (2) a'gufwm bOD; (or速w) [ 1952 ckESpf ]


12

a'gwfwmbOD; (or®w) (arG arG; --26-5-1887 uG,f 9-11-1963 ) i,fpOfb0 or®wBu;D a'gufwmOD;bOD;onf 1887ckEpS ?f arv 26 &ufaeYwiG f ykord Nf rKd Uü arG;zGm;cJo h nf/ bk;d ab;rsm;onf rif;rsKd ;rif;EG,rf sm;jzpfaMumif; or®wBu;D uk, d w f idk af &;aom My Burma pmtkyw f iG f &Si;f vif;azmfjyxm;onfuadk wG&Y &dS ygonf/ 1zcifrmS ta&;ydik f OD;bd;k vS (pD-tdik -f tD;? au-tuf? trf-at)jzpfNy;D rdcifrmS a':ñGejYf zpfonf/ a'gufwmOD;bOD;onf om;tBu;D qk;H jzpfonf/ ynmoifb0 2/ armifbOD;\zcifonf NrKd Utkyjf zpfojzifh wm0eft& a'owpfcrk S aemufa'o wpfckokdY ajymif;a&TUtrIxrf;aqmif&oljzpfonf/ i,fpOfu ykodrfNrdKU t*Fvdyf-jrefrm ESpb f momoif ausmif;wGif pmoifc&hJ onf/ xdrk w S pfqifh armifbOD; 9 ESpo f m;t&G,w f iG f zciftrIxrf;aqmif&m rtlyifNrdKU&Sd t*Fvdyf-jrefrmESpfbmomoif tpkd;&tv,fwef; ausmif;wGif wufc&hJ jyefonf/ 9-vcefMY umaomtcg zcif uomNrKd UokYd ajymif;&jyefonf/ xkaYd Mumifh armifbOD;ESin hf jD zpfol armifbBuL;ukd rdcifbufrS bk;d bGm;rsm;jzpfaom OD;qdwEf iS hf a':&dyfxHtyfESHí ynmoifMum;apygonf/ armifbOD;wkdY nDtpfukdtm; atbDtrf (tar&duefrufo'pf omoejyK)tv,fwef;ausmif;ü yxrwef;rS pwifwufa&mufc&hJ onf/ armifbOD;onf atbDtrfausmif;aepOfwiG f xl;qef;aom tdrrf ufrsm;ukrd ufco hJ nf/ yxrtywf aomMumaeYnwGif ]]aumif;uif,rH S aerif;Bu;D xdev f if;pGm xGef;awmufaeonf[k rufcJhonf/}} 'kwd,aomMumaeYnwGif ]]vrif ; BuD ; xd e f x d e f o maeonf u k d j rif o nf [ k vnf ; aumif ; ? wwd,aomMumaeYnwGif Mu,fawGay:vmonf[kvnf;aumif;? pwkw¬aeYnwGif pGeftjrifhBuD;vTifh&m tjcm;pGefrsm;u armifbOD;\ pGefBudK;em;ywfvnfwGif 0kdif;vsuf OD;ckdufaeoa,mif awGY&onf[k vnf;aumif;? yOöraeYnwGif armifbOD;onf vlom;pm;NyD; ykodrfNrdKU tdraf cgifr;dk rsm;ay: avQmufyso H ef;onf[í l vnf;aumif;}}2 1/

1

U Ba U. My Burma : The Autobiography of a President. (USA:

Taplinger Publishing Co,Inc.,1958). p. 1-5. 2

U Ba U. My Burma : The Autobiography of a President.p. 12.


13 tdrfrufrsm; rufcJhygonf/ tdrfrufrsm;taMumif;ukd tbdk;jzpfol OD;qdwt f m;ajymjycJ&h m tbk;d jzpforl S ]]ighajr;? om;wpfaeY vlBu;D wpfa,ufjzpfvrd Uf r,f? bmjzpfr,fqw dk mawmh tbkd;rodbl;? tbdk;wkdYwpfawG vGwfvGwfvyfvyfae&NyDqkd&ifawmh rif;wpfaeY Ekid if ahH cgif;aqmifjzpfvrd rYf ,f/ 'gayrJh tckorl sm;vufatmuf jzpfaeawmh 'DvkdawmhrajymEkdifao;bl;/ tdrfrufawG taMumif;ukd tjcm;olawGukd oGm;rajym aveJY}} 1 [k rSmMum;cJhygonf/ xkt d csed rf pS í armifbOD;onf a&SUaeESiw hf &m;olBu;D jzpf&rnf[k oEéXd mefcsrw S cf hJ onf/ armifbOD;owårwef; atmifjrif aomtcg ykodrftpkd;&txufwef;ausmif;okdY ajymif;cJh&onf/ xkdrSwpfqifh rdbrsm;onf armifbOD;wkdYnDtpfukdtm; &efukefNrdKU aq;&HBk u;D ESirhf suEf mS csi;f qkid f aumfr&Sief m;vrf; (Akv d cf sKyf vrf;)ay:wGi&f adS om tpk;d &aumvdyf ausmif;okdYykdYcJhonf/ armifbOD;onf ausmif;pmukd pdwfrygawmhbJ 0wfvHkjzpfvkdaom qE´jzpfvmcJo h nf/ xkaYd Mumifh bdvyfoyYdk aYdk y;&ef rdbrsm;tm; awmif;yefco hJ nf/ zcifjzpforl S &mxl;wufvQiyf aYdk yrnf[k uwdjyKco hJ nf/ zcif\t&nftcsi;f uko d ad om armifbOD;onf bdvyfokdYynmoifoGm;&ef jyifqifcJhawmh onf/ rpöpf[ife&D0k'f 2? *kdifbkofbD 3 ? tmomukdeef'GdKif;vf 4 ? uyÜwdefrm;,uf 5 ponfhpma&; q&mrsm;a&;aom 0w¬rsm;ukd pwifavhvmzwf½cI o hJ nf/ we*FaEGaeYwidk ;f Ak'b ¨ mom uvsmP,k0toif;rS OD;pD;usi;f y aom aumvdypf um;&nfvyk rJG sm;ukv d nf; wufa&mufco hJ nf/ toif;\aMunm xm;aom OD;wnfcsufrSm bmoma&;avhvmrIukdjr§ifhwif&ef jzpfaomfvnf; a&G;cs,faomacgif;pOf trsm;pkrSm vlrIa&;? EkdifiHa&;rsm;jzpfaMumif; od&onf/ xdkYaemuf &efukef aumvdyfodkY wufa&mufí wuúodkvfynmrsm;udk oif,lcJhonf/ 1907ckESpf pufwifbmv wGif t*Fvefjynf urf;b&pfcsw f uúov kd 6f okYd ynmoGm;a&mufoif,cl o hJ nf/ a&aMumif;c&D;jzifh xGucf mG cJ&h m ukv d rfb?dk at'if? ykq Yd ufwjYdk zwfoef;cJ&h onf/ *sb D a&mfvw f m a&vufMum;ukd jzwfNy;D aemufwpfaeYwiG f wif;(rf)jrpfx0J ifco hJ nf/ wDvb f m&DrS vef'efoYdk &xm;jzifo h mG ;í 1

U Ba U. My Burma : The Autobiography of a President. p. 13.

2

Mrs. Henry Wood

3

Guy Boothby

4

Arthur Conan Dayle

5

Captain Marryat

6

University of Cambridge


14 xkrd S ajratmuf&xm;ajymif;pD;cJo h nf/ qGpaf umhww d cf sb f w l m&Hak &mufaom tcg qif;Ny;D bwfpum;pD;cJhMuonf/ *dk;vf[mpfwJa&pfxdyfü qif;NyD; ¤if;\oli,fcsif; armifwif tdrfokdYvrf;avQmufcJhonf/ vef'efa&mufNyD; oHk;ywfcefYtMumwGif 0wfvHkausmif; taMumif;pHkprf;&ef bwfpfum;pD;íxGufcJhonf/ trsdK;orD;wpfa,muf &yfaevQif ae&m z,fay;&rnf[al om ¤if;\oli,fcsi;f armifwifpum;ukd owd&um ae&may;&ef xvku d pf Of wGif rdef;uav;rSm &SufaoG;jzmNyD; acgif;&rf;cJhonf/ aemufwpfBudrfxyfajymaomfvnf; jiif;qefaeojzifh c&D;onfonfrsm;rS avSmifovk0d idk ;f &,fMuojzifh bmvkyrf eS ;f rodatmif t&Suf&cJh&onfhjzpfpOfESifh BuHKcJh&onf/ zcif\rdwfaqGjzpfol a'gufwm AkdtJv,fum1 xHoo Ydk mG ;vnfc&hJ m npm pmNy;D pum;0kid ;f zGUJ MupOf tdr&f iS \ f uav;wpfO;D rS cifAsm;wkt Yd m;vH;k ]]vlom;pm;Muovm;}}[k &kww f &uf ar;vku d af omtcg tMu&H cufum pdw"f gwfusomG ;cJh onf/ armifbOD;onf uav;rS rdrdwkdYvlrsdK;tm; tmz&duefrsm;ESifh wpfwef;pm;wnf; xm;&rnfvm;[k pdwrf aumif;jzpfco hJ nf/ q&m0ef\ZeD;u tar;&kid ;f rSe;f odojzifh jrefrmawG vlom;rpm;aMumif;? olwu Ydk o hJ yYdk if tifrwef,Ofaus;aMumif;? tmz&duefrsm;yif vlom;rpm; awmhaMumif; 0ifajymay;cJ&h m armifbOD;rSvnf; jrefrmorkid ;f ESiahf b;awmf? bk;d awmfb&k ifrsm; taMumif;rsm;taMumif;ukd uav;tm;&Si;f jyay;cJah Mumif;od&onf/ urf;b&pfcsf a&mufae onfrmS wpfveD;yg;&Sad omfvnf; rnfonfah umvdyrf S rwufEidk cf ahJ y/ uHaumif; axmufrpGm yif xifew D aD [m(vf)(0g) a,½Iaumvdyo f Ydk 0ifciG &hf &Scd o hJ nf/ urf;b&pfcso f Ydk jyefvmcJo h nf/ jyefa&mufvQif *&if;vrf;&Sd oH;k xyftrd w f pfv;kH tay:xyfü tcef;&&Scd o hJ nf/ wpfaeYwiG f vSJvsuf wkdif;jynfESifhvlrsdK;taMumif;pOf;pm;&if; at'D 10 &mpk? 11 &mpk? xkdYaemuf 18 &mpk? 19 &mpkO;D qDu ta&SUwpfvmT ;wGif jrefrmwkt Yd qift h wef;ukd *syefEiS Ehf idI ;f ,SOMf unfch hJ onf/ xkdpOfu ta&SUawmiftm&SwGif xdyfqHk;uaecJhNyD; tdrfeD;csif; w&kwfjynfBuD;ukdyif tefwEk idk cf o hJ nf/ xkt d ajctaerS wjznf;jznf; qkw, f w k v f mNy;D tqH;k ü wkid ;f wpfyg;zdEydS rf I atmufoaYdk &mufc&hJ onf/ vlx?k txl;ojzifh acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm trsm;aumif;pm;a&;xuf yk*Kd¾ vaf &; MoZmBu;D rIudk ykpd Of;pm;cJMh uonf/ jrefrmwkb Yd 0rSm tdE, ´d ESihf rsm;pGmqifwcl o hJ nf/ bkef;rD;aevrkd;xdyfü xGef;yNyD;aemuf vlYtzGJUtpnf;rSm NydKusysufpD;cJh&onf/ okdYaomf opöm&So d m;aumif;wpfprk mS trdajrukd NAw d o d Qxrf;yk;d atmuf &ke;f xGuí f rlvtaetxm;okYd jyefvnfa&muf&Sdatmif BuHaqmifaeMuaMumif; awGUEkdifonf/ xkdtkyfpkukd b*Fvm;rS ql&efN'meofbem*sD (aemif qmql&efN'm) ESihf yef*syrf S vm;vf&m*sm yGw&f idk ;f wkrYd S OD;aqmifonf/ *kad c;vftrSL;jyKaom rZdÑr0g'Drsm;uvnf; uk, d ehf nf; uk, d [ hf efEiS hf wkid ;f jynftyk cf sKyaf &;wGif 1

Dr. Voelker


15 0ifa&mufcs,fvS,fEkdifatmif MuHaqmifaeMuonf/}} tdE´d,vlrsdK; awGawmif vkyfEkdif&if igwkaYd um bmaMumifrh &Ekid &f rSmvJ? uk, d w hf idk ;f jynfvw G af jrmufzt Ydk wGuf pGeUf vTwt f epfemcHzYdk toifh\&Sdr,fh jrefrmvli,fwpfpk &Sd&r,f/ bdvyfrSm&SdwJh jrefrm ausmif;om;awGukd h nf/ xko d BYdkupH nfxm;onfh twkid ;f Ekid if aH &;pdw0f ifpm;vmatmif vky&f if&Ekid w f ,f}}1[kawG;cJo bm;rm;-urf;b&pfcsw f uúov dk u f vyfatmifjrifatmif pwifBuKd ;pm;cJo h nf/ xkpd Ofu opöm&Sd &k;d ajzmifo h t l jzpf &yfwnfcahJ om bk&ifraumvdyrf S t*Fvyd w f pfa,mufu ulnt D m;ay;cJh onf/ bm;rm;-urf;b&pfcsw f uúov dk u f vyftwGuf jrefrmausmif;om;rsm; wkid ;f a&;jynfa&; pdw0f ifpm;vmatmif vHUI aqmfay;Ekid o f nfh acgif;pOfrsm;ukd a&G;cs,cf o hJ nf/ Oyrm- ]]or®wpepf u bk&ifpepfxuf ykdaumif;onf}}? ]]jrefrmjynfwGif bdef;ukeful;jcif;onf vlxk\ use;f rma&;ESiu hf , dk u f siw fh &m;ukd ysujf ym;aponf}}? ]]wkid ;f jynfwpfjynfu tjcm;wkid ;f jynf wpfjynfudk uRejf yKtyk pf ;dk jcif;onf usi0hf wft&a&m Oya'taMumif;t&yg ravsmu f efay}} ponfwjYdk zpfonf/ jrefrmausmif;om;rsm; wkid ;f jynftajctaeESihf olwb Ydk 0tqift h wef;ukd *syef? w&kwf? ,kd;',m;ausmif;om;rsm; tajctaeESifhwjznf;jznf; EIdif;,SOfoHk;oyfpjyK vmMuí a[majymrIrsm;atmifjrifonf[k qk&d rnf/ *syef? w&kwEf iS hf ,k;d ',m;ausmif;om; rsm;rSm wef;wl&nfwl tqufqHcH&aomfvnf; jrefrmausmif;om;rsm;rSmrl ajymifajymif wif;wif; tapmfum;rcH&vQiyf if awmfvNS y[ D k atmift h nf;onf;cHc&hJ aMumif; od&&dS ygonf/ urf;b&pfcsfrSm tdE´d,ausmif;om;trsm;BuD;aomfvnf; raygif;oif;cJhyg/ tcsdKUrSm tcsif;csif;axmufvSrf;&ef tdE´d,oH&Hk;rS ay;xm;aMumif;ESifh vef'ef&Sd tdE´d,rsdK;cspf ausmif ; om;rsm;uk d t,f v f a &mf b if q if2 rS w pf q if h quf o G , f z k d Y Bud K ;pm;cJ h o nf / ]]qmumZke0f idk v f }D }3 ukv d yk Bf ucH cH &hJ Ny;D aemuf tdE, d´ ESihf jrefrmausmif;om;rsm;ukd wif;wif; usyu f syf apmihMf unfah ejcif;cHc&hJ onf/ armifbOD;tm;vnf; tdE, d´ &H;k rS ykeu f efr?I qefu Y sirf I (0g) tH<k uatmif rD;xk;d olwpfa,muf[k oHo,&Sad ecJo h nf/ wpfBurd w f iG f ypfu,f',fvD qufuyfoYdk bwfpu f m;jzifo h mG ;&m axmufvrS ;f a&;wpfa,muf aemufrS uyfvu dk v f maMumif; od&onf/ xkpd Of zcifvnf; iokid ;f acsmif;rS ZD;uke;f okaYd jymif;&Ny;D bdvyfwiG f armifbOD;onf rdrd Ekid if aH &;vkyaf eí tpk;d &u zciftm; zdt h m;ay;aeonf[k oHo,&Scd o hJ nf/ xkaYd Mumifh Ekid if aH &;ESirhf ywfoufatmifaeNy;D jrefrmjynftjyefwiG f BuKH awGU&rnf[ h k arQmv f ifx h m;aom tcuftcJrsm;twGuf jyifqifxm;&efq;kH jzwfco hJ nf/ xkpd w d u f ;l ESihf yifrbmom&yfjzpfaom 1

jALwDr*¾Zif;? Beauty Magazine? twGJ 6? trSwf 73 (rwf 2006) pm 116/

2

L. Robinson

3

Sir. Curzon Wylie


16 Oya'ukd odyt f av;rxm;bJ Ekid if aH &;ESio hf rkid ;f ukd pwifzwfco hJ nf/ armifbOD; aMumifMh u ae&jcif;wpfcsufonf aiGjzpfonf/ zcif\vconf enf;enf;ESifh pm;tkd;u BuD;vSonf/ wpfrdom;pkvHk; a>cwmpGmoHk;pGJ&if; armifbOD;twGuf wpfvvQif aygif 20 ykdY&onf/ xkdYaMumifhausmif;wuf&iftykd0ifaiG&&Sd&ef pdwful;cJhonf/ ausmif;ydwf&ufwGif vef'ef&Sd *wf0pf1 jrif;yGJokdYíupm;&m aygif 40 avmufEkdifcJhonf/ aEGausmif;ydwf&ufwGif enf;jyrpöwm&SJ&yfp2f ESit hf wl 0Iu d af emhwvD3oko Yd mG ;cJo h nf/ wpfnwGif npmpm;Ny;D aemuf bmrupm;bJ cGifhawmif;um tdrfeHab;u ocFsdKif;xJxGufcJhonf/ armifbOD;onf vrf;avQmuf&if; vGwfvyfa&;qHk;cJh&onfh taMumif;w&m;rsm;ukd awG;cJhonf/ tqHk;ü taMumif;ESpfcsufukd aumufcsufcscJhonf/ ]]rnDñGwfrIESifh rif;pkd;&mZmavmu\ usi0fh wfazmufjyefrw I yYdk ifwnf;/ rif;aoG;ygaom rif;om;wkid ;f rSm xD;arGeef;&m wku d &f u dk f qufccH iG hf &S&d dS r&S&d dS aemufvu dk Af v dk yf g&Sv d Qif &Zmyv’iu f dk rSe;f wwfMuonf/ tusKd ;qufum rif;om;wkdif; vufeufvlolukd,fpDukd,fiSESifh &Sifbk&ifukd eef;cszkdY BuHpnfMuawmhonf/ jynfwiG ;f ppf rMucPjzpfwwfí wkid ;f jynfum; 0g;tpnf;ajy&Sv d o S nf/ qk;d Mur m® wk;d zkUd &m zefvmonfu ,ckacwftjriftm;jzifh tkycf sKyaf &;pepfaumif;r&Sjd cif; yifjzpfonf/ NrKd U0efrpS í rnfonfhrif;rIxrf;rS yHkaovpmr&ay/ tcGeftwkwfaumufí &yfwnfMuonf/ }}4 or®wBuD;onf tdyf&m0ifaomfvnf; wkdif;a&;jynfa&;pOf;pm;cef;0if&if tdyfraysmfEkdif jzpfco hJ nf/ 1912 ckEpS w f iG f urf;A&pfcsw f uúov dk rf S r[m0dZmÆ bJUG ukd &&Scd NhJ y;D xkEd pS af rvwGif vef'efoYdk oGm;cJo h nf/ ¤if;ESpw f iG yf if 0wfvjkH zpfcsiaf omfvnf; wpfbmomwnf; atmifojzifh useEf pS b f mom qufajzcJ&h onf/ 1913ckEpS w f iG f 0wfvpHk mar;yJu G kd atmifjrifco hJ nf/5 0efxrf;b0 3/ 0wfvHkbGJU,lNyD;aemuf jyifopf? qGpfZmvef? tDwvD? tD*spfEkdifiHrsm;rSjzwfí jrefrmEkdifiHokdYjyefcJhonf/ oHk;ywfcefYtMumwGif &efukefNrdKUokdYjyefvnfa&muf&SdcJhonf/ &efuek t f a&mufwiG f zcif\tbk;d ? nDi,farmifbBuL;ESit hf jcm;nDwpfa,muf qH;k aMumif; 1

Gatwick

2

Mr. Shirres

3

White Notley

4

jALwDr*¾Zif; ; Beauty Magazine? twGJ 6? trSwf 77 (Zlvkdifv 2006) pm 164/ 5

a&TOMo? wpfcsdefuxif&Sm;cJhaomyk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm; (&efuek ?f a&Tord o f m; yef;csED iS phf may? 1986) pm 164-167/


17 od&cdS &hJ onf/ &efuek üf oH;k &ufcefaY eNy;D aemuf rdbrsm;&S&d m ykord Nf rKd UokYd &xm;jzifh c&D;xGucf hJ onf/ rdbrsm;tm; &efukefjyefí a&SUaevkdufvkdaMumif;wkdufwGef;cJh&m zcifrS oabmwl aomfvnf; ykodrfwGif vkyfapcsifcJhonf/ a'gufwmOD;bOD;onf 1922ckESpf? {NyDvwGif &efuek Nf rKd Uü tpd;k &trIvu kd af &SUae tjzpf 0ifa&mufxrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ xdEk pS f 'DZifbmvwGif zsmykcH &dik f (,ck-{&m0wDwikd ;f ) puf&iS w f &m;olBu;D tjzpf aqmif&u G cf NhJ y;D xdrk w S pfqifh awmifi?l rtlyif? rauG;? ajrmif;jrc&dik f rsm;wGif c&dik pf uf&iS f w&m;olBu;D tjzpf aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ ,if;aemuf 1930jynhEf pS ?f azazmf0g&DvwGif w&m;vTwaf wmf? w&m;0efBu;D tjzpf cefYtyfjcif;cH&onf/ xdkESpf pufwifbmvwGif &efukefc&dkif? puf&Sifw&m;olBuD;tjzpf vnf;aumif;? Ed0k ifbmvwGif tif;pdecf &dik f puf&iS w f &m;olBu;D tjzpf vnf;aumif; ceft Y yfjcif; cH&onf/ xdEk pS rf sm;onf awmifov l ,form;ta&;tcif;rsm;jzpfí q&mpHEiS hf taygif;tyg awmfveS af &;orm;rsm; x<uaomESprf sm; jzpfonf/ 1931ckEpS w f iG f ppfaq;a&;txl;ck&H ;Hk tzJUG 0iftjzpf ceft Y yfjcif;cH&Ny;D 1932ckEpS ?f {Nyv D txd? tif;pdef jynf? o&uf c&dik rf sm;\puf&iS w f &m;olBu;D ESihf txl;w&m;olBu;D tjzpf cefYtyfjcif;cH&jyefonf/ 1932ckESpf? {NyDvwGif w&m;vTwfawmf w&m;0efBuD;tjzpf tNrw J rf;wd;k jri§ chf efx Y m;jcif; cH&onf/ ,if;&mxl;onf 'kw, d urÇmppfjzpfonftxd jzpfonf/ Ek d i f i H a &;b0 4/ a'gufwmOD;bOD;onf w&m;0efBuD;tjzpf aqmif&GufaepOf 1937ckESpfwGif a&G;aumufyq GJ ikd &f m txl;ck&H ;Hk OuúXtjzpf aqmif&u G cf &hJ onf/ 1942 ckEpS w f iG f *syefwrYdk S tkycf sKyaf &;u@wGif w&m;a&;bufrS 0ifa&mufwm0ef,x l rf;aqmif&ef urf;vSr;f cJo h nf/ a'gufwmbOD;onf *syefwkdYurf;vSrf;csufukd jiif;y,fcJh&m *syefrsm;u zdhtm;ay;ojzifh wm0efxrf;aqmifcahJ Mumif; awG&Y &dS ygonf/ ,if;aemuf t"dywd a'gufwmbarmf tpd;k & vufxufwiG f w&m;vTwaf wmfcsKyw f &m;0efBu;D tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ t*Fvyd f wkYd jrefrmEkid if t H m;jyefvnf 0ifa&mufcsed f 1945 ckEpS ?f {Nyw D iG f &efuek Nf rKd Utkycf sKyaf &;tzGUJ wGif tzGUJ 0iftjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/1 1945 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 20 &ufaeYwiG f e,fcsUJ wko Yd nf &efukefjrpf twGif;&Sd urf;bmvif;2 ppfoabFmay:okdYzdwfac:í puúLjzLpmwrf;yg tcsut f vufrsm;ukd jrefrmwkv Yd ufcaH tmifpnf;&H;k cJo h nf/ aqG;aEG;yGw J iG f jrefrmwkb Yd ufrS

1

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jref r mEk d i f i H a &;c&D ; ES i f h A k d v f c sKyf B uD ; ae0if ; (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969) pm- 243/ 2

Cumberland


18 Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf twl a'gufwmbOD;vnf; wufa&mufco hJ nf/1 1947 ckEpS ?f arv 26 &ufaeYwiG f touf 60 jynf&h m Oya'ESix hf ;kH wrf;t& tNird ;f pm;,l&efjzpf aomfvnf; bk&ifcq H m[l;bwf&efu Y qmbOD;tm; wpfEpS o f ufwrf;wk;d ay;cJo h nf/2 ppfNyD;aomtcgrSpí vGwfvyfa&;r&rDpyfMum; 1948ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 3 &ufaeYtxd vuf&dSw&m;vTwfawmf w&m;0efBuD;tjzpf qufvufwm0ef,laqmif&GufcJh &onf/ jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;r&rD uav;wGif NAdwd,Qtpdk;&wdkYu ]qm}bJGUjzifh olaumif;jyKjcif;udk cH&onf/ tm&S ta&SUawmifydkif;qdkif&m r[mrdwfwyfzJGU aoemywd avmharmihfbufwef jrefrmEkdifiHodkY vma&mufaomtcg a'gufwmqmbOD;onf td&k , D ifu h vyfOuúXtjzpf {nhcf cH o hJ nft h csed w f iG f pum;ajymqd&k if; jrefrmEdik if t H m; ud, k yf ikd f tkycf sKyaf &;ay;&ef pum;qdck o hJ nf[o k &d onf/ jynfaxmifpk zJUG pnf;tkycf sKyyf Hk tajccHOya' a&;qJ&G müvnf; a'gufwmqmbOD;onf ta&;ygaomae&mrS xda&mufpmG yg0ifaqmif&u G cf hJ onf/ 1948ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYwGif jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;&&dSaomtcg a'gufwm qmbOD;udyk if w&m;vTwaf wmfcsKy?f w&m;0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf wifajrm§ ufMujyefonf/ ,if;odkY aqmif&Guf aepOf a'oqdkif&m tkyfcsKyfrI pkHprf;a&;aumfrwDESifh a&G;aumufyJG Bu;D Muyfa&; aumfr&Siw f w Ykd iG f OuúXtjzpf xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 1948 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 5 &ufaeYwGif w&m;vTwfawmfcsKyf\w&m;0efBuD; a'gufwmbOD; acgif;aqmifNyD; vlrsdK;pkukd,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifaom a'otvkdufukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfrI pHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sifukd vnf;aumif;? zGJUpnf;ay;NyD; u&ifjynfe,fta&;ukd ajz&Sif;aqmif&GufcJhonf/3 qmbOD; acgif;aqmifaom a&G;aumufyBJG u;D MuyfprD aH &;tzGUJ ukd 1949 ckEpS ?f azmf0g&Dv 19 &ufaeYwiG f

1

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Hugh Tinker. Burma : The Struggle for Independence, 19441948. p.339-340.

( c ) jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu k Ef iS hf wyfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu k ?f wyfrawmfordkif; (wwd,wJG) 1945- 1948 (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1995) pm 12/ 2

dk cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;/ pm- 383/ a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkid if aH &;c&D;ESiAhf v

3

dk cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; (&efuek ?f a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkid if aH &;c&D;ESiAhf v yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969) pm- 330/


19 D 5 &ufaeYwiG f au? tif? 'D? tkd acgif;aqmif apmbOD;Bu;D ESihf zGUJ pnf;cJo h nf/11949ckEpS ?f {Nyv Nidrf;csrf;a&;oabmwlpmcsKyf vufrSwfa&;xkd;&mwGif EkdifiHawmfbufrS yg0ifaqmif&Guf cJo h nf/2 1952ckEpS ?f rwfv 13 &ufaeYwiG f ,m,Dor®w pyfa&Tou kd u f oufwrf;ukeq f ;Hk oGm; aomtcg zJGUpnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya't& a'gufwmqmbOD;tm; vGwfvyfaom jref r mEd k i f i H a wmf o r® w BuD ; tjzpf vT w f a wmf E S p f & yf a ygif ; um wnD w ñG w f w nf ; wifajr§mufjcif;cH&onf/ 1953 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 7 &ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrmEkid if üH yxrqH;k pwifomG ;vmrnfh a&aMumif;c&D;ukd or®wBu;D uk, d w f idk f ]]jynfawmfom}} oabFm ay:rSaeí pwifziG v hf pS af y; cJo h nf/ or®wBu;D onf bmoma&;ukd ouf0if,MkH unf oljzpfonfESifhtnD 1953 ckESpf? rwfv 21 &ufaeYwGif uarÇm'D;,m; omoemykdif q&mawmfBu;D rsm;ESihf tzGUJ 0ifrsm;? 0efaqmifoC H mtzGUJ 0if q&mawmfBu;D rsm;tm; tdraf wmfoYdk yifzh w d í f qGr;f uyfvLS 'gef;cJo h nf/ 1954 ckEpS ?f {Nyv D 11 &ufaeYwiG f yJc;l a&Tarmfa"gapwDawmf yxrqifhukd EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;? 0efBuD;csKyfOD;EkESifh vlxky&dwfowfwkdYrS atmifjrifpGm wifvSLcJhonf/ 1954 ckESpf? arv 17 &ufaeYwGif q|o*Fg,em r[m"r®obifBuD;udk o*Fg,em'g,umtjzpfc, hJ cl o hJ nf/ arv 20 &ufaeYwiG f q|o*Fg,emr[m"r®obifBu;D okYd wufa&mufvsuf&SdMuaom oHCmawmftyg; 2500 ukd tdrfawmf0ef;twGif; yifhzdwfum aeYqrG ;f qyfuyf vSL'gef;cJo h nf/1956 ckEpS ?f rwfv 22 &ufaeYwiG f qkAd , D ufEidk if aH wmftpk;d &rS jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf or®wBu;D tm; qkAd , D ufarmfawmfum;wpfp;D ay;tyfco hJ nf/ 1957ckESpf? or®w&mxl; oufwrf; ukefqkH;aomtcg tNidrf;pm;,lcJhonf/ odkYaomf 1960jynhEf pS w f iG f OD;Ek OD;aqmifaom yxptpk;d &wufvmaomtcg {Nyv D 29 &ufaeYwiG f Edik if aH wmftpd;k &tBuaH y;tzJUG OuúXtjzpf aqmif&u G cf &hJ onf/3 a'gufwmbOD; OD;aqmifaom tBuaH y;tzGUJ rsm;? &ckid jf ynfe,f? rGejf ynfe,ftzGUJ tpnf;rsm;rS uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm;? Ekid if aH &;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;yg0ifaom aqG;aEG;yGJ wpf&yfukd 1961 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 3 &ufaeYwGif usi;f ycJo h nf/ a'gufwmbOD;onf aqG;aEG;yGüJ rGev f x l ?k &ckid v f x l \ k qE´rnfo&Ydk o dS nfudk od&SdEkdif&ef qE´cH,lyGJ(Plebiscite)jyKvkyfonfh enf;onf ygvDref'Drkdua&pDenf;tusqHk;? 1

jrefrmhorkid ;f jzpf&yfreS rf sm;jyKpak &;tzGUJ ? jrefrmEkid if aH &; 1958-1962 (yxrwG)J / (&efuek ?f wuúov dk rf sm; yHEk ydS w f u dk ?f 1991)pm 129/ 2 jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu k Ef iS hf wyfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu k ?f wyfrawmfordkif; (pwkw¬ wJG)1948-62 (&efuek ?f owif;ESihf pme,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm 31 3 jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu k Ef iS hf wyfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu k ?f wyfrawmfordkif; (yOörwJ)G 1962-74 (&efuek ?f owif;ESihf pme,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1999) pm 3/


20 taumif;qH;k enf;vrf;jzpfaMumif;? vlxq k E´c, H yl JG jyKvyk o f nfph epfudk urÇmüvnf; toH;k jyK vsu&f adS Mumif;? vlxq k E´c, H yl jJG yKvyk &f mü tajctaeESiu hf u dk n f o D nf ruku d n f o D nfqadk om tcsufrSm tpdk;&ESifhom oufqkdifaMumif; &Sif;vif;ajymMum;cJhygonf/1 qufvufNyD; a'gufwmbOD; OD;aqmifaomtBuaH y;tzGUJ onf 1960jynfEh pS ?f arv 6 &ufaeYrpS wifNy;D &ckid jf ynfe,fEiS yhf wfoufí &ckid t f rsKd ;om; acgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;? vlraI &;toif;tzGUJ rsm;tm; zdwMf um;í aqG;aEG;cJyh gonf/2 1955 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 6 &ufaeYwGif or®wa[mif; a'gufwmbOD;onf vlr0I efxrf;vkyif ef;rsm;jzpfaom MuufajceDtoif;? jynfoo Yl el mjyKtzJUG ? wuúov kd &f efyaHk iGtzGUJ ? yef;O,smOftoif; ponfwdkYwGif OuúXtjzpf aqmif&GufcJh&aom yk*¾dKvfxl;jzpfonf/ 1957ckEpS w f iG f ]uREykf \ f jrefrmEdik if }H ac: ud, k af &;tw¬Kyw Ü d pmtkyu f kd t*Fvyd b f momjzifh a&;om;xkwaf 0cJo h nf/ *kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif; 5/ 1955 ckESpf? Zefe0g&DvwGif 6 ,l*kdpvm;AD;,m;EkdifiHor®w rm&S,fwDwkd;\ ,l*pdk vyfwcH eG af wmfbYJG (yxrqif)h Yugoslav Banner(First Class) cs;D jri§ jhfcif;cH&onf/ Ekid if aH wmf tpd;k &u a'gufwmqmbOD;tm; t*¾r[moa&pnfob l UGJ ESihf t*¾r[m od&o d "k r®bUGJ rsm;udk csD;jr§ifhjcif;cH&jyefonf/ ,if;tjyif &efukefwuúodkvfu Oya'yg&*l (a'gufwm) bJGUudk cs;D jri§ jhf cif;cH&jyefonf/ a'gufwmqmbOD;onf or®wtjzpf wifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&onfah eYrpS í NAdwdoQtpdk;&u ay;aom qmbJGUudk pGefYvTwfcJhonf/ jynfyc&D;rsm; 6/ ausmif;om;b0wGif vef'efoyYdk nmoifom oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf/ or®wjzpfvm tcg jynfyc&D;xGucf mG jcif;ukd rawGU&S&d yg/ rdom;pk 7/ 1913 ckEpS w f iG f a'gufwmbOD;onf c&kid w f &m;olBu;D a[mif; OD;atmifZ\ H orD; a':Nidrf;Nidrf;ESifh vufxyfcJh&m om;ESpfa,mufxGef;um;cJhonf/ a':Nidrf;Nidrf;onf 1922 ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf/ a':a':Nird ;f uG,v f eG o f mG ;Ny;D aemuf a'gufwmbOD;onf 1923 ckEpS f &dum© awmf& ta&;ykid f OD;qk;d az\orD; a':at;ESihf vufxyfc&hJ m orD; 3 a,mufEiS hf

1

&efukefowif;pm (4 az 1961 ) pm -19/ 2 jrefrmhorkid ;f jzpf&yftrSerf sm;a&;om;jyKpak &;tzGUJ ? 1958-1962 jrefrmEkdifiHa&; (wwd,wGJ)/ (&efuek ?f wuúov dk rf sm;yHEk ydS w f u dk ?f 1991)pm 218/


21 om; 2 a,muf &&SdcJhonf/ a':at;onfvnf; 1941 ckESpfwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf/1 a'gufwmbOD;onf awmfveS af &;aumifpt D pd;k & tkycf sKyaf &; vTaJ jymif;,lNy;D 1963 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 9 &ufaeYwiG f uG,v f eG cf o hJ nf/ trSw(f 54)? a&TawmifMum;vrf;? &efuek Nf rKd U wGiaf exkid o f nf/

1

a&TOMo? wpfcsdefuxif&Sm;cJhaomyk*他dKvfBuD;rsm; (&efuek ?f a&Tord o f m; yef;csED iS hf pmay?1986) pm 164-167/


11-u

yHk (3) a'gufwm bOD; (or速w) [ 1953 ckESpf ]


22

yHk (4) ref;0if;armif (or速w) [ 1957 ckESpf ]


23

OD;0if;armif(c)ref;0if;armif (or®w) ( arG; 17-4-1916 uG,fvGef 4-7-1989) 1/

i,fpOfb0

OD;0if;armifukd ykodrfc&kdif usHKaysmfNrdKUe,f vSnf;qdyf&Gmü c&pfESpf 1916 ckESpf? atNyDv 17 &ufaeYwGif tzynmtkyf OD;a&T&if? trd a':om,mwkdYuarG;zGm;onf/ OD;0if;armif onf EkdifiHa&;avmuwGif ref;0if;armif[lí vlodrsm; xif&Sm;cJhonf/ 2/

ynmoifb0

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0efxrf;b0

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EkdifiHa&;b0

ref;0if;armifonf 1943-44 ckESpfrSpí AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifaom attufzt f dk (zwyv)ESiq hf ufo, G u f m jrpf0uRe;f ay: u&ifwidk ;f &if;om;rsm;ukpd nf;&H;k í zufqpfawmfvSefa&;vkyfief;rsm;wGifyg0ifcJhonf/ 1944 ckESpf? pufwifbmvwGif awmfvSefa&;twGuf uom? jrpfBuD;em;rSwpfqifh tdE´d,okdY cufcJyifyef;pGmoGm;a&mufcJh d´ jynf umvuwåm;ppfwuúov dk Ef iS hf ukv d b H pdk pfpcef;rsm;wGif ppfa&;avhusirhf I onf/2 tdE, 1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1990 (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1990) pm 303/ 2

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24 jyKvkyfcJhonf/11945 ckESpf? rwfv 31 &ufaeYwGif xef;wyifNrdKUe,f? BudKYyifteD;wGif avxD;jzifhqif;cJh&m wGif yg0ifNyD; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;ü u&ifArm &Jacgifajymufusm; rsm;ukd OD;aqmifcJhonf/ avxD;jzifhqif;csdefwGif ajcusdK;oGm;cJhaomfvnf; *syefrsm;ukd 2 vrQwkdufckdufNyD;rS aq;0g;uko&ef umvuwåm;aq;&HkokdYoGm;a&mufukocJhonf/2 ppftNy;D wGif vGwv f yfa&; wku d yf üJG zqyvtzGUJ ESit hf wl yl;wGyJ g0ifco hJ nf/ ref;0if;armif onf Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf csKyfqkd&mwGifa&SUajy;tzGJUü yg0if vkdufygoGm;cJhonf/ 1945 ckESpfwGif u&ifvli,frsm; tpnf;t&Hk;ü ref;bckdifonfOuúX? ref;0if;armif onf 'kw, d OuúXtjzpf ta&G;cHc&hJ onf/ wpfcsed w f nf;rSmyif wkid ;f &if;om; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; ukd a&S;&Ivsuf wkdif;&if;om;*sme,fukd xkwfa0um t,f'Dwmtjzpf vkyu f idk cf o hJ nf/ atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyu f dk autif,u l uefu Y u G af eonft h csed w f iG f wkdifjyKjynfjyK vTwfawmfa&G;aumufyGJukd u&ifvli,frsm;tpnf;t&Hk;acgif;aqmif ref;bckid Ef iS hf ref;0if;armifwYdk yg0ifcMhJ uonf/ 1947 ckEpS f a&G;aumufyw JG iG f ykord af jrmufyidk ;f rJqE´e,f rS ta&G;cH&í "gwfow¬KXme0efBuD;? 1948 ckESpf? {NyDv 4 &ufaeYwGif vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;? taqmuftOD;ESifhtvkyform;0efBuD;Xme0efBuD;tjzpf wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJhNyD; xkdESpfZlvkdifv 15 &ufaerSmyifEIwfxGufcJhygonf/1949 ckESpfwGif ykdYaqmifa&;ESifhvrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; 0efBuD;Xme0efBuD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;?1949-50 ckEpS w f iG f &efuek w f uúov dk t f "dywdtjzpf vnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/ 1951 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 22 &ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpk u&iftrsdK;om; tzGJU OuúX? 1952 ckESpf? rwf 16 &ufaeYwiG f rtlyif awmifyidk ;f rJqE´e,f trwftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajrm§ ufjcif; cH&NyD;aemuf o,f,lykdYaqmifa&;ESifhvrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;0efBuD;? 1956 ckESpf? ZGefv 13 &ufaeYwiG f rtlyifawmif;ykid ;f rSwpfzef jyefvnf ta&G;cH&Ny;D jynfwiG ;f qdyu f rf; a&aMumif;? avaMumif;ESifh yifv,fqdyfurf;oGm;vma&; Xme0efBuD; ponfjzifh EkdifiHwm0efrsm;ukd tBudrfBudrfxrf;aqmifcJhonf/3 1957 ckEpS ?f rwfv 11 &ufaeYeeH uf 10 em&Dtcsed w f iG f Ekid if aH wmf or®wopf 1

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf? wyfrawmforkdif; ('kwd,wGJ) 1945 zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umv &;umv/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESihf pme,fZif;vkyfief;? 1999) pm 69/ 2

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ &efukef?yk*Hpmtkyfwkduf? 1969/ pm- 270/ 3

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm (24 ZGefv 1956) pm 4/


25 a&G;aumuf wifajr§mufa&;twGuf vlrsdK;pkvTwfawmfESifh jynfolYvTwfawmfygvDref 2 &yf wGJbufnDvmcHusif;ycJh&m vlrsdK;pkvTwfawmfem,uBuD; p0fa&Tokdufu obmywdtjzpf aqmif&GufcJhonf/ nDvmcHponfESifhwNydKifeuf em,uBuD; p0fa&TokdufrS or®wavmif; trnfpm&if; wifoGif;vTm 3 apmif&&SdcJh&m 3 apmifpvHk; OD;0if;armifwpfOD;wnf;ukdom trnfpm&if;wifoGif;xm;aMumif;? or®wavmif;trnfpm&if;wifoGif;vTmrsm;rSm Oya'ESifhjynfhpHknDnTwfí or®wwifajr§mufa&;twGuf a&G;aumufyGJ jyKvkyf&ef rvkdawmhojzifh ygvDrefvTwfawmf 2 &yfu OD;0if;armiftm; or®wtjzpf ,SOfjyKdifolr&Sd a&T;aumufwifajrm§ ufaMumif; aMunmvku d &f m MobmoHrsm;vGr;f oGm;aMumif;? qufvufNy;D 0efBuD;csKyf OD;EkrS ]] ref;0if;armifESifh uRefawmfwkdY[m vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ0ifuwnf;u vuf w G J a qmif & G u f c J h y gw,f / vG w f v yf a &;&NyD ; aemuf rMumcif b J jzLeDaMumifusm;olykefxNyD; autif'Dtkdaomif;usef;rIay:aygufcJhygw,f/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm ref;0if;armifu vufeufeJU tmPmodrf;wmukd rvkdvm;bJ 'Dru dk a&pDeYJ tmPmodr;f wmuko d m axmufccH yhJ gw,f/ 'gaMumifh awmf&w kH ef&kH &J&ifhwJholvkdYyk*¾dKvfrsdK; &Sm;ygw,f/ ref;0if;armifukd autif'Dtkduvnf; opö m azmuf v k d Y a MunmcJ h y gw,f / wu,f v k d Y r sm; autif ' D t k d v uf x J wkdif;jynfusa&mufoGm;&if a&S;OD;pGm opömazmuftjzpfeJU owfypf&if ref;0if;armifyxrqHk;cH&rSmyJ...}} 1 [kajymMum;cJhygonf/ 1957 ckEpS ?f rwfv 13 &ufaeYwiG jf ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\ or®wtjzpf ta&G;cHc&hJ onf/ OD;0if;armifwm0efxrf;aqmifaomumvonf ygwDwiG ;f NyKd urJG rI sm;? tmPm&&Sad &; twGuf tNyKd it f qkid Bf uKd ;pm;rIrsm;jyKvyk af eMuojzifh Ekid if aH &;wnfNird rf &I adS y/ 1958 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 30 &ufaeYwiG f OD;0if;armifrS owif;q&mrsm;ukd tdraf wmfozYdk w d af c:í vSnv hf nf jyo{nfch cH o hJ nf/ or®wBu;D onf zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'ukad vhvmaeaMumif;? ,if;Oya' t& or®wonf &kyfjyrQomjzpfaMumif;? rnfonfhtmPmrQr&SdaMumif;? or®wjzpfNyD;rS ynmoHk;&yfomwwfajrmufaMumif;? ¤if;wkdYrSm ykqkd;awmif&Snfukd 2 rdepftwGif; 0wfqif wwfonf/ jrif;pD;wwfonf/ a*gufoD;&kdufwwfonf [k or®wBuD;rS&ifzGifhcJhygonf/2 1

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm (rwf 12 1957) pm 1?12/ 2

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26 1958 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; OD;aqmifaom tdraf pmift h pd;k &zGUJ pnf;cJNh y;D aemuf 1958ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 29 &ufaeYwiG f tdraf pmifh tpkd;&tzGJU\ 0efBuD;csKyfESifh0efBuD;rsm; or®wa&SUarSmufusrf;opömqkdyGJ tcrf;tem;ü EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;OD;0if;armifrS rdefYcGef;ajymMum;&mwGif AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;tpdk;&tzGJU aqmif&u G &f rnft h "duwm0ef0wå&m;rsm;rSm ]]1/ jynfwiG ;f Nird ;f csr;f rI&&Sad &; 2/ w&m;rQw aoma&G;aumufyjJG zpfajrmufa&;ESihf 3/ 'Dru dk a&pDtcGit hf a&;rsm;wif;jynfu h syjf ynf&h &Sad &;}} jzpfaMumif;rdefYMum;cJhonf/1 or®wBuD; OD;0if;armifonf 1959 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 11 &ufaeYwGif oefY&Sif;zqyvAkdvfrSL;atmifESifh OD;atmify? wnfNrJzqyv OD;AaqG? OD;ausmfNidrf;? &wnacgif;aqmifOD;vSxGef;jzLwkdYESifhawGUqHkcJhNyD;2 AkdvfcsKyfae0if;tpkd;&tm; aemufxyf 6 v tmPmqufvufívTo J ifah Mumif;qE´udk ajymMum;cJyh gonf/3 or®wBu;D OD;0if;armifonf 14 Budrfajrmufjynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;tcrf;tem;wGif ]] vGwv f yfcahJ omESpt f wGi;f pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIu@toD;oD;wGif txl;tjcm;qHk;aom aqmif&GufcsufrSm jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif; rSDwif;aexkdifMuaom vltrsm;pkrSmAk'¨bmom0ifwkdYvkdvm;awmifhwMuonfh Ak'b ¨ momukd Ekid if aH wmfbmomtjzpf jyXmef;Ekid jf cif;yifjzpfonf}} [kred MYf um;cJh onf/4 1961 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 5 &ufaeYwiG f &Sr;f jynfe,frS uk, d pf m;vS,t f zGUJ 0ifrsm;onf Ekid if aH wmfor®wBu;D OD;0if;armifEiS ahf wGq Y í kH zuf'&,frt l aMumif; &Si;f vif;wifjyMucJMh u onf/ xkdokdYawGYqHk&mü or®wBuD; OD;0if;armifrS zuf'&,frlukd ñ§dEIdif;aqG;aEG;Mu&mwGif pdwf&Snf&Snfxm;um rdom;pktoGifrsdK;jzifh ajz&Sif;MuapvkdaMumif; ajymMum;cJhygonf/5 1961 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 25 &ufaeYwGif oHCmawmfrsm; onf Ak'¨bmomukd Ekid if aH wmfbmom tjzpfjyXmef;&mwGif yxptpk;d &\ tajccHOya' pwkwj¬ yifqifcsuu f kd 1

a'gufwma':jrifhMunf?jrefrmEkdifiHa&;1958-1962 ('kwd,wGJ)/ wGJbufa&;ol a'gufwmaemftif*svif;/ 'k-Budrf? (&efukef? wuúokdvfrsm; yHkESdyfwkduf? 1991)pm 158/ 2 (u) taaxmufawmfowif;pm (13 azazmf0g&Dv 1959) pm 2 / ( c ) &efukefowif;pm (13 azazmf0g&Dv 1959) pm 2 / 3 taaxmufawmfowif;pm (13 azazmf0g&Dv 1959) pm 1 / 4 OD;ausm0f if;? jrefrmEkdifiHa&;1958-1962 (wwd,wGJ)/ wGb J ufa&; ol OD;jr[efEiS hf OD;ode;f vIid /f (&efuek ?f wuúov dk rf sm;yHEk ydS w f u dk ?f 1991)pm 144/ 5 aMu;rHkowif;pm (6 Zlvkdifv 1961) pm 15/


27 rauseyfojzifh or®wtdrfawmfokdYcsDwuf qE´jycJhMu&m or®wBuD; onf jyifOD;vGifNrdKUokdY a&muf&Sdaeckduf tcsdefjzpfonf/1 awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf 1962 ckESpf?rwfv (2) &ufaeYwGif EdkifiHawmftmPmudk xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufcJhonf/ awmfvSefa&;tpdk;& vufxyfwiG f 1962 ckEpS rf S 1967 ckEpS t f xd ig;ESpt f Mum xde;f odr;f cHc&hJ Ny;D aemuf 1968 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmvü awmfvSefa&;tpkd;&u zdwfMum;aom jynfwGif;tBuHay;tzGJU0if 33 OD; ü ref;0if;armif yg0ifcJhonf/ ref;0if;armifonf 1988 ckESpfrS 1989 ckESpf ruG,v f eG rf t D csed x f d 'Dru dk a&pD ESihf Nird ;f csr;f a&;tzGUJ csKyOf uúXtjzpf aqmif&u G cf ahJ o;onf/ 5/

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30 4/

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wdAYk rmtpnf;t½H;k 0ifocif½aI rmifonf trsK;d om;vGwaf jrmufa&;wdu k yf rGJ sm;üyg0ifchJ onfomru tvkyv f yk jf cif;jzifh jyifyrS awmfveS af &;tvkyrf sm;ukyd g tqifajypGmvIy&f mS ;cJjh yefonf/ ocif½Iarmifonf t*FvdyfwdkYrS aMu;eef;ESifh xdyfwef;vQKdU0Sufay;ydkYaom owif;trdefYrsm;udk &Jabmfocifrsm;xHoYkd rysurf uGuaf y;ydcYk o hJ nf/ ¤if;tjyifte,fe,ft&yf&yfrS ocifrsm;udk zrf;qD;&ef aMu;eef;jzifh &efuek rf S trdeaYf y;vQiv f nf; xdt k rderYf sm;udk e,fro S cifrsm;onfocif½aI rmifxrH w S pfqifh BudKwif íod&Sd&ojzifh BudKwifjyifqifrIrsm;vkyfief;rsm;jzpfaom &kyfazsmufjcif;? ajrvQdK;jcif;rsm; pDrEH idk cf yhJ gonf/ ocif½aI rmifonf pmwku d üf wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf owif;rsm;ukyd g axmufvrS ;f onfh tvkyfukdygvkyfcJhonf/ &&SdorQaom owif;rsm;ukd enf;rsdK;pHkjzihf &,lNyD; jyefvnftoHk;cscJhonf/ owif;rsm;ukd axmufvrS ;f cJ&h mwGif ocif½aI rmifEiS hf ocifcspw f ifwo Ykd nf jynfvrf;rBu;D ay:wGif apmifí h t*Fvyd t f &m&SBd u;D rsm;\ um;eHygwfrsm;udk a&;rSwMf uonf/ um;armif;olrsm;ESihf ¤if;wk\ Yd vlBu;D rsm;ukd wGí J rSwrf v d mMuonf/ um;ukjd rif&jkH zifh rnfonfv h rf;taMumif; oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; cefrY eS ;f Ekid v f mMuonf/ &efuek yf v k yd f rif;Bu;D Prescott \um;armif;ol udb k cspEf iS v hf nf; todrw d af qG jzpfatmif jyKvyk cf o hJ nf/ ajratmufomG ;vQiv f QKd U0Supf mG vIy&f mS ;Ekid &f efae&mudv k nf; &SmazGxm;cJMh u onf/ jrif;rsm;arG;onfh udpk aH rmif\ zcifO;D zd;k 0Jaetdrf onf wnf;ck&d ef ae&maumif;jzpfco hJ nf/ (29)vrf;? taqmuftOD (4)xyf rS tcef;(1)cef;? A*FgvDpak e udo k ed ;f atmif \tdr?f udak t;armif? udjk roef;wd\ Yk tcef;ponfh pcef;cs&mae&mrsm;onf aemufrt S &dyo f zG,u f yfívdu k Mf uaom ykvyd ?f pHkaxmufwdkYtm; ajc&m azsmuf&m ae&mrsm;jzpfonf/ þuJhokdYjzifh owif;&&Sd&ef enf;rsdK;pHkoHk;í axmufvrS ;f cJyh gonf/ þuJo h jYdkzpfaepOfOa&mywGif 1939 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmvwGif 'kw, d urÇmppfBu;D pwifcJhonf/ wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk;onf ]] t*Fvdyftcuf? Armhtcsuf }} [ka<u;aMumfum 1939 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 1 &ufaeYwGif ArmhxGuf&yf*dkPf;(Freedom Bloc)ukdzGJUpnf;cJhonf/ NAdwdoQtpdk;&xHrS vGwfvyfa&;ukd tEkenf;jzifhr&ygu vufeufukdifawmfvSef&eftwGuf 1939 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 18 &ufaeYwiG f ajratmufvQKd U0Sut f zGUJ (Under Ground Unit)ukd vQKd U0Suzf UJG pnf;cJMh u onf/ ¤if;aemufrnfonfEh idk if rH pS pfu, l rl nfudk ocifacgif;aqmifrsm;rS tBuw d t f e,faqG;aE cJhMuonf/ þudpöonf ppfa&;omr[kwf? oabmw&m;a&;vnf;jzpfí *syefESifhaygif;rdvQif zufqpfpepfukd tm;ay;&ma&mufrnfjzpfíomru rESpfNrdKUaom t*FvdyfwkdYESifhab;csif;,SOfí wku d &f apawmh *syefuw dk u dk rf S jzpfrnf/ aemufrS t*Fvyd w f EYdk iS phf m&if;&Si;f vif;rnf/ þok, Yd MkH unfcsuf &So d rl sm;vnf;&Scd o hJ nf/ tcsKd Uuvnf; uk, d &hf efo\ l &efoo l nf uk, d rhf w d af qGjzpfaMumif;? xkaYd Mumifh wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk;0ifjzpfaomocifatmifqef;ESifhocifvSNrdKif(aemifAkdvf&efatmif)wkdYtm;


31 ]]wefvGrfa&Smif}} ESifh ]] wefpka&Smif}} [laomtrnfrsm;jzifh &kyfzsufí &efukefqdyfurf;rS [kdif;vD1 oabFmonf jzifh trGKd iNf rKd UokYd 1940 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 8 &ufaeYwiG af pvTwcf o hJ nf/ *syefMunf;wyf AdkvfrSL;BuD; wpfOD;jzpfol au*sDqlZluD;2onf 1940 ckESpf? arvwGif &efuek Nf rKd UodUk ]],drk t D &l D }}owif;pm rSowif;axmufwpfOf ;D [efaqmifí a&muf&v dS mcJo h nf/olEiS hf twl*syefESpfa,mufvnf;ygonf/ rpfZl½lql*D; qdkolonf ukefonfwydkif;? ta&SUtm&Sa&;&m avhvma&;tzJUG jzpfaom udt k mtiif; tzJUG 0ifvnf;jzpfco hJ nf/ tDemtdrk q d w k meD qdo k rl mS refcsL; rD;&xm;ukrÜPDwGifvkyfonf/ ql*D;ESifh rdqkwmeDtjyif wau&SD[d*lcsD qdkol wpfOD;udkyg qlZluD; onf w½kwjf ynf&rS [ f NJ rKd UwGif rDemrDuu D eftzJUG twGuf pkaqmif;odr;f oGi;f cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ qlZu l ;D onf &efuek w f iG f oGm;vmvIy&f mS ;í vG,u f al p&ef Arm-*syefcspMf unfa&;toif;\ twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf udv k nf; cH,x l m;cJo h nf/ t"Duwm0efu Edik if aH &;? ppfa&;tajctaeavhvmí tquftoG,f &SmazG&efjzpfonf/ 'kAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k vli,facgif;aqmifrsm;tajctaetaMumif;ukd qlZu l ;D Mum;odc&hJ onfh tcsed w f iG f axmifusaeolae? yke;f atmif;aeolrsm; aeí aumif;pGm&SmrawGcY ahJ cs/ jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&; twGuf wu,fhpGefYpm;wkdufckdufrnfholrsm;onf xkdvli,fawGjzpfrnf[kxifcJhonfhtwkdif; w&kwfjynfESifh&k&Sm;jynfwkdYrS ppfulrsm;ukd&&Sdap&ef arQmfvifhaomtcsdefjzpfcJhonf/ *syefEkdifiHrS tultnDtrsm;qH;k &&Srd nf[v k nf; xkv dk il ,fwu Ydk arQmv f ifch MhJ uonf/ *syefu jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&;rSm ulncD ahJ omfvnf; vufeuf ay;&Hak vmufeUJ vHak vmufrmS r[kw[ f k xifrcd ahJ vonf/ ArmawG[m vufeufuidk w f , G f wku d cf u dk w f hJ tawGUtBuKH vHak vmufrrI &Sad o;aomaMumifh wu,fxx d ad &muf ulnrD nfqv dk Qif Armvli,f acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; ppfynmavhusiahf y;zkv Yd dk vdrrYf nfjzpfaMumif;ESihf Armjynfü vIyf&Sm;&ef rvG,ful aomaMumifh vli,facgif;aqmifrsm;tm; *syefjynfokdY vQdKU0SufpGmac:,loGm;&ef vkdtyfvmcJhonf/3 þokdYjzifh ocifatmifqef;ESifhocifvSNrdKUifwkdY onf 1940 jynfhESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 12 &ufaeYwGif wkdusdKNrdKUokdY a&muf&SdcJhonf/ *syefppfOD;pD;csKyf&Hk;onf 1941 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfrSL;BuD; qlZluD; acgif;aqmifaom rDemrDtzGJU4 udzk UJG pnf;ay;cJo h nf/ 1

Hailee

2

Keji Suzuki 3

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969) pm- 135 / 4

Minami Kikan


32 4-1/

&J a bmf o H k ; usd y f 0 if

ocif&aI rmifonf*syefjynfoo Ydk mG ;&efq;kH jzwfNy;D jzpfonfah emuf wdusaomtquftoG,f &&Sda&;apmifhaecJhNyD;aemuf ocifnDESifhwkdifyifMunfhonfhtcg wkdif;jynftusdK;twGuf pGefYpm;pGm xrf;aqmif&ef tcGifhaumif;wpf&yfjzpfaMumif;? tEÅ&m,frsm;aomfvnf; toufraovQif atmifyJGrsm;qifETJEkdifaMumif;pdwfxJü qHk;jzwfcJhMuonf/ xkdtcdsefuocif&Iarmifonf wkdif;jynf acgif;aqmifBu;D jzpfzYdk &nf&, G cf surf &Sad o;aMumif;od&cdS &hJ onf/ us&mwm0efudk OD;vnfrokeaf usyeG f atmifxrf;aqmifrnf [k qH;k jzwfNy;D pGepYf m;aomtvkyu f dk vkycf jhJ cif;jzpfonf/ ocif&aI rmifwt Ydk zGUJ onf 1941 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 8 &ufwiG f *syefoabFm uk&d , D rk m&l;1 jzifh vku d yf goGm;cJo h nf/ jrefrm qdyfurf;rS rxGufcGmrD ocif½IarmifwkdYtzGJUonf oabFmpufcef;teD;&Sdtcef;i,fü 0ifa&muf yHk;atmif;í 'ku©cHcJh&aMumif;? oabFmq&m0efrS rMumcPppfaq;ay;cJhNyD; *syefBudKuf oMum;rsm;rsm;ESiahf Mumfcsux f m;om trJom;? 0ufom;? MuufOwku Yd dk vmauR;aomfvnf; rpm;Ekid Mf u aMumif;od&ygonf/ oabFmpxGuí f jrefrmha&jyifudk ausmv f eG cf NhJ y;D aomtcgrSom oabFmtay:okYd wufEkdifcJhMuíyifv,favukdt0&SL&dIufEkdifcJhMuonf/ ¤if;wkdYtm; aumif;pGmjyKpkauR;arG;cJhMuNyD; pifumyltem;wGif t*Fvdyfurf;apmifhoabFm uyfvmojzifh ocif&IarmifwkdY acwå puf&Sd&m atmufcef;rsm;qif;cJhMu&onf/ Zlvkdifv 22 &ufaeYwGif &Srf;[JNrdKU teD;&Sd *syefa&wyf pcef;okdY a&muf&Sdonfhtcgü a&wyfAkdvfrSL; [D'um; u aumif;pGmBudKqkd {nfhcHcJhonf/ &Srf[JrSwqifh ,kdulqkduma&wyfpcef;okdY oabFmom;rsm; toGifaqmifí av,mOfysH jzifhykdYay;Mu jyefonf/ a&wyfpcef; wGif 5 &ufrQvnfywfem;aecJ&h Ny;D aemuf xkrd w S pfqifh zlut l u dk m oko Yd mG ;Mu&onf/ ¤if;aemuf bwfpfum;ESifh [ukdae tyef;ajzpcef;okdY oGm;Mu&onf/ ]][ukdaeNrdKU}}wGif ]]rpöwmtD0gquD}}2 \tdrfwGif &JabmfoHk;usdyf0iftcsdKU acwåwnf;ckdcJhMu&onf/ [kdifeefuRef;okdY ppfynmavhusifhoif,l&ef c&D;qufMu&jyefonf/ ocif½IarmifwkdY tzGJUa&mufaomtcg jrefrm&Jabmfo;kH usyd f 30 pHo k mG ;cJo h nf/ [kid ef efuRe;f ppfpcef;wGit f pm;taeqif;&Jí avhusichf MhJ u&onft h jzpftysuu f adk zmfjy&m wGiv f nf; &Jabmfrsm;ukd wkad wmif;aomumvtwGi;f Bu;D rm;aomwku d yf t JG wGuf toifjh zpfap&ef jyifqifay;cJo h nft h jyif pcef;rSL; um0g&S;D rm;3 u &Jabmfwo Ydk nf ESprf sm;pGmavhusihf oif,&l rnfh ppfynmukd vtenf;i,f twGi;f oif,al e&onf[k rMumrMumowday;cJo h nf/ t&kPw f ufonfrS 1

Kouryumaru

2

Mr. Iwasaki

3

Kawashima


33 nrk;d csKyt f xdem;csed rf &Sad Mumif;ESihf &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f ifrsm;ukd pdw"f gwfBuUH ckid af pí uk, d v f ufuse;f rm tyifyef; cHEidk af tmif ahvusiahf y; cJMh uonf/ oHrPdpw d ?f oHrPdu, dk cf E¨mjzpfap&ef xk&u dk jf yKjyif ay;cJhMuonfomru [kdifeefuRef;&Sd avhusifha&;onf Murf;wrf;onfqkdvQif wu,fhjrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJonf ykdíyif Murf;wrf;OD;rnf jzpfygonf/ tEkdifrcHt&HI;ray; aompdwf"gwf aqmifonfo h rl sm;jzpfap&efEiS hf atmifycJG EH idk &f eftwGuf pdwt f cs&qH;k aomtmrcHcsuf jzpfaMumif; þtcsuu f dk *syefoifwef;q&mwkYd onf tNrrJ jywfajyma[mí vufawGUvnf; avhusiahf y;onf/ trsKd ;om;pdw"f gwfcyH gNyjD zpfaom jrefrm&Jabmfwo Ydk nf rcHcsipf w d jf zifv h w G v f yfa&;twGuBf uKd ;pm; tm;xkwcf MhJ uonf/ *syefoifwef;q&mwko Yd nfaocsmaphpyfpmG jzifh &JabmfwpfO;D pD\wk;d wufru I Zdk ,m;csí rSwx f m;ay;Muonf/ wpfO;D pD\t&nftaoG;ukd tuJcwf&mü &Jabmfo;kH usyd u f dk tzGUJ oH;k zGUJ cGí J vnf; txl;ynmwkdYukdoifapcJhonfhtjyif ]]'kdiftpfyef}} yxrtzGJUwGif wyfrSL;jzpf&efoifhawmfonfh vli,frsm;ukd avhusifhay;NyD; ]] 'kdifeD[ef }} 'kwd,tzGJUonf &efol aemufaMumif;wGif yOörHenf; wkdufckduf&ef txl;avhusifh &onf/ 'kwd,tzGJUukd ]] olckd;tzGJU }} [kac:Mu onf/ ¤if;tzGJUonf ntcg tdyfcsdefü vIyf&Sm;&aomaMumifh jzpfonf/ ]] 'kdqefyef }} [kac:aom wwd,tzGJUwGif ppfacgif;aqmif? ppfXmecsKyfrSL;rsm;jzpfrnfh &Jabmfrsm;yg0ifMuonf/ ocifatmifqef;ESifh ocif&aI rmifwo Ydk nf wwd,tzGUJ wGif yg0ifavhusichf &hJ aMumif;od&cdS &hJ onf/ ocif&Iarmifonf t&yf&Snfoljzpfjzifh olUukduRefawmfwkdYtzGJUu wumpl*D;1 [k *syefemrnfay;MuaMumif;? t"dymÜ ,f jrifrh m;ajzmifph if;wJh qkid 'f gyifjzpfaMumif;ESihf *syef&mZ0ifrmS xif&mS ;cJo h nfah r*saD wmfveS af &;rSm ol&aJ umif;wpfO;D \emrnfjzpfaMumif; *syefppfAv dk cf sKyq f Zl u l ;D rS rSww f rf;wifco hJ nf/ *syefoifwef;q&mwku Yd ]] wumpl*;D }}ac: ocif&aI rmifuadk v;pm;Muonf/ r[kwfvQifrcH? n§Of;yef;ívnf;r&aom ]] &Iarmifqef }}ukdaMumufvnf;aMumufcJhMuonf/ aemiftcgay:aygufrnfh ArmhwyfrawmfwGif xdyfwef;acgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpfxkdufonfh[k t&nftcsi;f owfrw S f Muonf/ ocifatmifqef;uk, d w f idk u f vnf; ]] &Jabmf&aI rmif [m uReaf wmf&h UJ nmvuf&Hk;jzpfvmvdrfh r,f }} 2[k AkdvfrSL;BuD; qlZluD;u rSwfwrf;wifxm;cJhonf/ *syefppfXmecsKyrf x S u G cf mG Ekid cf iG rhf &Sad o;í tcsed Mf umaecJ&h ao;onf/ *syeftpk;d &onf t*Fvyd -f tar&duefwEYdk iS hf oHwrefqufqaH &;&Sad eaomtcsed jf zpfonf/ xkaYd Mumifh ppfrufjyifqifrrI sm;

1

Takasugi 2

tdZkrd,wwfpka&m/ uRef a wmf y g0if c J h a omrd e mrD u d u ef ;/ bmomjyefol a':cif&D (&efuek ?f bmomjyefEiS phf mtkyx f w k af 0a&;Xme? 1981) pm 66/


34 ukd txl;vQdKU0SufpGmjyKvkyfae&onf/ atmifwkdbmv 25 &ufaeYpGJjzifha&;om;xm; aom qlZluD; rSww f rf;wGif ]] &Jabmfo;kH usyd o f nf avhusiafh &;rsm;Ny;D cJMh uNyD }} jrefrmjynfurdk jyefMu&yJ *syefjynfudk oGm;Mu&r,fq&dk ifawmh &JabmfawG awmfawmfpw d "f gwfysuMf uvdrrhf ,f/ ppfXmecsKyu f bmvkYd csw D ckH swkH hJ nf/ jzpfaeovJ rajymwwfb;l / rDemrDuefuawmh vkypf &mawGqufvyk &f rSmyJ }} 1 [kyg&Scd o atmufwkdbm 30 &ufaeYwGif ppfXmecsKyfu rDemrDuefokdY aMu;eef;jzifh tm;vHk;aom tpDtpOfawG &yfqidk ;f xm;&rnf[k nTeMf um;cJo h nf/ qlZu l ;D u ]] jrefrm&Jabmfrsm;tm;vH;k xGuaf jy; MuNy?D vku d v f &H mS azGvsu&f &dS m 4 a,mufuo dk mzrf;rdonf? qufvuf&mS azGaeao;onf }} 2[laom t"dymÜ ,foufa&mufonfph um;0Sujf zifh jyefMum;cJo h nf/ &Jabmfrsm;tm; tzGUJ i,frsm;zGUJ í a&aMumif;? ukeaf Mumif;? avaMumif;toG,o f , G jf zifh qk*d eG ;f NrKd UESihf [EGKd iNf rKd UwkrYd w S pfqifh AefaumufNrKd UokyYd cYdk o hJ nf/ AefaumufNrdKUwGif vQdKU0SufpGmaexkdifcJhMuonf/ *syefow¬KwGif;ukrÜPDrS tif*sifeD,mrsm;? blrad A'ynm&Sirf sm; [efaqmifí vIy&f mS ;cJMh u&ygonf/ jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;onfvnf; ppfBuD;ukdapmifhpm;aeMuaomtcsdefjzpfojzifh vli,fEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;onfvnf; ukd,fhEkdifiHtwGufvIyf&Sm;aeMuaomtcsdefjzpfonf/ &Jabmfrsm;onfvnf; ocifatmifqef;wkx Yd rH S owif;ukd apmifah rQmaf ecJMh uonft h csed w f iG f eef;&if;0ef qmay:xGef; ESifh0efBuD;tzGJUtm; bk&ifcHrS avaMumif;&efrSumuG,fa&; at? tm? yD (ARP- Air Raid Precaution)vkyi f ef;rsm;udk wm0efay;tyfcahJ Mumif;od&jyefonf/ 1941 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbm 8 &ufaeYwiG f *syefonf ppfaMunmjcif;rjyKyJ ypdzw d o f rk'&´ mtwGi;f [m0kdif,DuRef;3&Sd tar&duefwkdY\tBuD;qHk;a&wyfpcef; ykvJqdyfurf;4 udk wkdufckdufcJh ojzifh ta&SUawmiftm&Swpfcv k ;kH omru tm&Sa'owpfcv k ;kH 'kw, d urÇmppfyBJG u;D okYd 0ifa&mufc&hJ onf/ emZD-zufqpftiftm;pkrsm;ESiyhf ;l aygif;í 0if;&k;d wef; Ekid if rH sm;wGif yg0ifvmonft h jyif *syefonf r[mrdww f o Ydk rd ;f yku d x f m;aom ta&SUawmiftm&S Ekid if rH sm;ukd wr[kwcf si;f odr;f yku d &f efppD OfcjhJ cif;jzpf onf/ ocif&Iarmiftygt0if jrefrmvli,f &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifwkdYonfvnf; ,kd;',m;okdY 0ifa&mufvmMuNyD; ,kd;',m;EkdifiHwGif 1941 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 26 &ufaeYwGif(bD-tkdif-at) ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf ( Burma Independence Army ) ukdzGJUpnf;í ArmhvGwfvyfa&; 1

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f yk*Hpmtkyf wkduf? 1969) pm- 162 / 2

ausmfNidrf;/ &JabmfoHk;usdyf/ (&efukef? tif;0pmaywkduf? 1998) pm 10/

3

Hawaii

4

Pearl Harbour


35 twGuftoufpGefYwkdufckduf&ef vufarmif;aoG;azmufumopöma& aomufMuonf/ a&S;jrefrm ppfonfw\ Ydk cH,cl sujf zpfaom opömqkí d aoG;aomuf&aJ bmftjzpfudk cH,u l m ppfxu G af vh&o dS nfh tavhtxukd jyKvyk cf MhJ uonf/ opömqkdNyD;aemuf &JabmfoHk;usdyfonf AkdvfbGJUcHcJhMuonf/ ocif&IarmifrSmArmh vGwv f yfa&; wyfrawmfudk OD;pD;&eftwGuf Akv d af e0if; [lítrnfopfu, dk cl \ hJ / *syefuay;aom *syefemrfrnfonf ]] wupkudplplrk }}[líjzpfavonf/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; qlZluD;\trnfukdvnf; Akv d rf ;dk BuKd ;[k ajymif;vJco hJ nf/ xko d aYdk jymif;vJjcif;rSm tif;ukd [oFmqif;rnf/ [oFmukd rkq;dk av;ESihf cGif;rnf/ rkqkd;ukd xD;&kd;&kdufrnf/ xD;&kd;ukd rkd;BudK;ypfrnf[laom wabmiftwkdif; paeeHjzpfonfh NAw d ed x f ;D &k;d ukd Akv d rf ;dk BuKd ;u atmifEidk rf nf[k jrefrmjynforl sm; ,HMk unfap&efjzpfonf/1 Akv d af e0if; acgif;aqmifaom &Jabmfig;a,muf ukd a&SUajy;taeESihf ArmjynfwiG ;f okaYd pvTwu f m ykeu f efx<urIudk jyKaprnf[ h k nTeMf um;jcif;cH&onfh tcsed rf pS í jynfawmfujdk yefcsipf w d rf sm; rsm;aecJo h nf/ ok&Yd mwGif Akv d af e0if; wkrYd xGuMf u&ao;ay/ *syefMunf;wyfO;D pD;csKyEf iS hf a&wyfO;D pD;rsm;u &Jabmfo;kH usyd u f dk tBuw d t f e,fvak ecJMh uonf/ 4-2/

*syefacwfwm0efxrf;aqmifrI(1942-1945)

1942 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 12 &ufaeYwiG f Akv d rf ;dk BuKd ; (ume,fqZl u l ;D )? Akv d af wZ? tkcs'D g;? wyfa&;Akdvf uDrl&mESifh tD*sDrmwkdY ]]&[kdif;zuf}}okdYxGufcGmcJhMuonfhtcsdefwGif jynfwGif;qlylrIukd vHUI aqmfrnfh Akv d af e0if;ESiihf g;OD;tjyif vrf;jy 3 OD;vnf;ygoGm;cJo h nf/ Akv d af e0if;tygt0if 8 OD; onf &[kid ;f rS Zefe0g&Dv 14 &ufaeYwiG pf wifxu G cf mG cJo h nf/ awmawmif jrpfacsmif;ukd jzwfausmv f m cJ&h ojzifh c&D;onf Murf;wrf;cJah Mumif; Akv d af e0if;ESit hf zGUJ onf vufeuf? txkyt f yk;d rsm;ukd xrf;Mu& aMumif;? awmcsKH ucdk w k x f iG ;f í oGm;Mu&onft h cg oGm;Mu&onft h jyif vrf;c&D;Mumjrifrh rI &Sad p&ef tjyif;ESifMu&onf/ u&if&GmwGifwpfnem;cJh&m olBuD;ESifh&Gmol&Gmom; rsm;u cifrifazmfa&GpGm {nfhcHMuonf/ aomif;&if;jrpfukda&mufaomtcg azmifzGJUíul;cJhMuonf/ jrpfonf ,kd;',m;ESifh jrefrme,fpyfjzpfí wzufurf;okdYa&mufaomtcg jrefrmhajray:okdYajccscHMu&onf/ Akdvfae0if; azmifay:rS rqif;rD *syef&Jabmfrsm;jzpfaom ]]wkdif&m}} ESifh ]]uDqaum}} wkdYonf OD;pGmckefqif;NyD; vufcsif;,Suf vsuf Akdvfae0if;ukd csDrícsay;cJhMuaMumif;ESifh jrefrmhajray:okdY [dwf[efygyg qif;ap&efqadk om t"dymÜ ,fjzifjh yKvyk af y;cJMh uonf/ wkdif&mESifh uDqaumwkdYonf Akdvfae0if;wkdYtm;EIwfqufNyD;aemuf jyefoGm;cJhonf/ Akv d af e0if;wkYd jrefrmjynf wGi;f okYd a&mufomG ;aMumif; Akv d rf ;dk BuKd ;ESihf Akv d af waZwkx Yd H owif;ykcYd o hJ nf/ 1

ausmfNidrf;/ &JabmfoHk;usdyf/ (&efukef? tif;0pmaywkduf? 1998) pm 13/


36 Akdvfae0if;wkdYtzGJU a&TuGif;BuD;&GmokdY a&mufMuaomtcg &Gm;om;rsm;rouFmí 0kdif;vmMuonf/ Akdvfae0if;rS ]] usKyfwkdYonf pwD;b&m; om; opfukrÜPDuyg qifrav;wpfaumif aysmufaevkdY vkduf&Smaewm }} [kajymaomfvnf; r,HkMuacs/ acwfBuD;u qifaysmuf&Smaeonfhacwf r[kwfawmhojzifh aemufqHk;wGif Akdvfae0if;rS olBuD; OD;b[eftm; trSeftwkdif;ajymjyojzifh vIdufvSJpGmulnDcJhaMumif;ESifhoHvGifjrpftwdkif;pHkqif;&m 0ufBuD;&GmokdYa&muf&SdcJhonf/ bkefBuD; OD;aZmwdurS ulnDcJhaomfvnf; odrfqdyfwGif yxrbkef;BuD;ausmif;rS vufrcHcJhay/ vrf;ü ykvdyfuif;tzGJUESifhwkd;í vlpkcGJuma&SmifcJh&onf/ eD;pyf&mbkef;BuD;ausmif;okdY 0ifíckdvIHMu&m bke;f awmfBu;D rS ]]trsKd ;om;a&; atmifjrifrS omoemvnf; xGe;f ajymifrnf }} [kqu kd m ulnaD y;cJo h nf/ tkypf jk zifo h mG ;vQif tEÅ&m,f&o dS jzifh vufeufypön;f rsm;ukcd aJG 0,lum vlpck cJG MhJ u&onf/ Akv d af e0if;onf &efuek o f v Ydk nf;aumif;? Akv d w f m&monf ysO;f rem;? Akv d rf ;dk ñkd yJc;l ESihf Akv d v f if;,keo f nf jynfwiG ;f ukw d m0ef,cl o hJ nf/ Akv d af e0if;ESiv hf rf;jywpfO;D onf ESi;f ykvb J w l mrS rD;&xm;jzifo h mG ;cJMh u&m &efuek Nf rKd UokYd azazmf0g&Dv 2 &ufaeYwiG af &muf&cdS o hJ nf/ rsuEf mS okyyf 0gacgif; aygif;í &kyaf zsmufchJ &onf/ aemufq;kH wGif Akv d af e0if;wkYd a&SUajy;wyfzUJG onf jrefrmjynfwiG ;f 0ifa&muf jzpfcMhJ uonf/ awmawmifukd ausmfjzwfí &efukefokdYa&mufMuvQif (bD-tm&f-yD)(Burma Revolutionary PartyBRP)ArmhawmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmif ocifausmfNidrf;ESifhtzGJUudk qufoG,frdcJhMuonf/ &efukefü ykev f QKd ;um apmifph m;aecJMh uonfh &Jabmfrsm;twGuf Akv d af e0if;wkaYd &mufvmjcif;onf tm;wk;d aq; ozG,fjzpfcJh&onf/ Akdvfae0if; wkdY,laqmifvmaom ypöwkdtdwfaqmifaoewfuav;rsm;onff xkdtcsdefwGif vufeufwkdufBuD;wpfckuJhokdYjzpfcJhonf/ Akdvfae0if;wkdYonf awmfvSefa&;twGuf pkid ;f jyif;vsuf 0g'jzefpY m&Gupf mwrf;rsm;ukd jzefaY 0cJMh uNy;D aemuf t*Fvyd w f yfrsm;onf Arm&Jabmfrsm;ukd pnf;&H;k vku d o f nf/ vufeufrsm;uk&d &menf;jzifh pkaqmif;Muí ]]yOöraH ysmufusm;ppf}}ukd qifEMJG uonf/ &efuek rf S wpfvufrrQqw k cf mG íray;[k BuKH ;0g;aom t*Fvyd w f yfrsm;ESihf t*Fvyd af oemywdrsm;onf tvHk;t&if;jzifhupifhuvsm; qkwfcGmxGufajy;cJhMu&onf/ ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfESifh Armh vlxBk u;D \ pnf;vH;k nDnw G rf jI zifh wku d cf u dk cf MhJ uojzihf t*Fvyd w f yfrsm; ppft&H;I Bu;D &H;I cJ&h avonf/ *syefppfAkdvfcsKyfume,fqlZluD;ESifh AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef;wkdYOD;pD;aom bD-tkdif-at wyfrawmf onf 0dw&dk , d tilrS ppfwpfaMumif;? xm;0,fe,frpS pfwpfaMumif;? zmyGerf S ppfwpfaMumif;? ppfaMumif; oH;k aMumif;jzefu Y m jrefrmjynfwiG ;f okYd 0ifa&mufcMhJ uonf/ bD-tkid -f at wyfrawmfom;rsm; onf jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf wkdufckduf&ef a'gif;wHqdyf(0g? pdrf;? eD)? vufywfrsm;ukd 0wfqifvsuf ,kd;',m;rS ppfaMumif;rsm;twkdif;0ifa&mufcJhMuonf/ Akdvfae0if;OD;pD;aom vQKd U0Suw f yfzUJG 0ifrsm; onf 1942 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 2 &ufaeYuwnf;u &efuek o f Ydk a&mufEiS Mhf u onf/ bD-tkdif-at wyfrawmfzGJUpnf;pwifzGJUpnf;csdefwGif tiftm; 1500 rQom&Sdaomfvnf; wjznf;jznf;rsm;jym;vmonfh bD-tkdif-at wyfrawmfonf 1942 ckESpf? rwfv 8 &ufaeYwGif


37 &efukefNrdKUukdodrf;ykdufEkdifcJhonfhtjyif rEÅav;ukd 1942ckESpf arv 1 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;? jrpfBuD;em;ukd 1942 ckESpf? arv 12 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;? jrefrmwjynfvHk;ukd 1942 ckESpf? ZGev f 15 &ufaeYwiG v f nf;aumif;? t*Fvyd w f x Ydk rH t S Ny;D tykid f wku d cf u dk o f rd ;f ykid Ef idk cf o hJ nf/ armfvNrKd iu f dk odr;f yku d Nf y;D vQif jrefrmEkid if t H m; vGwv f yfa&;aMunmay;ygrnf[k uwday;cJMh uaom *syefwyfonf armfvNrdKifukd odrf;ykdufNyD; &efukefNrdKUokdYa&mufonfhwkdif aMunmjcif;rjyKcJhay/ bD-tkdif-at onf &efuek u f o dk rd ;f yku d Nf y;D 1942ckEpS ?f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f ,m,Dtpk;d &ukzd UJG cJo h nf/ ,m,Dtpk;d &tzGUJ wGif *syefwu Ydk 0ifa&mufrpGuzf uf[q k adk omfvnf; bD-tkid -f at OD;pD;csKyf Akv d rf LS ;Bu;D qlZu l ;D (Akv d rf ;dk BuKd ;) onf aMunmcsuf (9)csujf zifch sKyu f idk x f m;cJo h nf/ 1942 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 4 &ufaeYwiG f *syeftBuKd uf tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUwpfckukd a'gufwmAarmf? a'gufwmodef;armif wkdYtygt0iftzGJU0if (12)OD; jzifzh UJG pnf;cJjh yefonf/ bD-tkid -f atukd 1942 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 27 &ufaeYwiG &f yk o f rd ;f Ny;D *syefrif;{u&mZf trdet Yf & Akv d cf sKyBf u;D tD;'g;u ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf bD-'D-at (Burma Defence Army) ukd tiftm; 5000 txdavQmhcszGJUpnf;cJhonf/ AkdvfawZ tm; AkdvfrSL;BuD;&mxl;jzifh bD-'D-at ppfaoemywdcefí Y bD-'D-atwyf&if; 3 &if;teuf wyf&if; (1)ukd Akv d af e0if;uwm0ef,cl o hJ nf/ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;xuf Akdvfae0if;utoufBuD;í EkdifiHa&;ESifhb0tawGYtBuHKpHkonf/ Akv d af tmifqef;udk av;pm;cJrh o d nft h csurf S uk, d u f sKd ;rzufwidk ;f jynftwGuf oufoufjzpfonfyh *k Kd¾ vf jzpfaMumif; [kdifeefuRef; wGifpwifawGUuwnf; Akdvfae0if; od&SdcJhonf/ Akdvfae0if;onf Akv d af tmifqef;\ acgif;aqmifru I dk av;pm;pGmcH,Nl y;D aemuf Akv d af e0if;onf 1942 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f wGif bD-'D-at ESihf bD-tife-f atwk\ d ppfaoemywd? ppfO;D pD;XmecsKyrf LS ;? axmufyahH &; XmeBu;D rSL;tjzpf wm0efxrf; aqmifco hJ nf/ *syefwo Ydk nf1943 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 1 &ufaeYwiG af &T&nfprd v f w G v f yfa&;ukad y;cJjh yef&m Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;onf umuG,af &;0efBu;D jzpfvmcJo h nf/ ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf (B.D.A)ukd Armhwyfrawmf(Burma Army)trnfjzifh jyefvnfzUJG pnf;cJNh y;D aemuf Akv d af wZ? Akv d af e0if;? Akv d v f usmf ? Akv d pf MumESihf jrefrmppfacgif;aqmifrsm;u jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmfudk jrefrmrsm;OD;aqmifoifNh yD jzpfaMumif; Akdvfrkd;BudK;xHpma&;awmif;qkdcJhojzifh AkdvfawZtm; ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf ppfaoemywdceft Y yfaMumif; trdex Yf u G v f mcJo h nf/ wyfrBu;D 2 wyfzUJG íppfxu G &f efjzpf&m wyfr(1)ukd ]]u*}} wyfr[k *syefrsm;ac:í AkdvfaZ,sukd tkyfcsKyfaponf/ wyfr(2)ukd ]]wumpl*D; }}wyfr[k ac:í Akv d af e0if;ukt d yk cf sKyaf pcJo h nf/ uyÜwed f uDw*srD m;onf Akv d af e0if;\ tBuaH y;t&m&Sjd zpf onf/ Akv d af e0if;onf [oFmwNrKd Uok0Yd ifa&mufí u&if-Arm acgif;aqmifrsm; ESiahf wGUqHNk y;D rsKd ;cspyf gwD vlBu;D rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;jr? OD;atmifomwkt Yd m; tiftm;&Sad p&ef u&if-Arm vlBu;D ? vli,f? tpk;d & 1

Captain Kitajima


38 trIxrf;? v,form;? tvkyo f rm;? tm;vH;k twl yl;aygif;aqmif&u G Mf urS jzpfvrd rYf nf[k ajymqkpd nf;&H;k cJo h nf/ 1943 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 16 &ufaeYwiG f ArmhwyfrawmfjyefvnfzUJG pnf;&m tiftm; 5,000 rS 15, 000txd wk;d vmcJo h nf/ ppfO;D pD;tzGUJ ukv d nf; jyefvnfzUJG pnf;cJo h nf/ jyefvnfzUJG pnf; aom ppfOD;pD;tzGJUwGif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf umuG,fa&;0efBuD;jzpfí AkdvfrSL;BuD;ae0if;onf ppfaoemywd jzpfvmcJo h nf/ *syefwo Ydk nf jrefrmwGi;f xGuo f bm0ypön;f rsm;ukd aoG;pkycf s,v f , S &f ef? jrefrmjynfol rsm tm;n§i;f yef;ESyd pf ufjcif;om;jzpfonf/ þonfudk xkpd OfuumuG,af &;0efBu;D jzpfol AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;rS pdwfrcsrf;ajrUojzifh 1944 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 23 &ufaeYwGif rdrdtdrfwGif vQKd U0Sut f pnf;ta0;usi;f ycJo h nf/ Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;onf xkv d QKd U0Sut f pnf;ta0;wGif ]] zufqpf wku d zf suaf &;jynfov Yl w G v f yfa&;tzGUJ (z.w.y.v) Anti Fascist Organization (A.F.O) ukzd UJG pnf;cJh onf/ xkt d csed w f iG f urÇmph pfrsuEf mS wGif zufqpfemZDwt Ydk a&;edrí Yf r[mrdww f Ydk ta&;omaeonf jzpf&m rlvuxGufajy;oGm;aom NAdwdoQ r[mrdwfwyfrsm;onf jrefrmjynfwGif;okdY jyefvnf 0ifa&mufpjyKaeavNyD xkt d csed w f iG f Armhwyfrawmf(Burma Army)ukd rsKd ;cspw f yfrawmf(Patriotic Burmese Forces-P.B. F)[k trnfajymif;vJ ac:a0:cJo h nf/ *syefawmfveS af &;wGif Akv d rf LS ;Bu;D ae0if;onf ppfaMumif;(2)jzifh jrpf0uRe;f ay:(zsmyHb k uf) ukd wm0ef,lcJh&onf/ *syefawmfvSefa&;aeYukd 1945 ckESpf? atNyDv 4 &ufaeY owfrSwfxm; aomfvnf; tajctaet& 1945 ckESpf? rwfv 27 &ufaeYokdYajymif;vJowfrSwfvkdufcJh&onf/ txufArmjynfwiG f rl wyfwiG ;f vIy&f mS ;rIaMumifh rwfv * &ufaeYuwnf;u *syefukd pwifwu dk cf u dk f cJhonf/ *syefwkdY r&dyfrdap&ef AkdvfrSL; Axl; acgif;aqmifaomtxufArmjynfawmfvSefa&;onf AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef; ukdaomfvnf;aumif;? *syeftvkdawmf&d a'gufwm Aarmftpkd;&ukdaom vnf;aumif;? wNydKifwnf; aMunmí wkdufckduf&avonf/ okdYr[kwfygu usefwyfrsm;rS rvIyo f mr,Suo f m *syefw\ Ydk zrf;qD; jcif;cH&rnfjzpfonf/ ]] 1945 ckEpS ?f atNyv D 2 &ufaeY aeY 1 em&DrpS í zufqpf*syefudk Armwkid ;f ol jynfom;tm;vH;k ESiw hf uG Armhwyfrawmfu ppfaMunmvku d Nf yD }} [lí *syefppfaMunmcsufxkwfí wkdufckdufwGef;vSefcJhonf/ AkdvfrSL;BuD;ae0if;onf zufqpf awmfveS af &;wGif wkid ;f 2 jzpfaomjrpf0uRe;f ay: \ ta&SUykid ;f wkid ;f rSL;tjzpf aqmif&u G cf &hJ onf/ 4-3/

vGwfvyfa&;wGifBudK;yrf;rI(1945-1948)

zufqpfawmfveS af &;tNy;D 1945 ckEpS ?f arv 3 &ufaeYwiG f t*Fvyd w f yfrsm; &efuek Nf rKd Uukd jyefvnf0ifa&mufco hJ nf/ jrefrmEkid if o H nfvnf; NAw d o d Qw\ Ydk ppftyk cf sKyaf &;vufatmuf usa&mufchJ onf/1945 ckESpf? arv 17 &ufaeYwGif NAdwdoQtpkd;&onf jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m tkyfcsKyfa&;rl0g' oabmxm;aMunmcsujf zpfonfh puúLjzLpmwrf;udx k w k jf yefaMunmNy;D jrefrmEkid if \ H tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf


39 pD;yGm;a&;qufvufcsKyu f idk x f m;&efppD Ofco hJ nf/ Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;OD;aqmifonfh zwyvtzGUJ csKyf onf 1945 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 19 &ufaeYwGif uefawmfBuD;apmif;&Sd aeol&def&HkBuD;wGif jynfot Yl pnf;ta0;wpf&yfusi;f ycJo h nf/ Armhwyfrawmfopfudk rs;kd cspAf rmhwyfrawmfom;rsm;jzifh zGUJ pnf;&eftqk?d zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;qGaJ &;twGuf wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmfac:,l&eftqkEd iS hf jrefrmwpfEkdifiHvHk; nDnTwfa&;tqkdrsm;wifoGif; qHk;jzwfcJhonf/aeol&defvlxktpnf;ta0;wGif ]]zufqpfqefu Y siaf &;tzGUJ csKy}f }[laomtrnfudk ]]zufqpfqefu Y siahf &; jynfov Yl w G v f yfa&;tzGUJ csKyf (z-q-y-v)(The Anti Fascist People's Freedom League or the A F P F L)1 [kajymif;vJac:a0:&ef qHk;jzwfcJhMuonf/ tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU0ifrsm;ukd a&G;aumufwifajr§mufcJh&m &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef; onf OuúXtjzpfvnf;aumif;? Akdvfae0if;ESifh AkdvfvusfmwkdYonf A[kOd ;D pD;tzGUJ 0ifrsm; tjzpfvnf;aumif; a&T;aumufwifajrm§ ufc&H onf/ aeol&ed v f x l t k pnf;ta0; wGif wifoiG ;f cJo h nfh ArmhwyfrawmfzUJG pnf;a&;udpEö iS yhf wfoufí aqG;aEG;&eftwGuf ta&SUawmif tm&SppfaoemywdcsKyf avmhv0l aD rmifb h ufwefonf jrefrmuk, d pf m;vS,t f zGUJ ukd uE´ND rKd UokzYd w d af c:cJh onf/xkzd w d af c:csut f & Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;? Akv d v f ufsm? Akv d af e0if; Akv d af Z,s? Akv d af usmaf ZmwkEYd iS hf AkdvfaZmfrif;wkdYygoGm;cJh onf/ 1945 ckESpf? pufwifbm 7 &ufaeYwGif uE´DoabmwlnDcsufukd vufrw S af &;xk;d Ekid cf o hJ nf/ 1945 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbm 15 &ufaeY uE´oabmwlncD sut f & topfzUJG pnf;wnfaxmif aomwyfrawmfwGif AkdvfrSL;BuD;ae0if;onf AkdvfrSL; tqifhjzifh Armhaoewfukdifwyf&if;(4)\ 'kwyf&if;rSL;tjzpf pmwifwm0efxrf;aqmifcJh&onf/ 1946 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 16 &ufaeYwGif 'kw, d Akv d rf LS ;Bu;D wyf&if;rSL;tqifo h Ydk wk;d jri§ w hf m0efxrf;aqmifapjcif; cH&onf/ 1947 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 19 &ufaeYwiG f Mum;jzwftpk;d &tzGUJ 0if 0efBu;D rsm;onf tpk;d tzGUJ \ 'kw, d OuúX Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef; \&Hk;cef;wGif pnf;a0;aeMupOf OD;apm\ vufyg;apvlowform;rsm;u aoewfjzifh 0ifa&muf ypfcwfí Ekid if aH cgif;aqmifrsm;ukd vkyBf uo H wfjzwfcMhJ uavonf/ vlowform;wk\ Yd vufcsujf zifh Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;tygt0if Ekid if ahH cgifaqmifBu;D 9 OD;usq;kH cJ&h onf/ Ekid if w H pfcv k ;kH uaomif;ueif;jzpfaecsed w f iG f Akv d cf sKyo f nf wyfrawmfudk wnfNird rf &I adS p&ef xde;f xm;íEkid cf o hJ nft h jyif Ekid if aH wmftay:opöm&S&d dS wm0efuadk usyeG pf mG xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ Akv d cf sKyf atmifqef;r&SdvQif &Jabmfrsm;u AkdvfcsKyf ae0if; ukdacgif;aqmifwifcJhMuonf/ bD-tkdif-at ^ bD-'D-at &Jabmfrsm;onff AkdvfcsKyftm; av;pm;Muonf/ AkdvfcsKyfae0if;\trSmpum; ukd aumif;pGmem,lcMhJ uonf/ 1

Akv d rf LS ; baomif;? ArmhawmfvSefa&;orkdif;/ (&efuek ?f t&kPOf ;D pmay? 1967) pm 307/


40 1947 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 8 &ufaeYwiG f Akv d rf LS ;Bu;D tqifw h ;dk jri§ jhf cif;cH&Ny;D ? 1947 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 12 &ufaeYwiG f Akv d rf LS ;csKyt f qifjh zifh ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f rSL; wm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ Mum;jzwftpk;d &tzGUJ onfh 1947 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 17 &ufaeYwiG f ]]jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&;pmcsKy}f } ukd csKyq f Edk idk cf o hJ nf/ OD;EkEiS hf NAw d o d Qeef;&if;0ef tufwvDwrYdk ]S ] Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyf }} ukd vufrw S f a&;xkd;cJhMuonf/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;pmcsKyf csKyfqkdNyD;aemuf jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;ukd 1948 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeY eHeuf 4 em&D 20 rdepf 37 puúefYtcsdefwGif vGwfvyfaom ]] jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkid if aH wmf }} tjzpfaMunmcJah vonf/ 4-4/

vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D acwfwiG Bf uKd ;yrf;rI(1948-1962)

vGwv f yfa&;Ny;D wqufwnf;rSmyif ykeu f efjcm;em;rIrsm;ukzd ,f&mS ;jcif;jzifh pnf;urf;jynf0h aom acwfrDaomwyfrawmfBuD;ukd xlaxmifEkdifcJhonfhacgif;aqmifrSm AkdvfcsKyfae0if; jzpfonf/ xkdtaMumif;ukd AkdvfcsKyf\vuf&Hk;ozG,fjzpfaom AkdvfrSL;BuD; atmifBuD;u a'gufwmarmifarmif (or®w tNidrf;pm;) tm; aemufaMumif;jyefajymjybl;aMumif;od&Sdygonf/ AkdvfcsKyfae0if;ESifh Akv d af tmifBu;D wkYd onf jynfvrf;&Spd pf&w J yf&if;xJrS tkww f u dk w f wku d u f dk ppfXmecsKyv f yk Nf y;D aemuf vufeufrsm; pkaqmif;jcif;cJhMuonf/ wkdufyGJxGufonfhwpfBudrfwGif &ufav;q,fvHk;vHk;?aeYpOf (24)em&De;D yg; wku d cf u dk cf MhJ u &onf/ xk&d ufav;q,fonf jrefrmhorkid ;f aMumif;ukd ajymif;aponfh tcsed u f mv jzpfí Armhvw G v f yfa&;ukd rwdr;f &atmifxed ;f cJ&h onfh tcsed u f mv jzpfonf/ 1948 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 1 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw, d ppfaoemywdcsKy(f wyfaygif;pk)jzpfvmcJNh y;D 1948 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 13 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfcsKyftqifhokdY wkd;jr§ifcefYtyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1949 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYwiG f Armhwyfrawmf 'kw, d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyjf zpfvmcJo h nf/ 1949 ckESpfonf wkdif;jynf\tajctaeqkd;&Gm;qHk;aomESpfjzpfcJh&m autif'Dtkdrsm; qlyal omif;use;f cJo h jzifh a&mifpo kH yl ek af omif;use;f olrsm;\tEÅ&m,fonf tjrifrh m;qH;k okYd a&mufchJ onf/ jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd jrdKUrsm;teuf &5 %onfa&mifpHkolykefrsm;\vufwGif;okdY usa&mufaeonfh tajctaeü &efuek Nf rKd Uonfyif autif't D rdk sm;vufou Ydk sa&mufawmhrnffh tajctaersm;jzpfco hJ nf/ tpkd;&tMuyftwnf;awGUaecsdefwGif jynfaxmifpkwnfNrJa&;twGuf t"dutiftm;jzpfonf wyfrawmfukdpnf;&Hk;um EkdifiHawmftmPmukd odrf;&efBudK;yrf;rIwpf&yfay:aygufvmonf/ zqyvtpk;d &onfa&mifpakH omif;use;f olrsm;\ ab;tEÅ&m,fomru trIxrf;rsm;\oydwu f v dk nf; &ifqkdifcJh&m EkdifiHawmf\tajctaerSm txl;pkd;&drfzG,f&mjzpfonf/ 1949 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 8 &ufaeY nwGif ppfO;D pD;csKyf Akv d cf sKyaf e0if;rS toHviT Xf merSwidk ;f jynfoYdk arwåm&yfccH suaf jymMum;cJo h nf/ 1949 ckEpS ?f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw, d Akv d cf sKyBf u;D tqifo h Ydk wk;d jri§ chf eft Y yfjcif;cH&onf/ 1949 ckESpf? atNyDv 4 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfcsKyfae0if;tm; 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyftjzpf


41 jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D XmeESiu hf muG,af &;0efBu;D Xmewku Yd dk tkycf sKy&f efwm0efay;aomtcg wm0eftaeESihf trIxrf;cJhonf/ AkdvfcsKyfae0if;onf 1948 ckESpfwGifwpfBudrf? 1949 ckESpfwGifwpfBudrf vuf0Jtiftm;pkESifh vuf,mtiftm;pkwkdY\tmPmodrf;&efpnf;&Hk;rIrsm;ukd vufrcHjcif;jzifh wyfrawmftwGi;f pnf;vH;k nDnw G rf u I dk xde;f xm;Ekid cf o hJ nf/ 'kw, d 0efBu;D csKyw f m0efxrf;aqmifpOfwiG f xkd;ESufwkdufckdufvsuf&Sdaoma&mifpHkaomif;usef;olrsm;tjyif autrfwDwyfrsm;\usL;ausmf 0ifa&mufru I dk [efw Y m;wku d x f w k cf NhJ y;D wkid ;f jynftay:opöm&S&d w dS m0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 1949 ckEpS ?f ZlvkdifvwGif vef'efokdYoGm;a&mufí AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ]]qm0DvsHpvif;}}ESifhawGYqHkcJhonf/ jrefrmEkdifiH tESHUtjym; &Sdaomif;usef;aeaom a&mifpHkolykefrsm;ukd &SdorQtiftm;ESifh wkdufckdufESdrfESif;cJhonfh twGuf jrefrmEkid if t H wGi;f Nird ;f csr;f a&;&&Sv d mcJo h nf/ wkid ;f jynfNird ;f csr;f a&;&vmNy;D aemuf 1950 jynfhESpf? pufwifbmv 9 &ufaeYwGifwyfrawmf\wm0efukd jyefvnfxrf;aqmifcJhonf/ 1956 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYwiG f Akv d cf sKyBf u;D &mxl;wk;d jri§ jf cif;cH&onf/ 1958 ckEpS ?f ar 6 &ufaeYwiG f zqyvtzGUJ csKyo f nf oef&Y iS ;f zqyv? wnfNrzJ qyv[lí ESpjf crf;uGcJ o hJ nf/ 1958 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 9 &ufaeYwiG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if yH gvDref jynfov Yl w T af wmf txl;tpnf;ta0;wGif wnfNrzJ qyvrS OD;AaqGrS OD;Ekacgif;aqmifaomtpd;k &tay: t,Ht k Munf r&Sd tqkdwifoGif;cJh&m &IH;ESdrfhcJhonf/ OD;EkOD;aqmifaom tmPmqufvufwnfNrJcJhaomfvnf; ESpzf uftyk pf u k jJG ym;rI*,ufaMumifh Ekid if aH &;tajctaewpfaeYwpfjcm;qk;d &Gm;vmcJo h nf/ xkaYd Mumifh 1958 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif 0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ek\tmPmvTJajymif;ay;csuf t&Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;onf tdraf pmift h pk;d &tzGUJ \ 0efBu;D csKyEf iS u hf muG,af &;0efBu;D wm0efrsm;ukd xrf;aqmifchJ onf/ ]] uReaf wmf0efBu;D csKy&f UJ wm0ef0wå&m;ukd tckvv dk ufc&H jcif;[m uReaf wmfeUJ wuG trwfrif;rsm;tm;vH;k tjrwfwEk;d OD;xdy&f u G yf efxm;wJh Ekid if aH wmfzUJG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'eJU'Dru dk a&pD tpOftvmukd tEÅ&m,ftrsKd ;rsKd ;u Ncrd ;f ajcmufaESmif, h u S v f maewmawGU&wJt h wGuf 'DtEÅ&m,fudk umuG,zf w Ydk m0ef,l vufcv H u dk jf cif;jzpfygw,f/ uReaf wmf'v D w dk m0ef,jl cif;[m jynfaxmifpo k m; yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;taeESifhvnf;aumif;? ppfom;wpfa,muftaeESifhvnf;aumif; wm0ef&SdwJhtwkdif; wm0ef,v l u dk jf cif;yJjzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh ygvDrefuay;tyfw'hJ w D m0efBu;D ukd uReaf wmf&&J 0J 0hH hH vufcH vku d jf cif;jzpfygw,f }} [kajymMum;cJyh gonf/1 tdraf pmihf tpd;k &tzGUJ wGif 0efBu;D (13) OD;yg&So d nf/ 2 wdik ;f jynftwGi;f Nird 0f yfyjd ym;rI? 1

OD;pHNird ;f ? jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 (yxrwGJ)/ wGb J ufa&;ol a'gufwm a':jrifMh unf/ 'k-Burd /f (&efuek ?f aMu;rHo k wif;pmwku d ?f 1991) pm-159/ 2

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf ufrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmfordkif; pwkw¬wGJ (1948-1962)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm - 246/ (1948-1962)


42 vH k N cH K rI & S d N yD ; tk y f c sKyf a &; ,EÅ & m; yH k r S e f v nf y wf Ed k i f a &;twG u f td r f a pmif h t pd k ; &onf txl;*½kjyKaqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1959 ckESpf {NyDvrukefrD vGwfvyfí w&m;rQwaom taxGaxG a&G;aumufyGJBuD; usif;yEdkifa&;twGuf pDpOfaqmif&Guf ay;rnfjzpfaMumif; AdkvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; uwdjyKco hJ nf/ tdraf pmiht f pd;k & vufxufwiG f tkycf sKyaf &; ,EÅ&m; odompGmwd;k wuf aumif;rGef vmaMumif; 1959 ckEpS f vGwv f yfa&;aeUtxl;xkwf Armhacwf owif;pmu a&;om;azmfjycJo h nf/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek\ zdwfac:csuft& AdkvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; tdrfapmihftpdk;& odkUr[kwf wyfrawmftpd;k &\wm0ef,rl rI mS tcsed t f cgtajctaeESihf vku d af vsmnDaxGr&I NdS y;D jynfow l Ukd \ axmufcHrIudkvnf; aumif;pGm&&SdcJhaMumif; tdE´d,EdkifiH a'vDwuúodkvfrS a&;om;xm;aom pmtkyw f iG af zmfjyxm;onf/1 AdkvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;onf a&G;aumufyGJudk 1959 ckESpf {NyDvrukef rD usif;yay;rnf[k uwdjyKajymMum;xm;aomfvnf; a&G;aumufyGJudk owfrSwfxm;aom tcsdef umvtwGi;f usi;f yjyKvyk af y;&efrmS rjzpfEikd cf ahJ cs/ wdik ;f jynfNird 0f yfyjd ym;a&;twGuf a&mifpo kH yl ek f rsm;udkESdrfeif;aeqJ wyfrsm;tm;a&G;aumufyGJtwGuf jyefvnf½kyfodrf;ygu olykefrsm;touf½SL ayguf&oGm;NyD; wdkif;jynfjyefvnf'ku©a&mufoGm;rnfjzpf&m EdkifiHa&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tcsif;csif; rajyvnfrIrsm;? EdkifiHtESHUtjym;wGif &Sdaeaomvufeufrsm;udk ukefpifatmifrodrf;Edkifao;í a&G;aumufyJGusif;yay;&efrjzpfEdkifcJhacs/ xdkpOfutajccHOya'yk'fr tcef; (7) yk'fr (116) t& 0efBuD;csKyftopfonf ygvDreftrwfr[kwfvQif ¤if;\oufwrf;umvrSm (6) vom&Sd ojzifh Adv k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;u 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rSEw k x f u G cf iG u hf kd 1959 ckEpS f azazmf0g&Dv (13) &ufaeUwGif wifjycJo h nf/ 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpfjyefvnfaqmif&u G af pvdyk gu yk'rf (116) udk jyefvnfjyifqifay;yg&ef wpfqufwnf;tBuHjyKwifjycJhonf/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;jyefvnfwifjy csufrsm;ESifhywfoufí jynfoUl vTwaf wmftrwfrsm;? Edik if aH &;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;u Adv k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;tm; 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf jyefvnfwifajrm§ ufEikd &f ef tajccHOya'yk'rf (116) wGiyf g0ifonhf jy|mef;csurf sm;udk aemufwpfBurd f a&G;aumufyGJusif;yNyD; jynfolUudk,fpm;vS,ftpdk;&zGJUpnf;onhf tcsdefxd acwå½kyfodrf;xm;&ef tajccHtyk cf sKyyf kH Oya'twnfjyKcsuu f kd twnfjyKco hJ nf/ Adv k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;tm; 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf qufvufwm0ef,al pvko d nht f wGuf tajccHOya'yk'rf (116) udk ,m,Djyifqifjcif;jzpfonf/ 1956 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv (27) &ufaeUwGif AdkvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if; OD;aqmifonhf tdrfapmihftpdk;&udk 'kwd,tBudrfzGJUpnf;cJhonf/ 'kwd,tBudrfzGJUpnf;cJh aom tdrfapmifhtpdk;& 0efBu;D tzGUJ wGif umuG,af &;0ef;Bu;D XmerS yk*Kd¾ vf (2) OD;yg0ifvmonf/ wdik ;f jynfNird 0f yfyjd ym;a&; ESihf vkyif ef;wGiu f s,x f ad &mufa&;twGuf ppfbuft&m&SBd u;D rsm;udk 0efBu;D Xmevufatmufü 1958 1

Government and Politics of Asian Countries: Myanmar/ edited by Verlinder

Grover.--New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications PVT.LTD, 2000.


43 ckESpfrSpí wm0efrsm;ay;tyfcJhonf/ 1959 ckESpf rwfv (10) &ufaeUwGif umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf xkwfjyefaom trdefUjyefwrf;wGif ¤if;udk,fwdkif tpdk;&tzGJU 0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0ef,laqmif&Guf aeonhftcsdeftcgwGif ppfrIxrf;tm;vHk; tjcm;tzGJU tpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqH&mwGifvnf;aumif;? jynforl sm;ESiq hf ufq&H mwGiv f nf;aumif; ydrk kd pnf;urf;ao0yfMu &efEiS hf pnf;urf;azmufzsuyf gu jyif;xefpmG ta&;,lrnfjzpfaMumif;yg&So d nf/ 1957 ckESpf rwfvESifh Mo*kwfvrsm;wGif tdrfapmifhtpdk;&oufwrf; (3)vausmfrQ tcsdeftwGif;wGif wdkif;jynfNidrf0yfydjym;a&;? ukefaps;EIef; usqif;a&; tajctaet&yf&yfwdkU wnfNird o f mG ;ap&ef tm;oGecf eG pf u kd af qmif&u G cf ahJ Mumif;? pufrv I ufrv I yk if ef;rsm; wd;k wuf atmifjrifrI &Sad Mumif; NrKd U&GmoefU&Si;f a&;ESiw hf uG pnf;urf; ao0yfa&;twGuf tm;oGecf eG pf u kd f jyKvyk af qmif&u G f Edik af Mumif;a&;om;azmfjycJo h nf/1 a&G;aumufyGJusif;yEdkifa&;twGuf wdkif;jynfNidrf0yfydjym;a&;tygt0if tjcm;vkyf ief;t&yf&yfudk tm;oGefcGefpdkufaqmif&GufaeonhfMum;rS tdrfapmifhtpdk;&onf &Srf;jynfe,f twGufvnf; ordkif;0ifajymif;vJrIvkyfudkifaqmif&Gufay;cJhonf/ a&S;acwftqufqufu tjrpfwG,fcJhaom &Srf;ya'o&mZfapmfbGm;rsm;\ tkyfcsKyfrItmPmudk tNyD;wdkifpGefYvTwfapcJh jcif;jzpfonf/ &Sr;f jynfe,fonf jrefrmEdik if \ H jynfe,fwpfcjk zpfygvsuyf a'o&mZfpepfqufvuf &Sio f efaejcif;udk vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D (10)ESpt f wGi;f zqyvtpd;k &u jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif; rjyKEikd cf o hJ jzifh tdrfapmifhtpdk;&wufvmNyD; (6)vwm tcsdefumvtwGif; apmfbGm;rsm;tm; tmPmpGefUvTwf apEdik cf jhJ cif;rSm xl;jcm;aomaqmif&u G cf sujf zpfonf/2 1960 jynfEh pS f azazmf0g&Dv (6) &ufaeUwGif a&G;aumufyu JG si;f yay;rnf jzpfaMumif; tdraf pmift h pd;k &u twdtvif;aMunmvdu k Nf y;D zqyv ygwDBu;D ESpcf o k nf a&G;aumufyt JG Edik &f &Sad &; twGuf NyKd iq f ikd rf t I &Sed t f [keyf rkd w kd ;kd jri§ v hf yI &f mS ;cJh Muonf/ a&G;aumufyEJG iS phf yfvsO;f í wyfrawmfom; rsm; vdu k ef m&eftrdeUf pmwpfapmifukd 1959 ckEpS f Ed0k ifbmv (11) &ufaeU aeUpGjJ zifh xkwjf yefco hJ nf/ (u)tjzpfEdkifqHk; w&m;rQwaom taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJjzpfap&ef/(c)wyfrawmfu&&Sdaeaom jynfov l x l \ k ,HMk unfav;pm;rI udk qufvuf&dS ap&efjzpfonf[ak zmfjyxm;&So d nf/ 1960 jynfEh pS f Zefe0g&Dv (16) &ufaeUrSpwifí EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (13) OD;udk jyefvnfvTwfay;cJhonf/ a&G;aumufyu JG mv twGi;f bufvu kd jf cif;? rw&m;jyKvyk jf cif;? Ncrd ;f ajcmufjcif;p onfrsm;&Scd o hJ nf/ tdraf pmiht f pd;k & onf ay;xm;onhu f wdtwdik ;f a&G;aumufyw JG iG t f Edik &f &Sd oGm;onhf Edik if aH &;ygwD 1

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyf wku d ?f 1969) pm- 373-377 / 2

,if;/ pm 387/


44 vufodkU tmPmvTJajymif;ay;&ef tpDtpOftwdkif;aqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1960 jynfhESpf {NyDv (4) &ufaeY jynfoUl vTwaf wmfnv D mcHwiG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if \ H 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf OD;Ekukd NyKd ib f ufr&Sd a&G;aumufwifajrm§ ufvu kd af Mumif; aMunmcJo h nf/ Adv k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;pD;aom tdraf pmiht f pd;k & onf uwdtwdik ;f a&G;aumufyu JG si;f y ay;cJo h nfomru jynfov l x l t k vdu k s rJay;a&G;aumufaom tpd;k &tzGUJ opfvufxo J Ukd tmPmvTaJ jymif; ay;cJo h nf/ tdraf pmift h pd;k & tzGUJ onf 4if;\oufwrf; (14)vwm umvtwGi;f jynfoUl qE´EiS t hf nD a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yay;Ny;D tpd;k &tzGUJ opfoUkd tmPm vTaJ jymif;ay;Edik cf o hJ nfomru tcsed w f u kd mvtwGi;f Edik if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rI&&Sad &;? Edik if aH wmfw;kd wuf pnfyifa&;wdkUudk aqmif&GufcJhonf/ ¤if;tcsdefu tbufbufucsdeJYaeonhf EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? tkycf sKyaf &;? vlraI &;ponhf u@toD;oD;wGif wd;k wufr&I adS p&ef pepfwusppD Ofaqmif&u G Ef ikd o f uJo h Ukd tdraf pmiht f pd;k &vufxufwiG f wyfrawmf\ ppfa&; qdik &f m pGr;f aqmifEikd rf aI Mumihf aomif;use;f ol rsm;pGm txdemtajc,dik cf &hJ onf/ epfjzL? epfe?D autrf't D ?kd trftif't D ?kd &Sr;f aomif;use;f ol? rl*sm[pf? w½kwfjzLponhf aomif;usef;ol tzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk ppfqifa&;rsm;jyKvkyfqifETJjcif;? wyfpcef;rsm; xdef;odrf;&jcif;wdkUaMumihf wdkufyGJBuD; (386) BudrfESifhwdkufyGJi,f (2743) BudrfqifEJTcJh&onf/1 &eforl sm;bufrS txdemcJo h vdk wyfrawmfbufrS vnf; tqH;k t½I;H rsm;&Scd yhJ gonf/ aomif;use;f ol rsm;tcsif;csif; oabmxm; uGJcJhMuaomaMumifh vnf;aumif;? wyfrawmf\ xkd;ppfqifrI'Pfudk rcHEikd í f vnf;aumif; vufeufuikd v f rf;pOfukd pGev Yf w T &f ef tjrifreS &f &Scd MhJ u ojzifh vufeufcstyfErHS I rsm;&Scd o hJ nf/ xl;jcm;aomatmifjrifrI wpf&yftaeESihf vufeufyek ;f tajrmuftrsm;udk azmfxw k Ef ikd cf hJ onf/ Edik if aH wmfw;kd wufwnfNird af &;twGuf xl;jcm;aomatmifjrifrw I pf&yftaeESihf NrKd Uopf? aps;opfrsm;wnfaxmifay;jcif;? usL;ausmfaqmufvkyfxm;aom wJtdrfrsm;udkajymif;a&TU ae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;rsm; vkyaf qmifco hJ nf/ &efuek Nf rKd Uawmfae&mtESUH tjym;wGif vlO;D a& (3) ode;f cefu Y kd ajymif;a&TUae&mcsxm;ay;EdkifcJhonf/ ajymif;a½TUae&mcsxm;ay;Edkifa&;twGuf jynfol tdk;tdrf jyefvnfxal xmifa&;tzGUJ jynfov Yl yk if ef;0efBu;D Xme?qnfajrmif;XmeESiw hf yfrawmfwUkd u wdak wmif; onhf tcsed u f mvtwGi;f Ouúvmy? omauwNrKd Uopfrsm;udw k nfaqmufay;cJo h nf/ ykZeG af wmif acsmif;udjk zwfu;l aomrD;&xm;wHwm;udk wyfrawmf tif*sief , D mtzGUJ rS armfawmf,mOf ESihf vlomG ; wHwm;tjzpf jyKjyifwnfaqmufay;jcif;jzifh &efukefESifhomauwNrdKUopfudk vG,fulpGmqufoG,f oGm;vmEdik af &; aqmif&u G af y;cJo h nf/

1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmfordkif; pwkw¬wGJ (1948-1962)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm - 36/ (1948-1962)


45 usL;ausm&f yfuu G rf sm;udzk suo f rd ;f Ny;D NrKd Uopfrsm;csxm;ay;cJjh cif;aMumifh &efuek Nf rKd UESihf wuGjrefrmjynft&yf&yfwiG f rD;avmifreI nf;yg;oGm;ouJo h Ukd &mZ0wfrrI sm;vnf;usqif;oGm;cJh onf/ tjcm;xl;jcm;onhaf qmif&u G cf suw f pf&yfrmS &efuek jf rLeDpy,ftzGUJ udk wyfrawmfom;rsm;? jynfoUl &J wyfzUJG rsm;? jynfov l x l t k iftm;rsm;jzifh pkaygif;um tywfpOfaqmif&u G cf rhJ aI Mumifh wd;k wufajymif;vJrI rsm;&Scd o hJ nf/ tdraf pmift h pd;k &vufxufwiG f vl0ifrBI u;D Muyfa&;Xme\ vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf qufE, T af e onhf Edik if jH cm;om;rSwyf w kH ifa&;udpu ö kd 1958 ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufaeUrS pwifaqmif&u G Ef ikd f cJo h nf/ Edik if jH cm;qufqaH &;u@wGif ,d;k ',m; (xdik ;f )? uarÇm'D;,m;? tpöa&;? tm&yf? ygupöwef? tdE, d´ ponhEf ikd if rH sm;ESihf cspMf unf&if;ES;D pGm qufqcH o hJ nf/1960 jynfEh pS f Zefe0g&Dv (28) &ufaeYü jrefrm-w½kwf e,ferd w d pf mcsKyu f kd csKyq f Ekd ikd af tmif aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ 1 ESp&f n S v f rsm; rNy;D jywfonhf w½kw-f jrefrm e,fjcm;owfrw S af &; udpjö zpfNy;D bbppfqifa&; 2 trnfay;xm;Ny;D atmifjrifpmG pmcsKycf sKyq f ckd o hJ nf/ w½kw-f jrefrm e,ferd w d jf yóemESihf ywfoufí ESpEf ikd if t H pd;k &\ cspMf unfa&; wpfEikd if EH iS w hf pfEikd if H usL;ausmf wdu k cf u kd jf cif; rjyKvyk &f ef pmcsKycf sKyq f Ekd ikd cf o hJ nf/ tdraf pmift h pd;k &\ EdkifiHjcm;qufqHa&;wGif tay:vGifqHk; aqmif&GufrIjzpfonf/ tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxufwGif wyfrawmft&m&SBd u;D rsm; OD;pD;í BuchH ikd af &; toif;rsm;udk jrefrmEdik if w H pfEikd if v H ;kH wGif wnfaxmif cJhMuonf/ 3 BuHhcdkifa&;toif;rsm;\ wuf<upGm yg0ifulnDrIaMumifh EdkifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;a&;ESifh Nidrf;csrf;om,ma&;vkyfief;rsm; wdk;wufcJhonf/ tdrfapmifhtpdk;&onf EdkifiHawmftwGif; pnf;urf;ao0yfonhf zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrI &&Sad p&ef aqmif&u G af y;cJNh y;D 1960 jynhEf pS f azazmf0g&Dv (6) &ufaeUwGif taxGaxGa&G;aumuf yGJudk atmifjrifpGm usif;yay;cJhonf/ a&G;aumufyGJwGif tEdkif&&Sdaom oefU&Sif;zqyv tzGJUodkU 1960 jynfhESpf {NyDv (4) &ufaeUwGif tmPmvTJajymif; ay;tyfco hJ nf/ oefU&Si;f zqyv tzGUJ onf OD;Ektm;0efBu;D csKyt f jzpfwifajrm§ ufNy;D tpd;k &tzGUJ zGUJ pnf;cJh onf/ oefU&Sif;zqyv tzGJUudkvnf; jynfaxmifpkygwD ( yxp ) [k trnfajymif;vJ cJhonf/ OD;Ekonf aiGaMu;ukeu f sro I ufomap&ef tpd;k &tzGUJ udk 0efBu;D OD;a& enf;enf;jzihf zGUJ pnf;cJo h jzifh 1

=acwf acwf j ref r mwnf [ ef / bmomjyefol OD;wifarmif&if/ (&efuek ?f jrwfE;dk olpmay? 1978) pm 639/ Dorothy Woodman. The Making of Burma

2

Burma Boundary Operation

3

ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d rf LS ;&H;k / wyfrawmfordkif;pwkw¬wGJ(19481962)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm - 257/ 1962)


46 ygwDwiG ;f rauseyfrrI sm;jzpfay:cJo h nf/ tkycf sKyrf o I ufwrf; (1) ESprf jynfrh D OD;? Adv k t f yk pf Ek iS o hf ciftyk pf k tzGUJ uGNJ y;D tkypf pk q JG E´rsm;jyif;jyif;xefxefay:aygufco hJ nf/1 jynfaxmifpk ygwDonf pnf;vH;k rIysujf ym; vmum tkyfcsKyfa&;,EÅ&m;rsm;yg ysufjym;vmcJhonf/ jynfaxmifpk ygwDtpdk;&vufxufwGif Ak'¨bmomudk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpfjy|mef;&efBudK;yrf;rIonf EdkifiHa&; rwnfNidrfrIudkay:ayguf apcJo h nf/ 1960 jynfEh pS f {Nyv D (4) &ufaeUwGif Ak'b ¨ momudk Edik if aH wmf bmomtjzpfjy|mef;a&; qdkif&m tBuHay;tzGJUudkzGJYpnf;cJhonf/ ucsifjynfe,fwGif c&pf,mefbm omudk;uG,folrsm;ESifh ewfudk;uG,folrsm;aexdkifMuojzifh Ak'¨bmomudk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf todtrSwfjyKa&;udk jyif;xefpmG qefu Y siMf uygonf/ Ak'b ¨ momudk Edik if aH wmfbmomtjzpf jy|mef;oifo h nf? roifo h nf 0g'jiif;cHrk rI sm;? axmufco H rl sm;? uefUuGuo f rl sm; ponfjzifh qlyv l yI &f mS ;vmMuonf/ 1960 jynfEh pS f Mo*kwv f (11) &ufaeUwGif jynfrESihf jynfe,frsm;rS c&pf,mefbmom0ifrsm;? tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm; ESifh ewfudk;uG,folwdkif;&if;om;rsm;u wdkif;&if;om;bmoma&;vlenf;pkaygif;pHkr[mrdwftzGJUudk zG J Y p nf ; wnf a xmif u m qE´ j ycJ h M uonf / tpd k ; &tzG J Y t wG i f ; Ak ' ¨ b mom0if r [k w f o nh f 0efBuD;rsm;twGif;wGif uefUuGufrIrsm; jzpfvmcJhonf/2 1961 ckESpf Bo*kwfv (26) &ufaeUwGif ygvDrefü zGpYJ nf;yHt k ajccHOya'udk jyifqifum Ak'b ¨ momudk Edik if aH wmfbmomtjzpfjy|mef;cJo h nf/ Ak ' ¨ b momud k Ed k i f i H a wmf b mom tjzpf j y|mef ; ay;jcif ; jzif h Ak ' ¨ b mom0if r [k w f a om wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;twGi;f rauseyfí qlyrl rI sm;ay:aygufc&hJ onf/ trsKd ;om;pnf;vH;k nDñw G f a&;udk xdcdkufcJh&onf/ Ak'¨bmom0if r[kwfonhf jynfolrsm;\pdk;&drfxdwfvefUrI? rauseyfrIrsm; yaysmufap&ef ygvDrefwGif jyifqif csufOya'udk xyfrHjy|mef;ay;cJhonf/ þOya't& tjcm;bmom0ifrsm;\ vGwv f yfpmG ud;k uG,rf ?I vGwv f yfpmG oifMum;Edik cf iG w hf nf;[laom &SNd y;D jzpfonhf bmoma&;ESihf ywfoufaom tajccHtcGit hf a&;rsm;udk jznhpf u G af y;onf/ Ak'b ¨ mombke;f awmfBu;D rsm;u 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek tdrfESifhvTwfawmf? twGif;0ef½Hk; ponfwdkUudk 0dkif;0ef;ydwfqdkUonhfudpö? ajrmufOuúvmy AvDta&;tcif;ay:aygufco hJ nf/ 3 ucsijf ynfe,fwiG v f nf; ucsiv f w G af jrmufa&; wyfrawmf ay:ayguf cJhonf/ 1962 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvukefwGif wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;\ acgif;aqmifrsm;? Edik if aH &; tzGt YJ pnf;aygif;pHrk S acgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf tpd;k &acgif;aqmifrsm; toHviT ½hf kH (1) ü jynfe,frsm;\ aemifa&;udk aqG;aEG;Muonf/ 1947 ckEpS f zGpYJ nf;yHk tajccHOya't& (10) 1

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f yk*Hpmtkyf wkduf? 1969) pm- 424/ 2

OD;ausmf0if;/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;1958-1962 (wwd,wGJ)/ wGJbufa&;ol OD;jr[efEiS hf OD;ode;f vdiI /f (&efuek ?f wuúov dk rf sm;yHEk ydS w f u dk ?f 1991) pm 106/ 3

rdk;BudK;owif;pm pm/ (14 Ekd 1961) pm 1-2/


47 ESpfMumvQif cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufEdkifonf[laom tcef; (10) yg cGJxGufEdkifaom tcGifhta&;udk jyif;xefpmG ajymqdv k mMuonf/ cGx J u G rf nft h ajctaersm;ESihf zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'udk ypfy,fxm;rnhf tajctaersm;jzpfay:vmcJo h nf/ Edik if aH &;wnfNird rf rI &Sjd cif;? tkycf sKyaf &;,EÅ&m; ,dr;f ,dik v f mjcif;? vlrsdK;a&;y#dyu©ydkrdkBuD;xGm;vmjcif;? aomif;usef;olrsm; ydkrdkx<uvmjcif;? jynfytm;udk;aom ya'o&mZfwdkUu jynfaxmifpkBuD;udk NzdKcGJ&efBudK;yrf;vmjcif;rsm;aMumifh wyfrawmfonf Edik if aH wmfvw G v f yfa&;ESihf tcsKyt f jcmtmPm wnfwchH ikd Nf raJ &;twGuf Adv k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;aqmif onhf awmfvSefa&;aumifpDudk zGJYpnf;NyD; 1962 ckESpf?rwfv (2) &ufaeYwGif EdkifiHawmftmPmudk xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufco hJ nf/ 4-5/

1962 rS 1988 ckESpftwGif;BudK;yrf;rI

Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;onf awmfveS af &;aumifpD OuúXtjzpfvnf;aumif;? awmfveS af &; tpk;d &OuúXESihf umuG,af &;Xmewm0efct H jzpfvnf;aumif;? ArmhwyfrawmfppfaoemywdcsKyt f jzpf vnf;aumif; wm0ef,lxrf;&GufcJhonf/ 1962 ckESpf Zlvdkifv (4) &ufaeUwGif jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDukd tjrKaw ygwDtjzpf pwifzUJG pnf;cJ&h mrS 1971 ckEpS f {Nyv D (30) &ufaeUxd jynfoUl ygwD tjzpfu;l ajymif; zGUJ pnf;cJo h nf/ jynfoUl awmifov l ,form;aumifpED iS hf jynfoUl tvkyo f rm;aumifpu D kd pnf;½H;k zGUJ pnf;cJo h nf/ 1972 ckEpS w f iG f aMunm csut f rSwf (97) udk xkwjf yefNy;D AsL½du k a&pDtyk cf sKyaf &; ,EÅ&m;\ tajccHjzpfonhf twGi;f 0ef ½H;k rsm;udk ½kyo f rd ;f cJNh y;D 0efBu;D Xmersm;udk jyKjyif zGUJ pnf;cJh onf/ 1969ckEpS af zazmf0g&Dv(26)&ufaeUwGif A[djk ynfoUl awmifov l ,form; aumifpu D kd zGJUpnf;cJhonf/ tvkyform;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJBuD;rsm;udk 1963 ckESpfrS 1967 ckESpfxd &efukefNrdKUESifh acsmufNrKd Ursm; wGiu f si;f yay;cJo h nf/ 1968 ckEpS f {Nyv D (27)&ufaeUwGif A[dt k vkyo f rm;aumifpD udk zGUJ pnf;cJo h nf/ Edik if aH wmfzUJG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'opf a&;qG&J ef Adv k rf LS ;csKyf pef;,k Ouú|tjzpf yg0ifaom tzGUJ 0if (97) OD;yg0ifonhf Edik if aH wmfzUJG pnf;tkycf sKyyf akH &;qGaJ &;aumfr&Siu f kd 1963 ckEpS f pufwifbmv (25) &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKUuarÇmZ &dyfomwGif ½Hk;zGifhí aumfr&SiftzGJU (15) zGJUcGJNyD; EdkifiHawmfzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' yxrrlMurf;udk a&;qGJcJhonf/ 1972 ckESpf arvESifh ZGefvwGif aumfr&SiftzGJUonf jrefrmEdkifiHwpf0ef;odkUoGm; a&mufí EdkifiHawmfzGJUpnf;yHk tajccH Oya' xyfqifh&Sif;vif;a&;aqmif&GufcJhonf/ OD;'def&wef acgif;aqmifonhf tzGJU0if (26) OD;jzihf jynfv;kH uRwq f E´c, H yl aJG umfr&Sio f nf jynfe,f? wdik ;f ESihf NrKd Uaumfr&Sizf UJG pnf;um 1973 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (15) &ufaeUrS (31)&ufaeUxd jynfoUl qE´c, H yl JG jyKvyk cf o hJ nf/ yxrtBurd f jynfoUl vTwaf wmf ESihf jynfolYaumifpD tqifhqifh a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyGJudk 1974 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (27) &ufaeUrS azazmf0g&Dv (10) &ufaeYxd usi;f yay;cJo h nf/ awmfveS af &;aumifpo D nf Edik if aH wmf\ tcsKyt f jcm


48 tmPmudk jynfoUl vTwaf wmfoUkd 1974 ckEpS f rwfv (2) &ufaeUwGif jyefvnfvaJT jymif;ay;tyfchJ aMumif; awGU&S&d ygonf/ 1 Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;onf 1974 ckEpS f rwfv 2 &ufaeYwiG f jynfaxmifpk qk&d , S v f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf\ yxrqH;k or®wjzpfvmcJo h nf/ Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;OD;aqmifaom awmfveS af &;aumifpo D nf 1963 ckEpS f {Nyv D (30) &ufaeUwGif jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf rl0g'oabmxm; aMunmcsufudk xkwfjyefaMunmcJhonf/ 1963 ckEpS f atmufwb kd mv (29) &ufaeUwGif vkyif ef;rsm; jynfoyl ikd jf yKvyk jf cif;Oya'? 1964 ckEpS f rwfv (13) &ufaeUwGif qd&k , S v f pfp;D yGm;a&;pepf wnfaqmufru I kd qefUusijf cif;rS umuG,o f nhf Oya'rsm; udjk y|mef;cJo h nf/ 1964 ckEpS f rwfv (19) &ufaeUrS 1972 ckEpS Zf efe0g&D v (1) &ufaeUxd jynfoyl ikd o f rd ;f qnf;jcif;vkyif ef;rsm;udk qufvuf aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ 1964 ckESpf arv (17) &ufaeUwGif usyf(100) wef? (50) wef aiGpuúLrsm;udk f rd ;f a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u G &f m w&m;0iftjzpfr&S yfpo J nhOf ya' xkwjf yefco hJ nf/2 ajr&Sipf epf zsuo wGif 1963 ckEpS f rwfv (25) &ufaeUwGif 1963 ckEpS f oD;pm;csxm;a&;Oya'ESihf 1963 ckEpS f awmifol v,form;rsm; tcGit hf a&;umuG,af &;Oya'? 1965 ckEpS f {Nyv D (5) &ufwiG f 1965ckEpS f oD;pm;cs xm;a&; Oya'rsm;udk jyifqifonhOf ya'rsm;udjk y|mef;Ny;D oD;pm;rsm;udzk suo f rd ;f cJo h nf/ ajr&Sirf sm;onf awmifolv,form;rsm;ydkifqdkifonhf uRJ? EGm;? xGefwHk;? xGefwHrsm;udk 0&rf;uyfcGifhr&Sdonhfjyif awmifov l ,form;rsm;xHrS oD;pm;c awmif;cHciG hf r&Syd g/ 1965 ckEpS f atmufwb kd mv (18) &ufaeU wGiu f ek o f , G af &; aumif pDuzkd UJG pnf;jcif;? ukeo f , G af &; aumfyakd &;&Si;f (22) ckzUJG pnf;cJo h nf/ 1973 - 1974 ckEpS w f iG f or0g,rtoif; (16400) &Scd o hJ nf/ 1967 ckEpS f atmufwb kd mv (2) &ufaeUwGif Adv k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; Ouú|tjzpfyg 0ifaom qdk&S,fvpfpD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;aumfrwDwpf&yfudk zGJUpnf;ay;cJhonf/ EdkifiHjcm;0ifaiG&&Sda&;twGuf ausmufrsu&f wemjyyG?J urÇmu h ek pf nfjyyG?J urÇmvSnchf &D;onfrsm;udk vufcjH cif;rsm;jyK vkycf o hJ nf/ ausmufrsuf&wemjyyGJ(10) Budrf cif;usif;jyoa&mif;cscJh&m usyfaiG (13.07) uka#&&SdcJhNyD; urÇmhukefpnfjyyGJwGifvnf; (361) Budrfyg0ifjyocJhonf/ urÇmvSnfhc&D;onfrsm;tm; jrefrmEdkifiH twGi;f vSnv fh nfavhvmEdik &f ef cGijhf yKc&hJ mESppf Of jrefrmusyf wpfuak #cefUESin hf rD Qaom Edik if jH cm;aiGrsm; &&Scd o hJ nf/

1

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if ?H awmfveS af &;aumifp/D awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ vkyfaqmif csuf orkdif;tusOf;csKyf / (&efukef? awmfvSefa&;aumifpD? ckESpfryg) pm 32/

2

,if;/ pm 42/


49 Muufarmufawmifqnf? 0ga&Smifqnf? awmifwiG ;f wl;ajrmif;? rkew f ikd af & avSmifuef? ajymif;jyma&avSmifwrH? aiGawmifqnf? [J[;kd csKd i0hf rS ;f qnfajrmif;? bk&m;Bu;D uke;f ? catmifyifwm? cufvefwrH? a'g&xwmwrH? ausmuftdk;a&eDacsmif; qnfajrmif;rsm; wnfaqmufay;cJhonf/ Edik if w H pf0ef;wGif jynfol ydik t f vkyv f yk af eonhpf uf½akH ygif; (1458)½Hjk zpfNy;D wnfaqmufqpJ uf½akH ygif; (18)½H&k cdS o hJ nf/1 1973 ckEpS w f iG f a&eHprd ;f wdik u f D (9.33) ode;f xGu&f cdS o hJ nf/ obm0"mwfaiGUrsm; udv k nf; pavESihf uRe;f acsmif; "mwfajrMoZmpuf½rkH sm; odUk wpfaeUvQif "mwfaiGUukAay (11.5)oef; jzefUjzL;ay;Edik cf ahJ Mumif;avhvmawGU&S&d ygonf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf 1964 ckESpfwGif wuúodkvfynma&;pepfudkjy|mef;í pepfopfynma&; udkvnf;aumif;? 1966 ckESpfü tajccHynma&;udkjy|mef;í pepfopf tajccH ynma&;udk 1967 ckESpfwGifvnf;aumif; taumiftxnfazmfcJhonf/ 1962 ckESpfwGif &efukef wuúodkvfOya'ESifh rEÅav; wuúodkvf Oya'wdkUudk½kyfodrf;onhf Oya'rsm;jy|mef;cJhonf/21963 ckESpfwGif udk,fydkifausmif; (814) ausmif;ukd jynfolydkifjyKvkyfcJhonf/ 1973 ckESpfwGif wuúodkvf ynma&;Oya'? tajccH ynma&;Oya'? ynma&;okawoeOya'udkjy|mef;cJhonf/ jrefrmpm ta&;tom; toHk;tEIef;rsm; rSefuefzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf jrefrmpm aumfr&Sif Oya'jy|mef; cJo h nf/ 1974 ckEpS w f iG f pufrpI u kd yf sKd ;a&;ESit hf oufarG;ynma&; Oya'udjk y|mef;cJo h nf/ acwfEiS hf avsmn f rD rI &So d nhf ynma&;Oya'rsm;udv k nf; jyifqifítopf jy|mef;cJo h nf/ usef;rma&;tqifhtwef; jrifhrm;vmap&ef? aus;&GmESifhNrdKUrsm;wGif usef;rma&; tusdK;cHpm;rI qif;&J? csrf;omra&G; wef;wl&Sdap&ef? a&m*gumuG,fa&;ESifh ukoa&;wGif a&m*g umuG,fa&;udkOD;wnfí aqmif&Gufay;&ef? udk,fvufBuHhcdkifa&;ESifhtm;upm;jr§ifhwifa&;wdkUudk aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ 1961 ckEpS w f iG f jynfoUl ppfrx I rf;tufOya'udk jyifqifonhOf ya'jy|mef;cJh onf/ q&m0efrsm;onf Edik if t H usKd ;twGuv f t kd yfygu wyfrawmfwiG o f mru NrKd Ujytkycf sKyaf &; bufwiG f touft&G,f? tcsdeftcg? ae&ma'ora&G; trIxrf;aqmifMu&rnf/3 1965 ckESpfwGif qif;&JEGrf;yg;aomvlemrsm;tm; aus;vufrS vlBuD;rsm;\aq;½Hkrsm;odkU tpdk;&p&dwfjzifh ydkUaqmifukoay;jcif;rsm;udkaqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1965 ckESpfrS 1969 ckESpftwGif; omoemjyK tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;\ aq;½Hk (9) ½Hu k kd jynfoyl ikd jf yKvyk cf o hJ nf/ 1

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if ?H awmfveS af &;aumifp/D awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ vkyfaqmifcsuf orkdif;tusOf;csKyf/ (&efuek ?f awmfveS af &;aumifp?D ckEpS rf yg) pm - 66/ 2 jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmfordkif;pwkw¬wGJ (1962-1974) (1962-1974)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1999) pm - 229/ 3 awmfveS af &;aumifp\ D 1962ckEpS rf pS í xkwjf yefaomOya'rsm;;/ trSw(f 1) rS(15)xd/


50 aeUuav;xde;f Xme (18) ck? rlvwef;BuKd ausmif; (9) ausmif;? uav;jyKpak &;Xme (1) ck? apwemh0efxrf; aeUuav;xde;f Xme (279) ck zGiv hf pS jf cif;jyKvyk cf o hJ nf/ u,fq,fa&; vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí 1962 ckEpS w f iG f tdE, d´ ydik f uyÜvu D Re;f rSjrefrmtrsKd ;om; tdraf xmifpk (622) vlO;D a& (2189) OD;tm; pepfwusae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;? 1972 ckESpfwGif yJcl;wdkif; ausmufwHwm;NrdKUwGif awmifay: (14)&GmrS tdrfaxmifpkaygif; (426) pktm; aomif;usef;rI uif;a0;&me,fajrwGif &Gmopfrsm;wnfaqmufay;rsm;jyKvyk cf o hJ nf/ 1962 ckEpS f yHEk ydS f vkyif ef;rsm;ESix hf w k af 0olrsm; rSwyf w kH ifOya'udjk y|mef;jcif;? 1964 ckEpS f pmMunhw f u kd ?f jywdu k Ef iS fh NyyGrJ sm;Bu;D Muyftyk cf sKyaf &; Oya'udjk y|mef;jcif;? ½ky&f iS ½f kH (182)½Hu k kd jynfoyl ikd o f rd ;f í ½ky&f iS v f yk if ef; aumfyakd &;&Si;f udzk UJG pnf;aqmif&u G jf cif;? rl0g'ESihf rqefu Y sif aom jrefrm½ky&f iS u f m; rsm; ½du k u f ;l &ef Zmwfvrf;rsm;? BuKd wifppd pf cGijfh yKjcif;rsm; aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ 1 1957 ckEpS f a&S;a[mif;txl;ypön;f rsm; tufOya' t& a&S;a[mif; taqmufttHk (120) ud k xd e f ; od r f ; apmif h a &S m uf j cif ; ? a&S ; a[mif ; taqmuf t tH k (500) ausmf xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufokawoejyKEdkif&ef 1962 ckESpf a&S;a[mif;0w¬Kypönf; tufOya'udk jyifqifonhOf ya'jy|mef;jcif;? ordik ;f 0iftxdr;f trSwt f aqmufttH?k aMu;½ky?f ausmufwikd ?f O,smOf? yefNcHrsm;udk ordkif;0ifyk*d¾Kvfrsm;\ *kPft*FgESifhtnD aqmif&GufEdkif&ef ordkif;0ifyk*¾dKvfrsm; txdr;f trSwaf rmfueG ;f Oya'udk jy|mef;cJo h nf/ pmaytaxmuftxm; enf;yg;onhf ydóEd;k NrKd Ua[mif;? [ef v if ; Nrd K Ua[mif ; ? oa&acwå & mNrd K Ua[mif ; rsm;ud k wl ; azmf í ok a woejyKjcif ; ? ordkif;uGif;qufrsm;azmfxkwfjcif;? ordkif;0iftaqmufttHk? apwDykxdk;? ausmufpmrsm;udk a&S;rlrysux f ed ;f odr;f jcif;? trsKd ;om;pmMunhw f u kd ?f jywdu k ?f a&S;a[mif; okawoejywdu k rf sm;zGiv hf pS í f a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rIypön;f rsm;jyojcif;? yef;cs?D yef;yk? yefwsm ausmif;rsm;zGiv hf pS í f yef;cs?D yef;yk tEkynm&yfrsm;jzefUjzL;jcif;? a&S;a[mif;urÜnf;pmay? yk&ydkuf? eH&Hyef;csD? oDcsif;BuD;rsm;udk ok a woejyKí pmtk y f x k w f a 0jcif ; ? jref r mEd k i f i H o rd k i f ; usrf ; twG u f jynf w G i f ; jynf y rS taxmuftxm;rsm;pkaqmif;jcif; ponhv f yk if ef;rsm;udak qmif&u G cf o hJ nf/2 Ak'b ¨ momomoema&;ESiyhf wfoufí y&d,wd?å y#dywd?å y#da0' omoemawmfo;kH &yf wd;k wufpnfyif&ef c&pf,mefbmom? tpövmrfbmom? [dEL´ bmom0ifrsm;ESihf aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/

1

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if ?H awmfveS af &;aumifp/D awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ vkyfaqmif csuf orkdif;tusOf;csKyf / (&efuek ?f awmfveS af &;aumifp?D ckEpS rf yg) pm - 112/ 2 jrefrf mEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmfordkif; (yÍörwGJ) 1962-1974 1962-1974/ 'k-Burd /f (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1999) pm237/


51 ewfudk;uG,folrsm; vGwfvyfpGmudk;uG,fEdkifa&; BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhonf/ ¤if;tjyif bmoma&; toif;tzGUJ rsm;odUk ESppf OfaxmufyahH iGrsm;vSL'gef;cJo h nf/ jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if H oefacgif; pm&if;Oya'udk {Nyv D (28) &ufaeUwGijf y|mef; cJhonf/ 1973 ckESpf? {NyDv (1) &ufrS (5) &ufaeUxdtrsdK;om;a&; vkyfief;BuD;wpf&yf taejzifhaqmif&GufcJhonf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ &nfrSef;csufrSm jynfolUw&m;pD&ifa&;pepf taumif txnfazmf&efjzpfonf/ w&m;½H;k csKyzf UJG pnf;jcif;? jynfow Yl &m;pD&ifa&;udak rQmrf eS ;f onhf tajccH ajymif;vJrIrsm;jyKvkyfjcif;? jynfolUw&m;pD&ifa&;pepfudkpwiftaumiftxnfazmfjcif;? tjypf'Pf ay;onhfpepfudk jyKjyifusifhoHk;jcif;rsm;aqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1 1974 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv (15) &ufaeUwGif EdkifiHjcm; wdkif;jynfrsm;ü jrefrmEkdifiHrSzGifhvSpfxm;onhf jrefrmoH½Hk; (27)½Hk;? aumifppf0efcsKyf½Hk; (3) ½Hk;? ukvor*¾qdkif&m jrefrmtNrJwrf; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJU½Hk; (1)½Hk;? wdu k sKd NrKd UjrefrmtzGUJ ½H;k (1) ½H;k pkpak ygif; (32) ½H;k &Sad Mumif; avhvmawGU&S&d ygonf/ 2 1967 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif Auyrsm;onf jrpf0uRef;ay:a'otm; jrpf0uRef;ay: wdik ;f tjzpf aqmif&u G af epOf wyfrawmfrS ]] jynfom,mppfqifa&; }} trnfjzifh 1968 ckEpS f {Nyv D (16) &ufaeUwGif AuyXmecsKyftm; awGU&Sdodrf;ydkufEdkifcJhonf/ 1968 ckESpf pufwifbmv (19) &ufaeUwGif 'kw, d tBurd f Auy A[dXk mecsKyt f m; tvpftidu k 0f ifa&muf wdu k cf u kd cf hJ onf/ Auy A[dkXmecsKyfonf a&Smifwdrf;&if; pufwifbmv (24) &ufwGif jr&myifaMum\ ta&SU aZmif;ausmufacsmif; urf;yg;wGif acwåpcef;cspOf ocifoef;xGef;onf &JabmfjrBuD;\ vkyBf urH aI Mumifah oqH;k cJ&h onf/ 1975 ckEpS f rwfv (15) &ufwiG f wyfrawmfrS atmifp;kd rd;k ppfqifa&; jzifh ocifwifESifh ocifcspfwdkUtm; yJcl;½dk;r? &JEG,f? zGwfusm;acsmif;wGif tao&rdcJhNyD; yJcl;½dk;r&Sd Auyrsm;onf wyfrawmfEiS hf jynforl sm;\ vufcsujf zihf usq;kH csKyNf ird ;f cJ&h onf/ 1967-68ckEpS rf pS Ny;D &Srf;jynfta&SUajrmufa'owGif Auyrsm; tiftm;BuD;xGm;vmNyD; 1972 ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;wGif uGrf;vHk&uf (40)wdkufyGJBuD; jzpfyGm;cJhonf/ wyfrawmfrS&Gyf&GyfcRHcRH wGef;vSefwdkufcdkufcJhonf/ awmfveS af &;aumifpt D pd;k &vuf xufwiG f Edik if t H wGi;f aomif;use;f ol tEÅ&m,fuif;a0;atmif aqmif&GufcJhaomfvnf; e,fpGef e,fzsm;a'orsm;wGif EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? vlrsdK;a&;t&if;cHonhf aomif;use;f olrsm; use&f cdS hJ aMumif; avhvmawGU&S&d ygonf/

1

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if ?H awmfveS af &;aumifp/D awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ vkyfaqmif csuf orkdif;tusOf;csKyf / (&efuek ?f awmfveS af &;aumifp?D ckEpS rf yg) pm - 187/ 2 ,if;? pm - 228/


52 AkdvfcsKyfu ZmwfedygwfyHkjyifjzifh jrefrmh&kd;&m,Ofaus;rI aumif;&mrGef&mwkdYukd jyefvnfazmfxkwfapcsifonf/ wdrfjrKyfaep jyKaeNyDjzpfaompma[m? uGufpdwf? &kyfao;wkdYukd azmfxkwftm;ay;onf/ ynm&SdBuD;rsm;\a[majymcsuf? wD;rIwfoDqkdoHwkdYukd tem*wftwGuf toHoiG ;f xm;aponf/ rEÅav;rS&yk af o;q&mBu;D rsm;ukd &efuek o f yYdk ifzh w d í f tdraf wmfüjyoaponf/ NrdKUawmfolNrdKUawmfom;wkdYtwGufyGJwifonf/ NyD;vQif&kyfao;q&mBuD;rsm;tm; vufaqmifay;í Akv d cf sKyaf e0if;u uefawmfah Mumif;od&&dS onf/ 1981 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 8 &ufaeYwiG f ygwDnv D mcHrS a&G;cs,jf cif;cH&aomOD;pef;,ktm; or®w&mxl; vGaJ jymif;ay;cJo h nf/ eDaygEkdifiH bk&ifrif;jrwfxHrS "r®yPÖmawmfvufaqmif&&Sdaom Ak'¨&kyfyGm;awmfESifh yOö"gwk[ewdbufapwDawmf? "gwfawmfMuKwrf sm;ukd ylaZmfXmyemí 1980 jynfEh pS f jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHawmf*kdPf;aygif;pHkoHCmnDnGwfrI&Sdjcif;txdrf;trSwftjzpf r[m0dZ,apwDawmfukd wnfxm;&mwGif ukd;uG,fylaZmf xm;&Sdygonf/ blrdzórkj'm Ak'¨&kyfyGm;awmf ylaZmfzG,f&mrsm;ukd 1987 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 5 &ufaeYwiG f usa&mufaomxkid ;f bk&ifrh if;jrwfoufawmf 60 jynfah rG;aeY vufaqmiftjzpf AefaumufNrKd UokYd uk, d w f idk yf ifah qmifí oGm;a&mufay;ykcYd yhJ gonf/ acwfwpfacwfrS wpfacwfokdY? pepfwpfckrSwpfckokdY ajymif;vJjzpfay:jcif;[lonf ¤if;ESio hf ufqidk o f nfh aemufco H rkid ;f aMumif;rsm;&Sw d wfygonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh twdwu f mvrS taMumif;t&mrsm;aygif;qHkjzpfysufcJhjcif;onf rsufarSmufacwfumvtwGuf tusdK;w&m; wpfpHkwpf&mukd jzpfxGef;apygonf/ wpfzef rsufarSmufumvwGif jzpfysufaeorQ tusdK;&v'f wpfpw kH pfcu k dk ay;pGr;f vmrnfom jzpfayonf/ vrf;pOfygwD tm;enf;csurf sm;? aysmu h u G [ f muGurf sm; ukd tajcjyKum jynfwiG ;f jynfy&Sd vuf0v J uf,m tiftm;pkrsm;\ aoG;xk;d ajrm§ ufyifah y;rIrsm;aMumifh 1988ckEpS o f aYdk &mufaomtcg ta&;tcif;Bu;D wpfck jzpfay:vmcJ&h onf/ ta&;tcif;jzpfay:ap&ef t"duwGe;f ykaYd y;cJo h nfh Ekid if aH wmf\ t"dujyóemBu;D ESp&f yf&cdS yhJ gonf/ ,if;wkrYd mS pD;yGm;a&;jyóem ESihf Ekid if aH &;jyóemyifjzpfygonf/ ta&;tcif; tBuKd umvrsm;twGi;f Ekid if aH wmfEiS hf jynfov l x l k twGi;f pD;yGm;a&;jyóemrsm;wpfaeYwpfjcm; wk;d wufvmcJo h nfEiS t hf rQ ,if;\tusKd ; quftjzpf 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf jynfov l x l t k wGi;f ü rormrIrsm;? tusiyhf surf rI sm;? pm&dwaå zmufjyefrrI sm;? uk, d u f sKd ; &Sm a&omckrd rI sm;? t*wdvu dk pf m;rIrsm; ykrd rdk sm;jym;vmcJyh gonf/ tkycf sKyaf &;ykid ;f wGiv f nf; &yfuu G rf S wkdif;tqifhxd zGJUpnf;xm;aom jynfolYaumifpD tzGJUtpnf;rsm;wGif jynfolrsm;\qE´ ESifhvnf; ruku d n f ?D vkyif ef;uRr;f usirf v I nf;r&S?d uk, d u f sio hf u d m© ukv d nf; apmifx h ed ;f &ef tm;enf;cJMh u onfh yk*¾dKvfrsm;ukd xnfhoGif; wm0efay;cJhjcif;rsm;aMumifh jynfolvlxktwGif; rw&m;rI? rrSefruef qH;k jzwfc&H rI armufrmrIrsm;ukd cHpm;cJMh u&onf/ wm0ef&t dS zGUJ tpnf;tqifq h ifh ESijhf ynfov l x l rk mS uGm[rI Bu;D rm;vmcJ&h rkH Qru jynfov l x l \ k rauseyfrrI sm;ukv d nf; wk;d íom jzpfay:cJo h nf/ bDbpD ?D AGt D adk t? atmvftEd , d´ ponftoHviT Xhf mersm;ESihf jynfypme,fZif;tcsKd w Y o Ydk nf jrefrmEkid if t H wGi;f


53 jzpfay:aeaom EkdifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? tkyfcsKyfa&; tajctaersm;ukd yHkBuD;csJU xkwfvTifhay;jcif;? trsKd ;rsKd ;aomenf;rsm;ukd toH;k jyKum aoG;xk;d vIaH qmfrrI sm;ukd jyKvyk v f mcJMh uyg onf/ 1988 ckepS ?f rwfv 12 &ufaeY n 9 em&D 15 rdepf tcsed cf efw Y iG f BuKd Uuke;f blwmteD; pE´m0if;vufzuf&nfqidk üf pufrIwuúokdvf'kwd,ESpfausmif;om; 2 OD;ESifh t&ufrl;aeonfh&yfuGuf vli,f 5 OD;wkdYonf uufqufocD si;f acGziG chf idk ;f &mrStp cku d &f efjzpfymG ;cJMh uygonf/ ,if;&efponf xkrd QEiS yhf if &yfwefrY oGm; cJb h J aemufwpfaeYjzpfonfh rwfv 13 &ufaeYn 8 em&D 30 rdepf tcsed cf efrY S pí BuKd Uuke;f &yfuu G rf S t&yfom;rsm;ESihf pufrw I uúov dk af usmif;om;rsm; wpfzufEiS w hf pfzuf tkypf zk UJG tMurf;zufwu dk cf u dk rf I rsm; jzpfymG ;cJyh gonf/ trIu d u f p jyó'fr;D avmifqo dk uJo h Ydk ausmif;om;rsm; qlyq l E´jyrIrsm; wpfNrKd UNy;D wpfNrdKUjzpfay:vmcJhygonf/ EdkifiHawmftusdK;twGuf wm0ef&SdoltzGJUtpnf;rsm;rS rnfrQyif aqmif&Gufay;apumrl EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsm;? qlylvkdolrsm;rS wpfjynfvHk;twkdif;twmjzifh qlyltHk<ua&;ukdom tm;pkdufvkyfaqmifcJhMuygonf/ 9-8-88 &ufaeYrSpwifNyD; vltkyfBuD;rsm;jzifh vHkNcHKa&;wyfzGJU0ifrsm;tm; tMurf;zufowfjzwfrIrsm;? wkdufckduf&efjyKrIrsm; jyKvkyfvmcJhMuygonf/ xkdtawmftwGif; ausmif;0if;rsm;twGif;wGif Ekid if aH &;orm;rsm;omru Ekid if jH cm;oHwreftcsKd UwkyYd g 0ifxu G af jc&Iyjf cif;rsm; jyKvyk v f mMuygonf/ xkdhYaMumifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf ,if;wkdY\ajr§mufyifhay;rIrsm;? 0g'jzefYvIHUaqmfay;rIrsm;aMumifh ausmif;om;rsm;ta&;oufoufuo dk m awmif;qkcd MhJ u&mrS ]] ppfreS af om'Dru dk a&pD&&Sad &; aqmif&u G f ay;&ef}} [lonfh Ekid if aH &;oabmouf0ifonfh awmif;qkcd surf sm;uku d dk pwifawmif;qkv d mcJMh uonf/ ausmif;0if;rsm;twGif;wGifvnf; vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsdK;pHk 0ifa&mufvmrIwkdYaMumifh ausmif;yk&0d P k rf sm;twGi;f wGif Ekid if aH &;ykrd &dk yI af xG;vmcJyh gonf/ &efukefNrdKUwGif qlyltMurf;zufrIrsm;jzpfyGm;aepOftwGif; Zlvkdifv 7 &ufaeYwGif awmifBuD;NrdKUüvnf;qlylrIrsm;jzpfyGm;cJhygonf/ Zlvkdifv 23 &ufaeYwGif vrf;pOfygwD? ta&;ay: ygwDnv D mcHusi;f yjyKvyk cf yhJ gonf/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;wGif Ekid if aH wmfp;D yGm;a&;qkid &f mrl0g' vrf;nTerf I rsm;jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;ESihf ygwDzUJG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'pnf;rsO;f rsm; jyifqifa&;wkt Yd wGuf aqG;aEG; aqmif&u G cf MhJ uygonf/ xkt Yd jyif ,if;tpnf;ta0;ü vrf;pOfygwDOuúXBu;D OD;ae0if; uk, d w f idk rf S wpfygwDpepf okdYr[kwf ygwDpHkpepf ESpfckwkdYteuf rnfonfukdESpfoufaMumif; wpfjynfvHk; qE´cH,lyGJusif;ya&;? ygwDOuúXBuD;tygt0if EkwfxGufvkdolrsm;\qE´ukd vkdufavsma&;? 1962 ckESpf ausmif;om;or*¾ taqmufttHkukd zsufqD;cJhjcif;ESihfpyfvsOf;í tjrif&Sif;ap&efwkdYtwGuf tus,w f 0ifh &Si;f vif;cJyh gonf/ Zlvidk v f 25 &ufaeYwiG f ta&;ay:ygwDnv D mcHrS qH;k jzwfcsurf sm; csrSwfcJh&m ,if;wkdYteufygwDOuúXBuD; OD;ae0if;ESifh 'kwd,ygwDOuúXBuD; OD;pef;,kwkdYtm; Ekwx f u G cf iG jhf yKNy;D ygwD0iftjzpfrS tem;,lciG jhf yKcyhJ gonf/


54 5/

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OD;pef;,konf 1942ckESpfwGif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf (bD-tdkif-at)odkY jynfNrKd UrS 0ifa&mufonf/ *syefppft&m&drS sm;oifMum;ay;onhf tajccHppfynmoifwef;rsm; wufa&mufNy;D aemuf 'kw, d Akv d t f jzpfceft Y yfjcif;cH&onf/ {&m0wDjrpfaMumif;rS Aef;armftxd ppfaMumif;csw D uf&mwGif yg0ifco hJ nf/ 1944ckEpS w f iG f trSwf 2 ajcvsiw f yf&if;?trSwf 3 wyfcüGJ wm0efxrf;aqmifaecsed f tmvHNrKd rY ;kd aumif;&Gmüpcef;csxm;Ny;D jynfNrKd ?Y e0if;acsmif;rS a&eHacsmif;NrdKU? rusOf;usnfawmuf&Gmtxd a&eHydkufvdkif;apmifhwm0efudkxrf;aqmif cJo h nf/ 1 1945ckEpS ?f rwfv 24 &ufaeYwiG f wdik ;f (7)ppfXmecsKyf pcef;cs&m tmvH(ajrxJ)NrKd Ue,f? 1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu k Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu k /f wyfrawmfordkif; (wwd,wJ)G 1945- 1948/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESih f pme,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1995) pm 318/


58 jyvd&Yk mG wGif Adv k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESit hf wl wdik ;f (7)wdik ;f rSL; Adv k rf LS ; atmif? wyf&if;(2) wyf&if;rSL; Adv k Bf u;D pef;,k? wyf&if;(6)wyf&if; Adv k Bf u;D pde0f if; wdEYk iS t hf wl zufqpf awmfveS af &;jyifqifrI rsm;udk aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/ 1945ckESpf? rwfv 26 &ufaeYwGif wkdif; (7) ppfXmecsKyf? wyf&if;(2)ESihf ppfO;D XmecsKyt f zJUG 0ifrsm;onf {&m0wDjrpfaemufzufurf;odYk csw D ufco hJ nf/ rwfv 27 &ufaeY eHeuf(7)em&DcefYwGif o&ufNrdKUtpGef&Sd wyf&if;(6)ppfXmecsKyf odaYk &muf&NdS y;D aemuf Adv k rf LS ;atmif? Adv k Bf u;D pderf eS ?f Adv k Bf u;D pde0f if;? wyf&if;(2)wyf&if;rSL; Adkvf pef;,k wdkYonfrwfv 27 &ufaeYnwGif zufqpf*syefwdkYtm; pwifawmfvSefrnfh tpDtpOfESifh wyf&if;^wyfcJGrsm;csDwufMurnfhtpDtpOf? wyfcsxm;rnfh pcef;rsm;ESifh wdu k yf rGJ sm;pwifonfEiS hf wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyEf iS hf wyf&if;rsm;tquftoG,rf jywfa&; &efoo Yl wif; rsm; tvsit f jrefyaYkd &;ESihf jynfov l x l t k m; zufqpfawmfveS af &;ESihf ywfowfí 0g'jzefcY sD vIHaqmfa&; tpDtpOfrsm;? &yf&GmumuG,fa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;udpörsm;udk aqG;aEG;cJh Muonf/1 rwfv 27 &ufaeY nae(5)em&DtcsdefwGif Adkvfpef;,k wdkYonf ysOfaxmifrif;wJvrf;twdik ;f rif;wke;f e,focYkd sw D ufco hJ nf/ n(11)em&?D (30)rdepf tcsed w f iG f rif;wJ&mG odYk a&muf&NdS y;D &Gmbke;f Bu;D ausmif;ESihf teD;tem;&Sd acsmif;jyifwiG f wyfzrYGJ sm;&yfem;cJo h nf/atNyv D 25 &ufaeYwGif ykPÖm;&Gmü zufqpf*syefwdkYtm; wdkif;(7)ppfe,fajrtwGif; ppfqifa&; vkyif ef;rsm; vlxpk nf;½H;k a&;ESihf tkycf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;rsm;udk Adv k rf LS ; atmifEiS t hf wl Adv k pf ef;,k tygt0ifwyf&if;rSL;rsm; aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/ wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf wyf&if;wyfcJGrsm;onf o&ufNrKd UwGif (5)&ufcefw Y yfpcef;cscNhJ y;D jrpf ta&SUbufjcrf;jyvdpYk cef;odYk a&muf&cdS MhJ uonf/ 1945ckEpS ?f ZGev f 1 &ufaeYwiG f tmvHNrKd U? iysi;f &Gmü wyf&if;(2)udk jyefvnfzUGJ pnf;cJo h nf/ wyf&if;rSL; AdkvfBuD; pef;,kESifh trSwf(1)wyfcJGrSL; Adkvfjr? trSwf(2)wyfcJGrSL; Adkvfodef;a&T ? trSw(f 3)wyfcrGJ LS ; Adv k af ersK;d ESihf wyfc(GJ 3)cJzG UGJ Ny;D wyfom;(204)a,muf yg0ifygonf/ZGev f 17 &ufaeYwGif AdkvfBuD;pef;,k OD;pD;aom trSwf(2)wyf&if;onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;\ trdefYt& a&TawmifodkY qufvufcsDwufcJh&m n(7)em&DwGifa&muf&SdcJhonf/ ZGefv 18 &ufaeYwiG f r[mrdww f yfrsm; xHrS ulnaD omppfum;(8)pD;jzifh ewfwvif;odcYk sw D ufco hJ nf/ ewfwvif; ta&SU"r®i,f&GmodkYn(7)em&DwGif a&muf&SdcJhonf/ ZGefv 23 &ufaeYwGif pef;Bu;D &GmodcYk sw D ufc&hJ m u&ifa&aemuf(awmifay:pcef;)wGif *syefrsm;pcef;cs aeaMumif; owif;&&Scd o hJ nf/Zlvikd v f 13 &ufaeYwiG f Adv k Bf u;D pef;,k OD;pD;aom wyf&if;(2)onfzg;,m;Bu;D uefpkodkY wyfjyefacgufí Zlvdkif 14 &ufaeYwGif "r®i,fudkjzwfí aygufukef;odkY a&muf&pdS cef;csco hJ nf/ 1945ckEpS ?f pufwifbm 2 &ufaeYwiG f wdu k sKyd ifv,fatmftwGi;f &Sd 1

ocifwifjr? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;XmecsKyfESifh wdkif; (10) wdkif; / 3- Burd /f (&efuek ?f r[meE´ pmay? 1976) pm 334/


59 tar&duefppfoabFm tufpf? tufpf? rpfql&Drpf r[mrdwfwyfrsm;\ ppfaoemywdcsKyf Adv k cf sKyBf u;D rwftmom a&SUarSmufü *syefwv Ykd ufeufcstnHch aH Mumif;vufrw S af &;xk;d cJo h nf/ þodkYjzifh ydpdzdwfppfrsufESmppfyJGBuD; NyD;qHk;cJhonf/ zufqpf awmfvSefa&;wGif acsrIef; wdkufcdkufa&;ESifh taemufwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf\ vkHNcKHa&; wm0efrsm;xrf;aqmif&onf/ yJc;l &d;k rbuf wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf ppfqifa&;wGif a&S;OD;csw D yf&if;udk OD;aqmifyg0if wdu k cf u kd o f nf/ zufqpfawmfveS af &; Ny;D qk;H í rsK;d cspAf rmhwyfrawmf zsuo f rd ;f onftxd wm0efxrf;aqmif cJo h nf/ 1946ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwGif OD;pef;,konf uE´DpmcsKyfoabmwlnD csut f & topfjyefvnfzUGJ pnf;aom ArmhwyfrawmfwiG f trSwf 3 Armhaoewfuikd w f yf&if;ü 'kw, d Adv k t f qifjh zifh wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/1 Junior Officer Course (J.O.C) ESihf UDOS Course No.4 oifwef; wufNy;D aemuf zsmykc H &dik w f iG f rNird rf oufjzpfí EdrS ef if;a&;wm0ef,l &onf/ &cdkifjynfe,fppfqifa&;wGifyg0ifonf/ zsmykH? usKdufvuf? bdkuav;? rtlyif? anmifwek ;f a'owdu k yf ?GJ pufaumfwu kd yf ?GJ tif;pdew f u kd yf ?GJ yJc;l ? 'du k Of ;D ppfrsuEf mS rsm;rSwpfqifh awmifBu;D ppfrsuEf mS txd yg0ifwu kd cf u kd cf o hJ nf/OD;pef;,konf 1947ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 23 &ufaeYwiG f Adv k Bf u;D tqifjh zif'h w k , d wyfcrGJ LS ;? wyfcrGJ LS ;wm0efrsm;ukx d rf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 3-2/

vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D acwfwm0efxrf;aqmifr(I 1948-1962)

1949ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 24 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfrSL;tqihfjzifh 'kwd,wyf&if;rSL; wm0efudk trSwf(3) Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if;üyif qufvuf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1949ckEpS ?f Ed0k ifbmv 25 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw, d Adv k rf LS ;Bu;D tqifo h Ykd wd;k jri§ chf eft Y yfjcif;cH&Ny;D trSwf(1) ta&;ay:u,m;aoewfudkifwyf&if;ü wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ uavmNrKd UwGif tajcpdu k Nf y;D uavm? rdwv D¬ mESihf vdKG iaf umf a'orsm;udk wm0ef,&l onf/ rauG;odw Yk yf&if;ajymif;Ny;D awmifwiG ;f Bu;D ukd &efov Yl ufrS jyefvnford ;f ydu k &f mwGif yg0ifonf/ 1950jynfEh pS w f iG f r*Fvm'küH ppfO;D pD;wuúov kd f oifwef; trSwpf Of 3 wufaepOf ppf&;Hk rS jyefvnfac:,lNy;D trSwf 2 ta&;ay:csi;f aoewfuikd f wyf&if;ü wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf wm0efay;tyfonf/ wyf&if;rSL;wm0eftjyif ppfawGNrdKUe,fwyfrSL; wm0efudkvnf; xrf;aqmifonf/ OD;pef;,konf 1951ckESpfarv 29 &ufaeYwGif ajrmufydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfü 1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu k Ef iS hf wyfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu k /f wyfrawmfordkif; (wwd,wJ)G 1945- 1948/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiph f me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1995) pm 60/


60 ,m,Dvufaxmuf ppfa&;ESihf ppfaxmufcsKyt f jzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1952ckEpS ?f ZGev f wGif trSw2f 1 ajcvsiw f yf&if; wyf&if;rSL;wm0efuykd ;l wJx G rf;aqmifonf/ 1952ckEpS ?f ZlvdkifvwGif ajrmufydkif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyfü vufaxmufppfa&;ESifh ppfaxmufcsKyftjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1952ckESpf?'DZifbmvwGif ppf&mxl;cefYcsKyf&kH; ppf&mxl;cefY twGi;f 0eftjzpf ajymif;a&TUwm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1956ckEpS w f iG f Adv k rf LS ;Bu;D tqifo h w Ykd ;kd jri§ hf cefYtyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1959ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 25 &ufaeYwGif AdkvfrSL;BuD;tqifhjzifh ajrmufydkif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyf wdkif;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1959ckESpf?{NyDv 9 &ufaeYwGif Adv k rf LS ;csKyt f qifo h Ykd wd;k jri§ chf eft Y yfjcif; cH&onf/ 1961ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 16 &ufaeYwiG f wdik ;f rSL; wm0eftjyif wyfr[m 1 wyfr[mrSL; tjzpf vnf;aumif;wm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 1960 jynfEh pS f ? atmufwb dk mv 1 &ufaeYwiG f ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f rSL;tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf yDuif;NrdKUokdY w&kwf-jrefrme,fedrdwfpmcsKyfvufrSwfa&;xkd;yGJtcrf;tem;tm; OD;ae0if;? OD;EkwEYdk iS t hf wl Akv d rf LS ;csKyf pef;,kvnf;wufa&mufco hJ nf/ 1atmufwb kd mv 16 &ufaeYwiG f ta&SUydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf wdkif;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? Edk0ifbmv 29 &ufaeYwGif taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf wdik ;f rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ wdik ;f rSL; wm0efxrf;aqmifpOf Auyrsm;? wefY,ef;e,fajrqlylaomif;usef;rIrsm;? ucsifjynfe,f vIy&f mS ;rIrsm;ESifh w&kwjf zLvIy&f mS ;rIrsm;udk wdu k cf u kd af csreI ;f onf/ OD;pef;,konf 1963ckEpS ?fazaz:0g&Dv 15 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw, d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf (Munf;)tjzpf wd;k jri§ hf ceft Y yf jcif;cH&onf/ 1972ckEpS f atNyD 20 &ufaeY wGif Adv k cf sKyBf u;D tqifhodkY wdk;jr§ifhcefYtyfjcif;cH&NyD; umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1978ckEpS f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f Adv k cf sKyBf u;D tqifjh zifh umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyw f m0efrS tNird ;f pm; ,lonf/ 4/

Ekid if aH &;b0

4-1/

1962-1988 ckEpS Ef idk if aH &;BuKd ;yrf;rI

OD;pef;,konf 1962ckEpS ?f rwfv 2 &ufaeYwiG f awmfveS af &;aumifpt D zJUG 0iftjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1963ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 3 &ufaeYwiG f awmfveS af &;tpd;k &tzJUG b@ma&; ESit hf cGeXf mewm0efc(H 0efBu;D )tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1969ckEpS ?f ZGev f 18&ufaeYwiG f rlvwm0efrsm;tjyif trsK;d om;pDru H ed ;f 0efBu;D Xme 0efBu;D tjzpfvnf;aumif; xrf;aqmifonf/ 1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmforkdif; pwkw¬wGJ (1948-1962) (1948-1962)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm 158/


61 1971ckESpf? Zlvdkifv 9&ufaeYwGif awmfvSefa&;aumifpDudk topfjyefvnfzJGUpnf;&m awmfveS af &; aumifpt D zJUG 0iftjzpf qufvufwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1971ckEpS ?f Zlvik d v f 15&ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH tpdk;&tzJGU zJGUpnf;&m b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD; tjzpfxrf;aqmifonf/ 1971ckESpf? pufwifbmv 20&ufaeYwGif rlvwm0efrsm;tjyif jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&tzJGU 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1972ckESpf? {NyDv 20&ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;tzJGUudk jyifqifzJGUpnf;&m 'kw, d 0efBu;D csKyEf iS hf umuG,af &;0efBu;D tjzpfwm0ef xrf;aqmifonf/ OD;pef;,konf 1962ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v f wGif jrefrmhq&kd , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD ygwDpnf;urf; xdef;odrf;a&;aumfrwDü tzJGU0iftjzpfaqmif&Gufonf/ 1963ckESpf? pufwifbmvwGif ygwDpnf;&kH;a&;A[dkaumfrwD tzJGU0iftjzpfwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1964ckESpf? Mo*kwv f wGif ygwDpnf;&k;H a&;A[dak umfrwDtaxGaxG twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf aqmif&u G o f nf/ 1965ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&DvwGif ygwDpnf;&k;H a&;aumfrwDuw kd ;kd csUJ zJUG pnf;&m taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; tjzpf qufvufwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1967ckEpS ?f atmufwb kd mvwGif qd&k , S v f pf pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f aumfrwD tzJUG 0iftjzpf aqmif&u G o f nf/ 1971ckEpS ?f rwfvwGif qd&k , S v f pf pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;aumfrwDudk jyefvnfzJGUpnf;&m 'kwd,OuúXtjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1971ckESpf?pufwifbmvwGif zJGUpnf;aom tzJGU0if 97 OD;yg0ifonhf EkdifiHawmf zJUG pnf;ykt H ajccHOya'opf(rlMurf;)a&;qJaG &; aumfr&SiOf uúXtjzpfvnf;aumif;? jynforl sm;\ qE´oabmxm;ESifh tBuHay;csufrsm; &,la&; tzJGUcJG 5 (ucsifjynfe,f)? tzJGUcJG 12 (rEÅav;wdkif;)? tzJGUcJG 15 (&efukefwdkif;)wdkYwGif tzJGUcJGacgif;aqmiftjzpf vnf;aumif; aqmif&Gufonf/ 1974ckESpf? ZlvdkifvwGif wyfrawmfygwD aumfrwDOuúXtjzpf wm0ef ay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ OD;pef;,konf 1971ckESpf yxrtBudrfygwDnDvmcH? 1973ckESpf 'kwd,tBudrf ygwDnv D mcH? 1977ckEpS f wwd,tBurd f ygwDnv D mcHEiS hf 1977ckEpS f ta&;ay: ygwDnv D mcH wdw Yk iG f ygwDA[dk aumfrwD0ifEiS yhf gwDtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf a&G;cs,w f m0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1981ckEpS ?f pwkwt ¬ Burd yf gwDnv D mcHwiG f ygwDA[dak umfrwDEiS hf A[dt k vkyt f rI aqmifaumfrwD 'kw, d OuúXjzpf a&G;cs,w f m0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1988ckEpS ?f ta&;ay: ygwDnv D mcHwiG f ygwDA[dak umfrwDEiS hf A[dt k vkyt f rIaqmifaumfrwD 'kw, d OuúXtjzpfrS tem;,lonf/ OD;pef;,konf 1974 ckEpS f yxrtBurd f jynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt D qifq h ifh a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufy?JG 1978 ckEpS f 'kw, d tBurd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt D qifq h ifh a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufyrJG sm;wGif A[ef;NrKd Ue,frq J E´e,frS jynfov Yl w T af wmfu, dk pf m;vS,t f jzpf


62 ta&G;cH&NyD; oufqkdif&m jynfolYvTwfawmf yxrtpnf;ta0;rsm;u EkdifiHawmfaumifpD twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&onf/ 1981ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbm 9 &ufaeYwwd, tBurd f jynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS hf jynfoaYl umifpt D qifq h ifh a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufyw JG iG f A[ef;NrKd Ue,f rJqE´e,frS jynfolYvTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpfta&G;cH&NyD; wwd,tBudrfjynfolY vTwaf wmfyxrtpnf;ta0;u Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uúXESihf Ekid if aH wmfor®wtjzpf a&G;cs,f wifajrm§ ufonf/ 1985 ckEpS ?f pwkwt ¬ Burd f jynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoUl aumifpt D qifq h ifh a&G;cs,f wifajrm§ ufyw JG iG f A[ef;NrKd Ue,f? rJqE´e,f trSwf 1 rS jynfov Yl w T af wmfu, dk pf m;vS,f tjzpfta&G;cH&Ny;D pwkwt ¬ Burd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmf yxrtpnf;ta0;u Ekid if aH wmfaumifpD OuúXESiEhf idk if aH wmfor®wtjzpf xyfraH &G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufonf/ OD;pef;,konf 1987 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v f 21 &ufaeYwiG f tltwufa&mifa&m*gjzifh r*Fvm'Hpk pfaq;½Ho k w Ykd ufa&mufc&hJ ygonf/ OD;pef;,kEkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf 1987ckESpf? pufwifbmv 5&ufaeUwGif EkdifiHawmfaumifpDonf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHrS xkwfa0xm;aom ESpq f ,fig;usy?f ok;H q,fig;usyEf iS hf ckEpS q f ,fig;usyw f efaiGpuúLrsm;ukd w&m;0ifaiGtjzpfrS &yfpJonfhOya'uJhokdY tmPmwnfaomtrdefY(trdefY trSwf 1^1987) ukdxkwfjyef aMunmcJo h nf/ xkt Yd jyif,if;trdet Yf & 1987ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f twGuf vpmaiGEiS hf yifpifaiGrsm; xkw, f Nl y;D aom 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf yifpif aiGrsm;tm; ,if;Mo*kwt f wGuf aemufxyfwpfvpmykd tjzpf vpmaiGESifh yifpifaiGrsm;ukd xyfrHxkwf,lcGifhjyKonfh trdefYaMumfjimpmwkdYukd xkwfjyefaMujimcJhonf/1 1987ckESpf? pufwifbmv 22 &ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHawmfbPfrS av;q,fhig;usyfwef? usyfukd;q,fwef aiGpuúL trsdK;tpm;opf rsm;ukd pwifxw k af 0onf/2 1988 ckEpS f Zlvidk v f 27 &ufaeYpwkwt ¬ Burd f jynfov Yl w T af wmf ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;wGif Ekid if aH wmfaumifpD OuúXESihf Ekid if aH wmfor®wwm0efrt S Nird ;f pm; ,lonf/ 1986 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 11 &ufaeYwiG f rGejf ynfe,f armfvNrKd iNf rKd U&Sd armfvNrKd if 'D*&Daumvdyf ukd wu o ú v dk t f qifo h v Ydk nf;aumif;? ucsijf ynfe,fjrpfBu;D em;NrKd U&Sd jrpfBu;D em; aumvdy?f &ckid jf ynfe,f ppfawGaumvdyEf iS hf &Sr;f jynfe,f awmifBu;D NrKd U&Sd awmifBu;D aumvdyf wkdUukd 'D*&Daumvdyfrsm;tqihfokdY vnf;aumif; 39 ESpfajrmuf jynfaxmifpkaeYrSpí

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1988 1988/ pmayAdrmef/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1988/ pm 253/

2

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63 toD;oD;wk;d jri§ zhf UJG pnf; ay;Ekid cf o hJ nf/ 1983 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv(1)&ufaeY wGif &cdik ?f ajrmufO;D AE¨Kv wHwm;opfuv kd nf;aumif;? 1983ckEpS ?f arv(4)&ufaewGif {&m0wDwikd ;f ? usKaH ysm¼f wHwm;opf udkvnf;aumif;? 1983ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv(4)&ufaeYwGif rGefjynfe,f? bD;vif;wHwm;opfBuD;udkvnf;aumif;? 1983ckESpf rwfv(2)&ufaeYwGif rJZmBudK;wHwm; udv k nf;aumif;? 1983ckEpS f rwfv(19)&ufaeYwiG f rGejf ynfe,f? armfvNrKd irf S rkwrå odu Yk ;l onfh jrpfqyd f armfawmf,mOfa&qif;wHwm;udk vnf;aumif; toD;oD;zGiv hf pS af y; Edik cf o hJ nf/ jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHawmfomoemawmf oefY&Sif;wnfwHhjyefYyGm;a&; *kdPf;aygif;pkH oHCmhtpnf;ta0;yGJBuD; xajrmufatmifjrifjcif;ESifh *kdPf;aygif;pkH oH C mh n D ñ G w f r I & &S d j cif ; txd r f ; trS w f t jzpf a&T w d * k H a pwD a wmf j rwf w nf & S d & m od*Fkwå&ukef;awmf\ awmifbuf ukdufig;&mcefY tuGmta0;üwnf&Sdonfh "r®&ud©w uke;f awmfay:wGif r[m0dZ,apwD awmfudk &[ef;&Siv f jl ynfot l rsm;ESit hf wl 1986 ckEpS ?f rwfv 4 &ufaeY? t*Fgae eHeuf 5 em&Dtcsed w f iG f atmifjrifpmG wnfxm;ay;cJo h nf/ "r®&udw © uke;f awmf[o l nfrmS w&m;apmifah omuke;f awmf[k t"dymÜ ,f&onf/ rGeb f &k ifrBu;D &Siaf pmykonf xku d ek ;f awmfay:wGif Oykoo f w D if;oDvapmifo h ;Hk í ur®Xmef; w&m;pD;jzef; tm;xkwzf ;l onft h wGuaf Mumifv h nf;aumif;? vlom;wkw Yd &m;ukd apmifMh uvQif w&m;awmfu vlom;wku Yd dk jyefvnfapmifah &Smufonfqo dk nfh Ak'a¨ 'oemawmfudk aemifvm aemifom;wkdY odrSwfapvkdaomaMumifhvnf;aumif;? wdyd#"& "r®b@m*g&du tbd"Z r[m&X*k½k b'´EÅ 0dpdwå om&mbd0Ho q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;u xkdukef;awmfukd "r®&u©dw ukef;awmf[lítrnfay;awmfrlcJhonf/ r[m0dZ,[laoma0g[m&ukd (r[m+0d+Z,) [ko;Hk yk'cf jJG cm;í t"dymÜ ,fziG v hf Qif (r[m=Bu;D us,af om? 0d=xl;jcm;aom? Z,=atmify)JG [k wpfyk'fpD teuft"dyÜm,f&onf/ xl;jcm;aom atmifyGJBuD;[kqkdvkdygonf/ jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiHawmf omoemhorkdif;wGif rBuKHpzl;BuD;us,f xl;jcm;vSaom *kdPf;aygif;pkH oHCmawmfrsm;pnf;vkH;nDñGwfrIatmifyGJ&&Sdjcif; txdrf;trSwftjzpf wnfaqmufaom apwDawmfjzpfaomaMumifh wdyd#u"& "r®b@m*g&du tbd"Zr[m&X*k½kb'´EÅ0dpdwå om&mbd0Ho q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;u apwDawmf\ bGJUawmfukd r[m0dZ,apwDawmf[k owfrw S af wmfrjl cif;jzpfaMumif;od&&dS ygonf/1

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1987 1987/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1987) pm 27/


64 5/

*k P f j yKcsD ; usL;cH & jcif ;

OD;pef;,konf jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rIwGif yg0ifcJhjcif;? EkdifiHawmfu ay;tyfonfh wm0efrsm;ukd BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhjcif;wkdYaMumifh EkdifiHawmfu csD;jr§ihfaom ta&;awmfyHk wHqdyf? vGwfvyfa&;pnf;&Hk;rIwHqdyf? vGwfajrmufa&;wHqdyf? vGwfvyfa&; wHqdyf? pwm;wHqdyf? bm;rm;pwm;wHqdyf? urÇmppfwHqdyf? ppfrIxrf;aumif;wHqdyf? EkdifiHawmfppfrI xrf;wHqdyf? jynfy&efESdrfwHqdyf? jynfolYppfwkdufyGJ0ifwHqdyf? oD&dysHcsDbGJU? oa&pnfob l UJG ? vGwv f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if (yxrqif)h ESihf Ekid if *hH P k &f nfbUJG (yxrqif)h wku Yd dk &&Scd o hJ nf/ 6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

OD;pef;,konf 1952 ckeSpf? atmufwkdbmvwGif AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; OD;pD;onfh ppfrpf&iS t f zGUJ \ twGi;f a&;rSLK;tjzpfaqmif&u G í f tar&duefEidk if o H Ydk oGm;a&mufonf/ 1954f ifwef; 55 ckEpS w f iG f tar&duefEidk if üH Command and General Staff College Course wpfEpS o wufa&mufonf/ 1960 jynfEh pS ?f atmufwb dk mv 1 &ufaeYwiG f w&kwjf ynfoo Yl r®wEkid if o H Ydk ESpBf urd o f mG ;a&mufí w&kw-f jrefrm e,fjcm;udpaö qmif&u G o f nf/ 1983ckEpS f pufwifbmv 4 &ufaeYwGif [efa*&D jynfolYor®wEdkifiH odkYvnf;aumif;? cspfMunfa&;c&D;tjzpf 1984 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v f 1 &ufaeYwiG f *syefEidk if EH iS hf atmufwb dk mv 28 &ufaeYwiG f w&kwjf ynfoo Yl r® wEkdifiHokdY vnf;aumif;? 1986 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmvwGif b*Fvm;a'h&SfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH okdYvnf;aumif;? ukd;&D;,m;or®wEkdifiH or®wcsef'l;0Srf\ zdwfMum;csuft& EkdifiHawmf or®wBuD; OD;pef;,konf ZeD;a':oef;&SdefESifh twl tzGJU0ifrsm; vkdufygvsuf udk;&D;,m; or®wEkid if o H Ydk 1987 ckEpS ?f ZGev f * &ufrS 12 &uftxd cspMf unfa&;c&D; oGm;a&mufco hJ nf/ 1987ckESpfZGefv 29 &ufaeY tif'dkeD;½Sm;EdkifiH odkYvnf;aumif;? Zlvdkifv 4 &ufaeYwGif rav;&Sm;Edik if o H v Ykd nf;aumif;? atmufwb kd m 20 &ufaeYwiG f ,l*q dk vm;AD;,m;qk&d , S v f pf jynfaxmifpkor®wEkdifiH OD;aoQmiftzGJUOuúX rpöwmvmZmrGdKifaqmh\ zdwfMum;csuft& vnf;aumif;? ½kad reD;,m; qk&d , S v f pfor®wEkid if H or®wrpöwm eDuv dk u dk af csmuf&u S pf ul\ zdwfMum;csuft& atmufwkdbmv 23 &ufrS 27 &uftxdvnf;aumif;? jynfaxmifpk or®w*smreDEkdifiH or®wBuD;zdwfMum;csuft& atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufrS Ekd0ifbmv 2 &uftxdvnf;aumif; tqkyd gEkid if t H oD;oD;okYd Ekid if aH wmfor®wBu;D ESihf Ekid if aH wmfaumifpD OuúX OD;pef;,konf ZeD;a':oef;&Sed Ef iS t hf wl tzGUJ 0ifrsm;vku d yf gvsuf {nfo h nfawmftjzpf cspMf unfa&; c&D;rsm; oGm;a&mufco hJ nf/


65 7/

rdom;pk

OD;pef,o k nf 1947 ckEpS ?f atNyv D 24 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uae ynmrif;Bu;D \ tyg;awmfNrJ OD;&Sdef0SufESifha':oef;a&TwkdY\orD;? tif;pdeftpkd;&ausmif;? ausmif;q&mr a':oef;&SdefESifhvufxyf cJhonf/ orD;av;OD;xGef;um;í orD;rsm;rSm a':vJhvJh,k+ OD;armifarmif0if;? a':cifaqG,k+ OD;atmifausmf? a':at;oef;,kESifh a':apm,krGef+ OD;jrihMf unfwjYdk zpfMuonf/ trSwf (16)? uarÇmZ&dyo f m? A[ef;NrKd Ue,fwiG f aexkid o f nf/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf oufpGefYBudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhNyD; EkdifiHhwm0efrsm;ukd uk, d u f sKd ;rzuf? pGr;f pGr;f wrHBuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u G cf ahJ om Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uúX(tNird ;f pm;)? Ekid if aH wmfor®w (tNird ;f pm;)ESihf umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKy(f tNird ;f pm;) OD;pef;,konf 1996 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 28 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uü uG,v f eG o f nf/ uG,v f eG cf sed w f iG f ZeD; a':oef;&Sed Ef iS hf orD;av;OD;? ajr;ajcmufO;D use&f pfonf/


66

yHk (7) OD;pdev f iG f (or速w) [ 1988 ckESpf ]


OD;pdefvGif (or®w) ( arG; 27-1-1924 uG,v f eG f 9-4-2004 ) 1/

i,fpOfb0 OD;pdev f iG o f nf 1924 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 27 &ufaeYwiG f aygifNrKd UüarG;zGm;cJo h nf/

2/

ynmoifb0

3/

0efxrf;b0

tv,fwef;jyq&mtjzpf wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJhonf/ 1942 ckESpfwGif Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmfwiG f 0ifa&muftrIxrf;cJyh gonf/ 1943 ckEpS w f iG f ArmhumuG,f a&;wyfrawmf wyf&if;(1)wGif t&m&St d jzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/ 1944 ckEpS ?f arv 27 &ufaeYwiG f *syefacwfwwd,ywf ppfwuúov dk f Akv d o f ifwef;wufa&mufNy;D Ek0d ifbmv 30 &ufaeYwGif ausmif;qif;cJhonf/1 1945 ckESpfwGif wkdif;(2) jrpf0uRef;ay:a'oü zufqpf*syefawmfveS &f mwGif wyf&if;(83)ü wyfcrJG LS ;tjzpf wm0ef,x l rf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/ 1946 ckEpS w f iG f aoewfuidk w f yf&if;(4)üwyfom;tqifw h m0efxrf;aqmifcNhJy;D 1948 ckEpS w f iG f jyefwrf;0ift&m&Sjd zpfcyhJ gonf/ weoFm&Dwidk ;f rif;Bu;D \ tyg;awmfNrw J m0efxrf;aqmif&ef jynfxJa&;XmeokdY wGJzufxm;jcif;cHcJh&onf/ 1949 ckESpfwGifjynfxJa&;okdYwGJzuf&mrS xm;0,fppf0efxrf;wyf&if;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1950 jynfEh pS w f iG f trSw(f 3)ajcvsiw f yf&if; üf wyfcGJrSL;? 1951-52 ckESpfwGif trSwf(1)avhusifha&;wyf wyfcGJrSL;? 1952-53 ckESpfwGif wyfxed ;f trSw(f 2)wyfcw JG yfrLS ;? 1953-54 ckEpS üf csi;f aoewfuidk f wyf&if;wGif 'kwyf&if;rSL;ESihf trSw(f 1)avhusiahf &;wyf 'kw, d wyf&if;rSL;? 1957 ckEpS w f iG f trSw(f 4) aoewfuidk f wyf&if; wyf&if;rSL; ponfjzifh toD;oD;wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhygonf/ 1965-69 ckESpftxd taemufawmifwkdif; ppfXmecsKyf 'kwd,wkdif;rSL;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhNyD; 1969-70 jynfEh pS t f xd ta&SUykid ;f wkid ;f AsL[mrSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1970-72 ckEpS x f d wkid ;f Bu;D Muyfa&; Ouú|tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1972-74 ckESpfxd taemufajrmufwkdif;ppfXmecsKyf wkdif;rSL; tjzpfvnf;aumif; tqifq h ifw h m0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/

1

Akv d rf if;ñk?d *syefacwfppfwuúokdvf/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969)

pm223/


68 4/

Ekid if aH &;b0

1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeYwGif wyfrawmfu EkdifiHawmfukdxdef;odrf;&mü uGyfuJrI acgif;aqmifwpfa,muftaejzifhyg0if aqmif&GufcJh&ygonf/ 1965 ckESpftxd jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D Xme 'Dru dk a&pDa'oEÅ&tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf a'oEÅ& tzGUJ tpnf;rsm; 0efBu;D Xme? vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESifh trsdK;om;rSwfyHkwifa&;0efBuD;Xme? w&m;a&; 0efBuD;XmewkdY wGif twGi;f 0ef? ygwDvyk if ef;pdppfa&;aumfrwD0iftjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1978 ckEpS ?f atmufwkdbm v 7 &ufaeYwGif jynfxJa&;0efBuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; pdefvGifonf &ckdifjynfe,f? armifawmfNrdKUe,f? awmifNydKvuf0JvufcHa&;pcef;wGif [oFmpDrHcsuft& b*Fvm;a'h&Sf bufoYdk wdr;f a&Smif oGm;olrsm; vufcaH &;tm; wm0ef,al qmif&u G cf &hJ ygonf/1 ta&;ay: ygwDnDvmcHwGif ygwDA[kdtvkyftrI aqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifjcif;? or0g,r0efBu;D Xme 0efBu;D ? ykaYd qmifqufo, G af &; 0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D 1980 jynfEh pS w f iG f jynfxaJ &;ESio hf moema&; 0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D ? 1981-82 ckEpS t f wGuf tm&SzUHG NzKd ;a&;bPf *gAemrsm;bkwt f zGUJ \ obmywdtjzpf ceft Y yfjcif; cH&onf/ 1981 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 4 &ufaeYrS 18 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJah om jynfoYl vTwaf wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt D qihq f ifh a&G;cs,fyGJwGif EkdifiHawmfaumifpD0iftjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif; cH&NyD; EkdifiHawmfumuG,fa&;ESifh vHNk cKH a&;&maumfrwDwiG v f nf; tzGUJ 0iftjzp w f m0efay;tyf jcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/2 1985 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 6 &ufaeYr2S 0 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJah om pwkwt ¬ Burd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS hf jynfoYl aumifpD tqifq h ifh a&G;cs,yf w JG iG Ef idk if aH wmfaumifpD twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpfa&G;cs,f wifajrm§ ufjcif;cHc&hJ jyefygonf/3 wGzJ uftaxGaxG ygwDtwGi;f a&;rSL; tjzpfvnf;wm0ef xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 1981 ckEpS f ZGev f 17 &ufaeYwiG f jynfxaJ &;ESio hf moema&;0efBu;D tjzpf a&G;cs,jf cif;cHchJ &onf/ 1988 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 27 &ufaeYwiG u f si;f ycJah om pwkwt ¬ Burd jf ynfoYl vTwfawmfta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;ukd jynfolUvTwfawmfcef;rü usif;y&m OD;pdefvGiftm; EkdifiHawmfaumifpDOuú|ESifh EkdifiHawmfor®w tjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;cHcJh&ygonf/ jynfaxmifpk qk&d , S v f pfor®w jrefrmEkid if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'yk'rf 76 t& tyfEiS ;f xm;aom vkyyf idk cf iG u hf o dk ;kH pGv J suf &efuek w f idk ;f &efuek Nf rKd Uawmfpnfyifom,ma&; e,ferd w d f twGif;&Sd NrdKUe,f 27 NrdKUe,fwGif ta&;ay:tajctaeaMujimí ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'ukd

1

a&SUokdY/ trSwf 343? (1 Ekd 1978) pm 25/

2

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1982 1982/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1982) pm 101/

3

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1986 1986/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1986) pm 44/


69 Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uú| OD;pdev f iG u f vufrw S f a&;xk;d vsuf Ekid if aH wmfaumifpaD Munmcsuf trSwf 5^88 jzifh 1988 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 3 &ufaeYwiG f xkwjf yefco hJ nfuadk wG&Y &dS ygonf/1 tqkdygppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'ukd Mo*kwfv 24 &uf aeYwGif&kyfodrf;cJhygonf/ 1988 ckESpf? Zlvidk v f 28 &ufaeYcefrY pS wifNy;D &efuek Nf rKd UwGif qE´jyrIrsm;jzpfymG ;cJyh gonf/ xkad emufMo*kwv f 8 &ufcefYrSpí &efukef? oefvsif? rEÅav;? a&eHacsmif;? rif;bl;? yckuúL? yJcl;? armfvNrdKif? awmifBu;D ? xm;0,f? jrpfBu;D em;? ppfuidk ;f ? bku d av;? a&Tb?dk awmifi?l Nrw d pf aom NrKd Ursm;wGif vlpv k al 0;jzifh qE´jyrIrsm;jzpfymG ;cJNh y;D taxGaxGoydwaf rSmuf vlxq k E´jyyGBJ u;D txd us,jf yefY vmcJhygonf/3 1988 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 9 &ufaeY wGif jrefrmwpfEkdifiHvHk;&Sd pmoifausmif;rsm; tm;vHk;ukd ydwfvkduf&ygonf/ jynfolY0efxrf;rsm;? puf&Hk? tvkyf&Hk vkyfief;Xmersm;&Sd vkyo f m;0efxrf;rsm;? wyfrawmfom;rsm;ESihf tNird ;f pm;0efxrf;rsm;tm; vuf&t dS ykad xmufyhH aMu;tjyif wk;d jri§ chf pH m;cGijhf yKvu dk &f m vpmEIe;f usy(f 100-2-110 rS 150-10-220) twGi;f &Sd rlvtykad xmufyahH Mu;tjyif xyfrí H vpOf(45)usyu f v dk nf;aumif;? vpmEIe;f (usyf 16010-230 rS 260-15-380)twGif;&SdrlvtykdaxmufyHhaMu;tjyif vpOfusyf (40)ukd vnf;aumif;? vpmEIe;f usy(f 300-15-420 rS 450-25-700)twGi;f &Sd rlvtykad xmufyahH Mu; tjyif xyfrí H vpm (35)usyu f v dk nf;aumif;? vpmEIe;f usy(f 500-30-800 rS 800-401000)txd rlvtykad xmufyahH Mu;tjyif xyfrí H usy(f 30)ukv d nf;aumif;? aeYpm;vkycf EIe;f xm;ukv d nf; (6)usy?f jym;(50)rS (8)usy?f jym;(50)okw Yd ;dk jri§ í hf vnf;aumif; cGijhf yKco hJ nfudk awGU&S&d ygonf/3 jrefrmhqidk &f , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwDOuú|tjzpfvnf;aumif;? Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uú| ESihf Ekid if aH wmfor®wtjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmifcahJ om OD;pdev f iG f onf ygwDOuú| wm0efrSvnf;aumif;? EkdifiHawmfaumifpDOuú|? EkdifiHawmfor®wwm0efrsm;ESifh jynfolY vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpfrSvnf;aumif; 1988 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 12 &ufaeYwGif Ekwx f u G cf yhJ gonf/4

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1989 1989/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1989) pm 244/

2

,if;pm/

3

,if;pm 11/

4

,if;pm 244/


70 5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

1980 jynfhESpf? 'DZifbmv 18 &ufaeYwGif b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? 1981 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 15 &ufaeYwiG f uk;d &D;,m;Ekid if o H v Ydk nf;aumif;oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf/


71

yHk (8) a'gufwm armifarmif (or速w) [ 1988 ckESpf ]


72

a'gufwmarmifarmif (or®w) (arG arG; 11-1-1925 uG,fvGef 2-7-1994) 1/

i,fpOfb0

a'gufwmarmifarmifonf 1925 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 31 &ufaeY t½kPw f ufcsed w f iG f tz txufwef;a&SUae OD;qif?h trd a':at;wifwrYdk S rEÅav;NrKd Uü arG;zGm;cJo h nf/ a'gufwm armifarmif rarG;zGm;rD rdcifa':at;wifrS om;wpfa,mufarG;zGm;cJah omfvnf; wpfEpS o f m; t&G,fwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf/ xkdaMumifha'gufwmarmifarmif arG;zGm;vmaomtcg rdbrsm;aysm&f iT f cJMh uonf/ om;OD;uav;uJo h Ydk i,fi,fEiS hf uG,v f eG rf nfudk pk;d &drcf MhJ uonf/ okjYd zpfí ykcuftwGi;f üyif ouFe;f qnf;ay;jcif;cH&oljzpfonf/ 2/

ynmoifb0

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a'gufwmarmifarmif? om;armifppfonfokdY / (&efukef? yk*Hpmtkyf wkduf? 1973) pm 37/


73 oydwaf rSmufMujcif;jzpfonf/ aqmfMoqH;k rí r&aomolrsm;tm; Burd af qmifíqH;kH ronf/ uwfaMu;jzifh tuØsuu dk u dk jf zwfypfonf/ a,mufsm;av; rsm;xHrS bkad uukt d vSLcHMuonf/ a'gufwmarmifarmifvnf; rdciftwGuf aps;0,fxGufpOf oHCmawmfrsm;ESifhawGYNyD; ukv d edk pD epfq;dk \tarGq;dk jzpfaom acgif;ay:rS t*Fvyd q f aH wmufudk &dwjf cif; cHc&hJ bl;onf/ þenf;jzifh 1300 jynft h a&;awmfyBkH u;D Ny;D qH;k cJo h nf/ 1939 ckEpS w f iG f rEÅav;NrKd U Ak'o ¨ moemh Ek*¾[ausmif;rS 10 wef;atmifjrifNyD; rEÅav;OypmaumvdyfodyÜHwef;okdY wufa&muf ynmoifMum;cJo h nf/ toufi,faeojzifh ausmif;wufciG rhf &bJ ausmif;tkyBf u;D rpöwm rm&S,\ f cGijhfyKcsujf zifh twef;wufc&hJ onf/ a'gufwmarmifarmifonf &efuek w f uúov dk w f iG f qufvuf ynmoif,lcJh&m 1946 ckESpf wGif &efukefwuúokdvfrS t*Fvdyfpm*kPfxl;jzifh 0dZmÆ bGUJ &&So d nf/ a'gufwmarmifarmifonf 1949 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmvwGif vef'efokdY owif;jzefcY saD &;ynmjzifh ynmawmfoifapvTwjf cif;cH&onf/ a'gufwmarmif Ekid if jH cm;okYd xGufcGmrnfhtcsdefumvonf wkdif;jynfrNidrfroufjzpfí a&mifpHkaomif;usef;olrsm; qlylvIyf&Sm; aeonfhtcsdefjzpfojzifh wyfrawmfokdYjyefvnftrIxrf;aqmif&efBudK;yrf;cJ haomfvnf; txufvlBuD;rsm;\wkdufwGef;csuft& ynmawmfoifxGufcGmcJh&onf/ ynmawmfoifapvTwfonfhbmom&yfrsm;ukdoifMum;&if 0wfvHkynmukdvnf; qnf;yl;cJh onf/ aEG&moDausmif;ydw&f ufwiG f a[mfvefEidk if o H o Ydk mG ;a&mufí tjynfjynfqidk &f mOya' ynmuko d if,cl o hJ nf/ vef'efNrKd UwGif NcKd ;NcaH cRwmpGmaexkid &f if; 0wfvykH nmukd vif;uGe;f tif;1 ü naeykid ;f wufco hJ nf/ Oya'pmtkyrf sm;onf wefz;dk Bu;D rm;ojzifh wuúov dk pf mMunfw h u dk f rsm;wGif oGm;a&mufzwf&Ium rSwfpkxkwfcJh&onf/ wuúokdvfpmMunfhwkdufrsm;onf noef;acgiftcsed t f xd zGiahf Mumif;od&&dS onf/ um;coufom&ef ausmif;okYd toGm;^tjyef vrf;avQmufco hJ nf/ wpfcgwpf&w H iG f r*¾Zif;wku d rf sm;okYd aqmif;yg;rsm;ykcYd o hJ nf/ rEÅav;tdrrf S *so;l taMumif;aqmif;yg;wpfy'k af &;cJ&h m q,faygif&bl;aMumif;od&&dS onf/ 1953 ckEpS t f xd t*FvefEkdifiHvef'efNrdKUü Oya'tjynfjynfqkdif&mqufqHa&;? jyefMum;a&;ynmrsm;ukd avhvmqnf;yl;onf/ a[mfvefEidk if &H dS Academy of International Law rS tjynfjynfqidk &f m Oya' 'Dyvkrd m&&So d nf/ Utrecht wuúov dk rf S ausmMf um;aomOya'ynm&Sif ygarmu© AmZD; xHwiG f a'gufwmbGUJ twGuu f sr;f jyKciG &hf onf/ 1952 ckEpS w f iG f vef'efNrKd Uvif;uGe;f tif; rS Barrister-At-Law 0wfvHktjzpfcH,lonf/ 1956 ckESpf? ZGefvwGif a[mfvefEkdifiH Utrecht wuúokdvfrS tjynfjynfqkdif&m Oya'bmom&yfjzifh Oya'yg&*l L. L. D (Doctor of Law) 1

Lincoln's Inn

2

Prof. J. H. W. Verzijl


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Akdvfrif;ñkd/ *syefacwfppfwuúokdvf/ (&efukef? yk*Hpmtkyfwkduf? 1969) pm 340/ 2

a'gufwmarmifarmif? om;armifppfonfokdY/ (&efukef? yk*Hpmtkyf wkduf? 1973) pm 37/ 3

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ ]]Akdvfrkd;BudK;eJUawGUcJhpOf}}}? rS [Hom0wD owif;pm pm/ (27 rwf 1970 )? pm tcsyfydk-u/


75 4/

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a'gufwmarmifarmifonf awmfvSefa&;aumifpDvufxufwGif w&m;&Hk;csKyf w&m;olBu;D csKyt f jzpfwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ jrefrmhq&dk , S v f pfvrf;ygwD tjrKawygwD umv wGif ynma&;&maumfrwD0iftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1971 ckESpf yxrtBudrfygwDnDvmcHwGif ygwDpnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;aumfrwDOuúXtjzpf a&G;cs,f wifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&onf/ 1971 ckEpS w f iG f zGUJ pnf;aomtzGUJ 0if 97 OD;yg0ifonfh Ekid if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'opf(rlMurf;)a&;qGaJ &;aumfr&Siw f iG f tzGUJ 0iftjzpfyg0ifonf/ 1972 ckEpS w f iG f awmfveS af &;aumifpt D zGUJ 0ifjzpfvmNy;D 1972 ckEpS rf S 1974 ckEpS t f xd awmfveS af &; tpk;d & tzGUJ 0iftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ a'gufwmarmifarmifonf 'kwd,tBudrfygwDnDvmcH? wwd,tBudrfygwD nDvmcHESifh pwkw¬tBudrfygwDnDvmcHwkdYwGif A[kdtvkyftrIaqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf oHk;Budrfqufwkduf a&G;cs,fjcif;cH&onf/ 1974 ckESpf yxrtBudrfjynfolYvTwfawmfESifh jynfoaYl umifpt D qifq h ifh a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufyw JG iG f tr&yl&NrKd Ue,f rJqE´e,ftrSw(f 2)rS vnf;aumif;? 1978 ckESpf 'kwd,tBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfESifhjynfolYaumifpD tqifhqifh a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyGJESifh 1985 ckESpf? pwkw¬tBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfESifhjynfolYaumifpD tqifq h ifh a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufyrJG sm;wGif rEÅav;ta&SUajrmuf NrKd Ue,frq J E´e,ftrSw(f 1)rS vnf;aumif; jynfov Yl w T af wmfu, dk pf m;vS,t f jzpfa&G;cH&Ny;D oufqidk &f m jynfov Yl w T af wmf tpnf;ta0;rsm;u Ekid if aH wmfaumifp0D iftjzpfa&G;cs,f wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1978 ckEpS w f iG f Oya'aumfr&SiOf uúXwm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1988 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 27 &ufaeYwiG f jynfolYOya'tusdK;aqmiftzGJUOuúXtjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&ygonf/ jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwD A[kad umfrwD 11 Burd af jrmuftpnf;ta0;ukd 1988 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 19 &ufaeY eHeuf 8 ; 30 em&DwGif &efukefNrdKU jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;cef;rüusif;ycJhonf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif a'gufwmarmifarmiftm; jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwDOuúXtjzpf a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufcMhJ uygonf/ 1988ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 19 &ufaeY ? eHeuf 10 ; 15 em&DwiG f &efuek Nf rKd U jynfoUl vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;cef;rü pwkwt ¬ Burd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmfta&;ay: tpnf;ta0;usi;f ycJ&h m Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uúXESihf Ekid if aH wmfor®wtjzpf rEÅav;wkid ;f ? rEÅav;ta&SUajrmufNrKd Ue,f rJqE´e,f trSw(f 1)? jynfov Yl w T af wmfu, dk pf m;vS,f a'gufwm armifarmiftm; a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufcMhJ uygonf/1 1988 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 10 &ufaeYwiG f

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1989 1989/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1995) pm 244/


76 jrefrmhq&dk , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD ta&;ay:nDvmcHudk &efuek Nf rKd U jynfov Yl w T af wmftpnf;ta0; cef;rü usif;y&m wpfygwDpepfESifhygwDpHkpepfteuf rnfonfhpepfukd jynfolrsm;u BuKd uEf pS o f ufaMumif; jynfoq Yl E´c, H yl u JG si;f yjcif;rjyKawmhbJ ygwDppkH epfjzifh taxGaxGa&G; aumufyGJ usif;y&ef ygwDnDvmcHukd,fpm;vS,f 75 &mckdifEIef;ausmfrS oabmwlqHk;jzwfcJh Muygonf/ Ekid if aH wmfor®wESiEhf idk if aH wmfaumifpOD uúX a'gufwmarmifarmif trSL;jyKaom pwkw¬tBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;rS tajccHOya'ukd>cif;csufjyKNyD; ygwDpHkpepfjzifh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJusif;yEkdif&ef a&G;aumufyGJ aumfr&SifukdzGJUpnf; ay;cJo h nfudk awG&Y &dS ygonf/ wpfzef pufwifbmv 16 &ufaeYrpS wifNy;D jynfo0Yl efxrf;rsm; onf EkdifiHawmftay:opömxm;í jynfolY0efukdom xrf;aqmif&rnfjzpfojzifh ygwDpHk pepfwGif usifhoHk;cJhonfhtpOftvmESifhtnD jynfolYwyfrawmf? jynfolY&JwyfzGJU paom umuG,fa&;wyfzGJU0ifrsm;? jynfolY0efxrf;tzGJUtpnf;toD;oD;? EkdifiHykdifpD;yGm;a&;? bkwaf umfyadk &;&Si;f tzGUJ tpnf;toD;oD;rS 0efxrf;rsm;eSihf Ekid if aH wmfb@mrS vpmcHpm;Mu aom tjcm;0efxrf;rsm;tm; jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD? ygwD0iftjzpfrS EkwfxGufcGifh jyKvu dk af Mumif; xkwjf yefcyhJ gonf/1 1988 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 17 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if aH wmfor®w tjzpfrS tNird ;f pm;,lco hJ nf/ a'gufwmarmifarmifonf jrefrmbmom? t*Fvyd b f momwkjYd zifh pmaya&;om; jyKpkcJhonf/ jrefrmbmomjzifh a&;om;xkwfa0cJhaom pmtkyftcsdKUrSm aoG;eD(1946)? ouf&&dS mZ0if (1956)? wkjYd ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if zH UJG pnf;tkycf sKyyf (kH 1959)? Ekid if aH wmfvyk Bf urH I jynfaxmifpkESifh OD;apm (1965)? jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifh AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;(1969)? om;armifppfonfo(Ydk 1972)? w&m;Oya'taxGaxG A[kow k (1974)ESihf jynfo0Yl efxrf; om;orD;rsm;okdY(1987)pmtkyfwkdYjzpfonf/ xkdpmtkyfrsm;teuf jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifh Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;(1969)pmtkyo f nf 1969 ckEpS ?f trsKd ;om;pmayqk (Ekid if aH &;pmay) &&So d nf/ t*Fvyd b f momjzifah &;om; xkwaf 0cJah ompmtkyt f csKd UrSm Note on A Book of English Verse for Matriculation Students. The Forgotten Amrmy (1946). Burma's Teething Time(1949). London Diary (1952). Grim War Against KMT (1953). Burma in the Family of Nations (1956). Burma's Constitution(1959). A Trail in Burma (1960). Aung San of Burma (1961). Law and Custom in Burma and the Burmese Family (1961). Burma and General Ne Win(1969). ESih f To A Soldier Son (1972) pmtkyw f jYdk zpfonf/

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1989 1989/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1989) pm 245/


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jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1995 1995/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1995) pm 279281/


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i,fpOfurEÅav;NrKd U&Sd ae&Sief ,fausmif;[k ac:onfh A[kt d rsKd ;om;txufwef; ausmif; (Central National High School)(CNHS)wGif'kwd,urÇmppfBuD; jzpfcsdeftxd ynmoifMum;cJhonf/ ausmif;tkyfBuD;rSm AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;wkdYESifhtwlusqHk;oGm;onfh tmZmenfacgif;aqmifBu;D wpfO;D jzpf aom OD;&mZwf jzpfonf/ OD;apmarmifoifMum;qnf;yl; cJ o nf h ausmif ; rS e mrnf B uD ; q&mrsm;wG i f zqyv jynf x J a &;0ef B uD ; a[mif ; Akv d cf ifarmifuav;onf vnf; tygt0ifjzpfygonf/ þuJo h Ydk rsKd ;csppf w d f xufoefaom q&m-q&mrrsm;xdef;ausmif; oifMum;qHk;ronfhausmif;jzpfívnf; ausmif;om;rsm;\ pdww f iG f rsKd ;csppf w d rf mS ude;f atmif;pGu J yfvmcJo h nf/ OD;apmarmif i,fpOfausmif;om;b0uyif xkpd w d "f gwftNr&J iS o f efvmcJo h nf/ OD;apmarmifonf xkpd OfuzGUJ pnf;cJh onfh ]]&JneT }Yf }wyfzUJG wGif vnf; 0ifa&mufchJ onf/ &JneT Uf wyfzUJG wGif wyfpw d rf LS ;tqif?h t&pf(ESp)f &pf txd&&Scd o hJ nf/ 3/

0efxrf;b0

OD;apmarmifonfvGwfvyfa&;tBudKumvjzpfonfh*syefacwfaemufykdif;wGif vQyfppfynm&yfrsm;ukdqufvufavhvmoifMum;NyD; rEÅav;eef;wGif;&SdtrSwf(922)ESifh trSw(f 1)NrKd Ue,f tif*sief , D mwyfww Ydk iG f vQypf pfyv Ydk w T af &;Xmeü vQypf pfynmonf (Electrician) tjzpf0ifa&mufvy k u f idk f trIxrf;cJyh gonf/ rEÅav;NrKd UtwGi;f &Sd "gwfwidk t f rsm;pkrmS OD;apmarmifwkdY ukd,fwkdif vQyfppfynmonfb0ü wyfqifpkdufxlcJhonfh "gwfwkdifrsm; jzpfygonf/ jyifO;D vGit f m; u&ifrsm;odr;f yku d pf OfwiG f taysmw f rf;tjzpf xkpd Ofu cifrifaom bDt;D trft;D wyfrS tMuyftcsKd UESit hf wl jyifO;D vGio f Ydk wku d yf 0JG if&ef vku d yf gcJo h nf/ ok&Yd mwGif (21)rkid üf qkwcf mG vmaomtpk;d &wyfrsm;ESiyhf ;l aygif;rdNy;D ¤if;wkEYd iS t hf wl rEÅav;okYd jyefvnf qkwfcGmcJh&onf/ yifrtpkd;&wyfrsm;rSm ppfukdif;bufokdY qkwfcGm&NyD; tcsdKUrSm rEÅav;&Sd


80 bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm;wGif wyfazsmufusef&SdcJhonf/ xkdpOfrEÅav;NrdKUtajctaerSm u&ifoyl ek w f yfrsm;onf eef;NrKd UtwGi;f ü aexkid Nf y;D tvHeu D eG jf rLepf(epfe)D rsm;rSm 84 vrf;? a&Tarmif;wkdufü XmecsKyfzGifhvSpfaexkdifNyD; tmV0Dvrf;? *l*sD&wDausmif;ü XmecsKyfzGifhvSpf xm;cJhonf/ ¤if;aemufpuf&Hk? tvkyf&Hkrsm;tm;jynfolykdifodrf;onf[k taMumif;jyum uGejf rLepfrsm;taejzifh ¤if;wkyYd gwDtvHrsm; tNyKd it f qkid pf u dk x f cl ahJ omfumvjzpfonf/ 4/

Ek d i f i H a &;b0

rEÅav;NrdKUtm; tpkd;&wyfrsm;rS jyefvnfodrf;ykdufNyD;aemuf u&iftMurf;zuf aomif;usef;olrsm;ESifh a&mifpHkaomif;usef;olrsm; vIyf&Sm;x<uvmcsdefwGif OD;apmarmif wkdif;jynftusdK; ukdo,fykd;xrf;aqmif&efESifh&&SdNyD;aomvGwfvyfa&;ukdumuG,f&ef trsKd ;om;wkid ;f wGiw f m0ef&o dS nf [laom cH,cl sujf zifh 1949 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 23 &ufaeYwiG f wyfom;opfb0ESiyhf if wyfrawmftwGi;f okYd 0ifa&muftrIxrf;cJo h nf/ wyfrawmftwGi;f okYd a&muf&SdNyD;aemufwGif ynmt&nftcsif;ESifh OmPfynmxufjrufNyD; pdwf"gwffBuHUckdif aomvli,fjzpfonfhtavsmuf wyfrawmfaxmufvSrf;a&; tzGJUü wm0efxrf;aqmif&ef a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&onf/ ppfynmrsm;ESifhaxmufvSrf;a&;ynmrsm;ukd qif;'0pfvrf; (,ckAkdvf&mnTefUvrf;) NcHtrSwf(111)wGif oHk;vMumzGifhvSpfcJhonfhtajccHppfynmESifh axmufvSrf;a&;oifwef;okdY wufa&mufoif,lcJh&onf/ xkdrSwpfqifh abmif'&Dvrf; (,ck"r®apwDvrf;) okYd oifwef;ae&majymif;a&TU wufa&mufc&hJ onf/ xkpd Ofu OD;apmarmif onf toufi,f&rkH Qru t&G,rf mS vnf; ao;oG,cf o hJ nf/ ¤if;\pkpak ygif; uk, d t f av;csed rf mS aygif 110 cefYom&Sdonf/ ppfwyfxJa&muf&SdNyD;aemuf xkdawmif;aomtcsdefumvtwGif; wyfMuyf^ wyfMuyfBuD; tqifhwpfaeYwnf;wGifyif cefYtyfjcif;ukdcHcJh&onf/1 OD;apmarmif onf axmufvrS ;f a&;wyfwiG f wyfMuyfBu;D tjzpf &Sr;f jynfawmifyidk ;f awmifBu;D NrKd U0ef;usiaf 'orsm; wGif vSnv hf nfvyI &f mS ; wm0ef xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ OD;apmarmifonf ytk0Yd w f idk ;f &if;om;rsm; tusKd ;ukd rsm;pGmo,fy;dk xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ ytk0Yd t f rsKd ;om;rsm;onf &Sr;f ya'o&mZfrsm;ukd qefYusifhNyD; vufeufpGJukdif x<uaeonfh tcsdefumvvnf;jzpfonf/ awmifBuD;a'o&Sd trSw(f 2)ajcvsiw f yf&if;rSL;? Akv d rf LS ;Bu;D oef;pdef wm0efay;csuf t&ytk0Yd t f rsKd ;om;rsm;ESihf qufo, G v f yk u f idk cf &hJ aomudp&ö yfrsm;aMumifh ytkUd 0ftrsKd ;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfMuaom 1

jr0if;? wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;orkdif;tusOf; (1941 ckESpfrS 1990 jynhfESpf txd) / 3 Budrf/ ( &efukef? owif;ESifhpme,fZif; vkyfief;? 1992) pm-90/


81 ocifceG pf ed Ef iS hf Akv d [ f ed af rmif ponfo h w l EYdk iS hf w&if;wES;D &Scd o hJ nf/1ocifceG pf ed rf mS qDqidk af 'o rS ytk0Yd af cgif;aqmifwpfO;D jzpfonf/ ytkUd 0fvufeufuidk rf sm; aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ OD;apmarmif onf &Srf;trsdK;om;rsm; tif;a'orS yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;jzpfonfh OD;xGef;OD;? awmifBuD; q&m twwfoifausmif;rSyef;csDq&mBuD;OD;pHaz ponfholrsm;ESifh&if;ESD;cJhonf/ &Srf;apmfbGm; tcsdKUESifhvnf; qufqHcJh&onf/ &yfapmufapmfbGm;ESifhvnf; OD;apmarmif oduRrf;cJhonf/ awmifyidk ;f &Sr;f jynfae&ma'orsm;ESihf rEÅav;? rdwv D¬ m? ausmufqnf? wHwm;OD; tp&So d nfh a'orsm;wGif vnf;aumif;? e,fpyfa'orsm;jzpfonfh usKd i;f wH?k rkid ;f jzwfEiS w hf mcsv D w d f paom a'orsm;wGif vnf;aumif; a&muf&w dS m0efxrf;aqmifczhJ ;l onf/ xkpd Ofu jrefrmjynftwGi;f okYd usL;ausmfa&muf&Sd aeMuaom autrfwDw&kwfjzLwyfrrsm;\ wyfrSL;csKyfjzpfol AkdvfcsKyf vDr\ D XmecsKyrf mS rkid ;f qwfü zGiv hf pS x f m;csed jf zpfonf/2 4-1/

wyfrawmft&m&Sdtjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifrI

OD;apmarmifonf wyfrawmf\wm0efrsm;ukd ausyeG pf mG xrf;aqmifaepOf1951 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 19 &ufaeYwiG f zGiv hf pS cf o hJ nfh Akv d o f ifwef; tywfpOf(6)okYd wufa&mufchJ &onf/ jrefrmhq&dk , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;ESiEhf idk if aH wmf'w k , d or®w wm0efudk xrf;aqmifcJhonfh'kwd,AkdvfcsKyfBuD; at;ukd tjyifwyfrawmfü wyfrSL;BuD;rsm; jzpfvmMuoltrsm;tjym;rSm xdo k ifwef;üyg&Scd o hJ nf/ ti,fq;kH Akv d af vmif;rsm;pm&if;wGif OD;apmarmif yg0ifcJhonf/ t&m&Sdjzpf&ef&nf&G,fcsufr&Sdí wyfrSL;\wkdufwGef;csuft& Akv d af vmif;tjzpfavQmuf xm;cJ&h mrS t&m&Sjd zpfvmcJo h jl zpfonf/3 OD;apmarmifonf 1952 ckESpf? atNyDv 30 &ufaeYrSpí jyefwrf;0ift&m&Sd tjzpfcefY tyfjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/ 'kw, d Akv d b f 0jzifh trSw(f 11)ajcvsiw f yf&if;wGiw f yfprk LS ;? wyfcrJG LS ;tjzpf {&m0wDwidk ;f jrpf0uRe;f ay:a'o? rtlyife,fEiS rhf eG jf ynfe,f? oxHak 'owkw Yd iG f wm0efxrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ xkrd w S pfqifah &mifpakH omif;use;f olrsm; usupf m;vIy&f mS ;vsuf &Sad o;onfyh cJ ;l wkid ;f ? ouúv? tH;k ESJ ponfah 'orsm;wGiv f nf;aumif;? ysOyf BkH u;D ? ausmufBu;D ? 1

EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU? wkdif;usdK;jynfjyK? EkdifiHawmf Nidrf0yf ydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU\ aqmif&Gufcsuforkdif;0if rSwfwrf; (1988 ckESpfrS 1991ckESpf)? (&efukef? ,if;tzGJU? 1991) 516 pm/

2

,if;/ pm 11/

3

,if;/ pm 12/


82 aZ,s0wD? jzL;? awmifilponfha'orsm;wGif vnf;aumif;? {&m0wDwkdif;"EkjzL? usKHweD;? usKH aysmpf aoma'orsm;wGiv f nf;aumif; 0ifa&mufwm0ef xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ trSw(f 11) ajcvsiw f yf&if;wGiaf xmufvrS ;f a&;t&m&Sd wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf twGi;f (15-11-1954) &ufaeYwiG f ppfawmif;rSrw k rå okx Yd u G cf mG vmonfh rD;&xm;tm; rkid ;f cJw G u dk cf u dk u f m rD;&xm;ay: yg wuúov dk af usmif;olrsm;ukd autif(ef),ltMurf; zufaomif;use;f olrsm;u t"r®tEkid u f sihf zrf;qD;ac:aqmifomG ;cJo h nf/ xkpd Ofu autif(ef),ltMurf;zufaomif;use;f olacgif;aqmif Akdvfpkd;ESifhvif;xifwkdYOD;pD;onfhaomif;usef;olrsm;onf ¤if;rD;&xm;tm;rkdif;cGJypfcwf wkdufckdufcJhí ¤if;rD;&xm;ay:ygc&D;onf wpf&mausmfukdvnf; "m;pmcHtjzpfzrf;qD;cJh&m &efuek w f uúov dk rf S ausmif;ydwí f jyefvmMuaom wuúov dk af usmif;ol(40) ausmEf iS hf &ky&f nf acsmarmonft h &yfo(l 15)OD;wkyYd g0ifomG ;cJMh uonf/ u&iftMurf;zuf aomif;use;f olwo Ydk nf xkt d rsKd ;orD;i,f rsm;ukd w&kwjf zLAkv d cf sKyaf vmvDxo H Ydk ac:aqmifomG ;í vufeufc, J rf; rsm;jzifh vJv, S cf MhJ uonf/ OD;apmarmifonf awmifiw l iG t f ajcjyK&mrSyxrykid ;f wGif ]]ol&ed }f } trnfjzifv h nf;aumif;? 'kw, d ykid ;f wGif ]]od'pd¨ pfqifa&;}} trnfjzifh vnf;aumifrw k rå ESihf oxHke,fajrrsm;twGif;ü jyKvkyfonfh ppfqifa&;rsm;wGif yg0ifcJhonf/ OD;apmarmifonf ,if;wyf&if;ü&SdaepOfumvtwGif; u&ifjynfe,f oxHka'o? awmifil c&kdiftwGif;ü AuyacsreI ;f a&; ppfqifa&;rsm;ESirhf if;&efatmifppfqifa&; trnfjzifrh o l u J iG ;f ? Asaumyk? aq;a';a'otm; ppfqif;a&;vky&f mwGif wyfcrJG LS ;b0jzifh xD;&k;d abux rSawmifbufoYdk y'g;acsmif;wpfavQmuf a'owkdYwGif a&SUwef;wyfr[m(2)AkdvfrSL;csKyfpdef0if;\ uGyfuJrI atmufwiG f wm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ xkdumvrsm;twGif;1953 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 28 &ufaeYwGif AkdvftqifhokdY vnf;aumif;? 1954 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 10 &ufaeYwiG f &ufaeYwiG f Akv d Bf u;D tqiho f v Ydk nf;aumif; cefYtyfjcif;cHcJh&NyD; wyfpkrSL;? 'kwd,wyfcGJrSL;? wyfcGJrSL;ESifhwyfa&;AkdvfBuD;wm0efrsm;ukd xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ OD;apmarmifonf tdrfapmifhtpkd;& wpfenf;tm;jzifh AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;tpkd;& vufxufwGifawmifilc&kdifvHkNcHKa&;aumifpDtwGif;a&;rSL;wm0ef? c&kdiftvif;0if ae&mcsxm;a&;twGi;f a&;rSL; wm0ef? awmifi?l xef;wyif? a&wm&Sn?f tkww f iG ;f jyLapmxD; wyfzUJG rsm;\twGi;f a&;rSL;? ¤if;aemufjyLapmxD;wyfrsm; zsuo f rd ;f a&;wm0efyg ,lc&hJ onf/ 1959 ckEpS ?f atNyv D 4 &ufaeYwiG t f rSw(f 1)wkid ;f A[kad vhusiahf &;ausmif; okv Yd nf;aumif;? 1959 ckEpS ?f arv 13 &ufaeYwiG f trSw(f 2)wkid ;f A[kad vhusiahf &;ausmif; okv Yd nf;aumif; toD;oD;ajymif;a&TU wm0efxrf;aqmif cJ&h onf/ trSw(f 2)wkid ;f A[kad vhusiahf &;ausmif;wGif wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf usdKif;wHka'owGif AkdvfrSL;y&J,m; usqHk;ojzifh ppfqifa&;


83 ppfultjzpfwyfcGJwpfcJGjzifh oGm;a&mufí 0rfwmyif;ESifh0rfwmyHk a'owkdYwGif ppfqifa&;? vHNk cKH a&;wm0efrsm;xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ OD;apmarmif 0rfwmyif;üwm0ef,l aepOf]]rkid ;f r}} wGifw&kwfjzLulrifwefwyfrsm;wyfpGJxm;cJhonf/ xkdpOfurkd;ygavGwGifw&kwfjzLrsm;u cHppfwnfaqmufvsuXf mecsKyzf iG v hf pS x f m;onft h csed u f mvvnf;jzpfonf/ 1960 jynfEh pS f azazmf0g&Dv 8 &ufaeYwiG f trSw(f 29)ajcvsiw f yf&if; wGaH w;okaYd jymif;a&TUcJo h nf/ 4-2/

1962-1974 ckESpftwGif;wm0efxrf;aqmifrI

1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if aH wmftwGi;f ütbufbufr, S , dk iG ;f csnehf UJ aeaom tajctaersm;ukd xde;f odr;f Ekid &f ef wyfrawmfonf awmfveS af &;aumifpu D zdk UJG pnf;Ny;D Ekid if aH wmf\ tmPmt&yf&yfuv dk aJT jymif;wm0ef,v l u dk o f nft h csed jf zpfygonf/ OD;apmarmif onf wyfcGJrSL;wm0efrsm;tjyif {&m0wDwkdif;twGif;&Sd "EkjzLNrdKUe,fwGifvHkNcHKa&;ESifh tkycf sKyrf aI umfrwDOuúX tjzpf vnf;aumif;? "EkjzL? anmifwek ;f ? yef;waemfa'otwGi;f ppfqifa&;? vHNk cKH a&;wm0efrsm;ukd vnf;aumif;xrf;aqmifc&hJ Ny;D ¤if;rSwyf&if;wpf&if;vH;k wyfuek ;f NrKd UokaYd jymif;a&TUcJ&h um wyfuek ;f NrKd Ue,f vHNk cKH a&;ESihf tkycf sKyrf aI umfrwD OuúXtjzpf vnf;aumif;? xkaYd emuf&rnf;oif; NrKd Ue,fEiS Nhf rKd Ur vHNk cKH a&;ESit hf yk cf sKyrf aI umfrwDOuúX tjzpf vnf;aumif; toD;oD;yl;wGw J m0efrsm; xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ OD;apmarmifonf tvHeu D eG jf rLepfygwDxyd w f ef;acgif;aqmif emrnfBu;D rykBu;D qkdol vIyf&Sm;cJhaom wGHaw;awmBuD;wef;a'owGif e,fajrpkd;rkd;a&;ESifhppfqifa&;wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJhonf/1963 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 31 &ufaeYwGif trSwf(5)ajcvsif wyf&if;? rkdif;wHkokdY,m,DvufeufBuD;wyfcGJrSL; tjzpf ajymif;a&Twm0efxrf;aqmifcJh&onf/ OD;apmarmifonf rkid ;f wH?k yHyk gusiaf 'owGif ppfqifa&;wm0efrsm;ukd xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ trSw(f 5)ajcvsiw f yf&if;onf rkid ;f wHrk S awmifio l aYdk jymif;a&TvmNy;D aemuf yJc;l &k;d r&Sd ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDtMurf;zufaomif;usef;olrsm;ukd tvif;a&mifppfqifa&;jzifh qifEw JT u dk cf u dk f &mwGif &efuek w f idk ;f ? xef;wyifNrKd Ue,f? abmv,fuRe;f ? tkid u f avmifuRe;f a'orsm;\vHkNcHKa&; wm0ef,lcJh&onf/ OD;apmarmifonf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD tMurf;zufaomif;usef;olrsm;ukd wkdufckduf&mwGiftawGUtBuHKrsm;jym;cJholjzpfonf/ trSw(f 11)ajcvsiw f yf&if;wGif wm0efxrf;aqmif pOfumvtwGi;f awmifi?l xef;wyif? Z&yfBu;D ? jzL;? ausmufBu;D a'orsm;wGipf pfqifa&;wm0ef,pl Of umvtwGi;f xkad 'orsm;ü rif;rlaeMuonfh(KNDO)ESifh AuytzGJUrsm;tm; vkdufvHacsrIef;wkdufckduf cJh&onf/ xkt d csed u f Auywko Yd nf xef;wyifNrKd Ue,f(awmifi)l a'owGipf pfaMumif;ESpaf Mumif;h cGu J m vIy&f mS ;aecJMh uonf/ AuyppfaMumif;rSL;rsm;rSm rif;'ifEiS ahf rmifarmifoef;(vufjywf) wkjYd zpfMu


84 onf/ xkAd uyppfaMumif;rsm;\trnfrmS rif;&Jausmpf mG ESihf wyifa&Tx;D ppfaMumif;rsm;jzpfMu onf/ awmifit l eD;rS tkww f iG ;f a'owGif xkpd OfuAuy ]]aygufp}} qko d rl mS ausmMf um;emrnf &aecsed f jzpfonf/ Auy aygufprSm ocifoef;xGe;f cs;D jri§ o hf nfAh uywk\ Yd tjrifq h ;kH pGr;f &nf wHqdyfukd &&Sdxm;ol jzpfonf[kqkdonf/ trSwf(5)ajcvsifwyf&if;ESifhawmifile,fajrwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifpOfu Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D onf a&Tusif ta&SUjcrf;a'o? Oykoaf csmif;e,fajrwGiBf u;D pk;d aeonfh Auy jrrif;OD;pD;tzGUJ tm; vku d v f H &Si;f vif;wku d cf u dk cf &hJ onf/ u&ifjynfe,ftwGi;f oa&'k;d ? yqD*g; a'orsm;wgif(KNDO)rsm;ukv d nf; &Si;f vif;wku d cf u dk cf &hJ onf/ 1965 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 13 &ufaeYwiG f &ufaeYwiG f acwåAv dk rf LS ; tqiho f Ydk wk;d jri§ chf eft Y yfvmjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1967 ckEpS ?f arv 29 &ufaeYwiG t f rSw(f 29)ajcvsif wyf&if;\ vufeufBu;D wyfcrJG LS ;wm0eftjyif wyf&if;rSL;wm0efrsm;ukdyg yl;wGJwm0efay;tyfcJhonf/ ucsifjynfe,ftwGif; ]]c&rf}} ppfqifa&;wGiv f nf;yg0ifc&hJ onf/ OD;apmarmif onf 1968 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 22 &ufaeUwGif trSw(f 29)ajcvsif wyf&if;odkU ,m,DwyfrSL;tjzpf ajymif;a½TUcefUtyfjcif;cHcJh&onf/ OD;apmarmif onf ucsifjynfe,frS tvGefawmawmifxlxyfvSonhf Bwd*Ha'owGif ppfqifa&;wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifcJh&onf/ Bwd*Ha'oqdkonfrSm arcESifh arvdcqHk&m ajrmufbuf jrpfESpfoG,f tMum;e,fajrudk awmifBwd*H[lí ESpfydkif;&Sdjyefonf/ xdka'o wGif tcsdeftawmftMum wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh&í 4if;a'orS wdkif;&if;om;rsm;\ ,Ofaus;rIESifh &dk;&mtpOftvm "avhx;kH pHrsm;udk pl;prf;avhvmcGi&hf &Scd o hJ nf/ trSw(f 29) ajcvsiw f yf&if;\ wyf&if;rSL;wm0ef xrf ; aqmif p Of td E ´ d , Ed k i f i H b uf ü em*tMurf ; zuf aomif ; usef ; ol r sm;onf ucsiaf omif;use;f olrsm;\ XmecsKyo f Ukd vma&mufNy;D oifwef; wufa&muf jcif;? vufeuf cJ,rf;rsm;&,ljcif; jyKvkyfaeonhftcsdefumvyifjzpfonf/ 4if; em*aomif;usef;olrsm; jzwfoef;oGm;vmonht f csed üf OD;apmarmifO;D pD;aom ppfaMumif;rsm;u jzwfawmufwu kd cf u kd f acsreI ;f cJh &onf/OD;apmarmif onf ,if;wyf&if;ESit hf wl ucsijf ynfe,f qGryf &mbHak 'oodUk ppfqifa&;wm0efjzifh 0ifa&mufco hJ nf/ Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D onf wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf wm0ef,al epOf umvwGif rHpDNrdKUe,fESifhAef;armfNrdKUe,fajrmufjcrf;a'orsm;üvnf; ppfqifa&;ESifh vHkNcHKa&;wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifcJh&onf/ em;azmh? tmavmbGef? qrm;a'owdkUwGif AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;uGyfuJaom wyf&if;rSppfaMumif;? wyfcGJ rsm;tajcjyKvIyf&Sm;aecJhMuonf/ xdkpOfu ,if;a'oESifh qufpyfonhf w&kwfjynfolUor®wEdkifiHwGif r[m,Ofaus;rI awmfvSefa&; qifETJaeonhf umvjzpfonf/ xdkpOfu em;azmhonf autdkifat aomif;use;f olrsm;\ tcdik t f rmpcef;wpfck jzpfco hJ nf/ em;azmhpcef;ESihf Aef;armfta&SUajrmuf


85 a'o ½Sd autdik af tpcef;rsm;udk wdu k cf u kd o f rd ;f ydu k f cJo h nf/ OD;apmarmif onf 1970 ckEpS ?f rwfv 17 &ufaeUwGif acwå 'kw, d Adv k rf LS ;Bu;D tqifo h Ukd wd;k jri§ chf efUtyfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1970 jynfEh pS ?f Mo*kwv f 20 &ufaeUwGif trSwf (47)ajcvsiw f yf&if;odUk wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf ajymif;a½TUwm0efxrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ wyf&if;rSL; wm0eftjyif c&dik v f NkH cKH a&;ESihf tkycf sKyrf I aumfrwDOuúwm0efrsm;udyk g yl;wGx J rf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ 1970 jynfhESpf? pufwifbmv 30 &ufaeUwGif taemufajrmufwdkif;ppfXmecsKyfodkU ppfOD;pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)tjzpf vTJajymif; wm0efxrf; aqmifcJh&NyD;? ppfwdkif;BuD;rsm;\ zGUJ pnf;yHjk yifqifvu kd o f nht f cg rEÅav;wdik ;f vHNk cKH a&;ESit hf yk cf sKyrf I aumfrwD OuúXwm0efuykd g yl;wGx J rf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ OD;apmarmif onf taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyw f iG f ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;) wm0ef xrf;aqmifcsed w f iG f tdE, d´ ESihf jrefrmhwyfrawmftMum;ü ESppf Of ESpzf uf wyfrawmf ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; awGUqHak qG;aEG;jcif;ESihf BuKd ;rJah Mu;eef;pufjzifh tjyeftvSef qufo, G jf cif;rsm; jyKvyk v f su&f o dS nf/ tdE, d´ qufo, G af &;puf&&dS mae&mXmerSm ESpaf e&mjzpfonf/ Kohima ESifh Aizwal jzpfonf/ jrefrmh wyfrawmftaeESifh tjcm;tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;ESifh ,if;odUk qufo, G rf t I vsi;f r&Sad y/ tdE, d´ wyfrawmf wpfcw k nf;ESio hf m qufo, G rf &I o dS nf/ þonfrmS ESpzf ufwyfzUJG rsm;\ &if;ES;D rIukd o&kyaf zmfcsuyf if jzpfonf/ OD;apmarmif onf wyf&if;rSL;b0uyif tdE, d´ Ekid if rH S jrefrmEkid if t H a&SUydik ;f odUk jzwfoef;0ifa&mufco hJ nhf tdE, d´ em*aomif ; usef ; ol r sm;ud k vd k u f v H w d k u f c d k u f a csrI e f ; cJ h & onf / qG r f y &mbH k \ ta&SUajrmufbufa'o ESifh ta&SUbuf xdefeefa'oe,fajrrsm;wGifjzpfonf/ xdkpOfu Bwd * H a wmif b uf j crf ; a'owG i f Ad k v f r S L ;BuD ; a[mif ; pH o m OD ; pD ; aomwyf z G J U rsm; vIy&f mS ;aecJMh uonf/ trSw(f 15)ajcvsiw f yf&if;rS wyfcJG ESpcf o JG nfvnf; qGryf &mbHb k ufrS vIy&f mS ;cJo h nf/ tdE, d´ Edik if b H ufrS rDZekd m* aomif;use;f olrsm;onf qwf*&m;,ef bufoUkd 0ifa&mufvmcJjh cif;jzpfonf/ OD;apmarmif onf taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyüf ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)wm0ef rsm;udk xrf;aqmifaepOf 1971 ckEpS f Zefe0g&DvtwGi;f ume,f Zlqu l ;D (ac:)Adv k rf ;kd BuKd ;\ ZeD; jrefrmEkid if H odUk vma&mufvnfywfcsed Ef iS hf BuKH BuKd uaf eojzifh wm0ef,{l nh0f wfjyKc&hJ onf/ 1972 ckEpS f azazmf0g&DvtwGi;f wGiv f nf; avmh'af rmifb h ufwefEiS hf 4if;\orufjzpfow l Ukd rEÅav;odUk vma&muf vnfywf&mwGiOf ;D apmarmif onf ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)taejzifh wm0ef,{l nh0f wfjyKc&hJ onf/ avmh'af rmifb h ufwefonf 'kw, d urÇmppfNy;D qH;k umeD;tcsed w f iG f ta&SUawmiftm&SppfrsufESmü r[mrdwfwyfrsm;\ aoemywdtjzpfwm0ef,lcJhNyD;aemuf Adv k cf sKyf atmifqef;ESihf oD[|kd Ef ikd if H uEéD NrKd UwGif uEépD mcsKyu f kd vufrw S af &;xd;k csKyq f ckd o hJ jl zpfNy;D


86 tdE, d´ Ekid if üH bk&ifcEH iS hf NAw d o d Qwyfrawmf umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyt f jzpf wm0ef,cl &hJ oljzpfonf/ OD;apmarmif onf taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyüf ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)tjzpf wm0ef,lcsdefwGif xl;jcm;onhfjzpfpOfwpfck ay:aygufcJhonf/ ,if;rSm ucsifjynfe,frS wdkif;&if;om;tkyfpktcsKdUudk ac:aqmifNyD; acsmfuefawmifMum;rSwpfqifh tdE´d,EkdifiHodkU xGuaf jy;cJMh uonhf tar&duef omoemjyK armhp(f Moss)rdom;pkukd jyefvnfzrf;qD;&rdcjhJ cif; jzpfonf/ rdrw d Ukd atmiferd w d f ppfqifa&; ppfaMumif; wpfaMumif;jzpfonfh trSw(f 16)ajcvsif wyf&if;rS ppfaMumif;onf jrefrm-tdE, d´ Edik if H e,fpyf jrifrh m;vSonhaf wmifwef;a'owGif tqkyd garmhpt f zGUJ tm; zrf;qD;rdcjhJ cif;jzpfonf/ ,if;tzGUJ tm; wyfrawmfppfaMumif;rsm;rS cEÅ;D NrKd UodUk jyefvnfac:,lvmNy;D 4if;wdUk udk jrefrmEkid if rH S xGuf cGmoGm;apcJo h nf/ tvHeu D eG jf rLepfygwDacgif;aqmif ocifp;kd tm; taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf e,fajrwGif zrf;qD;&rdcphJ Ofuvnf; OD;apmarmif ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmif aecsdefjzpfonf/ xdkpOfu ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS taemufajrmufwdkif; wm0efcH oufxGef;rSmvnf; &Srf;wyfBuD;? wdkif;wm;? *efUa*ga'obufwGif vSnhfvnfusufpm; aecsed jf zpfonf/ ppfOD;pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)wm0efxrf;aqmifpOfwGifyif ,cifu(East Parkistan) ac:aom EdkifiHonf(General Aurora)qdkol OD;pD;aom(India)wyfzGJUrsm;\ tultnDjzifh (Bangaladesh)Edik if aH y:aygufap&ef aqmif&u G v f monfuv kd nf; BuKH co hJ nf/ Adv k cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D onf taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyw f iG f ppfO;D pD;rSL; (yxrwef;)tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif aepOf twGi;f 1972ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 24 &ufaeUwGif ta&SUydik ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyo f Ukd ,m,D 'kw, d wdik ;f rSL;tjzpf cefUtyfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ xd k U tjyif Ad k v f c sKyf r S L ;BuD ; onf f vuf & S d ' k w d , wk d i f ; rS L ;wm0ef r sm;tjyif &Sr;f jynfe,fajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ? wdik ;f vHNk cKH a&;ESihf tkycf sKyrf aI umfrwDOuúXwm0efuykd g yl;wJw G m0ef xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ 1972 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 27 &ufaeUwGif ta&SUajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyu f kd vm;½d;I NrKd Uü wd;k csUJ zGiv hf pS cf o hJ nf/ Adv k cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D rSm 1972 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 29 &ufaeUrSpwifí ,if;wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyo f Ukd 'kw, d wkid ;f rSL; tjzpf ajymif;a½TUcefUtyf jcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 4-3/

1974-1988 ckESpftwGif;wm0efxrf;aqmifrI

OD;apmarmif onf vm;½d;I NrKd UwGif ta&SUajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf 'kw, d wdik ;f rSL;tjzpf wm0ef ,laepOf 1975 ckEpS f azazmf0g&dv 20 &ufaeUwGif er®wal jrmufbuf erf[ h ikd ;f wGif rHk;wyfü autdkifat tMurf;zufaomif;usef;oltzGJUESifh Auyrsm;wdkufyGJjzpfyGm;cJh&m 4if; autdkifattzGJUudk acgif;aqmif vmcJhaom aZmf'efrSm usqHk;cJhonf/ aZmfwl;onfvnf;


87 autdkifattzGJU\ xdyfoD;acgif;aqmif oHk;OD;jzpfMuonhf aZmfnDtpfudkrsm; teufrS wpfO;D jzpfonf/ þjzpfpOfjzpf&yfaMumifh autdik af t zGUJ twGi;f AuyqefUusiaf &;pdw"f mwfrsm; jyif;xefpGmay:aygufcJhNyD; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&ESihf autdkifat tzGJUu aqG;aEG;vdkygaMumif; awmif;qdkvmcJhonf/ þodkUjzifh autkdifatudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpfMuonfh vrkefwl;*sdKif? a,m,H ESifh aZmfrdkif wdkUukd jrpfBuD;em;odkU wGifatmfwmav,mOfjzifh ydkUaqmifNyD; Edik if aH wmftpd;k &ud, k pf m;vS,jf zifh aqG;aEG;a&;tpDtpOfay:aygufvmcJo h nf/ OD;apmarmif onf ta&SUajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyw f iG f wm0ef,al qmif&u G af epOf er®wal 'oowåKrikd ;f wGif tBuHay; ynm&Siftjzpfyl;wGJvkyfudkifaeol *smrefuRrf;usifol rpöwm 0if;[dkif; udk autdkifattMurf;zuf aomif;usef;olrsm;rS jyefay;qGJoGm;cJhonhf jzpfpOfwpfckvnf; ay:ayguf c J h o nf / OD ; apmarmif o nf ,if ; jzpf p Of E S i f h y wf o uf í wm0ef , l u m tqdyk guRr;f usio f t l m; &SmazGaomtzGUJ rsm;tm; aygif;pyf ñSEd iId ;f aqmif&u G af y;cJ&h onf/ OD;apmarmif onf ,if;odkU ta&SUajrmufwdkif;ppfXmecsKyfwGif wm0ef,laepOf 1973 ckESpf? rwfv 13 &ufaeUrSpwifí acwåAdkvfrSL;BuD; tqifhodkU wdk;jr§ifhcefUxm;jcif; cHc&hJ onf/ wpfzef 1975 ckEpS ?f rwfv 18 &ufaeUwGif trSw(f 99)ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKy\ f wyfrrSL;tjzpf cefUtyf wm0efay;jcif;cH&onf/ wyfrrSL;wm0efjzifh ta&SUajrmufwdkif; e,fajrwGif Auyrsm;ESihf jzpfymG ;cJo h nhf Bu;D rm;aom wdu k yf BJG u;D rsm;udk Bu;D MuyfuyG u f cJ o hJ nf/ AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;onf 1976 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 21 &ufaeUwGif vuf&SdwyfrrSL; wm0eftjyif ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKy\ f wdik ;f rSL;tjzpf cefUtyf wm0efay;jcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 30-9-1977 &ufaeUwGif ucsifjynfe,f a'oygwDaumfrwDOuúX wm0efrsm;udkyg yl;wGJxrf;aqmifcJh &onf/ OD;apmarmif onf ajrmufydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfwGif wdkif;rSL;tjzpf wm0ef xrf;aqmifpOf jrefrmEdkifiHajrmufydkif;rS wdkif;&if;om;rsdK;pHkwdkU\ "avh p&dkufrsm;? cH,lcsuf oabmxm;rsm;? tusiAhf ZD rsm;? Edik if aH &;arQmrf eS ;f csurf sm;udk jynfjh ynhpf pkH kH av;av;eufeuf avhvmEdik cf o hJ nf/OD;apmarmif onf wdik ;f rSL;tjzpf wm0ef,cl phJ OfwiG f csi;f jynfe,frS 0DvQEH iS hf &cdik jf ynfe,frS cdik rf ;kd vif; wdUk acgif;aqmifaom aomif;use;f ol tkypf Ek pS pf o k nf u&ifjynfe,frS wpfqifh &Sr;f jynfe,fEiS hf ucsif jynfe,fawmifyikd ;f rSjzwfoef;Ny;D csi;f jynfe,fEiS hf &cdik jf ynfe,f twGif;odkU xdk;azmufvIyf&Sm;&ef BudK;pm;cJh&m ,if;tzGJUonf wyfrawmfppfaMumif;rsm;\ 0dik ;f ywfyw d q f Ukd rIukd &ifqikd cf hJ &Ny;D aemufq;kH wGif taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyef ,fajr ajrmufbufjcrf;ü acsreI ;f jcif;cHc&hJ onf/ tdE, d´ Edik if b H ufrS em*tMurf;zuf aomif;use;f olrsm; onf jrefrmEdik if t H wGi;f &Sd em*vlrsKd ;pk rsm;udk taMumufw&m;jzifh pd;k rd;k odr;f oGi;f aeonhf tcsed v f nf;jzpfonf/ tdE, d´ Edik if b H ufrS em*tMurf;zufaomif;use;f olrsm;u jrefrmEkid if H


88 twGif; v[,fajrmufjcrf;&Sd 'Hk[D;&Gm wpf&GmvHk;udk &GmvHk;uRwf tpkvdkuf tNyHKvdkuf owfjzwfcMhJ uonf/ 1979 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 1 &ufaeUwGif Adv k rf LS ;csKyf tqifo h Ukd wd;k jri§ hf cefUtyfjcif; cHcJh&onf/ 1979 ckESpf? arv 4 &ufaeUwGif taemufawmifwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf wdkif;rSL; tjzpfEiS hf {&m0wDwikd ;f a'oygwDaumfrwD OuúXtjzpf ajymif;a½Twm0efxrf;aqmif cJ&h onf/ OD;apmarmif onf 198a ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f 7 &ufaeUwGif ppfa&;csKyt f jzpf wd;k jri§ ahf jymif;a½TU cefUtyfjcif;cHcJh&onf/ 1982 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 7 &ufaeUwGif AdkvfcsKyftqifhwkd;jr§ifh ceft Y yfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ OD;apmarmif onf 1983 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 22 &ufaeUwGif 'kw, d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf (Munf;) jzpfvmcJhNyD; 1984 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 23 &ufaeUwGif 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;tqifhodkU wdk;jr§ifhcefUtyfjcif;cHcJh&onf/ OD;apmarmif ppfa&;csKyfjzpfvmNyD;aemufydkif;wGif 'kwd, umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpfodkU wdk;jr§ifhwm0efay;tyfjcif;rSm ,cifutpOftvm r&Scd zhJ ;l aomjzpfpOfwpf&yfjzpfaMumif; od&&dS ygonf/ OD;apmarmif 'kw, d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf tjzpf wm0ef,pl OfumvtwGi;f 1983 ckEpS f atmufwb kd mv 9 &ufaeU wGif jrefrmEkid if o H Ukd tvnftywfa&muf&Sdaeaom awmifudk&D;,m;EdkifiH (udk&D;,m;or®wEdkifiH) or®w cRef'l;0Srftm; &efukefNrdKU&Sd tmZmenfAdrmefü AHk;azmufcGJtqHk;pD&if&ef ajrmufudk&D;,m; tMurf;zuform;rsm;u BupH nftm;xkwrf jI zpfpOfwpf&yf ay:aygufcyhJ gonf/ ,if; udpt ö m; pHpk rf;ppfaq;&ef tqifjh rift h zGUJ udk zGUJ pnf;&mü xdpk Ofu jynfxaJ &;ESihf omoema&;0efBu;D jzpfonfh Adv k cf sKyf rif;a*gif onf tzGUJ acgif;aqmifjzpfNy;D OD;apmarmifonf 'kw, d acgif;aqmif tjzpf wm0ef,lcJh&onf/ udk&D;,m;tMurf;zuform;rsm;udk azmfxkwfzrf;qD;onhf ppfqifa&;rsm;udv k nf; ud, k w f ikd u f , kd u f s MuyfrwfuyG u f cJ o hJ nf/ 1984 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 16 &ufaeUwGif OD;apmarmif tm; EdkifiHawmf aumifp\ D trdeUf aMumfjimpm trSw?f 95^84 ESihf 0efBu;D tzGUJ \ trdeUf aMumfjimpmtrSw?f 9^84 wdUk t& umuG,af &;0efBu;D Xme? 'kw, d 0efBu;D tjzpfcefUtyfwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1984 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 28 &ufaeUrS Ek0d ifbmv 7 &ufaeYtxd Ekid if aH wmfor®wBu;D OD;pef;,k\ w&kwfjynfolUor®wEdkifiHcspfMunfa&;c&D;pOf wGifyg0ifcJhygonf/ w&kwf acgif;aqmifBuD;rsm; onf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifh qufpyfywfoufonhf udpö&yftm; jywfjywfom;om; odMum;aponho f abmjzifh jrefrmacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;tm; rlvtpDtpOf wGif yg0ifjcif;r&SdbJ xdkpOfu w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD\ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf [la,mifyef;ESihf awGUqHak pcJyh gonf/ [la,mifyef; rSm ab*si;f NrKd U wGirf &Sb d J wm0efjzifh c&D; vGeaf eaomaMumifh 4if;&S&d mae&modUk wul;wuefUoGm;a&mufawGUqHck &hJ onf/ xdo k Ukd awGUqHk


89 &mü w&kwaf cgif;aqmifBu;D [la,mifyef; rS ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD ESiyhf wfoufí jrefrmEkid if H \ jynfwiG ;f a&;jzpfygaMumif; ESihf jrefrmwdUk tcsi;f csi;f om ajz&Si;f &rnhf udp&ö yfjzpfygaMumif; w&kwu f eG jf rLepfygwD\ ud, k pf m;twnfjyKajymMum;cJyh gonf/ 1 1985 ckESpf rwfvwGif w&kwfjynfolUor®wEdkifiH\ or®wBuD; vD&Sifeifh onf jrefrmEkid if o H Ukd w&m;0ifvma&muf vnfywf&mwGif 4if;ESit hf wl w&kwjf ynfoUl vGwaf jrmufa&; wyfrawmf yxr? 'kw, d OD;pD;csKyf Adv k cf sKyBf u;D ½SL½Si;f vnf; yg&Scd o hJ nf/ OD;apmarmif onf ArmjynfueG jf rLepf ygwD\udpö tm; Ny;D jywfomG ;ap&ef w&kwjf ynf? jynfoUl vGwaf jrmufa&; wyfrawmftBuD;tuJjzpfol AdkvfcsKyfBuD; ½SL½Sif; tm; oD;jcm;{nhfcHawGUqHkNyD; AuyESifh ywfoufí tmrcHcsufawmif;cHcJh&m w&kwfppfbuf acgif;aqmifBuD; rS Auyrsm;tm; ppfvufeufypön;f ? cJ,rf;rsm;axmufyrhH jI yKrnfr[kwyf gaMumif;ESihf 4if;tcsuu f kd uwdu0wfjyK EdkifygaMumif; ajymMum;cJhonf/ xdkodkU tmrcHuwdjyKcsuf wpfck&&SdcJhjcif;\ &v'fwpfckrSm Auyrsm;taejzifh rdrw d Ukd \ pDp0D rfwmyefa'oudk xd;k azmufppfqif wku d cf u kd &f mü wpfzufEikd if H e,fpyftwGi;f rS jzwfoef;í wdu k pf pfqifjcif;ESihf wdu k pf pfwyfrsm;tm; axmufyhH jznhw f if;jcif; rsm;jyKvkyfvdkaomfvnf; ,if;odkU vkyfaqmifcGifhr&cJhaMumif; awGU&ygonf/ þc&D;pOfrsm; aMumifh Auyrsm;tm; w&kwfjynfu tNyD;tydkiftqufjzwfrItajctaersm; ydkrdk vsijf refcikd rf mpGm ay:aygufvmcJ&h onf/ 2 AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;onf 1985 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 4 &ufaeUwGif umuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyt f jzpf cefUtyfwm0ef ay;tyfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1985 ckEpS jf yKvyk cf o hJ nhf yÍörtBurd f ygwDnDvmcHrS A[dktvkyftrI aqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&onf/ ,if;odkU wm0efr sm;xrf; aqmif aepOf r S m yif 1986 ck E S p f ? atmuf w k d b mv 31&uf a eUü 'kw, d Adv k cf sKyBf u;D tqifrh S Adv k cf sKyBf u;D tqifo h Ukd wd;k jri§ chf efUtyfjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/ OD;apmarmif onf umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOfumv twGi;f 1987 ckEpS f 'DZifbmvxJwiG f autdik af ttMurf;zufaomif;use;f ol b&efqikd ;f rS 1

jrefrmEkid if ?H Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ ? wkdif;usdK;jynfjyK? Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ \aqmif&u G cf suo f rkid ;f 0if rSwfwrf; (1988 ckESpfrS 1991ckESpf)? ((&efukef? ,if;tzGJU? 1991) pm 19/ 2

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90 tar&duef EkdifiHtwGif; okdYjynf0ifcGifhADZm&&Sda&;twGufvDq,fvkyfBuHvdrfnmrIwpfck ay:aygufco hJ nf/ pifppf ,if; vkyBf uv H rd n f mrIonf Edik if aH wmftpd;k &udk qefUusiaf eaom tar&duefEidk if &H dS pDtm&f'b D D tzGUJ rStwGi;f a&;rSL;jzpfol &Jausmo f l \ tBuOH mPfay;csut f & h v,foUkd a&muf&t dS odtrSwf trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDwyfaygif;pk trnfc(H NDF)tzGUJ tm; urÇmt jyKEikd &f ef BuKd ;yrf;tm;xkwrf v I nf;jzpf cJo h nf/ odUk aomf 4if;wdUk \ tBut H pnfrmS atmifjrifrI r&Scd ahJ cs/ xdpk Ofu autdik af t tMurf;zuf aomif;use;f ol b&efqikd ;f onf vef'efNrKd UrSwpfqifh tar&duefEkdifiHodkU 0ifa&mufEdkifa&;twGuf ADZm&&Sd&ef BudK;pm;cJh&m tar&dueftpdk;&u jiif;qdkcJhonf/ odkU&mwGif wpfvcefUtMumü b&efqdkif; u 4if;wdkUxHwGif 'kwd,urÇmppf twGi;f u ucsijf ynfe,fwiG f ysuu f scahJ om pD-47 trsKd ;tpm; av,mOfrS tydik ;f tprsm;ESihf tar&duefavol&JESpfOD;wdkU\t&dk;rsm;&Sdaeí ay;tyfvdkaMumif;jzifh ,if;EdkifiH&Sd tzd;k tc,laqmif&u G af y;aeaom yk*v ¾ u d ukrP Ü w D pfcrk w S pfqifh uGe*f &uftrwfwpfO;D xH odkU csOf;uyfcJhonf/ ,if;uGef*&uftrwfuvnf; oufqdkif&modkU t&dk;rsm;&&Sdatmif autdkifat tMurf;zufaomif;usef;olrsm;ESifh qufoG,faqmif&GufoifhaMumif; wifjycJhonff/ odkU&mwGif tar&duefEdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xmeu autdkifattMurf;zuf aomif;use;f olrsm; onf Ekid if aH &;t&aomif;use;f olrsm;r[kwb f J rl;,pfaq;0g;ESiphf ;D yGm;a&; "m;jywdu k af eMuolrsm;omjzpfí tpd;k &ESihf qufo, G v f yk u f ikd &f ef roifah Mumif;jzifh y,fcschJ onf/ xdkUtjyif ,if;av,mOfysuf&mae&mtm; autdkifatrsm;u awGU&Sdxm;aMumif; owif;wpf&yfukd tar&duef&dS twåvEÅmuGepf wDusL&Si;f owif;pmü 24-10-87 &ufaeUwGif azmfjyyg&Sv d mcJNh y;D ,if; owif;rSef -rrSeu f v kd nf; &efuek Nf rKd U&Sd tar&duefo&H ;kH rS pHpk rf;vmcJ&h m jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;&u av,mOfysufudpöESifhywfoufí wpfpHkwpf&m owif;ESifhtpte ponfwUkd udak wGUvsif taMumif;Mum;rnfjzpfaMumif;jzifh jyefMum;xm;cJyh g onf/f 20-9-91 &ufaeUwGif EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;tHk;a*smf rS wyfrawmf ppfaMumif; &SmazGawGU&Scd ahJ om 'kw, d urÇmppftwGi;f jrefrmEkid if aH jrmufyikd ;f ü ysuu f sco hJ nhf ppfav,mOf tysuf ypön;f t<uif;tusepf onfwUkd ESiyhf wfoufí &efuek Nf rKd U&Sd tar&duefo&H ;kH ,m,Dwm0efcH rpöwm z&efuvif? [m',f*sLeD,mtm; EdkifiHjcm;a&;&Hk;odkU zdwfac:í today;ajymMum;cJhonf/,if;odkUajymMum;&mwGif vloHk;a,mufwdkU\ udk,fydkifeHygwfjym; av;ckwUkd \ eHygwfjym; rsm;? av,mOfysu\ f tpdwt f ydik ;f tysut f pD;pm&if;? ypöwakd oewf tysufESpfvuf? tar&duef wyfrawmf\ a&S;OD;olejyKaowåmtysufwdkU\ tao;pdwf taMumif;t&mwdkUudk "mwfyHkrdwåLay;tyf cJhonf/ ysufpD;cJhonhfav,mOfrSm tar&duef ppfav,mOf pD-47 at trsdK;tpm;jzpfonfudk awGU&Sd&onf/ autdkifattMurf;zuf aomif;use;f olrsm;u ,if;ppfav,mOfysuu f kd awGU&Sx d m;av[ef jzifh rrSerf uef vdrn f m


91 aMunmcJzh ;l onf/ OD;apmarmifonf ,if;ppfav,mOfysuu f pd u ö kd pdw0f ifpm;Ny;D wyfrawmfppfaMumif; rS &SmazGawGU&SdonhftcgwGif tjzpfrSefudkazmfxkwfNyD; oufqdkifolwdkUtm; today;&ef vufatmufrS wm0ef&Sdolrsm;udk ñTefMum;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ pifppf OD;apmarmiftaejzifh ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf e,fajrrsm;twGi;f wm0efxrf; aqmifpOftcsed u f wnf;uyif xdke,fajrtwGif; 'kwd,urÇmppftwGif; umvu ysufuscJhonfqdkaom tar&duef ppfav,mOfyg avol&w J Ukd \ &kyu f vmyft<uif;tusef rsm;udk tav;teufxm; &SmazGcNhJ y;D jzpfonf/ odUk jzifh 1988 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 27 &ufaeUrSpwifí OD;apmarmiftm; umuG,af &; 0efBu;D Xme 0efBu;D tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/ 4-4/ EkdifiHawmftm;wm0ef,l&jcif;(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU) vrf;pOfygwD tm;enf;csufrsm;? aysmhuGuf[muGufrsm;ukd tajcjyKum jynfwGif;jynfy&Sd vuf0Jvuf,m tiftm;pkrsm;\ aoG;xkd;ajr§mufyifhay;rIrsm;aMumifh 1988ckESpfokdYa&mufaomtcg ta&;tcif;BuD;wpfck jzpfay:vmcJh&onf/ ta&;tcif; jzpfay:ap&ef t"duwGef;ykdYay;cJhonfh EkdifiHawmf\t"dujyóemBuD; ESpf&yf&SdcJhygonf/ ,if;wkrYd mS pD;yGm;a&;jyóem ESihf Ekid if aH &;jyóemyifjzpfygonf/ ta&;tcif;u tBuKd umv rsm;twGi;f Ekid if aH wmfEiS hf jynfov l x l k twGi;f pD;yGm;a&;jyóemrsm;wpfaeYwpfjcm; wk;d wuf vmcJo h nfEiS t hf rQ ,if;\tusKd ;quftjzpf 0efxrf;rsm; ESihf jynfov l x l t k wGi;f ü rormrIrsm;? tusiyhf surf rI sm;? pm&dwaå zmufjyefrrI sm;? uk, d u f sKd ;&Sm a&omckrd rI sm;? t*wdvu dk pf m;rIrsm; ykrd rdk sm;jym;vmcJyh gonf/ tkycf sKyaf &;ykid ;f wGiv f nf; &yfuu G rf S wkid ;f tqifx h d zGUJ pnf;xm;aom jynfoaYl umifpt D zGUJ tpnf;rsm;wGif jynforl sm;\qE´EiS v hf nf; ruku d n f ?D vkyif ef;uRr;f usirf I vnf;r&S?d uk, d u f sio hf u d m© ukv d nf; apmifx h ed ;f &ef tm;enf;cJo h nfh yk*Kd¾ vrf sm;ukd xnfo h iG ;f wm0efay;cJhjcif;rsm;aMumifh jynfolvlxktwGif; rw&m;rI? rrSefruefqHk;jzwfcH&rI armufrmrIrsm;ukd cHpm;cJMh u&onf/ wm0ef&t dS zGUJ tpnf;tqifq h ifEh iS jhf ynfov l x l rk mS uGm[rI Bu;D rm; vmcJ&h rkH Qru jynfov l x l \ k rauseyfrrI sm;ukv d nf; wk;d íomjzpfay:cJo h nf/ bDbpD ?D AGDtkdat? atvftdE´d, ponftoHvTifhXmersm;ESifh jynfypme,fZif;tcsdKYwkdYonf jrefrmEkid if t H wGi;f jzpfay:aeaom Ekid if aH &;? pD;yGm;a&;? tkycf sKyaf &; tajctaersm;ukd yHBk u;D csUJ xkwv f iT ahf y;jcif;? trsKd ;rsKd ;aomenf;rsm;ukd toH;k jyKum aoG;xk;d vIaH qmfrrI sm;ukd jyKvyk v f m cJMh uygonf/ 1988 ckepS ?f rwfv 12 &ufaeY n 9 em&D 15 rdepf tcsed cf efw Y iG f BuKd Uuke;f blwm teD; pE´m0if;vufzuf&nfqkdifü pufrIwuúokdvf'kwd,ESpfausmif;om; 2 OD;ESifh t&ufrl;aeonfh&yfuGuf vli,f 5 OD;wkdYonf uufqufoDcsif;acGzGifhckdif;&mrStp cku d &f efjzpfymG ;cJMh uygonf/ ,if;&efponf xkrd QEiS yhf if &yfwefrY oGm; cJb h J aemufwpfaeYjzpfonfh


92 rwfv 13 &ufaeYn 8 em&D 30 rdepf tcsed cf efrY S pí BuKd Uuke;f &yfuu G rf S t&yfom;rsm;ESihf pufrIwuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm; wpfzufESifhwpfzuf tkyfpkzGJU tMurf;zufwkdufckdufrI rsm; jzpfyGm;cJhygonf/ trIdufup jyó'frD;avmifqkdouJhokdY ausmif;om;rsm; qlylqE´jyrIrsm; wpfNrKd UNy;D wpfNrKd Ujzpfay:vmcJyh gonf/ Edik if aH wmftusKd ;twGuf wm0ef&o dS t l zGUJ tpnf;rsm;rS rnfrQyif aqmif&Gufay;apumrl EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsm;? qlyv l o dk rl sm;rS wpfjynfv;kH twkid ;f twmjzifh qlyt l <kH ua&;uko d m tm;pku d v f yk af qmifcMhJ u ygonf/ 9-8-88 &ufaeYrSpwifNyD; vltkyfBuD;rsm;jzifh vHkNcHKa&;wyfzGJU0ifrsm;tm; tMurf;zufowfjzwfrrI sm;? wku d cf u dk &f efjyKrrI sm; jyKvyk v f mcJMh uygonf/ xkt d awmftwGi;f ausmif;0if;rsm;twGi;f wGif Ekid if aH &;orm;rsm;omru Ekid if jH cm;oHwreftcsKd UwkyYd g 0ifxu G f ajc&Iyjf cif;rsm; jyKvyk v f mMuygonf/ xkaYhd Mumifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf ,if;wk\ Yd ajrm§ ufyifah y;rI rsm;? 0g'jzefv Y UHI aqmfay;rIrsm;aMumifh ausmif;om;rsm;ta&; oufoufuo dk m awmif;qkcd MhJ u &mrS ]] ppfreS af om'Dru dk a&pD&&Sad &; aqmif&u G f ay;&ef}} [lonfh Ekid if aH &;oabmouf0ifonfh awmif;qkdcsufrsm;ukdukd pwifawmif;qkdvmcJhMuonf/ ausmif;0if;rsm;twGif;wGifvnf; vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsdK;pHk 0ifa&mufvmrIwkdYaMumifh ausmif;yk&d0kPfrsm;twGif;wGif Ekid if aH &;ykrd &dk yI af xG;vmcJyh gonf/ &efuek Nf rKd UwGif qlyt l Murf;zufrrI sm;jzpfymG ;aepOftwGi;f Zlvidk v f 7 &ufaeYwiG f awmifBu;D NrKd Uüvnf;qlyrl rI sm;jzpfymG ;cJyh gonf/ Zlvidk v f 23 &ufaeYwiG f vrf;pOfygwD? ta&;ay: ygwDnv D mcHusi;f yjyKvyk cf yhJ gonf/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;wGif Ekid if aH wmfp;D yGm;a&;qkid &f mrl0g' vrf;nTerf I rsm;jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;ESihf ygwDzUJG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'pnf;rsO;f rsm; jyifqifa&;wkYd twGuf aqG;aEG; aqmif&u G cf MhJ uygonf/ xkt Yd jyif ,if;tpnf;ta0;ü vrf;pOfygwDOuúXBu;D OD;ae0if; uk, d w f idk rf S wpfygwDpepf okrYd [kwf ygwDppkH epf ESpcf w k t Ydk euf rnfonfuEdk pS o f uf aMumif; wpfjynfv;kH qE´c, H yl u JG si;f ya&;? ygwDOuúXBu;D tygt0if Ekwx f u G v f o dk rl sm;\qE´udk vku d af vsma&;? 1962 ckEpS f ausmif;om;or*¾ taqmufttHu k dk zsuq f ;D cJjh cif;ESipfh yfvsO;f í tjrif&Sif;ap&efwkdYtwGuf tus,fw0ifh &Sif;vif;cJhygonf/ Zlvkdifv 25 &ufaeYwGif ta&;ay:ygwDnv D mcHrS qH;k jzwfcsurf sm; csrw S cf &hJ m ,if;wkt Yd eufygwDOuúXBu;D OD;ae0if;ESihf 'kw, d ygwDOuúXBu;D OD;pef;,kwt Ydk m; Ekwx f u G cf iG jhf yKNy;D ygwD0iftjzpfrS tem;,lciG jhf yKcyhJ gonf/ 1988 ckEpS t f wGi;f ay:aygufcahJ om ta&;tcif;onf jynfwiG ;f jynfytarSmifh ya,m*jzifh wpfpxufwpfp qk;d 0g;vmcJo h nf/ Ekid if aH wmfyidk t f zk;d wefpuf&?kH tvky&f rkH sm;ESihf ypön;f rsm; wefz;dk tm;jzifh pkpak ygif; usyo f ef;aygif; 500 ausmf cefv Y , k zl suq f ;D jcif; cH&onfh tjyif tjypfrahJ omvlrsm;rSm tMurf;zuf acgif;jzwftowfc&H onftxd tajctaeqk;d rsm; ay:ayguf cJo h nf/ wdik ;f jynf\ wm0eft&yf&yfukd wyfrawmfu rvTrJ a&Smifom wm0ef,&l


93 awmhrnfh tajctaeodUk wGe;f ydUk &m a&mufco hJ nf/ ,if; ta&;tcif;onf jynfwiG ;f jynfy&Sd vuf0J vuf,m tzsuform;rsm;aMumifh EdkifiHawmftwGif; rNidrfroufrIrsm;jzpfyGm;cJhNyD; jynfaxmifpkBuD; NydKuGJawmhrnhf tajctaeESifh EkdifiHawmf\vGwfvyfa&;ESifh tcsKyftjcm tmPm yg vufvGwfqHk;½HI;&awmhrnhf tajctaersm; ay:aygufvmcJhonf/ xdkUaMumifh OD;apmarmifonf wyfrawmftBuD;tuJ wpfOD;yDyD EdkifiHawmfa&&SnftusdK;udkarQmfudk;í Edik if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ udk zGUJ pnf;um 1988 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 18 &ufaeUwGif Edik if aH wmf\wm0eft&yf&yfukd vTaJ jymif;wm0ef xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ OD;apmarmif onf EdkifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&; tzGJUOuúXtjzpf vnf;aumif;? wyfrawmf umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyt f jzpfvnf;aumif; wm0ef,cl o hJ nf/ wyfrawmfjyKjyifajymif;vJrIrsm;ukd AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; apmarmif OD;aqmifrIjzifh aqmif&Guf EkdifcJhjcif;onf wyfrawmftm; acwfopfwpf&yfokdY ykdYaqmifcJhjcif;tjzpf orkdif;rSwfausmufwpfck pkdufxl&rnf jzpfayonf/ rsufarSmufacwfwyfrawmfBuD;ukd OD;aqmifcJhonfhwyfrawmfumuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyftjzpf AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; apmarmif onf wyfrawmf\ aumif;jrwfaom? BuD;jrifhaom tpOftvmrsm;ukd vufqifhurf;qufvuf xdef;odrf;vmcJholjzpfonf/ xkdYaMumifhvnf; ,aeYtcsdefwGif wyfrawmfBuD; ukdomru Ekid if aH wmf\tajctaersm;ukyd g wk;d wufaumif;rGef vmatmif pGr;f aqmifEidk cf jhJ cif; jzpfonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh qk&d ygvQif Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmifonf Ekid if aH wmftm; u,fwifc&hJ onfh 'kwd,ajrmufumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf tjzpfwyfrawmf\orkdif; pmrsufESmrsm;ay:wGif urÜn;f a&;xk;d rSwaf usmufwif&rnfyifjzpfygonf/ w&m;Oya'pkd;rkd;a&;ESifhe,fajrat;csrf;om,ma&;wm0efukd taumiftxnf azmf&mwGif EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJUonf tajray:ajratmuf tzsut f arSmif&h efq;l &efajimifh tpHpk u kH dk &ifqidk w f eG ;f vSecf o hJ nf/ Auywko Yd nf tmPmukd jzwfvrf;u &,la&;twGuf &Sr;f jynfe,f wpfcv k ;kH ukd odr;f ,l&ef? xkrd w S pfqifw h pfjynfv;kH ukd odrf;,lEkdif&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifh EkdifiH\tajctae qkd;0g;aerIukd tcGifhaumif;,lum rkid ;f ,ef;a'oukd rD;uke, f rf;ukef wku d cf u dk cf o hJ nf/ autife, f l aomif;uef;olrsm;rSvnf; Ekid if aH wmftmPmuk&d ,lEidk &f ef rJoa0ga'oukd tiftm;tvH;k t&if;jzifh wku d cf u dk cf o hJ nf / AuyESiahf utife, f al omif;use;f olrsm;ukd wyfrawmfonf &Gy&f yG cf RcH RH acsreI ;f wku d cf u dk cf o hJ nf/ aomif;usef;olrsm;onf rkdif;,ef;? rJoa0gwGifomru jrefrmEkdifiHtESHUaESifh,Sufwkduf cku d v f mcJo h nf/ wyfrawmfonf jynfe,fEiS w hf idk ;f toD;oD;wGif ppfqifa&;Bu;D rsm;qifEv JG suf acs;rIe;f wku d cf u dk cf &hJ m rkid ;f ,ef;ukd AuyvuforYdk usa&mufatmif &efot l m;tjyif;txef


94 acsreI ;f wku d cf u kd Ef idk cf o hJ nft h jyif autife, f w l o Ydk rd ;f yku d x f m;aom r,fx&D? rJav? armfz;dk au? 0g;c(ta[mif;)? aoabmbk;d ? a0gavwku Yd v dk nf; wyfrawmfrS jyefvnfwu dk cf u dk o f rd ;f ykid Ef idk f cJhonf/ zvl;&efolYpcef;ukdvnf; BuD;rm;aomppfqifa&;qifEGJumodrf;ykdufEkdifcJhonf/ xkdYjyifrGefaomif;usef;ol wkdY\ pcef;wpfckjzpfaom bk&m;oHk;qlpcef;ukdvnf; wkdufckduf odr;f yku d Ef idk cf o hJ nf/ Akv d cf sKyBf u;D apmarmifonf w&m;Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;ESihf e,fajrat;csr;f om,ma&; twGuf vkt d yfonfOh ya'rsm;ukd jyifqifr?I y,fzsurf ?I tpm;xk;d rIrsm;ukjd yKvyk jf yefXmef;cJo h nf/ EkdifiHawmfw&m;&Hk;csKyfa&SUae&Hk;csKyf&Hk;ESifh pm&if;ppfcsKyf&Hk;rsm;ukd jyefvnfzGJUpnf;cJhonf/ w&m;pD&ifa&;wGif rl(7)csufcsrSwfNyD; rSefrSefESifhjrefjrdefpD&ifyg/ vkyfxHk;nDnDaqmif&Gufyg/ vmbfay;vmbf,u l if;&Si;f yg ponfaqmify'k (f 3)yk'Ef iS t hf nDvu dk ef maqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ vrf;yef;qufoG,frIvHkNcHKacsmarGUygrS jynfolrsm;\pm;0wfaea&;acsmifvnf aprnfjzpf ojzifh vrf;yef;qufo, G rf v I NkH cKH acsmarGUap&ef wpfe,fEiS w hf pfe,f? wpfNrKd UESiw hf pfNrKd U? wpfjynfe,fEiS hf wpfjynfe,f? wpfwidk ;f ESiw hf pfwidk ;f vrf;yef;qufo, G af &;twGuf vrf;opfrsm; azmufvyk jf cif;? ,cifvrf;a[mif;rsm;ukd jyKjyifjcif;? ,cifurNy;D jywfao;aomvrf;rsm;ukd qufvufazmufvyk jf cif; ponfwu Ydk t dk &Sed t f [kejf zifh Ny;D pD;atmifaqmif&u G Ef idk cf o hJ nf/ 189-1988 &ufaeYrS 31-3-1991 &ufaeYtxd pkpak ygif;ukeu f saiG 4498.31 oef;txd&cdS o hJ nf/ vrf;yef;qufo, G rf v I NkH cKH acsmarGUvmonfEiS t hf rQ ukepf nfpq D if;rI vG,u f jl refqef vmNyD; ul;vl;qufqHrIrsm;vnf; ykdrkdrsm;jym;vmrnfjzpf&m NrdKU&Tmrsm;ykdrkdpnfyifwkd;wuf vmcJhonf/ &efukefwkdif; twGif; '*HkNrdKUopf? a&TjynfomNrdKUopf? vIdifom,mNrdKUopf? a&TaygufuNH rKd Uopf? a0bm*DNrKd Uopf? 'vNrKd Uopfrsm;ukw d nfaqmufay;cJo h nf/ weoFm&Dwidk ;f ? yJcl;wkdif;? &ckdifjynfe,f? &Srf;jynfESifh e,fpyfa'orsm;wGifvnf; NrdKUopf&Gmopfrsm; wnfaqmufay;cJo h nf/ aps;uG u f p D ; yG m ;a&;pepf E S i f h a vsmf n D a om uk e f o G , f a &;k v k y f i ef ; rsm;uk d aqmif&u G o f nf/ ukeo f , G af &;vkyif ef;wGif oGi;f ukev f yk if ef;? yku Yd ek v f yk if ef;? zufpyfvyk if ef;? Ekid if jH cm;ukrP Ü rD sm;ESihf qufo, G cf iG ?hf ukrP Ü aD xmifciG rhf sm;ukyd g jyKvyk af y;cJo h nf/ Ekid if jH cm; ukrP Ü rD sm;ESiq hf ufo, G í f pufrv I yk if ef;rsm;? a&eHEiS o hf bm0"gwfaiGU &Sm;azGa&; vkyif ef;rsm; aqmif & G u f c G i f h j yKcJ h o nf / aps;uG u f p D ; yG m ; a&;pepf t & Ek d i f i H w umES i f h q uf o G , f aqmif&u G &f mwGif uGeyf sLwmvkyif ef;onf t"dutcef;rS yg0if vsu&f &dS m uGeyf sLwmvkyif ef; zGUH NzKd ;a&;twGuf aiGusyf *2 oef; tuket f uscH jyifqifaqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ Ekid if jH cm;aiG&if;ES;D jr§KyfESHrI Oya'ukdjyefXmef;ay;NyD; pufrIvkyfief;? a&eHESifhobm0"gwfaiGU&SmazGa&;vkyfief;?


95 ig;ykpeG af rG;jrLzrf;qD;a&;vkyif ef;? [kw d ,fEiS chf &D;oGm;vma&;vkyif ef;? o,f,yl aYdk qmifa&;vkyif ef; rsm;tygt0if vkyfief; 37ckudkvkyfaqmifay;cJhonf/ bPfvkyfief;rsm;? taumufcGef vkyif ef;rsm; jyifqifw;dk csUJ cJo h nf/ jynfolrsm;pm;0wfaea&;acsmifvnfap&eftwGuf v,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;ESifh opfawmu@ ukv d nf;txl;*&kjyKBuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ v,f,mpku d yf sKd ;a&;u@wGif pyg;pkdufysdK;rIwkd;wufa&; pDrHudef;rsm;? qnfajrmif;wmwrHwl;azmfa&;vkyfief;rsm;? pm;oH;k oD;ESpH u dk yf sKd ;xkwv f yk af &;ESihf pufro I ;D ESH pku d yf sKd ;xkwv f yk af &;vkyif ef;rsm;? a&&Sad &;vkyif ef; rsm;? pku d yf sKd ;ajr? ajr,mazmfxw k af &;vkyif ef;rsm;ukd aqmif&u G af y;cJo h nf/ Ekid if yH idk f pku d u f iG ;f rsm;? arG;jrLa&;jcrH sm;ukv d nf;wk;d csUJ ay;cJo h nf/ opfawmu@ wGif opfawmBuKd ;0kid ;f rsm;jyKpjk cif;? ysKd ;axmifjcif;vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf opfxw k v f yk af &mif;csjcif;vkyif ef;rsm;ukd wk;d csUJ aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ aomif;use;f oltzsuo f rm;rsm;\'Pfucdk g;pnf;cHcMhJ u&Ny;D acwftqufqufu aemufus usefae&pfonfh e,fpyfa'oESifh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;\ zGHUNzdK;a&;ukdvnf; A[kad umfrwD? vkyif ef; aumfrwDEiS hf qyfaumfrwDrsm;zGUJ pnf;um t&Sed t f [kejf ri§ ahf qmif&u G cf hJ onf/ e,fpyfa'oESihf wkid ;f &if;om;vlrs;kd rsm;zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufro I nf t&Sed t f [kejf ri§ v hf su&f NdS y;D NrdKUopfrsm;? vrf;opfrsm;? wHwm;opfrsm;? pmoifausmif;opfrsm;? aq;&Hkaq;ay;cef;rsm;? vQyfppfrD;rsm;? ukefoG,fa&;vkyfief;rsm; ponfvkyfief;rsm;zGHUNzdK;vmcJhonf/ wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd ;rsm; zGUH NzKd ;a&;odyu HÜ v dk nf; wuúov dk t f qifo h Ydk wk;d jri§ zhf iG v hf pS af y;cJo h nf/ jrefrmEkdifiHwpf0ef;vHk;&Sd NrdKUe,ftoD;oD;ukdvnf; oefY&Sif;vSyNyD; acwfrDap&ef vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;? vrf;wHwm;rsm;? cHk;ausmfwHwm;rsm;? apwDykxkd;rsm;? ausmif;uef bk&m;? pmoifausmif;? aps;? aq;&H?k yef;O,smOf ponfwu Ydk dk opfviG v f yS acwfrD aeatmifaqmif&u G f cJo h nf/ &efuek Nf rKd Uawmfuv dk nf; NrKd Ut*Fg&yfEiS t hf nDwnfaqmufjyKjycJ&h m ,cktcg urÇmt h qift h wef;rSD NrKd UawmfBu;D jzpfvmcJo h nf/ trsdK;om;usef;ra&;twGuf aq;&Hk? aq;ay;cef;? q&m0ef q&mrrsm;ukdvnf; wk;d csUJ cefx Y m; cJo h nf/ ,cifu aq;&Hk 631 ck&cdS &hJ m 31-3-1991 &ufaeYwiG f aq;&Hk 673 ck? ,cif usef;rma&;Xme 1337 ck&SdcJh&m 1408 ck ponfjzifhtoD;oD;wkd;wufvmcJhonf/ tm;upm;bufwiG f urÇmESi, hf OS Nf yKd if &ifabmifwef;Ekid &f eff trsKd ;om;tm;upm;vkyif ef;ukd jr§ifhwifay;cJhonf/ tm;upm;ESifhtm;upm;&Hkrsm;ukd usyfaiG 196 oef;tukeftuscHum wnfaqmufay;cJo h nf/ Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmifO;D aqmifaomEkid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rI wnfaqmufa&; tzGUJ onf tjrifvrJG mS ;rI? Ekid if aH &;ajcxk;d rIEiS hf jynfwiG ;f jynfy tarSmifyh a,m*aMumifh vrf;rSm;


96 vkdufoGm;rdMuonfh ausmif;om;vli,frsm;ukdvnf; BudKqkda&;pcef; (27)ckzGifhvSpfum jyefvnfac:,lvufccH o hJ nf/ 1988 ckEpS t f a&;tcif;ukt d aMumif; jyKNy;D ydwx f m;cJ&h aom tajccHausmif;rsm;ESifh wuúokdvf? aumvdyf? odyÜHausmif;rsm;ukdvnf; jyefvnfzGifhvSpf ay;cJhonf/ ynma&;zGHUNzdK;a&;zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrItwGuf rlvwef;ausmif;opf 5000? tv,fwef;ausmif;opf 360? txufwef;ausmif;opf 132 ausmif; wkdYukd zGifhvSpfay; Ekid cf o hJ nf/ vlrI0efxrf;vkyfief;rsm;jzpfaom rlvwef;BudKausmif;? aeYuav;xdef;ausmif;? vli,f&yd o f m? vli,foifwef;ausmif;? vli,fzUHG NzKd ;a&;y&[dwa*[m? trsKd ;orD;apmifah &Smuf a&;? oufBuD;&G,fvGefapmifha&Smufa&;? roefrpGrf;olrsm;apmifha&Smufa&;? awmif;&rf; pm;aomufolrsm; yaysmufa&;? rl;,pfaq;pGJolrsm;ukoa&;? jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;? bde;f tpm;xk;d pku d yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;rsm; ukv d nf; aqmif&u G Ef idk cf o hJ nf/ Ekid if aH wmftwGi;f jrwfpmG bk&m;\ Ak'o ¨ moemawmfwnfwx hH eG ;f um; jyefyY mG ;a&; twGuv f nf; BuKd ;yrf;tm;xkwcf o hJ nf/ y&d,wåo d moemtwGuf ax&0g'Ak'u ¨ sr;f pmrsm;ukd trsKd ;aygif; 183 rsKd ;? tkyaf & 742769 tkyf xkwaf 0cJo h nf/ Ekid if aH wmfoC H em,utzGUJ \ Mo0g'ESit hf nD tajcjyK rlvwef;pmar;yGrJ sm;? yxri,f? yxrvwf? yxrBu;D pmar;yGrJ sm;? wdyd#u"&pmar;yGJrsm;? tbd"r®mpmar;yGJrsm;ukd usif;yay;cJhonf/ pmatmif&[ef; oHCmawmfrsm;tm; wk;d jri§ yfh al Zmfco hJ nf/ Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjyd m;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ OuúX AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;apmarmifonf EkdifiHawmftwGif; Mo0g'gp&d, q&mawmfBuD;rsm;xH vSnfhvnfylaZmfNyD; omoema&;udpörsm;ukd avQmufxm;cJh&m q&mawmfBuD;rsm;u Mo0g'uxmrsm;cs;D jri§ chf o hJ nf/ omoemawmfwnfwjhH yefyY mG ;a&;twGuf oHCmtzGUJ tpnf; qkid &f mOya'ukx d w k jf yefco hJ nf/ Ak'o ¨ moemawmfwnfw h jhH yefyY mG ;a&;twGuf BuKd ;yrf;awmf rlMuaomq&mawmfBu;D rsm;tm;bGUJ wHqyd af wmfEiS hf taqmifta,mifrsm; qufuyfvLS 'gef;yGJ wku Yd dk 1988-89? 1989-1990? 1990-1991 ckEpS rf sm;wGif usi;f ycJyh gonf/ Ekid if aH wmfwpf0ef;vH;k &Sd tNrKd UNrKd Ut&Gm&GmrS ausmif;uefb&k m;apwDyx k ;dk rsm;ukd bufprkH rG ;f rHjyKjyifí omomemawmf wnfwjhH yefyY mG ;a&;ukd BuKd ;yrf;wnfaqmufco hJ nf/ &efuek w f idk ;f twGi;f a&Tw*d akH pwDawmf? r[m0d Z ,apwD a wmf ? urÇ m at;apwD a wmf r S p í tNrd K UNrd K Ut&G m &G m &S d w ef c k d ; BuD ; apwDawmftqlqlukd usyfaiGodef;aygif; 2080 tukeftuscHjyKjyifrGrf;rHcJhygonf/ apwDyx k ;dk rsm; bufprkH rG ;f rHjyKjyifay;&Hrk u bke;f awmfBu;D ausmif;rsm; aqmufvyk v f LS 'gef;jcif;? "r®m&Hkrsm;wnfaqmuf vSL'gef;jcif;? odrfawmfBuD;rsm;ukd jyKjyifwnfaqmufvSL'gef;jcif;? awmifwef;a'oomoemjyK ausmif;rsm;wnfaqmufvSL'gef;jcif; ponfwkdYukdvnf; wpfEkdifvHk;tNrdKUNrdKUte,fe,fwGif vSL'gef;cJhonfjzpf&m omomemawmfwnfwhHjyefYyGm;a&;


97 twGuf tm;oGefcGefpkdufBudK;yrf;aqmif&Guf aepOfyif e0wywåjrm;? e0&wfo&zlywåjrm; paomywåjrm;BuD;rsm;ESifh ausmufrsuf&wemrsm; ukdvnf; AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; OD;aqmifaom Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ umvwGif wl;azmf&&Scd yhJ gonf/ wyfrawmfBu;D udk wd;k csUJ zGUJ pnf;&mwGif wyfrawmf\ zGUJ pnf;rIwm0ef0wå&m;rsm;? tkyfcsKyfuGyfuJrIqdkif&mudpö&yfrsm;ESifh vdkufavsmnDaxGpGm&Sdrnhf jyifqifzGJUpnf;rIrsm;udk jyKvyk cf &hJ m wGif umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adv k cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmif onf 18-3-90 &ufaeUrS tpjyKí AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; tqihfjzifh wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf? wyfrawmfwGif atmufajctqifyh nmay;aumfrwD OuúX? wkid ;f tqifph nf;&H;k a&;aumfrwDtwGi;f a&;rSL;? wkdif;^wyfrtqifhpnf;&Hk;a&;aumfrwDOuúX? ucsifjynfe,fESifh {&m0wDwkdif;a'oygwD aumfrwDOuúX? EkdifiHa&;ynmay;ESifh ,Ofaus;rIa&;&m aumfrwD0if(tcsdefykdif;)? oabmw&m;avhvmjyKpkysdK;axmifa&;tzGJU tzGJU0if? wyfrawmfpnf;&Hk;a&; aumfrwD0if wm0efrsm;udv k nf; xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmifonf 1992 ckEpS ?f atNyv D 23 &ufaeYwiG t f em;,lco hJ nf/ Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D onf 1954 ckEpS w f iG f wpfvMumzGiv hf pS cf o hJ nfh 0ufx;D uefwu dk yf JG avhusifha&;oifwef;okdYwufa&mufcJhonf/ ajcvsifwyfcGJrSL; oifwef;trSwfpOf(20)okdY wufa&muf&mtqif(h 1)&&Scd o hJ nf/ 1958 ckEpS w f iG f wyf&if;tkycf sKyrf q I idk &f mt&m&So d ifwef;okYd vnf;wufa&mufcJhonf/ 1962 ckESpf? ESpfOD;wGifzGifhvSpfcJhonfh xkd;ppftulESifho,f,l ykaYd qmifa&;tuloifwef;? 1962 ckEpS u f ek yf ikd ;f ü yPmr ppfO;D pD;wuúov kd f oifwef;? 1965 ckEpS ?f ESpq f ef;ydik ;f wGif jrefrmhq&kd , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD A[dEk ikd if aH &; odyaHÜ usmif;rS zGiv hf pS af om wyfwGif;ynmay;oifwef; trSwfpOf(4)? 1966 ckESpfwGif ppfOD;pD;wuúodkvfoifwef; ponfhoifwef;rsm;okdYwufa&mufcJhonf/ ppfOD;pD;wuúodkvfoifwef;wGif tqifhjrifhpGm atmifjrifco hJ rl sm;pm&if;wGiyf g0ifco hJ jl zpfonf/ 6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

OD;apmarmif onf 1982 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 2 &ufaeUwGif jynfaxmifpkor®w *smreDEdkifiHodkU ,m,Dwm0efjzifh oGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 1984 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif w&kwfEkdifiHokdY vnf;aumif;? 1986 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 19 &ufaeUwGif 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;tqifhjzifh qGpfZmvefEkdifiH odkUvnf;aumif;? xdkrSwpfqifh vef'ef [D;o&d;k avqdyrf w S pfqif(h Isles of Wright)uRe;f i,foUkd ESp&f uf c&D;pOftjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1986 ck E S p f ? Ek d 0 if b mv 27 &uf a eUwG i f Ad k v f c sKyf B uD ; tqif h j zif h b*F v m;a'h & S f jynfoUl or®wEdik if o H Ukd vnf;aumif;? 1987 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 8 &ufaeUrS 12-6-1987 &ufaeUtxd


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rdom;pk

om;orD;rsm;rSm OD;oD[apm+ a':cifolZmjrifh? a'gufwmauoDapm+ OD;ol&apmwkjYd zpfonf/ trSw(f 79^ps)? aiG0wfrkH &yfuu G ?f a&TawmifMum;(1)vrf;? A[ef;? &efuek Nf rKd UwGiaf exkid o f nf/ Ekid if aH wmfwm0efudk ausyeG pf mG xrf;axmifcahJ om Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmifonf 1997 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 24 &ufaeYwiG u f , G v f eG cf o hJ nf/


99

yHk (10) OD;Ek (0efBuD;csKyf) [ 1956 ckESpf ]


100

OD;Ek (0efBuD;csKyf) (arG arG; 25-5-1907 rS uG,fvGef 7-2-1993) 1/

i,fpOfb0

1907 ckEpS ?f arv 25 &ufae? paeaeYwiG f 0g;c,frNrKd Uü OD;Ektm; zGm;jrifcyhJ gonf/ zcifrmS OD;pHxeG ;f jzpfí rdcifrmS a':apmcifjzpfygonf/ zcifO;D pHxeG ;f rSm 0g;c,frNrKd Ue,f&dS *s?D pD? bD? at (G.C.B.A)ac: jrefrmekdifiHa&;tzGJUcsKyfBuD;\ acgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpfygonf/ OD;Ek\zcif OD;pHxGef;onf 0g;c,frNrdKUomjzpfí rdcifrSm yef;waemfoljzpfonf/ rdom;pk\ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd rdcifjzpfolrS OD;aqmifí vkyfukdifcJhygonf/ OD;Ekonf i,fpOfu usef;rma&;nHhaomuav;wpfOD;jzpfcJhojzifh rdbrsm;rS pdwfylcJhí vGefpGmqkd;vGef;aom uav;tjzpf uav;a&m^vlBuD;ygrusef todtrSwfjyKcJhonf/ 0g;c,frwpfNrdKUvHk;rS ]] wmawpaeom;}}1 [kqkdvQif OD;EkjzpfaMumif;odcJh&onf/ OD;EkwpfESpfom; t&G,fwGif ]]armifO}}qkad om arG;csi;f wpfO;D ay:xGe;f cJo h nf/ zcif O D ; pH x G e f ; onf om;armif E k t m;rsd K ;cspf p d w f " gwf t jynf h t 0&S d a p&ef EkdifiHa&;rsdK;aphcsay;cJholjzpfonf/ armifEk (10)ESpfom;t&G,fa&mufaomtcsdefwGif ]]tdEd´,jynfqkdif&m twGif;0efBuD; ]]rpöwmrGefaw*l}} onf 1917 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 20 d´ jynfudk NAw d o d Qtifyg,mEkid if aH wmfwiG f &ufaeYwiG af Munmcsuw f pf&yfxw k jf yefco hJ nf/2 tdE, tusHK;0ifaomjynfBuD;wpfcktjzpfjzifhwkd;wufapí wjznf;jznf; ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa&;&&Sd aprnf[k azmfjycJo h nf/ xkad Munmcsut f & 1919 ckEpS w f iG f tdE, d´ jynftyk cf sKyaf &; pnf;rsO;f Oya'[lí Oya'wpf&yfudk NAw d o d QygvDrefüyif wifoiG ;f cJh onf/ xko d aYdk om tpDtpOfudk t*Fvyd w f jYdk yKvyk &f mwGif jrefrmjynfudk csev f yS x f m;cJah omaMumifh jrefrmrsm;u rauseyfcahJ cs/ 2/

ynmoifb0

armifEkonf 0g;c,frNrdKU? t*Fvdyf?jrefrmESpfbmomoiftpkd;&ausmif;wGif ynmoifMum; cJo h nf/ xkpd Ofu t*Fvyd t f pk;d &\uReyf nma&;pepfudk jrefrmwpfrsKd ;om;vH;k u rauseyfcJh&mrS 1282 ckESpf? wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf 10 &uf? we*FaEGaeYwGif yxr 1

armifp;dk armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efuek ?f ormrdw?å 1955) pm-113/

2

OD;oef?Y jynfawmfomc&D;(yxrykdif;))/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1961) pm 18-19/


101 ausmif;om;oydwf jzpfyGm;cJh&m OD;EkrSm yOörwef;wGif wufa&mufoifMum;aeaom ausmif;om;wpfO;D jzpfcNhJ y;D xko d ydww f iG f yg0ifqifEJT cJo h nf/ xkaYd emuftpd;k &tamxuftyHh r,laom yxrqH;k trsKd ;om;ausmif;ü ynmqufvufoif,l cJo h nf/ OD;EkonfqXrwef;ü ynmoifMum;aepOf xkdausmif;ü oifMum;jyoay;rnfh ausmif;q&m tcuftcJaMumifh ¤if;xuftwef;i,faomausmif;om;uav;rsm;tm; OD;Ektygt0if ausmif;om;Bu;D rsm;u tm;vyfaomtcsed w f iG f 0ifa&mufpmoifay;cJah vonf/ txl;ojzifh OD;Ekonf &mZ0ifESifhjrefrmpmayukd pdwf0ifpm;íavhvmcJhonf omru Ak'0¨ if &mZ0ifuydk gpdw0f ifpm;avhvmcJo h nf/ zcifjzpfoOl ;D pHxeG ;f onf NrKd Uay:üEkid if aH &; ESiphf nf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif aqmif&u G af tmifjrifaecJah omtcsed üf om;jzpfol OD;Ekonfvnf; ausmif;om;nDnw G af &; vIy&f mS ;rItiftm;rsm;pkpnf;Ekid af om tcsed jf zpfonf/ zcifEiS t hf wl &efukefNrdKU *sD?pD?bD?at nDvmcHukd wufa&mufcJhNyD;aemuf EkdifiHa&;ESifh ywfoufaom oabmw&m;rsm;ukd avhvmod&SdcJhonf/ 1921 ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmEkid if t H m; ]] 'kid t f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &;}}1ay;&ef NAwdoQtpk;d &rS pDpOfay;aom tcgwGif OD;Ekoonf owårwef;wGif ynmoifMum;aeaom t&G,fjzpf aomfvnf; xkdpOfu ]]'kdiftmcD tkyfcsKyfa&;}} ukdvufcHí vma&mufpnf;&Hk;rJqG,fol 0g;c,frNrdKUe,fukd,fpm;vS,f OD;bpDtm; ]]'kdiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;}}\r&Sif;vif;onfh taMumif;tcsurf sm;ukd &J0phH mG ar;jref;cJyh gonf/ þonfyifvQif vGwv f yfaomjynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkid if aH wf\ yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyjf zpfvmrnfh OD;Ek\ owåpd rG ;f &nfudk jyojcif; jzpfygonf/ &ef u k e f N rd K U&S d N rd K Urtxuf w ef ; ausmif ; wG i f y nmoif M um;í tajccH y nm txufwef; atmifjrifNyD;aemuf 1929 ckESpf &efukefwuúokdvfokdY wufa&mufcJh&m jyZmwfpmayrsm;ukd txl;pdw0f if pm;cJNh y;D ynmoifumvwpfavQmuf jyZmwfpmaya&;om; jcif;jzifh tcsed u f ek af pcJo h nf/ xkad emuf &efuek w f uúov dk rf S ay;tyfaom 0dZmÆ bGUJ ukd &&Scd o hJ nf/ 2-1/

wuúokdvfokdYjyefvnf0ifa&mufjcif;

0dZÆmbGJY(BA)&NyD;aemuf 1934ckESpfwGif bD?t,fvfac: Oypmwef;wuf&ef wuúov dk o f Ydk 0ifa&mufcNhJ y;D xkpd Ofu ausmif;wufazmfrsm;jzpfaom ukad tmifqef;? uko d [ D ef? ukdausmfNidrf;? ukdodef;az (wufbkef;BuD;) wkdYESifhtwl ausmif;om;or*¾trIaqmif a&G;aumufyGJwGif trIaqmiftjzpf0ifa&muf ,SOfjyKdifí EkdifiHa&;ywfoufonfhrsm;ukd OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u G Ef idk &f ef BuKd ;yrf;cJo h nf/ 1

OD;oef?Y jynfawmfomc&D;(yxrykdif;))/ (&efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1961) pm 21/


102 xkdaemufOD;Ekonf wuúokdvfor*¾trIaqmifwpfOD;tjzpfa&G;cs,fcH&NyD; ausmif;om;rsm;\ txifBu;D av;pm;rIu&dk &Scd o hJ nf/ 1935 ckEpS w f iG f OD;Ekonf wuúov dk o f r*¾ OuúXjzpfvmcJo h nf/ 2-2/

&efukefwuúokdvf'kwd,ausmif;om;oydwfESifhOD;Ek

wuúokdvfor*¾üOuúXjzpfaeaomtcsdefwGif q&m? rrsm;rS ausmif;om;rsm; tnTerYf vlEidk af p&ef ESrd Ef iS ;f pjyKonft h csed jf zpfonf/ wuúov dk Of ya'ajymif;vJ&ef a[majymcJh aom OD;Ektm; ausmif;tkyfBuD; ]]'D? a*s? pavmh}} 1rS ausmif;xkwfypfcJhonf/ þuJo h jYdk zpfaepOftwGi;f rSmyifwuúov dk o f r*¾\tmabmf ]]td;k a0r*¾Zif;}}wGif ]]i&JacG;BuD; vGwfaeNyD}} [laomaqmif;yg;udpöjzifh aqmif;yg;&Siftm; azmfjyay;&ef jiif;qef;cJah om t,f'w D m ukad tmifqef;tm; ausmif;rSxyfrx H w k yf pfcjhJ yefonf/ ¤if;udpö&yfrsm;jzpfay:cJhNyD;aemufausmif;om;rsm;onf uRefynma&;tm; tvkdr&Sd[k oHk;oyfcJhMu&mrS aoG;pnf;rdí 1936 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 22 &ufaeYwGif ausmif;tkyfBuD;\tjyKtrlukd oydwfarSmufcJhMuonf/ wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyif OD;Ekonf wuúokdvfrS&&SdcJhaom bD? at bGJUtm; jyefvnftyfESHcJhonf/ OD;Ekonf ukad tmifqef;? ukt d ek ;f wkEYd iS t hf wl a&Tw*d t kH v,fypö,&H dS armfvNrKd iZf &yf tm; oydwfpcef;zGifhí aexdkifNyD;vQif aeYpOfpnf;a0vQuf pDrHcefYcGJay;cJhonf/ xkdYaemuf oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;tm; OD;aqmifí ykvdyf&Hk;BuD;okdY csDwufum ]]uRefynmukd tvkdr&Sd}} [ka<u;aMumfí t*FvdyfwkdY\ ,leD,H*suftvHukd OD;EkrS rD;&IdUzsufqD;cJhonf/ xkpd Oftcgu OD;Ek\Ekid if aH &;pdw"f gwf tjynft h 0&Scd o hJ nfudk t*Fvyd w f o Ydk &d cdS MhJ uonf/ oydwfarSmufonhftaMumif;udpöNyD;pD;aomtcgü OD;Ekonf ausmif;okdY qufwufjcif;r&Sdawmhay/ okdYaomf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhOruGJokdufrysuf&Sdap&efESifh ausmif;om;or*¾ESifhwGJí tvkyf vkyfap&ef ukdatmifqef;? ukdtkef; paomausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; ausmif;okdYjyefoGm;apcJhonf/ þokdYjzifh wuúokdvfoufqkdif&m tmPmykdifwkdYrS ausmif;om;rsm;\ awmif;qkdcsufrsm;ukd vkdufavsmcJhMuonf/ aemifwGif oydwfNyD;oGm;aomtcgü OD;Ek\ ]]oydwfarSmufausmif;om;}} ZmwfneT ;f tm; NAw d o d Qbm;rm;&ky&f iS rf S 'g&ku d w f mwpfO;D onf &ky&f iS &f u dk cf ahJ vonf/ xkt d csed u f vlBuKd urf sm;aom Zmwfum; jzpfaMumif;od&&dS ygonf/ 1

arNrdKUcspfaqG? jynf o l c spf a omAk d v f c sKyf a tmif q ef ; / (&efukef? ajreDuek ;f pmaywku d ?f 1970) pm 171/


103 3/

0efxrf;b0

1929 ckEpS w f iG f bDat atmifNy;D aomtcg OD;oef\ Y wku d w f eG ;f csut f & yef;waemf trsdK;om;txufwef;ausmif;\ ausmif;tkyftjzpfaqmif&GufcJhonf/ xkdaemufoHk;cGNrdKU trsd K ;om; ausmif ; wG i f ausmif ; tk y f t jzpf ajymif ; a&T U wm0ef x rf ; aqmif c J h o nf / OD;Ekonfyef;waemfNrKd UtrsKd ;om; ausmif;aumfrwDOuúX\orD; rjr&D ESiv hf ufxyfco hJ nf/ xkaYd emuf OD;Ekonf tpk;d &tvkyw f pfcu k dk 0ifa&mufvyk u f idk &f ef &efuek o f aYdk jymif;a&TUcJo h nf/ 4/

Ek d i f i H a &;b0

OD;Ekonf ]]jrefrmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&m vli,frsm;tpnf;t&Hk;}} wnfaqmuf&mwGif t"duyg0ifcJh onf/ xkdtoif;onf EkdifiHjcm;ukefrsm;ukd vli,frsm;roHk;Mupwrf;[k t"d|mefjyKvsuf Ekid if jH cm; ukeo f nfrsm;ukd oydwaf rSmufaomtoif;jzpfonf/ 1929 ckEpS w f iG f urÇmw0Sr;f vH;k pD;yGm;a&; Muyfwnf;cJMh uonf/ xkt d csed w f iG f uk, d Mhf ur®muk, d rf zefw;D Ekid af om tajctaeukd jyKjyifEidk af p&ef omru uReb f 0rS vGwaf jrmufap&efenf;vrf; &SmazGvpdk w d f jyif;xefcMhJ uonf/ jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;ukd csKyfukdifxm;aomEkdifiHjcm;t&if;&Sifrsm;\ tkyfcsKyfrIukd wkdufzsufcJhMu onf/ om,m0wD? a';'&J? zsmyHk? paomae&mrsm;ü t*Fvdyftpkd;&ukd awmfveS yf ek u f efMuonf/ 1930 jynfEh pS üf tkycf sKyaf eaom t*Fvyd b f &k ifcH qmcsm;tif;epf onf bdvyfokdYjyefoGm;cJhonf/ om,m0wDe,f tvHaxmifwGif q&mpHonf ]]okyPÖu *VKef&mZm }}trnfcHvsuf awmifolv,form;rsm;tm; pnf;&Hk;íolykefxcJhavonf/ q&mpH\aus;Zl;aMumifh vlxw k pf&yfv;kH ü awmfveS af &;pdw"f gwf wk;d wufjyif;xefco hJ nf/ &efuek w f uúov dk üf vnf; ]] ausmif;om;or*¾ }}toif;ukw d nfaxmifcMhJ uonf/ ukdEkonf 1937 ckESpfwGif owif;pmq&mOD;bckdifESifh 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdKwkdY zGJUpnf;xm;aom ]]azbD,H }} Ekid if aH &;ygwDü 0ifa&mufun l cD o hJ nf/ xkyd gwDrmS xkt d csed u f ]] wkAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k }} avmuf emrnf rxif&Sm;cJhay/ ]] wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk; }}okdY? ukdEkESifh ukdatmifqef;wkdYonf wpfaeYwnf; toif;0ifjzpfcJhMuonf/ xkdrSpí ]] ocifEk }} jzpfvmcJhonf/ wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk;ü wm0ef xrf;aqmifaepOf tpnf;t&Hk;\ b@ma&;ESifh0g'jzefYyGm;a&;rSL;tjzpf t"duwm0ef xrf;aqmifcJh \/ 1937 ckESpf? atNyDv (1)&ufaeYrS pí 91XmetkyfcsKyfa&;jzifh vGwv f yfa&;ukad y;&m vH;k 0 tvSr;f uGma0;onf[t k aMumif;jyvsuf wkAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k rS vli,frsm;u tjyif;txefuefu Y u G cf ahJ vonf/


104 OD ; Ek o nf a'guf w mbarmf t pk d ; &vuf x uf w G i f ausmif ; om;rsm;tm; Ekid if jH cm;ynmoifapvTw&f efwu dk w f eG ;f cJo h nf/ txl;ojzifh wk;d wufaeaomta&SUzufEidk if H rsm;okYd ynmawmfoifapvTw G &f ef OD;EkrS tBuaH y;cJo h nf/ ]] Armhxu G &f yf*P dk ;f }}rScsrw S cf ahJ om tqkdjyKcsuf (7)csufukd om,m0wDNrdKU&Sd ]]wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk;}} nDvmcHwGif zwfMum; wifoiG ;f &ef OD;Ektm; wm0efay;tyfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 4-1/

*syefacwfwm0efxrf;aqmifrI (1942-1945)

1941 ckEpS o f aYdk &mufaomtcg 'kw, d urÇmppfBu;D onf tm&Swu dk q f o D u Ydk ;l pufí vmaomtcsdeftcgwGif OD;EkrSmrEÅav;NrdKU\tusOf;axmifwGif a&mufaecJhonf/ axmifxüJ tusO;f usaepOf ocifp;dk onf OD;Ektm; uGejf rLepf0g'pmayrsm;ukad vhvmckid ;f cJ&h m avhvmjcif;r&SdbJ ¤if;pdwf0ifpm;onf jyZmwfpmayukdomavhvmcJhonf/ OD;Ekonf xdt k cdseu f ocifp;dk tm; ]]cifAsm;u Armjynf&UJ vDeifjzpf uReaf wmfu Armjynf&UJ rufZifa*:uD jzpfraygh }} 1 [kajymqkdcJhbl;onf/ EkdifiHa&;e,fxJokdY0ifa&mufjcif;rjyKawmh[kqHk;jzwfcsufcsvkdufaom OD;Ekonf a'gufwmbarmfaumfrwDwGif trsm;qE´t&yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh&jyefonf/ xkdYaemuf *syeftpkd;&vufatmufwGif a'gufwmbarmftpdk;&tzGJU zGJUcJhjyef&mOD;EkrSmtpkd;&tzGJUwGif 0ifa&mufvyk u f idk jf cif; r&Scd ahJ cs/ okaYd omf jyifyrS tultnDay;cJo h nf/ xkaYd emufjrefrmjynftm; vGwv f yfa&;ay;&ef ]]Armh vGwv f yfa&;pDpOfrt I zGUJ }} ukx d yfrzH UJG pnf;cJ&h m ¤if;tzGUJ wGif OD;Ekyg0if cJ&h onf/ xkjYd yif 1943 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f (1)&ufaeYwiG f jrefrmjynforl sm;\ac:qkcd sut f & jrefrmEkdifiHtm; ]]a&T&nfpdrf}} vGwfvyfa&; wenf;tm;jzifh twkta,mifaqmifay;aom jrefrmEkid if \ H vGwv f yfa&;&&Scd o hJ nf/ *syefacwf vGwv f yfaom jrefrmEkid if \ H yxrqH;k aom Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D tjzpf OD;EkonfvufccH o hJ nf/ rMumrDr[mArmXmeokaYd jymif;a&TUNy;D aemuf 1944 ckEpS w f iG f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D wm0efjzifh xrf;aqmifc&hJ jyefonf/ jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;wm0efjzifh OD;Ekxrf;aqmifpOf tcsdefu *syefowif;pm q&mrsm;\ ar;jref;csurf sm;ukd OD;EkrS ajzMum;cJ&h m ]] ArmESi*hf syefcspcf spcf ifcifjyefjzpfatmif vkyb f [ Ydk mvJ *syefawGu usKyw f AYdk rmbufuulaeygw,f/ *syefucdk spyf g/ bmnmatmfae&HEk iS hf r&bl;? *syefu wu,fpw d x f m; ajymif;rS&r,f/ tcktcgrSm *syefppfbufvJ &rf;Muw,f/ 1

ocifEk? ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf/ (&efukefNrdKU? jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm yHEk ydS w f u dk v f rD w D uf? 1946) pm 53 /


105 *syefuek o f nfawGuvJ avmbBu;D vku d f wmvGeaf &m/ 'Dawmh*syeft,f'w D mawGu Armjynf a&mufaeMuwJ*h syefrsm; pdwaf jymif;vmatmif jyKjyifa&;om;ay;Mubkv Yd adk eNyD }} 1[kyiG ;f vif;pGm ajymMum;cJo h nf/ xkjYd yifbek ;f awmfBu;D rsm;\udpt ö &yf&yfrsm;ukd ajz&Si;f ay;&mwGiv f nf; ]]t&Sib f &k m; 'Dvt kd rdeaYf y;ckid ;f jcif;jzifh t&Sib f &k m;wkrYd mS omtjypfBu;D ygw,f? 'Dawmh ausmif;jyefNy;D om w&m;b0em ukdtm;xkwfawmfrlyg}}2 [kavQmufxm;cJhonfukdod&onf/ þuJhokdYaom jyóemtaxGaxGrsm;tm; ajz&Si;f ay;Ny;D aemufyidk ;f wGif OD;Ekonf Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D jyKvyk f &ef wm0efay;aomtcg jiif;qefco hJ nf/ *syeftm; awmfvSef&ef Akdvfatmifqef;ESifhacgif;aqmifrsm;rS BudK;pm;&mwGif OD;EkxHa&muf&Sd vmcJhonf/ ]] 1945 ckESpf rwfvwGif Akdvfatmifqef;? Akdvfvufsm? ocifoef;xGe;f ? udak usmNf ird ;f ESihf ocifp;dk wko Yd nf ocifEx k aH &mufvmMuonf/ ocifp;dk vufxJ wGif awmfr*D ef;[kac:aom pufaoewf wpfvufygvmonf/ ocifoef;xGe;f awmckad wm hrnfjzpfaMumif;? ocifoef;xGef;aysmufoGm;vQif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ocifEkwkdY\ aexdik af &;rSmcufcv J mrnfjzpfaMumif;? ocifEEk iS hf Akv d cf sKyf atmifqef;ygawmcko d mG ;Mu&ef oabmwlMuavonf/ 3 xkrd w S zef ocifEt k m;touftEÅ&m,fEiS phf ;dk &dr&f ojzifh *syefppfXmecsKyrf S OD;Ekudk ac:aqmif o G m ;cJ h o nf / xk d Y t wl y if t jcm;aomtpk d ; &0ef B uD ; rsm;tm;vH k ; uk d v nf ; tapmift h a&SmufEiS hf ppfbufXmecsKyw f iG af eapcJo h nf/ *syefrsm;&efuek rf S rxGucf mG rD ukAd aqG (vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D acwf 0efBu;D csKy)f tm;zrf;qD;ac:aqmifxm;ojzifh vGwaf jrmufr&I &Sad p&ef vnf; OD;Ek aqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1945 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv (12)&ufaeYwGif ocifEkonf a'gufwmbarmftdrfü &SdaepOf t*Fvdyfav,mOfysHwpfpif; AHk;BuJcH&ojzifh xkdtdrfrSmysufpD;í ocifEkrSmvnf; touftEÅ&m,fEiS hf &ifqidk cf &hJ avonf/ Mo*kwv f (14)&ufaeYwiG f *syefrsm;vufeufcsrnf taMumif;BudKwifí OD;Eku od&SdcJhonf/ xkdYtaMumif;t&mukd ]]cifyGef;jzpfol ocifEku yxrqHk;tBudrfEkdifiHa&;ESifhpyfvsOf;aom vQdKU0Sufxm;csufwpfckukd ajymjyjcif;aMumihf 1

ocifEk?ig;ES p f & moD A rmjynf/(&efukefNrdKU? jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm yHEk ydS w f u dk f vDrw D uf? 1946) pm 18/ 2

,if;/ pm 118/

3

armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm-63/


106 ZeD;jzpforl mS 0rf;omcJ&h jcif;jzpfaMumif; ocifEu k qkcd o hJ nf/}} 1 4-2/

vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D acwfwiG f BuKd ;yrf;rI(1945-1948)

*syefrsm;vufeufcsNyD;aemuf jrefrmwpfEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&macgif;aqmifBuD;rsm; yg0ifaom ]]zufqpfwkdufzsufa&;jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyfBuD; }}onf 1945 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 19 &ufaeY 12 em&Dtcsdefü ]]aeol&deftpnf;ta0;cef;r}} üwpfEkdifiHvHk;ESifh ywfoufaom taMumif;rsm;ukd aqG;aEG;í wnDwnGww f nf;qH;k jzwfcMhJ uonf/ xkt d csed f *syefrsm;jrefrmhajray:rS qkwcf mG cJph Of a'gufwmbarmf tpd;k &ESit hf wl ocifEo k nf *syefoYdk vkdufygoGm;cJhNyD;aemuf 1945 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 3 &ufaeYwGif jrefrmjynfokdY jyefvnf a&muf&Sd cJhavonf/ xkdtcsdefwGifArmhwyfrawmfta&;ESifhqufpyfí &efukefNrdKUü usif;yaom jynfot Yl pnf; ta0;Bu;D rS qH;k jzwfco hJ nft h wkid ;f zufqpfwu dk zf suaf &;tzGUJ Bu;D rS oD[Vdk u f Re;f &Sd uE´ND rKd Uü usi;f yjyKvyk o f nfh uGezf &ifo h Ydk Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESit hf zGUJ onf wufa&mufcMhJ uonf/ jrefrmukd,fpm; vS,ftzGJUonf vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&ef[laom yef;wkdifokdY ra&mufrcsif; BuKd ;pm;Mu&ef &nf&, G x f m;Muonf/ 1946 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 20 &ufaeYwiG f OD;Ekonf zufqpfwu dk zf suaf &;ESijhf ynfoYl vGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyftrIaqmiftjzpfa&;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&NyD;aemuftzGJUcsKyfESifh AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef;wkdY tm; xdckdufepfemaprnfhtaMumif;rsm; jzpfay:vmygu vlxkrsm;oHo, &Si;f vif;ap&ef jyóemrsm;ukd ajz&Si;f ay;cJah vonf/ xkdYtjyifwkdif;&if;om;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfap&ef awmif;wef;a'oESifhjynfrwkdY pnf;vHk;rI twGufaqmif&GufcJh&m &Srf;jynfe,fokdYoGm;a&mufí pnf;&Hk;ay;cJhonf/ apmbGm;Bu;D rsm;ESiahf wGq Y í kH tpnf;ta0;jyKvyk cf ahJ omom"uwpfcrk mS ocifE(k OD;Ek)rS ]],ckvdk aoG;csif;om;csif;awGeJU &if;&if;ESD;ESD; awGYcsifaewmMuvSygNyD/ 'gayrJh e,fcsJUorm;awG&JU ya,m*aMumifh ckrSbJ awGYMu&ygw,f/ tckvkdaoG;csif;om;csif;awG &if;&if;ESD;ESD; rawGjY zpfatmif Oya'awG tmPmawGeUJ om umqD;xm;&Hk ruao;bl;/ ArmawG[m&Sr;f ? u&if? csif;awGukd ESdrfvdrfYrnf/ ArmawGu wG,fvdrfYrnftp&Sdaom 0g'rsm;ukdvJ olwdkYwawGrodromjzefYjzL;cJhygw,f/ okd[efbGm;ukd rif;BuD;&efaemifu okwfoifvkduf xm[m Armu &Srf;ukdapmfum;vTwfvkdufxmbJ tp&SdwJh 0g'awGukd olwkdY&JU&mZ0ifxJrSm jzefMY uw,f/ trSepf ifppf&rS ;f ukd Armuapmfum;vTww f ,fqw dk m r[kww f hJ taMumif;[m 1

armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm-68/


107 ok[ d efbmG ;uko d wfNy;D rif;Bu;D &efaemif[m olu, dk w f idk rf if;rvkyb f J tke;f abmif apmfbmG ;ukb d J ArmawGtay:rSm rif;vkyfawmfrlyg qkdwJhtcsufeJYyif xif&Sm;aeygNyD/ oDaygrif;ukd t*F v d y f a wG zrf ; oG m ;wH k ; u r[mjrwf r k e d b k & m;BuD ; xJ u vl i g;&meJ U "g;xrf ; NyD ; oDaygrif;ukjd yefvrk ,fvYdk apmifah eMuwm[m tjcm;r[kwyf gbl;/ anmifa&TapmbGm;Bu;D bJ jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifhtckvkd &if;&if;ESD;ESD;jyefvnf aygif;oif;&wJhtcgrSm NzdKzsufr&EkdifwJh aoG;pnf;a&;tkwfjrpfukd csMuygpkdY }} 1 ponfjzifhajym&m apmfbGm;BuD;rsm;ESifhawmifwef; uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm;rSm rsm;pGmauseyfomG ;Muonf/ OD;EkEiS t hf zGUJ 0ifrsm;onf &efuek Nf rKd UokjYd yefa&mufaomtcg vGwv f yfa&;r&vQif rae[laom oEdXé mefjzifh vlxBk u;D ESit hf wlqE´jyyG?J tiftm;jyyGBJ u;D rsm;ukd csrd cYf srd o Yf rH QjyKvyk f usif;ycJhMuonf/ NAdwdoQ tpkd;&onfar*sm*sife&,fqm[l;bwf&efYpftm; bk&ifcHcefYtyf vku d o f nft h csed üf zqyvtzGUJ csKyBf u;D wGif trIaqmif0efBu;D tzGUJ opfudk jyefvnfzUJG pnf;í toif;\vkyfief;rsm;ukd wkdif;jynftm;&Sif;vif; jy&onfhwm0efukd 'kwd,OuúXjzpfaom ocifEu k xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ uGefjrLepfwkdY\vIHUaqmfrIaMumifh ay:aygufvmaomoydwfarSmufqE´jyonfh udpörsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í OD;EkrSyif tzGJUcsKyfukd,fpm;ajz&Sif;ay;cJh&onf/ NAdwdoQtpdk;&rS jrefrmud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;jzpf aom Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;wkt Yd zGUJ tm; tdE, ´d oko Yd mG ;a&mufpOf OD;Ekonf zqyvtzGJUcsKyfrS wm0efrsm; ,lí AkdvfcsKyfukd,fpm; wkdif;jynfukdxdef;odrf; xm;cJ&h onf/ 1947 ckkESpf? atNyDv 9 &ufaeYwkdif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmfa&G;aumufyGJBuD;ukd pepfwus usi;f yEkid cf NhJ y;D aemuf tEkid &f cJo h jzifh OD;Ekonf Ekid if aH &;e,fxo J 0Ydk ifc&hJ jyefygonf/ taMumif;rSm zqyv tzGUJ csKyrf S ta&G;cHxm;&aom armifarmifcif onf oabFmjrKk§ y&f mwGif ygoGm;ojzifh ¤if;ae&mukd,fpm; AkdvfcsKyfrS OD;Ektm; Nrdwfe,frS 0ifa&mufta&G;cH&ef wku d w f eG ;f cJah omaMumifjh zpfonf/ 1947 ckESpf? ZGefv 11 &ufaeYwGif ocifEkonfvTwfawmfOuúXtjzpf a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmf\yxrtBurd q f ;kH jzwfcsuEf iS hf pyfvsO;fí zqyvtzGUJ csKyf 'kw, d OuúX OD;Ektygt0if 0efBu;D OD;ausmNf ird ;f ? Akv d x f eG ;f vif;? OD;ukdukdBuD;ESifh Akdvfcifarmifuav; wkdYonfbdvyftpkd;&(xkdacwfac:qkdcsuft&)ESifh t*Fvefjynfoljynfom;wkdYtm; jrefrmEkdifiHa&; tajctaeem;vnfoabmaygufap&ef 1

armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm-82/


108 twGuf &Sif;vif;ay;apvkdojzifh ZGefv 16 &ufaeYwGif bdvyfokdYxGufcGmoGm;cJh&m ZGef 23 &ufaeYwiG f a&muf&cdS o hJ nf/ OD ; Ek o nf NAd w d o Quuf b d e yf t zG J U jref r mjynf q k d i f & mtwG i f ; 0ef avmh'v f pf(p)wk0d v J Ef iS hf awGq Y ckH o hJ nf/ OD;Ekonf ]] Armjynfawmifwef;a'otrsKd ;om;wkt Yd m; ¤if;wkdY\ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa&; jyXmef;&mü jrefrmrsm;u Ncdrf;ajcmufvsuf&Sdonfqkdjcif;rSm r[kwrf rSeEf idk yf g/ pHpk rf;odomEkid yf g&ef NAw d o d Q ygvDrefu, dk pf m;vS,t f zGUJ wpfcak pvTwv f Qif jrefrmjynfrS BuKd qv dk ufc&H eftoifjh zpfygonf}}1 [kajymcJyh gonf/ aemufq;kH wGif ocifEBk u;D rSL;aom jrefrmjynfrcS spMf unfa&;uk, d pf m;vS,t f zGUJ tm; NAdwdoQ tpkd;&rS jrefrmjynfokdYtmPmvTJajymif;ay;a&;ukd 1947 ckESpf? Ekdif0ifbmvwGif ygvDrefvTwfawmf tpnf;ta0;okdY tjrefqHk;wifoGif;&ef tm;oGifaqmif&Gufay;rnf htaMumif;ukd uwday;vkdufonf/ ocifEkESifhcspfMunfa&;tzGJUonf yxrtqifhtmPm vTJajymif;a&;aphpyfñ§dEIdif;rIYukd NAdwdoQuufbdeuf tzGJUESifhomru tdE´d,ESifhjrefrmha&;&m yg&*lrsm;ESiv hf nf; tBurd Bf urd af qG;aEG;cJMh uonf/ ocifEkvef'efrS jyefra&mufvmrDtcsdefwGif tpkd;&tzGJUukdjzKwfcsNyD;vQif tpkd;&opfzGJUpnf; aomtcgwGif 0efBuD;csKyf? 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf? jynfxJa&;0efBuD; ponfae&mrsm;wGif rnfou l wm0ef,l rnf ponfjzifh vQKd U0Supf mG vkyaf qmifvsu&f MdS uonf/ Zlvkdifv 13 &ufaeYeHeufwGif &efukefNrdKU ql;avbk&m;vrf;&Sd NrdKUawmfcef;rBuD;ü zqyvtzGJUcsKyfBuD;rS BuD;rSL;í vlxktpnf;ta0;BuD;wpf&yf usif;y&mocifEkrS rdecYf eG ;f ajymMum;cJo h nf/ xkaYd emufZv l idk v f 23 &ufaeYwiG f NAw d o d Qtpd;k &ESihf jrefrm tpd;k &wk\ Yd aMunmcsufxkwfjyefonf/ xkdaMunmcsufrSmNAdwdoQtpkd;&ESifh jrefrmekdifiH wkdif;jyKjynfjyK vTwaf wmfOuúXESijhf refrmekid if aH wmftpk;d &trIaqmifaumifpt D zGUJ 0if'w k , d OuúXjzpfaom ocifEk acgif;aqmifonfh jrefrmrdwq f uftzGUJ onf vef'efNrKd UwGio f mG ;a&muf aqG;aEG;cJo h nf/ xkad qG;aEG;csurf sm;teuft"dutcsurf sm;rSm- 1/ ArmEkid if aH wmfMum;jzwftpk;d &tzGUJ onf 24-7-1947 aeUpí Armjynf,m,Dtpkd;& jzpfvmrnf/2/bk&ifcH\trIaqmiftzGJU 'kwd,OuúXonf ,m,Dtpkd;&tzGJUwGif 0efBuD;csKyf[líjzpfvmrnf/ 3/tjcm;trIaqmif 0efBu;D rsm;onf rifepfpwmqkad om 0efBu;D rsm;jzpfvmrnf/ 4/ArmEkid if aH wmf wkid ;f jyKjynfjyK vTwfawmfutwnfjyKaom tkyfcsKyfa&;t& Armtpkd;&tm; tmPmvTJajymif;a&; Oya'Murf;ukd atmufwkdbmvavmufwGif pwifusif;yrnfh ygvDrefü wifoGif;ay;rnf/ 1

armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm-93/


109 5/ NAdwdoQ"eo[m,e,fy,ftjyifbufwGif vHk;0vGwfvyfaomEkdifiHwpfEkdifiHjzpfbkd qH;k jzwfcsucf s onf&adS omf NAw d o d QwEYdk iS &hf if;ES;D pGmqufqyH grnf [k ESpOf ;D aoabmwlco hJ nf/ xkad Munmcsurf sm;ukd uG,v f , G o f l Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESijhf refrmEkid if t H rIaqmif aumifpDtzGJUwkdYonf 1947 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 18 &uf aomMumaeYwGifoabmwlcJhonf/ xkdtcsdefrSpí OD;Ekonf ,m,Dtpkd;&tzGJUwGif 0efBuD;csKyfjzpfvmcJhonf/ OD;Ekonf 0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0efukd pwifxrf;aqmif &aom tcsdefwGif vlxkBuD;wpf&yfvHk;ukd AkdvfcsKyf&SdpOfouJhokdY tpktpnf;rajy&ef xdef;odrf;xm;cJhonf/ vef'eftpkd;&ESifhaqG;aEG; &,lcahJ om tcsurf sm;ukv d nf; vlxBk u;D tm;wifjycJo h nf/ Akv d cf sKyo f m touf&iS af eOD;rnf qkv d Qif xk0d wå&m;ukd Akv d cf sKyx f rf;aqmif&rnfjzpf&m ,cktcgwGirf l OD;Eku, dk w f idk f &Si;f jy&OD;rnf/ xkw d m0efuv dk nf; OD;Ekonf Ekid ef if;atmifjrifpmG aqmif&u G Ef idk cf o hJ nf/ ocifEkonf Zlvkdifv 26 &ufaeYwGif wkdif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmfOuú|&mxl;rS EIwfxGufNyD [kaMunmvsuf 1947 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 27 &ufaeYwGif tpkd;&0efBuD;tzGJU tpnf;ta0;ukd yxrqH;k tBurd u f si;f y&m 0efBu;D csKyOf ;D EkrS obmywdtjzpfaqmif&u G o f nf/ Zlvidk v f 30 &ufaeYtpnf; ta0;wGif 0efBu;D csKyOf ;D EkrS wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmfOuú|tjzpf anmifa&TapmfbmG ;Bu;D tm; ceft Y yf&ef tqkw d ifoiG ;f í vTwaf wmfrv S ufct H wnfjyKco hJ nf/ vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&awmhrnfh jrefrmEkdifiH awmfonf tmPmvTJajymif;&awmhrnfh pufu;l rwfu;l tcsed w f iG f wkid ;f jynfNird 0f yfyjd ym;a&;twGuf txl;ta&;Bu;D avonfh tcsed w f iG f 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpfoaYdk &muf&adS eaom OD;Ekonf bmoma&; vkyif ef;rsm;vkyaf eaomtcsed w f iG f NAw d o d QygvDrefü jrefrmEkid if v H w G v f yfa&;Oya'Murf;ukd avbmtpk;d &wbuf? uGeq f maA;wpf twku d t f cHrsm;uwbuf tacstwifaqG;aEG;aeaom tcsed v f nf;jzpfonf/ ]] 1948 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYrSpí NAdwdoQpD;yGm;bufjynfaxmifpk jyifbufwGif vGwfvyfaom Ekid if t H jzpf wnfciG &hf o dS nf/ }} qkad om jrefrmjynfvw G v f yfa&;Oya'Murf; ukd aqG;aEG;rJc&JG m 288 rJ 114 rJjzifh uGefqmaA;wpftwkduftcH *kdPf;\ uefYuGufcsufukdy,fcscJhonf/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ekonf 27 Budrfajrmuf trsdK;om;aeYBuD;ukd 1947 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 7 &uf? aomMumaeYwGif &efukefNrdKU AE¨Kvyef;NcHü usif;yaomtcg jrefrmtrsdK;om;vlxkBuD;tm; wyfveS EYf ;dI aqmfciG hf &&Scd o hJ nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ek trsKd ;om;rdecYf eG ;f ajymMum;&mwGif ]]'DaeYupNy;D t&uf 58 &ufajrmufwJhaeYrSm ArmEkdifiHBuD;[m tcsKyftjcmtmPmykdif EkdifiHBuD;jzpfvm awmhr,f? ArmEkdifiHBuD;twGif;rSm rSDwif;aexkdif MuwJh &Srf;? u&if? ucsif? csif;? rGef? Arm tp&SdwJh wkdif;&if;om;awGvJ uRefb0uvGwfajrmufNyD; ukd,fhMur®m ukd,fzefwD;EkdifwJh tmPmykdifvlrsdK;awGjzpfvmMuawmhr,f/ tJ'Dvkdta&;BuD;wJhtcsdefrSm ta&;BuD;wJh pum;av;cGe;f ukd uReaf wmfajymcsiw f ,f/ 'Dpum;av;cGe;f [m trSepf ifppfawmh odycf ufwhJ


110 pum;awG r[kwyf gbl;/ cifAsm;wkMYd um;aeuspum;awGygbJ/ 'gayrJh ynm&So d wdjzpfcq J w dk hJ pum;vkd arYaerSmpk;d wJh twGuf owday;wJt h aeeJaY jym&jcif;jzpfw,f/ 'Dpum;av;cGe;f ukd tpDtpOfeUJ ajymyghr,f/ eHygwf (1) tpGr;f uken f n D w G Mf uprf;yg/ eHygwf(2) tpGr;f ukeo f ef&Y iS ;f Mu prf;yg/ eHygwf(3) tpGr;f uke&f Ny;D om; tiftm;ukjd znfMh uprf;yg/ eHygwf(4) tpGr;f uket f vkyf h nf/ vkyMf uprf;yg/ }}2ponfjzifh rdeMYf um;oGm;cJo 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ekonf wbufwGifvnf; wkdif;jynftm; tarSmifukdcGif;um tvif;aqmif&ef pDrHcJhonf/ vGwfvyfaomjrefrmEkdifiHonf tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;ESifh acwfrDpGm &ifabmifwef; Ekid &f ef ]]jrefrmEkid if b H momjyefpmaytoif; }} [laomtoif;wpfcu k dk 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekuyif obmywdtjzpf aqmif&u G u f m zGUJ pnf;cJo h nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekonf 1947 ckEpS f atmufwb dk mv 13 &ufaeYwiG f NAw d o d Qtpk;d &ESihf aemufq;kH tmPmvTaJ jymif;a&;pmcsKyu f dk vufrSwfa&;xkd;&ef bdvyfokdY xGufcGmoGm;cJh onf/ av,mOfpufcsdKU,Gif;í ukdif&kdNrdKUokdY qif;ae&ojzifh bdvyfoYdk atmufwb dk m 16 &ufaeYwiG f a&muf&o dS nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekonf ]] *a&mhpAf if;em;a[mufpf }} a[mfw,fwiG f wnf;ckad e cJah vonf/ 1948 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&DvwGif NAdwdoQrSjrefrmEkdifiHokdY tmPmvTJtyfNyD;aemuf ay:aygufvmrnfh oabmwlnDcsufukd NAdwdoQ0efBuD;csKyf rpöwmtufwvDESifh jrefrmjynftpkd;& 0efBuD;csKyf ocifEkwkdYonf a'gif;eif;vrf;? trSwf 10 NAw d o d Q0efBu;D csKy&f ;kH tpk;d &tzGUJ tpnf;ta0; cef;ü atmufwb dk mv 17 &ufaeYwiG f Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyv f ufrw S af &;xk;d cJMh uonf/ jrefrmjynfwGifum; vGwfvyfa&;aMunmrnfh aeY&ufrwkdifcif 1948 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 3 &uf? paeaeY? wkid ;f jyKjynfjyK vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;ü jrefrmEkid if aH wmftpk;d & tzGUJ 0efBu;D rsm;\pm&if;ukd ocifEu k wifoiG ;f &m vGwv f yfaom jrefrmEkid if \ H yxr0efBu;D csKyf tjzpf OD;Ek yifaqmif&u G &f ef emrnfyg0ifvmcJo h nf/ 1948 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYeeH ufyidk ;f t&kPw f uf 4 em&D 20 rdepftcsed w f iG f vGwv f yfa&;aeYatmifyt JG crf;tem;ü jrefrmEkid if \ H yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyrf S rdecYf eG ;f ajymMum; &mwGif ]] uReaf wmfwjYdk ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if o H m;awG[m 'DaeYupNy;D vGwv f yfa&;awmh&Ny/D 'gayrJh urÇmh tajctaeuawmhjzihf ppf&yd pf pfaiGUawG oef;aeovkv d b dk /J 'Dawmh uReaf wmfwYdk &wJv h w G v f yfa&;[m ppf&yd pf pfaiGUoef;ae ovkv d &dk w dS t hJ cgrSm &wJv h w G v f yfa&;vkq Yd &dk rSmbJ/ 'gayrJh pdwfysuftm;i,fbkdY r&Sdygbl;/ wbufuppf&dyfppfaiGYoef;ae ovkdvkd&SdayrJY 1

OD;pHNidrf;? jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962(yxrwGJ)/ wGJbufa&;ol a'gufwm a':jrifMh unf/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1991) pm-94/ 2 ,if;/ pm-96/


111 wbuf u vJ h tm;wuf p &m awG t rsm;BuD ; &S d a o;w,f / uRef a wmf w k d Y w awG [ m tckurÇmah cwfopfeUJ BuKH BuKd uaf eygw,f/ acwfopf oabm w&m;0g' awGeUJ BuKH BuKd uaf e ygw,f/ avmu"gwfoyd yHÜ nm\wefb;dk tpGr;f uk-d pk;d rk;d toH;k csEidk w f hJ acwfeUJ BuKH BuKd uaf eyg w,f/ wu,fvo Ydk m uReaf wmfwv Ydk o l m;awG[m ppfrufqw dk hJ tusiq hf ;dk tavhq;dk Bu;D ukd h nf/ zsuyf pfEidk rf ,fq&dk if- avmuedAmÁ efBu;D tvkv d adk ygufvmrSm trSeyf gbJ}} 1[k ajymMum;cJo xko d v Ydk w G v f yfaom or®wEkid if aH wmf\yxr0efBu;D csKyjf zpfvmaom OD;Ekonf vGwv f yfaomtcsKyt f jcmtmPmykid t f jzpf aMunmaomaeYwiG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmjynfol vlxBk u;D tm; owday;cJo h nf/ 0efBu;D csKyo f cifEu k - ]] ,aeYonfum; rGejf rwfaomaeYBu;D jzpf\/ vGefcJhaom 5 ESpfausmfu uREfkyfwkdYonf vGwfvyfa&;twGuf rnfrQyiftjyif; txefBudK;yrf;Muonfjzpfapumrl vGwfvyfa&;&&efaeYonf þrQavmufeD;uyfaeNyD[k pdwu f ;l rQyif rxnfch MhJ uay/ ,ckru l m; jrefrmEkid if o H nf rdrad emifa&;ukd rdrzd efw;D Ekid af om vGwfvyfa&;ukd &&SdcJhjyefavNyD/ uREfkyfwkdYonf rnfonfhenf;ESifhrqkd jrefrmEkdifiHBuD;ukd vGwfvyfaomEkdifiHBuD;tjzpf tpOfwnfí aeap&eftpGrf;ukef tm;xkwfMu&ayrnf/ jrefrmEkdifiHwkd;wufBuD;us,fvmatmif tpGrf;ukefaqmif&GufMu&ayrnf/ vGwfvyfa&; atmifyef;ukd vufqkyfvufukdiftykdifqGwfcl;Ekdifonftxd rsdK;cspfpdwfjzifh BudK;yrf;cJhonfh uREfkyfwkdYvkyfief;BuD;onf vmvwHhaomumvtwGuf r,drf;r,kdifBuHUckdifwnfwefYygap/ uREfkyfwkdY onf ukd,fusdK;ukda&SU&Iaom pdwfxm[lorQukdy,f&Sm;Mu&efESifh uREfkyfwkdYrSDwif; aexkid &f mjzpfaom þae&m? þXme? þa'o? þEkid if BH u;D \csr;f oma&;ESihf Nird ;f csr;f a&;twGuf wpfv;kH wnf; tm;oGef BuKd ;yrf;&ef ,aeYt"dXmefjyKMuygukepf /Ydk }} 2[kopömjyKcahJ vonf/ 4-3/

vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;acwfBudK;yrf;rI(1948-1962)

vG w f v yf a &;&NyD ; acwf j ynf a xmif p k o r® w jref r mEk d i f i H t ajctaeonf uGefjrLepfygwD\ tmPm&&Sda&;vrf;pOfrsm;rsm;ukd t"duxm;NyD; jynfwGif;ppfjzpfatmif zefw;D cJo h nfh tajctaexd jzpfco hJ nf/ wpfzef 1948 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 13 &ufaeYwiG f ocifEk \vuf0n J n D w T af &;rludk aMunmcJ&h m xkad eYrmS yif ocifErk u l v dk ufcaH om Akv d rf LS ;atmifEiS hf Akv d pf ed rf eS f (&Jabmf0g)wko Yd nf zqyvtzGUJ ESihf yl;aygif;oGm;Muonf/ ocifErk u l dk vufrcHaom Akv d zf ;dk uGe;f ESihf Akv d v f a&mif (&JabmfjzL)wko Yd nf 1948 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 29 &ufaeYwiG af wmcku d m 1

jrefrmEkdifiH? jyefMum;a&;ESifhtoHvTifhXme/ jrefrmEkdifiHawmfvGwfvyfa&; atmifyGJ/ (&efuek ?f &efuek af *ZufvrD w d uf? ckEpS rf yg)? pm-7/ 2 armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm -9/


112 qlyal omif;use;f rIudk pwifco hJ nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekonf Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;vkyBf ucH &H Ny;D aemuf ,m,Dtpk;d &\ 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;ukv d ufcpH Ofuyif jrefrmEkid if v H w G v f yfa&;&&SNd y;D ygu rdro d nf 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rS Ekwx f u G rf nf[ak MunmcJo h nf/ qly;l aomif;use;f rIrsm;us,jf yefv Y mcsed f wGiv f nf; OD;Ekonf 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rSEw k x f u G &f ef pDpOfcjhJ yefonf/ 1948 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f wGif opömazmufwyfrsm; awmckdoGm;onfhtcg a&mifpHkaomif;usef;olrsm;tm;wyfrawmfrS ckcw H u dk cf u dk o f jzifh aomif;use;f olrsm;\tiftm;NyKd uo JG mG ; onf/ EkdifiHa&;tajctaeonf vGwfvyfa&;ukdyif tEÅ&m,fjyKrnfhtajctaeokdY qku d af &muf &So d nf/ &efuek t f pk;d &[ktac:cHae&csed w f iG f wkid ;f &if;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf jynfaxmifpt k pk;d & bufrS tckid t f rm&yfwnfco hJ nf/ &Sr;f ? ucsi?f csi;f acgif;aqmifrsm;onf 0efBuD;csKyf OD;EkESifhvma&muf awGUqHkNyD; ]] rdrdwkdYukd vufeufom&Smay;yg? olykefawGukd uRefawmfwkdYwkdufr,f }} 1[líajymMum;cJh onf/ autif'Dtkdrsm; tif;pdefNrdKUukd odrf;ykduf xm;csed o f nf tpk;d &\tajctaetqk;d &Gm;qH;k tcsed yf ifjzpfonf/ tpk d ; &tusyf t wnf ; awG U aecsd e f w G i f jynf a xmif p k w nf N rJ a &;twG u f t"dutiftm;jzpf onfhwyfrawmfukdpnf;&Hk;um EkdifiHawmftmPmodrf;&efBudK;yrf;rI wpf&yfay:aygufvmcJhonf/ aomif;usef;olrsm; vufokdYusa&mufaeaom rEÅav;NrdKUukd jyefvnford ;f yku d &f ef 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ek uk, d w f idk f oGm;a&mufppD OfaepOf 1949 ckEpS af tNyv D wGif qkd&S,fvpfygwD0if 0efBuD;rsm;onf tpkd;&tzGJU0iftjzpfrS EkwfxGufoGm;Muonf/ 1949 ckESpfonf aomif;usef;rIt&Sdeft[keftBuD;rm;qHk; ESpfjzpfonf/ EkdifiHa&;t& 0efBuD;csKyf OD ; Ek r S wk d i f ; &if ; om;pnf ; vH k ; rI u k d zef w D ; ay;jcif ; ? ppf a &;t& Ak d v f c sKyf ae0if ; rS aqmif&u G af y;aomaMumifh jynfaxmifpBk u;D NyKd uo JG mG ;jcif;r&Scd ahJ cs/ OD;Ekonf 1956 ckepS ?f ZGev f 12 &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rS Ekwx f u G cf o hJ nf/ xkad emuf zqyvtzGUJ csKyOf uúXtaejzifh zqyvoef&Y iS ;f a&;ESiphf nf;&H;k a&;ukd aqmif&u G cf hJ onf/2 OD;Ek0efBuD;csKyf&mxl;rS EkwfxGufonfhudpörSm ,ckrSay:aygufcJhjcif; r[kwfay/ vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D ajcmufvceft Y MumrSpí 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl; Ekwx f u G rf nf[ak MunmcJzh ;l onf/ Ekwx f u G &f jcif;taMumif; \ yxrtcsurf mS e,fcsUJ ukad wmfveS pf Ofu touft;dk tdrpf nf;pdrf ukkd pGefYvTwf wkdufckdufcJhaom EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;u tcGifhta&;rsm;awmif;qkdvmjcif;? 'kw, d tcsurf mS wpfO;D tay: wpfO;D r,Ho k uFmpdwrf sm;aMumifh tmPmvkcsio f rl sm;ay:vm jcif;? tmPmvufukdifxm;olrsm; uvnf; ykdívkdcsifvmjcif;? aemufqHk;tcsufrSm 1

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm pm? (13 ZGef 1956)/ pm 10-12/ 2 jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm pm? (12 ZGef 1956)/ pm 3/


113 tmPmtvGJoHk;pm; jyKvmMujcif;wkdYjzpfonf/1 jynfwGif; aomif;usef;rIrsm;aMumifh vnf;aumif;? zqyvtzGUJ 0iftcsUd \ arwåm&yfccH suaf Mumifh vnf;aumif; rxGujf zpfcahJ y/ 1954 ckEpS af &mufaomtcg tpövmrfbmom? c&pf,mefbmom? Ak'b ¨ mom oifMum;a&;ESihf ywfoufí bmoma&;tH<k urIjzpfco hJ nf/ 1956 ckEpS ?f arvwGif o*Fg,emyGaJ wmfNy;D qH;k csed üf OD;Eku 0efBuD;csKyftjzpfrS EkwfxGuf&efwifjycJhonf/ 1958 ckESpf? arv 6 &ufaeYS Armhacwfowif;pm wGif OD;EkaxmufcHaomtkyfpkESifh OD;ausmfNidrf;axmufcHaomtkyfpk zqyvtzGJU twGif;wGifuGJvmcJhonf[kazmfjycJhonf/ zqyvOuúX OD;Ekukd 1957 ckESpf azazmf 0 g&D v 28 &uf ? jynf o l Y v T w f a wmf t pnf ; ta0;wG i f 0ef B uD ; csKyf t jzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufonf/ OD;AaqG? OD;ausmfNidrf;? ocifwifESifh p0fcGefcsdKwkdYonf 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyfrsm;tjzpf wm0ef,lMuonf/ 0efBuD; 30 yg0ifaom OD;Ektpkd;&tzGJUonf rwf v 1 &uf a eY w G i f usrf ; usd e f o nf /1 1957 ck E S p f ? rwf v 12 &uf a eY w G i f ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmtwlwuGvufwGJí jrefrmjynfaumif;pm;a&; twGufBudK;yrf;cJhMuaom yk * ¾ d K vf r sm;\ yk * ¾ d K vf p G J ? *k d P f ; *PpG J r sm;aMumif h vG w f v yf a &;&NyD ; 10 ES p f t wG i f ; pnf;vH;k rINyKd uo JG mG ;&onf/ OD;Ektpk;d & tzGUJ onf 1958 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 4 &ufaeYwiG zf UJG pnf;cJo h nf/ use&f adS om 0efBu;D 15 OD;tjyif? 0efBu;D topf 5 OD;ukcd efx Y m;cJo h nf/ ¤if;0efBu;D tzGUJ pm&if;ukd EkdifiHawmfor®wu vufcHvkdufí ZGefv 5 &uf? aomMumaeYeHeuf 11 em&DwGif jynfov Yl w T af wmfudk pwifusi;f ycJo h nf/ 1958 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 9 &uf aeY eHeuf 11 em&DwiG f vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0; pwifusi;f ycJNh y;D aemuf axmufco H l 119 rJjzifh OD;EkO;D aqmifaom oef&Y iS ;f zqyvonf tpk;d &tmPmukd qufvufxed ;f odr;f oGm;cJo h nf/2 oef&Y iS ;f zqyvonf rdrt d zGUJ tm;axmufcrH &I &Sad &;twGuf yrnwrsm;ESihf jynfe,ftrwfrsm;okYd ay;tyfxm;aom uwd r sm;uk d j znf h q nf ; aqmif & G u f & mü tcuf t cJ r sm;awG U vm&onf / xk d Y a Mumif h oef&Y iS ;f zqyvtpk;d &rSm jyóemrsm;ukd qufvuf&ifqidk cf &hJ onf/ 1958 ckESpf? atmufwdkbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; pwif usi;f ycJo h nf/ vTwaf wmfwiG f 0efBu;D csKyf OD;EkrS rdecYf eG ;f ajymMum;cJo h nf/ rdecYf eG ;f wGif yxrykid ;f ü zqyvESpjf crf;uG&J mrSpí Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;ESiphf mtjyeftvSeaf y;yHrk sm;azmfjyNy;D vGwfvyfíw&m;rQw aoma&G;aumufyGJusif;ya&;ukd a&S;&Ií AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;tm; &mxl;vufcHatmif wkdufwGef;&jcif; jzpfaMumif;? ,if;tcsufukd pufwifbmv 26 1

William C. Johnston, A Chronology of Burma's International

Relations 1945-1958, Rangoon, Rangoon University,1959,, p.75. 159 2

'kw, d jynfov Yl w GT af wmf? 6^2? pm 132-139/


114 &ufaeYvufcH&ef AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;ukd zdwfac:7mrSm rnfonfhya,m*rS ryg0ifaMumif;? Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;rSm tpOftvmt& wkid ;f jynf\qE´udk jznfq h nf;cJah Mumif;? pdwaf pwem? owå d A swå d t jyif tk y f c sKyf a &;qk d i f & muk d , f a wG U A[k o k w rsm;vnf ; &S d aeNyD ; jzpf í Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;ukd 0efBu;D csKycf efjY cif;tm;jzifh jynfaxmifpBk u;D twGuf rsm;pGmpdwcf s&onf [k ,HMk unfaMumif;? xkaYd Mumif'h rD u dk a&pD rqdwo f Ok ;f a&;twGuf Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0i;fEiS w hf zJG ufí tpGr;f ukeyf ;l aygif;aqmif&u G Mf u&ef wku d w f eG ;f aMumif; rdeMYf um;cJo h nf/1 jynfov Yl w T af wmftpnf;ta0;ukd 1958 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 31 &ufaeYtxd qufvufusif;y&m EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;rS rdefYcGef;ajymMum;csufrSm jynfaxmifpBk u;D a&wdrrf epf&atmif BuKd BuKd wifwif vHNk cKH a&;tpDtpOfrsm;ukd aqmif&u G cf hJ &aMumif;? &ifqidk v f m&aomtajctaeqk;d rsm;ukd tcsed rf x D ed ;f odr;f ay;&ef tdraf pmift h pk;d & wpfczk UJG &ef OD;EkrS wm0efay;aMumif;? þwm0efudk acgif;ra&Smifvadk omaMumifh 'Dru dk a&;pD enf;ususygvDrefu tmPmay;tyfjcif;ukd vufc&H aMumif; rdeMYf um;cJo h nf/2 Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;aqmifaom tdraf pmift h pk;d &tzGUJ rS jynfaxmifpt k zGUJ Ouú| OD;Ekacgif;aqmifonfhtpkd;&tzGJUokdY vTJajymif;ay;&ef wwd,jynfolYvTwfawmfnDvmc Htpnf;ta0; ukd 1960 jynfhESpf? atNyDv 1 &ufwGifpwifusif;ycJhonf/ 1960 jynfhESpf atNyv D 4 &ufae jynfoYl vTwaf wmf nDvmcHBu;D wGif jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if \ H 0efBu;D csKyf tjzpf OD;Ekukd a&G;aumufwifajr§muf vkdufaMumif; aMunmcJhonf/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyBJG u;D wGif tjywftowftEkid &f &Scd o hJ nfOh ;D Ek OD;aqmifaom oef&Y iS ;f zqyv tzGUJ csKyo f nf 1960 jynfEh pS ?f rwfv 17 &ufaeYü jynfv;kH uRwn f v D mcHBu;D usi;f ycJo h nf/ xkn d v D mcHwiG f Ouú| OD;EkrS ]] 'Dru dk a&pDb0 xlaxmifa&;[m uReaf wmfwYdk twGuf t"duta&; qkdwm xif&Sm;apcsifwJhtwGuf zqyvtzGJUa[mif;ukdzsufNyD;? jynfaxmifpktzGJUopfukd uRefawmfwkdY zGJUpnf;vkdufjcif; }} 3 jzpfonf[kajymMum;cJhonf/ xkt d csed rf pS í oef&Y iS ;f zqyvtzGUJ ukd jynfaxmifpt k zGUJ (yxp)[lí ajymif;vJac:a0:cJo h nf/ yxptzGUJ csKyt f wGi;f ü vlxv k w l ef;pm;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ukq d ufvufxm;&Sv d adk omtkypf Ek iS hf xkt d zGUJ tpnf;rsm;ukzd suo f rd ;f í yxptzGUJ wpfzUJG wnf; om&Sv d adk omtkypf [ k í l tkypf Ek pS pf u k JG

1

'kwd,jynfolYvTwfawmf? 7^1? pm 8-17/ 2 jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm pm?(20 ar 1960) pm 1/ 3 [Hom0wDowif;pm (18 rwf 1960) pm 10-11/


115 cJhonf[kqkdonf/1 1961 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 29 &ufaeYwGif Ak'¨bmomukd EkdifiHawmfbmom tjzpfowfrw S cf o hJ nf/ xkaYd Mumifh wkid ;f jynfrNird rf oufrrI sm; jzpfco hJ nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ek\ jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &vufxufwiG f &Sr;f apmfbmG ;rsm;onf zuf'&,fru l dk wifjy awmif;qku d m zuf'&,frlr&vQif jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHrS cGJxGufrnf[k Ncdrf;ajcmufcJhMuojzifh jynfaxmifpNk yKd urJG nfh tEÅ&m,fjzpfay:vmcJjh yefonf/ xko d jYdk ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\ txl;,kd,Gif;vmaomtajctae qkd;ukd xdef;odrf;pdrfYaomiSm 1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; OD;aqmifaom ArmhwyfrawmfrS EkdifiHawmftmPmukd xde;f odr;f cJo h nf/ Ak'¨jrwfpGmyGifhawmfrlcJh&m tdE´d,EkdifiH Ak'¨*g,mrSaAm"dyifysdKrsm;? oD[kdVfuRef;rS aAm"dyifysKd rsm;ukd yifah qmifcNhJ y;D vQif jrefrmEkid if t H &yf&yfü pku d yf sKd ;apcJo h nf/ tdE, ´d Ekid if rH S vuf0J&H? vusfm&Hrsm;jzpfaom &Sifr[marm*¾vH? &Sifom&dykwå&mrax&fjrwfESpfyg;\ "gwfawmfrsm;ukv d nf;yifh aqmifcí hJ jrefrmEkid if t H &yf&yfoYdk a'opm&DjzefcY sv D n S v hf nfvsuf tyl a Zmf c H a ponf / wpf j ynf v H k ; ü ql y l x <uvsuf & S d a omol y k e f a omif ; usef ; ol w k d Y \ ab;&eftEÅ&m,fukd OD;Ekonf jrwfpGmbk&m; w&m;awmfrsm;jzifh Nidrf0yfydjym;&ef? wkid ;f oljynfom;vltrsm;ab;&efuif;Nird ;f csr;f omap&ef? tusiphf m&dwaå zmufjyefysujf ym; vsuf&Sdolrsm; owdw&m;&ap&ef ]] r[mor,aeY}} ]] "r®pMumaeY}} ponfjzifh owf r S w f a y;vsuf " r® p Mumok w f r[mor,ok w f ? tewå v u© P ok w f paom okweå af 'oemawmfrsm;ukd &efuek Nf rKd UESiw hf uG tNrKd UNrKd Ut&Gm&GmwGif &Gwb f ufo&Zs, ö Ef idk af tmif tm;xkwcf o hJ nf/ orma'0ewfrsm;tm; trQtwef;ay;a0vsuf AvdewfpmauR;cJo h nf/ tdE, d´ Ekid if H rS Ak'j¨ rwfpmG \vuf0&J ?H vusmf &Hrsm;jzpfaom &Siaf rm*¾vefEiS hf &Sio f m&dyw k &å m &[EÅmESpfql\ "gwfawmfrsm;rS tcsdKUukd jrefrmEkdifiHüukd;uG,fEkdifatmif tdE´d,0efBuD;csKyf &S&aD e&l;xHwiG f tvSLcHNy;D vQif &efuek Nf rKd U? a&ul;&yf oD&rd *Fvmuke;f ajr&Sd urÅmat;apwDawmfü Xmyemí ukd;uG,fcJhonf/ omoemawmfwGif Ak'¨bmom rGef-jrefrmtaygif;wkdYMunfnkdonfxuf Munfnkdvmatmif 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek tm;xkwfaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;teuf urÇmhorkdif;? jrefrmhorkid ;f rsm;wGirf w S w f rf;wif &pfrnfh twkid ;f rodx;l jcm;vSaom tcsuBf u;D wpf&yfrmS qXoH*g,emwifyBJG u;D ukd qifEu JT si;f yEkid cf hJ jcif;yifjzpfonf/ 1

OD;ausmf0if;? jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 (wwd,wGJ)/ wGJbuf a&;ol OD;jr[efEiS hf OD;ode;f vIid /f (&efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1991) pm 168/


116 1316 ckESpf? uqkefvjynfhaeY (1954 ckESpf? arv 17 &ufaeY)wGif q|oH*g,emwif yGaJ wmfBu;D ukd &efuek Nf rKd U? a&ul;&yf oD&rd *Fvmuke;f ajr&Sd vkP d *f al wmfBu;D wGif pwifziG v hf pS cf o hJ nf/ yxro*Fg,emwifawmfr&l m owåyPÖv d P dk *f al wmfBu;D \ oP²mefudk yHpk , H í l &efuek Nf rKd U urÇmat; apwDawmfteD;wGif vkP d *f al wmfBu;D ukd aqmufvyk &f ef 1314 ckEpS ?f wykw d v JG qef; 1 &ufaeY (1953 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 15 &ufaeY) aomMumaeY eHeufwiG f yEéu&f u dk t f w k jf rpfcsum pwifwnf aqmufc&hJ m 1 ESp?f 2 v? 10 &ufaetMumwGif Ny;D pD; atmifjrifcJhonf/ xkdvkdPf*lawmfBuD;rSm ausmufawmifo@mef&Sdí r[mygomP*k[m vkP d *f al wmfBu;D [k trnfwiG af vonf/ tjyifywf0ef;usirf mS 455 ay? teH 370 ay&So d nf/ awmifEiS ahf jrmuftvsm;vku d w f nfaqmufxm; onf/ aiGaygif; ode;f 90 rQuek u f sco hJ nf/ xkv d P dk *f al wmfBu;D ukd qXoH*g,emwifonfh txdr;f trSwaf y:vGiaf p&ef 0ifaygufwcH g; 6 ckEiS t hf wGi;f wkid Bf u;D 6 wkid jf zifw h nfaqmufxm;onf/ twGi;f bufwiG f tvsm;ay 220? teHay 140 us,0f ef;onf/ vkP d *f al wmfBu;D twGi;f bufrMS unfh vQif eH&t H m;azmufxiG ;f xm;aom tayguf 3 qifjh zifh bk&m;?w&m;? oHCm &wemoH;k yg;tm; &nfreS ;f í jyKvyk x f m; onf/ tayguf&Sdaom eH&HwpfxyfwpfxyfvQif y|mef; 24 ypönf;ukd &nfrSef;vsuf 24 qifhpDjyKvkyfxm;onf/ tqifhwpfckvQiftxufatmuf 7 qifhpD&SdítqifhwpfqifhpDwGif oHCmawmf tyg; 60 oDwif;oH;k awmfrEl idk o f nf/ oHCmpifaygif; 16 ck&&dS m rsuEf mS MuufEiS hf txufqHk; avpkwfayguftm;vHk;wGif "r®pMumyHko@mefrsm;jzifh 0ef;&Htkyfrkd;xm;onf/ pkpkagyif;oH*g,emwif yGJBuD;NyD;pD;onftxd usyfaiGodef;aygif; 400 cefYukefuscJhonf/ 0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ekonf q|oH*g,emwif yGJawmfBuD;ukd ta&SU tm&SwkdufwpfwkdufvHk;&Sd Ak'¨bmom0ifolawmfpiftaygif;uyg 0kdif;0efulnDtm; ay;atmifaqmif&GufcJhonf/ xko d aYdk qmif&u G cf &hJ mwGif atmifjrifonfo h m"u rSm oD[Vdk ?f tdE, d´ ? ,k;d ',m;? uarÇm'D;,m;? w&kwEf idk if pH aomEkid if rH sm;rS oHCmawmfrsm;? bk&ifrif;jrwfrsm;? oHwrefBu;D rsm; wufa&muf jcif;jzifh xif&mS ;cJo h nf/ OD;Ekonf ukdodef;azESifh ukdvSaz (Akdvfvusfm)wkdYrS zdwfac:ojzihf tdE´d,okdY e*g;eD oGm;cJhonf/ tdE´d,EkdifiHa&;ukdvnf; avhvmMunhf&IcJhonf/ bdvyfrS tjyefwGif ]]e*g;eD pmtk y f t oif ; }}trnfjzifh bdvyf ]]vuf0Jpmtkyftoif;}}qefqef pmtkyftoif; wpfcu k zdk UJG pnf;cJo h nf/ e*g;eDpmtkyt f oif;wku d f wGif jyZmwfrsm;a&;om;cJo h nf/ okaYd omf jyZmwfa&;om;NyD;aomtcg pifwifvkdaomqE´&Sdvmjyef&m pifwif&ef BudK;pm;jyefonf/ xk d Y a Mumif h vrf ; rawmf r S t Nid r f Y t zG J U wpf c k u k d iS m ;&rf ; NyD ; vQif e*g;eD w k d u f x k w f acwfrjDS yZmwfrsm;xJrS ]] aemifawmfcRwfcPf; }} jyZmwfudk Zmwfwu dk af vonf/ OD;Ekonf e*g;eDpmtkyf toif;wkduf tay:xyfwGif aeYa&m? nOfYyg ZmwfwkdufaeonfhumvwGif


117 a&eHajrtvkyo f rm;oydwf ay:aygufvmojzifh Zmwfwu dk o f nft h vkyu f edk m;um Ekid if aH &;wGif vlay: vlaZmfvyk ef nf;}} pmtkyu vH;k yrf;&jyefonf/ e*g;eDpmtkyf wku d w f iG f &Sad epOf OD;Ekonf ]]vl f dk bmomjyefqcdk o hJ nf/ 1939 ck E S p f a&muf a omtcg w&k w f j ynf c sef a u&S d w f t pk d ; &xH o k d Y cspfMunfa&;rdwfquftzGJU wpfzGJUapvTwfcJhonf/ xkdrdwfquftzGJU \&nf&G,fcsufrSm zufqpf*syefrsm; ukd tultnDay;&ef jzpfonf/ OD;bvGif(oD[kdVfoHtrwfBuD;a[mif;)rS acgif ; aqmif í 'D ; 'k w f O D ; bcsd K ? ocif E k ? a':jrpd e f w k d Y yg0if M uonf / OD ; Ek o nf uGejf rLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom armfpw D ;kH ? csLaw;? csLtifvidk ;f wkEYd iS hf awGU&efBuKd ;pm;&m *E¨ m v&mZf } } ratmif j rif c J h a y/ OD ; Ek o nf w&k w f j ynf c &D ; oG m ;tjzpf t ysuf u k d ]]*E¨ [laomtrnfjzifh pmtkyw f pftyk f xkwaf 0cJo h nf/ 1940 ckESpf? axmifxJwGif yxrqHk;tBudrf jyZmwfwpfyk'fukd ukd,fwkdifa&;? uk, d w f idk f pifwifjyocJo h nf/ axmifxw J iG f OD;Ektm; Zmwfq&m[kac:Muonf/ axmifxw J iG f t*FvdyfjyZmwf 15 yk'fcefY bmomjyefcJh&m ¤if;wkdYteuf ]] EGm;okd;MudK;jywf }} ESifh ]] ykxkZaemOr®waum }} jyZmwfrsm;ukd yHEk ydS x f w k af 0cJo h nf/ ]] &ufpufygayhuG,f }} [laom axmifwiG ;f tajctaeqk;d &Gm;yHrk sm;ukd o&kyaf zmfonfh 0w¬Kwpfy'k v f nf;a&;cJo h nf/ OD;Ekonf armfvNrKd iu f Re;f okYd oGm;a&mufípma&;jcif;tvkyjf zifh tem;,laepOf rufpZÆif;0g'qkdwmbmvJ}} [laompmtkyfjzpfonf/ OD;Ekonf a&;cJhaompmtkyfrSm ]]ruf jrefrmEkid if aH &; ESiphf yfvsO;f í ]]jrefrmhtvif;}} owif;pmokYd aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;om;ay;ykcYd o hJ nf/ ¤if;aemuf&efuek o f jYdkyefí ]]jrefrmhtvif;acgif;Bu;D ykid ;f }}owif;tmabmfrsm;ukd a&;om;cJo h nf/ OD;Ekonf*syefacwfrS awGUBuKH c&hJ aom tjzpftysurf sm;yg0ifaom ]] ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf }}[laompmtkyu f dk a&;om;cJo h nf/ 1951 ckEpS w f iG f From peace to stability 1952 ckEpS w f iG f The people win through .1953 ckEp S w f iG f Burma Looks ahead . 1954 ckEpS w f iG f Burma under the Japanese : picutres and portraits. 1955 ckEp S w f iG f Forward with the people. pmtkyrf sm;vnf;a&;cJyh gonf/ 5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

1981 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYwiG f &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if *hH P k &f nfbUJG cs;D jri§ chf &H onf/ rm&S,w f ;D wk;d \ ,l*q dk vyfMu,fbUJG cs;D jri§ jhf cif;cH&onf/


118 6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ekonf t*FvefEkdifiHokdY 1947 ckESpf? ZGefv 23 &ufaeYwGif vnf;aumif;? atmufwkdbmvv 10 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif; oGm;a&mufcJhonf/ w&kwfEkdifiHokdY 1954 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 14 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;? Ekd0ifbmv 29 &ufaeYwiG v f nf;aumif;? 1955 ckEpS f rwfv 7 &ufaeYwiG f xkid ;f Ekid if ?H rwfv 25 &ufaeYwiG f tdE, d´ Ekid if ?H {Nyv D 16 &ufaeYwiG f tif'ekd ;D &Sm;Ekid if ?H arv 28 &ufaeYwiG t f pöa&;Ekid if ?H ZGev f 5 &ufaeYwiG f ,l*q dk vm;AD;,m;Ekid if ?H ZGev f 22 &ufaeYwiG f t*FvefEidk if ?H ZGev f 23 &ufaeYwiG f tar&duefEkdifiH? Zlvkdifv 19 &ufaeYwGif *syef? atmufwkdbmv 17 &ufaeYwGif &k&Sm;? tdEd´,? atmufwkdbmv 19 &ufaeYwGif tmz*epöwef EkdifiH? Ekd0ifbmv 8 &ufaeYwGif qDG'ifEkdifiH? 'DZifbmv 17 &ufaeYwGif uarÇm'D;,m;EkdifiH? 'DZifbmv 26 &ufaeYwGif w&kwfEkdifiHtoD;oD;okdYoGm;a&mufcJhygonf/ 1956 ckESpfwGif w&kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH? AD,uferfEidk if rH sm;oko Yd mG ;a&mufco hJ nf/ Ek0d ifbmv 20 &ufaeYwiG f tdE, d´ Ekid if o H v Ydk nf;aumif;? OD;Ekonf omoem 2500 jynft h xdr;f trSwyf o JG Ydk wufa&muf&ef oD&v d uFmEkid if o H Ydk 'DZifbmv wGifvnf;aumif; oGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 1957 ckESpfarvwGif xkdif;EkdifiH 'DZifbmv 14 &ufaeYwiG f tdE, d´ Ekid if o H o Ydk mG ;a&mufcyhJ gonf/ ukv d b H Ndk rKd UwGif tdE, d´ ? oD[Vdk ?f ygupöwef? tif'kdeD;&Sm;0efBuD;csKyfrsm; tygt0if usif;ycJhaom ukdvHbkduGefz&if;jzpfajrmuf&ef pD p Of a omyk * ¾ d K vf w pf O D ; taeES i f h wuf a &muf cJ h N yD ; aemuf tif ' k d e D ; &S m ;Ek d i f i H w G i f tmz&duESit hf m&SEidk if rH sm; wpfpw k pfa0;wnf; urÇm&h mZ0ifwiG f yxrOD;qH;k usi;f ycJah om befa'gifnv D mcHBu;D jzpfajrmufonfh wkid af tmif BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ 0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ekonf urÇmhNidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhpyfvsOf;í aqmif&Guf&mwGif w&kwjf ynfoo Yl r®w Ekid if o H o Ydk mG ;a&mufí armfpw D ;kH ? csLtifvidk ;f paom w&kwaf cgif;aqmifrsm; ESifhaqG;aEG;cJhonf/tpöa&;vfEkdifiH? ,l*kdpav;AD;,m;EkdifiH? NAdwdefEkdifiH? tar&duef jynfaxmifpkEkdifiH? *syefEkdifiH ponfrsm;okdYvnf;aumif;? tmz*efepöwefEkdifiH? qkdAD,uf &k&Sm;EkdifiHrsm; okdYvnf;aumif; oGm;a&mufí Nidrf;csrf;a&;\ta&;ygaomjyórsm;ukd aqG;aEG;cJo h nf/ 7/

rdom;pk

OD;Ek\ZeD;a':jr&D onf 1993 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv & &ufaeYwiG u f , G v f eG cf o hJ nf/ om;orD;rsm;rSm a':pef;pef;Ek+(OD;oufwif)? OD;atmif&jJ rif+h a':jrjrat;? OD;aomif;xku d +f a'gufwmaroZifoef;xkduf? OD;atmif+a':cifpef;EGJU? oef;oef;Ek(attkdtm? jrefrmykdif; tpDtpOf)+ OD;atmifNidrf;? a'gufwm cifat;oufwif(c) a':cifat;EkwkdYjzpfonf/


119 trSw(f 42)? jynfaxmifpv k rf;oG,?f q&mpHvrf;rBu;D ? &efuek w f iG f aeonf/ *syefacwfEkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;? zqyvOuúX? wkdif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmfOuú|? vGwv f yfaom jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\ yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyjf zpfcahJ om OD;Ekonf 1995 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 14 &ufaeYwiG f uG,v f eG cf o hJ nf/


120

yHk (11) OD;AaqG (0efBuD;csKyf) [ 1956 ckESpf ]


121

OD;AaqG (0efBuD;csKyf) (arG arG; 17-10-1915 uG,fvGef 6-12-1987 ) 1/

i,fpOfb0

EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyfa[mif; OD;AaqGonf weoFm&Dwkdif;? xm;0,fNrdKUESifh rkdif;ig;q,fuGma0; aom tHk;yifuGif;&GmwGif tzOD;xGef;vIdif? trd a':yJav;wkdYrS 1915 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv (7)&ufaeY wGif arG;zGm;cJo h nf/ arG;csi;f oH;k a,mufteufti,fq;kH jzpfonf/ xdt k csed üf tH;k yifuiG ;f &Gmw0ku d w f iG f ow¬KwiG ;f vkyif ef;onf vsijf refpmG wk;d wuf vmcJah omaMumifh olx Y ufigOD;atmifaeYcsi;f ncsi;f olaX;jzpfcsiv f o dk w l Ydk ajccsi;f vdraf ecJo h nf/ wkid ;f &if;om;rsm;rnfrQyifBuKd ;pm;aqmif&u G af eaomfvnf; t*Fvyd ef ,fcsUJ wkUd onf tNyKH ;rysuf ae&m,lomG ;cJNh y;D aemuf Arm? &Sr;f ? rGe?f u&if ponfw h idk &f if;om; wko Yd nf ow¬KwiG ;f rsm;ü ulv?D vcpm;tvkyo f rm;rsm;omjzpfapcJo h nft h jyif tpm;tpmukcd sKd UwJph mG pm;aeMu&onf/ þokjYd zifjh refrmwkid ;f &if; om;wkrYd mS qif;&JraJG evsuf e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd Ef iS hf w&kw?f ukvm;Ekid if jH cm; om;awGom olaX;jzpfZdrf&pfaeaomtcsdefjzpfonf/ þuJhokdYaomtajctaewGif armifAaqG onf BuD;jyif;vmcJh&ojzifh rsdK;cspfpdwf? EkdifiHjcm;om; rkef;wD;pdwfrsm;onf i,fpOfuyifued ;f atmif; jzpfwnfvmcJo h nf/ 2/

ynmoifb0

armifAaqGonf jrefrmwk\ Yd "avhx;kH pHtwkid ;f &Gmbke;f Bu;D ausmif;ü ynmoifMum; cJo h nf/ xkrd w S pfqifh &Sio f mraPjyKNy;D aemuf vlxu G cf o hJ nf/ &Siv f x l u G f armifAaqGonf xm;0,ftrsdK;orD;txufwef;ausmif;okdYoGm;í (2)ESpfynmqnf;yl;cJhonf/ pdwf"gwf jyif;xefNy;D t&G,x f mG ;BuKd i;f oljzpfonfh tavQmuf rde;f uav;rsm;Mum;wGif roifah vsmí f trsKd ;om;tv,fwef;ausmif;okaYd jymif;í ynmoifay;cJ&h onf/ 1936 ckEpS w f iG f xm;0,fNrKd U tpdk;&txufwef;ausmif;rS q,fwef;pmar;yGJ ajzqkdatmifjrifcJhonf/ armifAaqGonf i,fi,fuyif &JpGrf;owåd&SdcJhonf/ tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;u olYukdaMumufMuonf/ OD;AaqGonf r[kwrf cHaompdw&f o dS jl zpfaomfvnf; tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ü tvkyv f yk af omtcg onf;cHpdwfarG;oljzpfonf/ ausmif;Ak'¨bmomtoif;wnfaxmif&mwGif OD;AaqG onf acgif;aqmifí yg0ifcJhonf/ ausmif;om;or*¾tzGJUukdzGJUpnf;&mwGifvnf; OD;AaqGyif acgif;aqmifjzpfcJhonf/ OD;AaqG onf rsdK;cspfpdwfjyif;xefvGef;NyD; vlrsdK;jcm;ukdvnf;


122 tvGerf ek ;f wD;\/ ]] ukvm;xk;d toif;}}1 [lí pkNy;D aemuf ukvm;rsm;ukd acsmif;í&ku d cf ahJ om aMumifh 0kid ;f íxk;d Muonf/ xm;0,frS ukvm;rsm; tawmfyif'u k r© sm;cJ&h onf/ xko d q Ydk q l yl yl v l yk cf ahJ omfvnf; OD;AaqGonfpmzwfjcif;? pma&;jcif;? uAsmzGUJ jcif;? aqmif;yg; a&;jcif;rsm;ukd tcsdef&vQif &ovkdavhvmcJhonf/ tcsdefweft&G,fa&mufí ynmoifNy;D todw&m;rsm;&&Sv d maomtcsed w f iG f wkAYd rmrsm;uReo f uf&n S í f qif;&JepfreG ;f jcif; uif;rS aumif;rnf[k tawG;&um ]]ukvm;xk;d toif; }} ukzd suNf y;D pdwo f abmxm;jcif;wGif wlrQaom &Jabmfuav;rsm;ESiw hf zJG ufí ]]vufzuf&nfqidk zf iG jhf cif;}} ]]qHyifnyS q f idk zf iG jhf cif;}} ]]uGr;f ,mqkid zf iG hf jcif;}} paompD;yGm;a&;udprö sm;ukd aqmif&u G v f mcJo h nf/ OD;AaqGq,fwef;atmifjrifcahJ om 1936 ckEpS w f iG f &efuek w f uúov dk rf S aygufzmG ; vmcJhaomf 'kwd,tBudrfausmif;om;oydwfBuD;onf e,ftoD;oD;okdYjyefYESHUvmcJhMu&m AaqGwu Ydk supf m;aeaom xm;0,foYdk ul;pufa&muf&v dS mcJo h nf/ ukEd ?k ukad tmifqef; paom wuúov dk f rS oydwaf cgif;aqmif rsm;onf ukAd aqGtm;pnf;&H;k Ekid cf o hJ nf/ or*¾acgif;aqmif ukdAaqGonf ukdEk? ukdatmifqef;wkdYESifh tquftoG,fjyKum &efukefwuúokdvfokdYa&muf onftxdc&D;jyif;ESicf MhJ uonf/ aumvdyaf usmif;om; ukAd aqGonf tEktMurf;a&m,Suv f Qu&f o dS nfukd Oyrmjy &aomf q,fwef;ausmif; om;b0uyif tEkynmrsm;ukd avhvmvku d pf m;cJo h l wpfa,muf jzpfí wuúokdvfwGif olY\uavmifukd qufaoG;cJhonf/ ]][kdufpul;oef;oef;}} ]] jrifhaqG }} paom uavmifemrnfqef;awGjzifh *sme,frsm;wGif aqmif;yg;? 0w¬K-uAsmrsm;vIid v f iId Bf u;D a&;om;ay;ykcYd o hJ nf/ OD;AaqGpmayrsm;um; pum;vH;k ajymifajrmufvo S nft h jyif uAsmav;csKd ; wkrYd mS vnf; t*Fgajrmufonf/ ]] '*Hrk *¾Zif;}} ]],k0wD}} ]]u0drsurf eS }f } ]]Bu;D yGm;a&;}} ]]'D;'kw*f sme,f}} ]]AE¨Kv*sme,f}} paom*sme,fr*¾Zif;BuD;rsm;wGif OD;AaqGa&;om;onfhpmrsm;onf vuf&majymifí ygpNrjJ zpfco hJ nf/ wuúokdvfor*¾\ ]] tkd;a0r*¾Zif; }} wGifvnf; OD;AaqG\uavmifpGrf;ukd jrifawGUEkdifygonf/ ]]uufo&if*Gufaxmf ]} taMumif;aqmif;yg;wGif olYuavmif vuf&majymifajrmufq;kH jzpfco hJ nf/ tkid pf t D uf&mxl;&Sirf sm;ukd xk;d ESux f m;onfh aqmif;yg; jzpfí &mxl;*kPfodrfrufaomrEl;reyftif;,m;ausmif;aqmif Akdvfqefol ]]ruufo&if *Gufaxmf }} ukdvnf;vufoHajymifajymifESifh rnSmrwmoa&mfía&;om;xm;yHkrSm xdrad wmufajymifcahJ om pum;vH;k rsm;jzifh xGií f a&;om;cJah Mumif;avhvmawGU&Scd yhJ gonf/ 1

armifarmif? ouf&Sd&mZ0if / (&efuek ?f ormrdw?å 1956) pm- 63/


123 3/

0efxrf;b0

1945 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 1 &ufwGif qkd&S,fvpfygwDOuúXtjzpf wm0ef xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 1947 ckEpS rf S 1952ckEpS t f xd zufqpfwu dk zf suaf &;ESijhf ynfov Yl w G v f yfa&; tzGUJ wGit f wGi;f a&;rSL;csKyt f jzpfaqmif&u G cf NhJ y;D 1952 ckEpS w f iG f zqyv 'kw, d OuúX tjzpf vnf;aumif;? jrefrmEkdifiHukefonfrsm;uGef*&ufwGif OuúXtjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0ef xrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/ 1952 ckEpS w f iG f wku d Bf u;D rJqE´e,f wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmf trwf? 1952 ckESpfwGif umuG,fa&;0efBuD;tjzpfa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;cH&NyD; 1953 ckESpfwGif ow¬KwGif;0efBuD;tjzpfwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&jyefonf/ 1953 ckESpfwGif tm&Sqkd&S,fvpf uGefz&ifhOuúX? 1956 ckESpfwGif vrf;rawmfNrdKUe,fygvDreftrwf? 1956 ckESpf? ZGefv 12 &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1957 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 25 &ufaeYwGif0efBuD;csKyf&mxl;rS EkwfxGufcJhonf/ 1957ckESpf? rwfv 1 &ufaeYwGif 'kw, d 0efBu;D csKyEf iS u hf muG,af &;0efBu;D tjzpf usr;f used cf o hJ nf/ trsKd ;om;pDru H ed ;f 0efBu;D XmeESihf pD;yGm;a&;ESiv hf rl aI &;tzGUJ ukw d u Ydk v dk nf; yl;wGí J tkycf sKycf ahJ Mumif;awGU&S&d ygonf/ 1958 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 4 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw, d 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rS Ekwx f u G cf yhJ gonf/ 4/

Ek d i f i H a &;b0

OD;AaqGonf EkdifiHa&;vkyfaqmifcsuftaxmuftxm;jzpfonfh urÇmhorkdif; &mZ0if? peaA' ponfb h mom&yfrsm;uk, d Nl y;D ausmif;rwufcahJ y/ emrnfco H m ausmif;pm&if; wGif oGif;xm;onf/ ukdAaqG onfausmif;rwuf? pm;ar;yGJrajzyJ wuúokdvfe,fajrwGif pkpak ygif;(5)ESpcf efY wuúov dk pf m&if; 0ifí wuúov dk ef ,fajrüaexkid cf o hJ nf/ ausmif;om; or*¾rsm;ukd acgif;aqmifí EkdifiHa&;ukdvkyfcJhonf/ Oypmtxufwef;(tkdif-at txufwef;)txdomwufa&mufco hJ nf/ ukdatmifqef;ESifhukdEkwkdY\ qGJaqmifrIaMumifh ukdAaqGEkdifiHa&;e,fxJhokdY 0ifa&mufcJh&m 1938 ckESpfwGif ArmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾\ taxGaxG twGi;f a&;rSL; jzpfvmcJo h nf/ 1938 ckEpS o f nf 1300jynfh a&eHajroydwBf u;D toGiaf qmif aom ta&;awmfyHkESpfjzpfvmonf/ wwd,tBudrfausmif;om;oydwf (Akdvfatmifausmf usqHk;jcif;) rEÅav;ü tmZmenf (17)OD;usqHk;jcif;rsm;jzpfay:cJhNyD; a&eHajroydwfBuD;ü ukAd aqGonf or*¾twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf xkt d a&;awmfyw kH iG f acgif;aqmifc&hJ onf/ uGejf rLepfrmhupf 0f g'rsm;ukv d nf; avhvmNy;D aemuf q&mBu;D rsm;jzpfMuaom ocifp;dk ? ocifoef;xGe;f wkdYukdvnf; q&mwifqnf;uyfcJh&avonf/ a&eHajroydwo f nf&efuek o f Ydk OD;vSní hf pkaygif;wyfBu;D zGUJ umcsD wufvm&mvrf;


124 wavQmuf ukdAaqGESifhukdA[def;wkdYonf wyfOD;rSacgif;aqmifí vkdufyhgvmcJhMuonf/ a&eHajroydwu f m; e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd rf sm;Bu;D pk;d Ny;D aemif wku d Bf u;D rsm;? Nc0H ef;Bu;D rsm;Bu;D rm;pGm aqmufvyk Nf y;D ? um;w0D0ED iS hf armfv<Ydk um;vk&Yd adS epOfrmS jrefrmtvkyo f rm;rsm;tzkUd xrif; riwf&Hkwr,f? aeylusJwJ acR;oH&J&JESifh tdrfpkwfuav;rsm;ESifh Oya' csKyfcs,frIatmufü eif;jym;jzpfaecJMh u&onf/ xkaYd Mumifh vkt d yfaomawmif;qkcd surf sm;ukd awmif;um ta&;qkd oydwaf rSmufí csw D ufvmcJMh ujcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmrsm;onf e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd w f \ Ydk tkypf ;dk rI eif;jym;b0üyif r&IrvStvl;tvJcHaecJhMu&onfhtcsdefü oydwftiftm;rSmvnf; BuD;oxufBuD;vmNyD; ukdAaqG\ owif;rSmvnf;jyefYESHUí jrefrmjynfwpf0Srf;vHk; odvmMuavonf/ ]] AaqGuG- AaqGuG }}[kvnf; a<u;aMumfvmonf/ ]] usm;BuD;-AaqG }} [kvnf; tm;ay;Muonf/ tvkyform; oydwfwyfBuD; tm; tm;ay;ulnDí w&m;a[mcJhaomaMumifh rauG;axmifrS csKyfaESmifjcif;cHcJU&onf/ axmifajcmufv jypf'PfusNyD; rauG;axmifrS tif;pdefaxmifokdY ajymif;a&TUjcif;cH&onf/ ausmif;om; rsm;qE´jyMuaomaMumifh axmifrS ukdAaqG vGwfajrmufcJhonf/ ukAd aqG axmifrS jyefvw G v f mcJNh y;D aemuf Ekid if aH &;ukyd if vky&f efq;kH jzwfcsco hJ nf/ Ekid if aH &;ukd tm;oGicf eG pf u dk Bf uKd ;yrf;vkyv f adk omqE´aMumifh 1939 ckEpS w f iG f ausmif;rS xGuu f m xm;0,fojYdk yefvmcJNh y;D tvkyv f yk af ecJo h nf/ wuúov dk w f iG f r&Sq d if;&Jaomoli,fcsi;f rsm;ESihf EGr;f yg;aeaom ukAd [de;f ESiu hf x dk eG ;f &Sed f (Akv d &f efEidk )f wkt Yd m; axmufyu H n l cD o hJ nf/ 1940 jynfEh pS w f iG f ausmif;om;or*¾udk acgif;aqmif&ef txl;ac:,ljcif;cH&í jyefvmcJh &onf/ ukdAaqGonf pnf;vHk;a&;ukdvnf;jyKvkyf&? t*Fvdyfukdvnf;awmfvSef ykeu f ef&ef zGUJ pnf;xm;aom bD-tm&f-yD ac:olyek yf gwDtwGuf xda&mufaomvQKd U0Suv f yk if ef; rsm;ukd vkyfaqmifcJh&onf/ ]]e*g;eD}}pmapmifwGifvnf; e,fcsJUt*FvdyfawG npfywfyHk? jrefrmh*h w k af oG;pkyaf eyH?k jrefrmawG evefrxlEidk af tmif eif;jym;jzpfaeyHpk aomEkid if aH &;aqmif;yg; rsm; raerem; a&;om;cJo h nf/ pmapmifxu G cf gpqkv d Qif ukAd aqGEiS ehf *g;eDxeG ;f a&TwEYdk pS Of ;D onf pmapmifwpfckvHk;ukd yifyrf;BuD;pGm a&;om;cJh&onf/ ¤if;wkdY\ pmayvufoHaMumifh e*g;eDpmapmifonf vlBuKd urf sm;vmcJo h nf/ bD-tm&f-yD(Burma Revolutionary Party) ArmhawmfveS af &;wyfO;D ? yD-tm&f-yD( People's Revolutionary Party)ac: jynfolYta&;awmfyHkygwDwGif ocifjracgif;aqmifí ukad usmNf ird ;f ? ukAd aqG? ocifcspw f o Ydk nfO;D pD;tzGUJ 0ifjzpfNy;D ukAd aqGonf pnf;&H;k a&;t"du wm0efcH jzpfNy;D ukad tmifBu;D (Akv d rf sL;csKyaf tmifBu;D )? ukad rmifarmif(Akv d rf LS ;Bu;D armifarmif)


125 wkEYd iS w hf b JG ufvyk af qmifco hJ nf/1 yke;f vQKd í t*Fvyd u f dk ykeu f efrjI yKvyk &f onfrmS vG,u f jl cif;r&Sd cufcv J aS yonf/ vufeufqí dk bmrQr&S?d ypfír&aom 6 vH;k jyL;aoewfwpfvufuo dk m tm;udk;ae&ojzifh pdwf"gwfckdifNrJrSjzpfrnfjzpfaMumif; ukdAaqG BudK;yrf;cJh&onf/ xkdtcuftcJrsm;aMumifh wpfcgwpf&HwGif aiGaMu;t& vG,faomenf;rsm;jzpfonfh "m;jywku d cf sipf w d rf sm; jzpfay:vmaMumif; awGU&S&d ygonf/ ukdAaqGonf *syefjynfokdY ykdYaqmifapvTwfrnfh vli,fvufa&G;pifwpfpkukd ,kd;',m;rSjzwfí ay;ykdY&ef wm0efusvmojzifh tzGJUay;aomaiGav;q,fusyfwdwdukd aqmifum &onfeh nf;jzifBh uzH efNy;D ,k;d ',m;e,fpyfoYdk ta&mufomG ;cJo h nf/ e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd f tapmift h MuyfwYdk wif;MuyfraI Mumifh ratmifjrifyh J jyefvmcJ&h onf/ 4-1/

*syefacwfwm0efxrf;aqmifrI(1942-1945)

Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESit hf zGUJ onf *syefEiS yhf ;l aygif;í Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmf Bu;D ukd ,k;d ',m;bufrS csw D ufvmcJMh uNy;D weoFm&Dbufuadk usmu f m &efuek o f Ydk ta&muf csDwufvmaomfvnf; OD;AaqGonf weoFm&Dwkdif;vHkNcHKa&;twGuf xm;0,fwGif usefcJh& onf/ *syefwyfrsm;ukd jrefrmjynftwGif;ykdif; 0ifa&mufcGifhrjyKyJ tajctaeMunfhNyD; jynfyrSmyif jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmfuo dk m tm;ay;í apvGw&f efjzpfonf/ okaYd omf armfvNrdKifukd odrf;NyD;aomtcg tkyfcsKyfa&;ay;&efawmif;qkdaomfvnf; *syeftrSwf(55) wyfrawmf rS ,wdjywfjiif;cJo h nf/2 ppftyk cf sKyaf &;jzift h yk cf sKy&f efjyifqifNy;D ocifacgif;aqmif rsm;ESiv hf nf; cyfa&Smifa&SmifaecJo h nf/ xkad MumifAh v dk cf sKyaf tmifqef; ESiw hf yfrawmfO;D pD;Bu;D rsm;? OD;ausmNf ird ;f ? OD;AaqGwYdk e,fcsUJ ukt d Ny;D tykid rf Ekid &f ao;rDuyif *syefudk awmfveS pf w d u f ;l xm; cJMh uNy;D jzpfonf/ *syefESifh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfwkdY e,fcsJUwkdYtm; wkdufckdufaepOftwGif; weoFm&Dwidk ;f wpfcv k ;kH eD;yg; Nird 0f yfyjd ym;a&;twGuf OD;AaqGwm0ef,cl &hJ onf/ *syefvrl sKd ; taMumif;odaom OD;AaqGonf *syefukdawmfvSefEkdif&ef jyifqif&jyefonf/ OD;AaqG \ tBuHtpDukd *syefrsm;odoGm;ojzifh &efolwpfOD;taejzifhrSwfxm;cJonf/ OD;AaqGonf t*Fvdyfrsm; ajy;MupOftcsdefüvnf; awGU&mae&mowfap[k trdefYxkwfjyefjcif; cHcJh&oljzpfonf/ *syef0ifvmaomtcsdefüvnf; csufcsif;yif &efolYpm&if;0ifcJh&jyefonf/ 1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;tESpfcsKyf(1988) 1988)? (&efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1988) pm -226/ 2

tdZrk , d wwfpak &m? uRefawmfyg0ifcJhaom rDemrDuDuef;/ bmomjyefol a':cif&/D (&efuek ?f bmomjyefEiS phf mtkyx f w k af 0a&;Xme? 1981) pm- 141/


126 e,fcsJUt*Fvdyf ESifh *syefiykrsm;onf olYtay:BuHpnfrIrsm;ukd OD;AaqGurNzHK/ jrefrmjynf onf*syefrsm;tkycf sKyrf I atmufwiG &f adS epOf OD;AaqGonf Nrw d cf &kid jf ynfoaYl wmfveS af &;ygwD\ trIaqmiftjzpf aqmif&u G v f yk u f idk f jyefco hJ nf/ *syefvufatmufwiG f jrefrmrsm;a&mufaeaom 1942 ckEpS f tcsed w f iG f OD;AaqG tm; &efukefokdYvm&ef taMumif;Mum;NyD;aemuf jynfxJa&;0efBuD;jzpfaom ocifjru ae&mcsxm;ay;ojzifh ]]aubkw d idk f }} ac:NrKd UjyumuG,af &;wyfuOdk ;D aqmifc&hJ onf/ ¤if;wyfzUJG onf jrefrmtpkd;&\ vufatmufcHvnf; r[kwf? *syefESifhvnf;wkduf&kdufrywfouf oleY nf;ol[ Y efjzifh jrefrmwpfjynfv;kH \ vGwv f yfa&;twGuaf qmif&u G cf &hJ onft h zGUJ jzpfonf/ &efuek u f efawmfBu;D &Sd at;uRe;f wGif wJrsm;xk;d um OD;AaqGaecJ&h onf/ ]]aubkw d idk f Akv d cf sKyf AaqG}} [kvnf;ac:Muonf/ aubkdwkdifwyfom;rsm;um;avaMumif;umuG,fa&;? NrdKU&Gm vHNk cKH a&;? rD;owfzUJG pnf; vkyaf qmifa&;paom vkyif ef;rsm;tjyif tkycf sKyaf &;ykid ;f rsm;ukv d nf; yl;wGJaqmif&GufcJh&onf/ oifwef;qif;NyD;vQif &yfuGufrsm;okdYjzefYum pnf;&Hk;Mujcif;? OD;vSarmifBu;D rSL;aom NrKd UjyumuG,af &;tzGUJ ponfw h EYdk iS hf qufo, G v f yk u f idk cf o hJ nf/ &JtzGUJ rS &JrLS ;Bu;D wpfa,muf? tifpywfawmfEpS af ,muf? vufaxmuftifpywfawmf (10)a,muf wkdYukd aubkdwkdifESifhyl;wGJí ]] aubkdwkdif AkdvfcsKyf AaqG }} xHokdYay;ykdYxm;onf/ þokaYd omtcsed w f iG v f QKd U0Supf mG zGUJ pnf;xm;aom zufqpfawmfveS af &;tzGUJ wGif yg0iftm;ay; ulncD o hJ nf/ uGejf rLepfwo Ydk nf 0g'orm;rsm;omjzpfí xda&mufaomtultnDbmrQray;cJh acs/ ygwD B uD ; yG m ;a&;twG u f o mrsuf j cnf r ysuf v H k ; yrf ; aeonf / ¤if ; wd k Y o nf tem*wftwGuaf &SUarQmv f ifah eMuolrsm;om jzpfonf/ wku d cf u dk jf cif;jzifh aoaMu? ysupf ;D apíusef&pfolrsm;ukd okwfoifypfvkdufrnfhtjyif ygwDutmPmukd,lrnfomru trSefwu,f e,fqif;í pnf;&Hk;&mwGifvnf; uGefjrLepfrsm;onf xda&mufrI r&Sdacs/ ¤if;wkb Yd ufrS 26 a,mufomta&G;cH&Ny;D wpfEidk if v H ;kH twGuu f seaf om 800 a,mufausmu f dk wyfrawmfESifh bD-tm&f-yD uomxkwfay;cJh&onf/ ¤if;jyif zufqpf*syefukdawmfvSefí 1943ckESpf aemufykdif;wGif vkyfMu&ef pDpOfcJhonf/ okdYaomf ratmifjrifcJhay/ 1944 ckEpS w f iG v f nf; xyfrBH uKd ;pm;cJjh yefonf/ wpfyidk ;f wpfpESiyhf sucf &hJ onf/ 1945 ckEpS ?f rwfv 27 &ufaeYwiG f vGwv f yfa&;twGuaf wmfveS af &;pwif&ef? okw Yd nf;r[kwf tenf;i,fqidk ;f iHhH &efjzpfaeonfh tajctaewGif txufjrefrmjynf\ ajymif;vJvmaom tajctaeaMumifh rwwfombJ rwfv 27 &ufaeY rwkdifrD txufjrefrmjynfpwifíawmfvSef&efukd owfrw S v f u dk Mf uonf/ þokjYd zifh Akv d rf LS ; Axl;rS azazmf0g&DvxJwiG f txufjrefrmjynfrEÅav;ü&Sad om


127 *syefrsm;ukd awmfvSefwkdufckdufae cJhonf/1 rwfvxJwGifvnf; yJcl;ü AkdvfausmfaZm (Akv d rf LS ;csKyaf [mif;) wyfEiS hf awmfveS &f eftwGuf jyifqif&mXmeBu;D jzpfaom ]] pHjyausmif; }}ukd*syefrsm;rS rodrom0kdif;nSyfxm;Muonf/ apmapmxGufrS tajctaeaumif;rnf? zdnSyfíwkdufckdufcH&vQif ysufpD;rnfhtajctae&SdaMumif; AkdvfausmfaZmxHrS ta&;BuD; owif;ay;yko Yd jzifh 27 &ufaeYuydk if azmufxu G af wmh[k trdeaYf y;csut f & rwfv 27 &ufaeY rSmyifa&muf&mae&mu awmfveS af &;pMuawmh[v k nf; trdeu Yf dk wqufwnf;ay;vku d &f onf/ Akdvfarmifarmif? AkdvfcspfNrdKif? Akdvfodrf;armif ponfhwyfrsm;onf rif;vS? yJcl;&kd;r ponfah e&mrsm;ü wyfazsmufí awmfveS af &;ukd pcJMh uawmhonf/ uGejf rLepfrsm;onfawmfveS af &;umvwGiüf yif *syefucdk sr;f omay;í Armvli,f acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd tjyKwfwkduf&ef pDrHNyD;jzpfonf/ ysOf;rem;e,füwm0efusaom OD;ausmNf ird ;f ukd okwo f ifypfrnf/ &efuek üf wm0ef,rl nfh OD;AaqGudk *syefawGowfvQio f wfrnf raovQif wjcm;enf;jzifh azsmufypfrnf/ wjcm;olrsm;ukv d nf; tvm;wl&iS ;f vif;ypfrnf paom pDru H ed ;f rsm;csí aqmif&u G cf MhJ uonf/ 1945 ckEpS ?f rwfv 31 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uü OD;AaqGudk *syefwu Ydk zrf;vku d Mf u onf/ uGejf rLepfrsm;0rf;omrqH;k jzpfí AaqG tm; aoNy[ D k arQmv f ifch MhJ uonf/ OD;ausmNf ird ;f onf e,fokdY rqif;jzpfyJ OD;AaqGvGwf&efaqmif&Gufay;&mwGif &efukefü OD;vSarmif (oHtrwfBu;D a[mif;)ESiahf ecJah Mumif;? OD;AaqGudk *syefrsm;u uk, d af &;&mZ0ifa&;ckid ;f ojzifh t*Fvyd f bmomjzifh a&;ay;cJah Mumif;awG&Y ygonf/ OD;AaqG tusO;f axmifü 24 &ufww d d axmifuscHcJh&NyD;aemuf 1945 ckESpf? {NyDv 24 &ufaeYwGif vGwfajrmufvmcJhonf/ &efuek w f iG w f yfrsm; upOfuvsm;jzpfaeonft h jyif awmfveS af &;tzGUJ rsm; onfvnf; tuGu J JG tjym;jym; jzpfaecJo h nf/ acgif;aqmif&mS aeonft h csed w f iG f OD;AaqGa&mufvmNy;D tuGu J JG tjym;jym; jzpfaeaom wyfrsm;ukd pkpnf;í vlaygif; 2000ausm&f v dS maomtcg arv (1) &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uudk OD;AaqG OD;pD;aomwyfrsm;rS odr;f yku d cf MhJ uonf/ vGwfvyfa&;acwfBudK;yrf;(1945-1948)

4-2/

OD;AaqGwkdY&efukefukdodrf;ykdufNyD;aemuf jyóemrsdK;pHkukd ajz&Sif;aecJh&onf/ tdE, d´ trsKd ;om; wyfrS vlaygif; 2000 ausmu f adk bmufaxmfoCFe;f uRe;f ü ae&mcsxm;ay; cJ&h onf/ axmifrv S w G v f maomt*Fvyd pf pfoyYHk ef;rsm;ukv d nf; auR;arG;&onf/ t*Fvyd w f yf rsm; onf tvHk;t&if;ESifh &efukefNrdKUukd0ifí &efol&Sif;ap&ef uGufpdwfwkdufAHk;BuJrnf[k 1

ausmNf ird ;f / &JabmfoHk;usdyf / (&efuek ?f tif;0pmaywku d ?f 1998) pm 13/


128 &nf&, G x f m;cJMh uonft h csed üf jrefrmwyfrawmfu &efuek u f dk odr;f yku d Nf y;D &eforl sm;&Si;f cJNh y;D rS tacsmift*Fvyd w f yfrsm;a&muf&v dS monf/ &efuek u f dk t*Fvyd w f yfrsm;onf odr;f yku d af Mumif; aMunmcJNh y;D aemuf jrefrmhwyfrawmfom;rsm;ESihf awmfveS af &;orm;rsm;ukd txifao;pGm qufqcH MhJ uonf/ OD;AaqGwv Ydk w l pfpo k nf t*Fvyd rf sm;tm; trIeBf uw d cf sipf w d f aygufvmcH Muonf/ uGejf rLepfygwD0if ocifp;dk ? ocifoef;xGe;f wko Yd nf e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd Ef iS hf tar&duef wkdYukd t<uif;rJhvufeufcscJhMuonfhtjyif axmufcHMuí csD;usL;cJhMuonf/ e,fcsJUtm; awmfveS &f ef uwdysuu f u G Nf y;D ygwDBu;D yGm;&efBu;D yGm;&eftwGuo f mru tmPm&rI paom ud p ö & yf r sm;uk d o m OD ; wnf a eaMumif ; yk d í od v mojzif h Ak d v f c sKyf a tmif q ef ; \ oabmwlncD sujf zifh ocifjr? OD;ausmNf ird ;f ? OD;AaqGwYdk acgif;aqmifaom ]] qk&d , S v f pfygwD }}ukdwnfaxmifcJh&onf/1 qkd&S,fvpfygwDonf uGefjrLepfygwDxuf (7) vausmfausmf aemufusco hJ nf/ OD;AaqG tm; qk&d , S v f pfygwD Ouú| &mxl;ukv d ufcaH pcJo h nf/ þokjYd zifh OD;ausmNf ird ;f onf qk&d , S v f pfygwD taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;jzpfvmcJo h nf/ 1947 ckEpS w f iG f OD;ausmNf ird ;f onf qk&d , S v f pfygwD OuúX jzpfvmcJNh y;D aemuf OD;AaqGonf ygwDtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf tjzpf vkyu f idk af qmif&u G cf jhJ yef&m Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf tjcm;acgif;aqmifrsm; t*FvefoYdk oGm;a&mufta&;qkad epOftwGi;f OD;AaqGonf zqyvtzGcJ sKy\ f twGi;f a&;rSL;csKyt f jzpf aqmif&GufcJh&ayonf/ jrefrmouú&mZf 1309 ckESpf? jymokdvjynfhausmf 9 &uf (t*Fvdyfouú&mZf 1948 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 4 &uf)we*FaEGaeY eHeuf 4 em&D 20 rdepf tcsed w f iG f jrefrmjynfonf vH;k 0vGwv f yfaom tcsKyt f jcmtmPmykid ?f jynfaxmifpo k r®w jrefrmEkid if aH wmfBu;D tjzpfoYdk a&muf&cdS o hJ nf/ 4-3/

vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;acwfBudK;yrf;rI(1948-1962)

OD;AaqGonf qk&d v S ,fygwDtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyt f jzpf aqmif&u G cf NhJ y;D aemuf 1952 ckEpS w f iG f zqyv 'kw, d Ouú|jzpfvmcJo h nf/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyw JG iG f wku d Bf u;D rJqE´e,frS jynfov Yl w T af wmftrwftjzpfa&G;aumuf wifajrm§ ufojzifh 0efBu;D tzGUJ wGif umuG,af &;0efBu;D tjzpfaqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ 1953 ckEpS ?f aEG&moDausmif;ydw&f ufwiG f &efuek w f uúov dk af usmif;om;tzGUJ ig;zGUJ rS ausmif;om; 100 tm; OD;AaqGEiS hf OD;ausmNf ird ;f tp&Sdaom qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifrsm;u EkdifiHa&;oifwef;ay;cJhonf/ 1953 ckESpfwGif tm&Sq&dk , S v f pfueG zf &ifh tpnf;ta0;Bu;D wGif OD;AaqGonf obmywdtjzpfa&G;cs,cf cH &hJ

1

OD;AaqG? ygwDwGif;tjzpfrSef/ (&efuek ?f zqyvyHEk ydS w f u dk ?f 19 -) pm 7/


129 onf/ 1954 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 16 &ufaeYwGif *syefEkdifiH? wkdusdKNrdKUüusif;yaom tm&Sqkd&S,fvpfESpfywfvnfnDvmcHü obmywdtjzpfaqmif&GufcJhonf/1 1956 ckESpf jynfov Yl w T af wmfa&G;aumufyJG aemufyidk ;f wGif zqyvtzGUJ tm;vlxk axmufcrH I tm;enf; vmcJhonf/ OD;ausmfNidrf;onf uGefjrLepfqefYusifha&;pdwf"gwfjyif;xefoljzpfonf/ OD;ausmfNidrf;ESifhOD;AaqGwkdYonf yrnwtiftm;BuD;vm jcif;onf aiGukda&vkdoHk;um uGefjrLepfrsm;u vufeufjzifhNcdrf;ajcmufí rJay;ckdif;jcif;aMumihf jzpfonf[k qkdcJhonf/1 OD;Ekonf 1954 ckEpS rf yS if tpk;d &tzGUJ 0efBu;D rsm; uk, d u f siw hf &m;ysurf I wm;qD;&efaqmif&u G cf hJ onf/ OD;Ek ygwDoefY&Sif;a&;vGwfvyfpGmaqmif&GufEkdif&eftwGuf 1956 ckESpf? ZGefv 12 &ufaeYwGif 0efBuD;csKyf&mxl;uEkwfxGufcJhonf/ 1956 ckESpf taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJwGif OD;AaqGtm; &efukefNrdKU? vrf;rawmftrwf rJqE´e,f jynfolYvTwfawmftrwftjzpf a&G;cs,fwif ajr§mufjcif; cH&NyD;aemuf 0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ekae&mwGif 0efBuD;csKyf tjzpf qufvufa&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufjcif; cH&onf/ 0efBu;D csKyw f m0eftjyif umuG,af &;0efBu;D XmeESihf trsKd ;om;pDru H ed ;f 0efBu;D Xmersm;ukv d nf; OD;pD;aqmif&u G cf &hJ onf/ 1956 ckEpS ?f ZGev f 13 &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf usr;f opömused q f cdk o hJ nf/ 1956 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 16 &ufaeYwiG f ,leefzef&w DS iG f w&kw-f Arme,fpyfvx l t k pnf;ta0;ukd usi;f y&m w&kwwf-Armvlxk 2000 cefYwufa&mufí w&kwf0efBuD;csKyf csLtifvkdif;ESifh jrefrm0efBuD;csKyf OD;AaqGwkdY wufa&mufcMhJ uonf/ zqyv Ouú| OD;Ek tpk;d &xJoYdk jyef0ifa&;? r0ifa&;twGuf 1956 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 29 &ufaeYwiG w f iG f jyKvyk af om zqyvtvkyt f rIaqmif tpnf;ta0;wGif ocifausmx f eG ;f rS tqkw d ifoiG ;f í zqyv tvkyt f rIaqmiftzGUJ qH;k jzwf twnfjyKco hJ nf/ OD;AaqGonf 1957 ckEpS ?f azazmf&v D 25 &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rS tem;,lco hJ nf/ 1957 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 28 &uf jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;wGif OD;Ektm; 0efBuD;csKyftjzpfwifajr§mufcJhjyefonf/ OD;AaqG onf 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0ef,lcJh Ny;D aemuf 0efBu;D 30 OD;yg0ifaom OD;Ektpk;d &tzGUJ onf rwfv 1 &ufaeYwiG u f sr;f used q f cdk hJ onf/ 1957 ckEpS ?f rwfv 12 &ufaeYwiG f twku d t f cHtrwfrsm;rS zqyvtpk&d tm; t,HktMunfr&SdaMumif;tqkdwif oGif;cJhonf/ vTwfawmftrwf OD;at;armif(jynf)u tqkdwifoGif;í ocifcspfarmiftygt0if trwf 10 OD;u axmufcHcJhonf/ þokdYjzifh ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm twlwuGvufwGJí jrefrmjynfaumif;pm;a&; twGufBudK;yrf;cJhMuaom yk*Kd¾ vrf sm;\yk*Kd¾ vpf ?JG *kP d ;f *PpGrJ sm;aMumifh vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D 10 ESpt f wGi;f pnf;vH;k rINyKd uJG 1

pmayAdrmefr*¾Zif;? twGJ 3? trSwf 8 / (&efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1954) pm 88/


130 oGm;&onf/ Ek-wiftyk pf Ek iS hf aqG-Nird ;f tkypf k [líuGjJ ym;oGm;cJo h nf/ OD;AaqGu ygwDwnfNraJ &; ukd t"du&nf&, G cf o hJ jl zpfí ¤if;wkyYd gwDtm; wnfNrzJ qyv[kac:qku d m OD;Eku ¤if;\ygwD oef&Y iS ;f a&;twGuf oef&Y iS ;f zqyv [laomtrnfudk cH,cl MhJ uonf/ OD;EkEiS hf OD;ausmNf ird ;f wkYd \ y#dyu©jyif;xefvmcsdefwGif OD;ausmfNidrf;ESifh ocifwiftkyfpkwkdY\ y#dyu©rSmvnf; jyif;xefvmcJhonf/ xkdYaMumifh 1958 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 19 &ufaeYwGif usif;yaom &efukefc&kdifqkd&S,fvpfygwD tpnf;ta0;wGifvnf; zqyvwGif *kdPf;*PESifhtkyfpkrsm;&Sd aeaMumif;? ukd,fhvlolY*kdPf;*Prsm;ukd wkdufzsufypf&rnf[k 'kwd,OuúX OD;AaqGrS xkwaf zmfajymMum;cJo h nf/1 1958 ckEpS ?f arv 30 &ufaeYwiG f OD;AaqGEiS hf OD;ausmNf ird ;f wko Yd nf OD;EkxH pmwpfapmifay;ykdYcJhonf/ ¤if;pmwGif vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;rwkdifrD arv 31 &ufaeYokdYr[kwf ZGefv 1 &ufaeYxufaemufrusapbJ av;OD;aumfrwDawGYqHkaqG;aEG; Ekid af &;twGuf tcsed u f efo Y wfay;&ef awmif;cHcahJ vonf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekonf arv 31 &ufaeY &ufpGJjzifhjyefcJhonf/ jyefMum;pmwGif 1958 ckESpf arv 3 &ufaeY zqyv tvk y f t rI a qmif t pnf ; ta0;wG i f zqyvOD ; pD ; tzG J U tpnf ; ta0;ac:&ef owfrw S jf cif;r&Scd ahJ Mumif;? ¤if;tjyif zqyvtm; wpfzuftyk pf o k aYdk y;&ef oabmrwlaMumif; ukd 1958 ckESpf? arv 5 &ufaeY wGif OD;tkef;armifrSwpfqifh OD;ausmfNidrf;okdYjyefMum;NyD; jzpfaMumif;? Ek-wif-aqG-Nird ;f avOD;aumfrwD awGq Y akH &;ESiyhf wfoufí uwday;xm;onfh twkdif; OD;AaqG? OD;ausmfNidrf;wkdYESifh arv 31 &ufaeY naewGif 0efBuD;csKyftdrfü awGYqHkrnfjzpfaMumif;yg&Sdonf/ Ek-wifESifh aqG-Nidrf;tkyfpkESpfckvHk;onf wpfzuftkyfpkuk tEkid &f a&; twGuf Ekid if aH &;y&d,m,f<u,f0pGmBuKd ;yrf;ouJo h Ydk vTwaf wmftrwfrsm; ukv d nf; enf;trsdK;rsdK;jzifh rJqG,fpnf;&Hk;cJhMuonf/ 1958 ckESpf? ZGefv 9 &ufaeYwGif OD;AaqGonf OD;EkO;D aqmifaomtpk;d &tzGUJ tm; t,Ht k Munfr&Sad Mumif;tqkw d ifoiG ;f &m 8 rJtuGmjzifh &I;H ESrd chf o hJ nf/ &Sr;f jynfe,frS uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm;onf zqyv tzGUJ csKyf Ouú|Bu;D OD;AaqGEiS 1hf 961 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 6 &ufaeYwiG f awGq Y akH qG;aEG;Muonf/ OD;AaqGrS zuf'&,fru l dk rdrw d pfO;D wnf; yk*Kd¾ vw f pfO;D wnf;taejzihf ESpNf cKd uaf xmufcaH Mumif;? okaYd omfzuf'&,frjl zpfay:vmap&ef zefwD;ay;yHkukdrl rBudKufaMumif; xnfhoGif;ajymMum;cJhygonf/ aqG;aEG;yGJwGif zuf'&,frl taMumif;tygt0if vlrsKd ;a&;t"du&kP;f rjzpfa&;ESiphf w d 0f rf;ruGjJ ym;a&;rsm;ukd aqG;aEG;cJMh u onf/2 1

xGef;aeYpOfowif;pm pm/ (20 Zefe0g&Dv 1958 ) pm 15/ 2 aMu;rHkowif;pm pm/ ( 9 Zlvidk f 1961) pm 1?15/


131 1962 ckESpf? rwfv 1 &ufaeYwGif z,f'&,frlESifhyufoufí OD;AaqGrS ]]wkid ;f &if;om;rsm;onf wpfaqGwpfrsKd ;wnf;jzpfcMhJ uyH?k jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if &H jdS ynfe,frsm;ESihf tar&duef jynfaxmifp&k dS jynfe,frsm;rwlnrD t I ajctaersm;ukd EIid ;f ,SOaf zmfjyoGm;ygonf/ jynfe,ftrsm;pk onf rzGHUNzdK;rwkd;wufbJ aemufwef;usaeouJhokdY Armjynfr tcsdKae&mrsm;wGifvnf; zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrI tvGefaemufusvsuf&SdaMumif;ESifh tajctae t&yf&yfaMumifh a'otm;vH;k tqif;&JcNH y;D BuKd ;pm;Muzkv Yd adk o;aMumif;? wkid ;f &if;om;tm;vH;k vufwNJG y;D BuKd ;pm;Mu&if ratmifjrifEidk pf &m r&Sad Mumif;}} &Si;f vif;ajymMum;cJyh gonf/1 1961 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 29 &ufaeYwGif Ak'¨bmomukd EkdifiHawmfbmomtjzpf owfrSwfcJhonf/ xkdYaMumifh wkdif;jynfrNidrf;roufrIrsm;jzpfcJhonf/ 0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ek\ jynfaxmifpt k pk;d & vufxufwiG f &Sr;f apmbGm;rsm;onf z,f'f &,fru l w dk ifjy awmif;qku d m zuf'&,frrl &vQif jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if rH S cGx J u G rf nf[k Ncrd ;f ajcmufcMhJ uojzifh jynfaxmifpk NyKd urJG nfh tEÅ&m,fjzpfay: vmcJo h nf/ xko d jYdk ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\ txl;,k, d iG ;f vmaomtajctaeqkd;ukd xdef;odrf;pdrfYaomiSm 1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeYwGif Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;aqmifaom ArmhwyfrawmfrS Ekid if aH wmftmPmukd xde;f odr;f cJo h nf/ 1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv 2 &ufaeYwiG f Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;aqmifaom awmfveS af &;aumifprD S EkdifiHtmPmxdef;odrf;cJhonf/ vuf&Sdtpkd;&tzGJUudk xdef;odrf;&mwGif OD;AaqGvnf; yg0ifco hJ nf/ 1968 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 29 &ufaeYwGif awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuú|BuD; AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;rS EkdifiHa&; acgif;aqmifyk*¾dKvfBuD; 33 OD;tm;awGYqHk&mwGifvnf; OD;AaqGyg0ifco hJ nf/ 1968 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 4 &ufaeYwiG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if jH ynfwiG f nDnGwfa&;tBuHay;tzGJU zGJUpnf;jcif;? awmfvSefa&;aumifpD ausnmcsuftrSwf 72 ukx d w k jf yefcNhJ y;D ? ,if;tBuaH y;tzGUJ wGif txufygacgif;aqmif 33 OD;yg0ifco hJ nf/2 oCFe;f uRe;f NrKd Ue,f&dS ]] &efrsKd ;atmifapwD }}rSm OD;AaqGO;D pD;wnfxm;uk;d uG,cf ahJ om apwD a wmf j zpf o nf / xm;0,f o r*¾ e m,uBuD ; wpf O D ; vnf ; jzpf o nf / 1949-50 ckESpfrsm;twGif; jynfaxmifpkBuD;acsmufxJus&efvufESpfvHk;omvkdawmhonfhtcsdefwGif 1

OD;jr[ef? jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 (pwkw¬wGJ)/wGb J ufa&;ol OD;ode;f vIid /f 'kBurd /f (&efuek ?f jrefrmEkid if ?H jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1991) pm 190-201/ 2

cspMf unfa&;MunfneT ?Yf OD;Ek-OD;avm&Hktaygif;tygrsm;ESifhe,fcsJU*kdPf;/ (&efuek ?f cspMf unfa&;pmaywku d ?f 1970) pm 38/


132 zqvy tuGt J NyMJ um;wGif rnfonfb h ufrS bufrvku d b f J Mum;aea&;0g'udv k ufuidk x f m; zqyvtzGUJ csKyn f n D w G rf &I adS tmif BuKd ;pm;aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ 5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

OD;AaqGonf 1955 ckESpfwGif ,l*kdpvyfEkdifiHor®wBuD; rm&S,fwD;wkd;\ *kPfxl;aqmif yxrqifhqkwHqdyf? 1959 ckESpfwGif vGwfvyfa&; armfuGef;0if yxrqifh? xkid ;f Ekid if H bk&ifrif;jrwf\ tjrifq h ;kH qifjzLwHqyd w f u Ydk &dk &Scd o hJ nf/ 1968 ckEpS af wmfveS af &; aumifpOD uúXBu;D Akv d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;rS ac:,lawGUqHak qG;aEG;cJo h nfEh idk if aH &;acgif;aqmif 33 OD;wGif OD;AaqGvnf; wpfOD;yg0ifcJhonf/ 1980 jynfhESpfwGif jynfaxmifpkqkd&S,fvpf or®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf? EkdifiHawmf aumifpDu OD;AaqGtm;]] EkdifiHh*kPf&nf }} yxrqifhukd cs;D jri§ t hf yfEiS ;f cJo h nf/ 6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

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rdom;pk

OD;AaqGonf *syefrawmfvSefrDumvtwGif;üyif uGefAifhausmif;ol ]]EkEk}}ESifh cspaf &;qkcd hJ Ny;D 1945 ckEpS ?f Ekid 0f ifbmvwGif vufxyfco hJ nf/ ]]EkE}k } onf ]]a':EkEak qG}} [k trnf w G i f c J h y gonf / om;orD ; (10)a,muf x G e f ; um;cJ h o nf / om;orD ; rsm;rS m a':aeEG,Af aqG+ OD;ausmv f eG v f ?S OD;aersKd ;AaqG+ a':xdyw f ifr?l OD;aezl;AaqG+ a':pE´mat;? OD;aexGef;AaqG? OD;aenTefYAaqG+a':at;at;jrifh? OD;aerif;AaqG? a':aeMunfAaqG? a':aepnfAaqG? a':ae&nfAaqG wkjYd zpfonf/ trSw(f 84)? yef;vIid v f rf;? prf;acsmif;NrKd Ue,f wGifaeonf/ 1987 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 6 &ufaeYtouf 73 ESpft&G,fwGif &efukefNrdKU [krv f rf;aetdrüf uG,v f eG t f edpaö &mufonf/


133

yHk (12) AkdvfrSL;csKyf pdef0if; (0efBuD;csKyf) [ 1974 ckESpf ]


134

OD;pdef0if; (0efBuD;csKyf) (arG arG; 19-3-1919) ( uG,fvGef29-6-1993) 1/

i,fpOfb0

tNidrf;pm;AdkvfrSL;csKyf? tNidrf;pm;EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyfESifh tNidrf;pm; EkdifiHawmf aumifpD0if OD;pdef0if;udk tz wdkufydkif&JrSL; OD;oif;NrdKif? trd a':zGm;MuLwdkYu 1919ckESpf? rwfv 19 &ufaeYwiG f armfvNrKd iNf rKd U 'nif;uke;f &yfü arG;zGm;cJo h nfonf/ arG;csi;f ig;a,muf &dSonfhteuf 'kwd,ajrmuf om;jzpfonf/ i,fpOfuyif zcifuGefvGefoGm;í xm;0,fNrdKU taemuf&yf&Sd tbd;k tbGm;rsm;ESit hf wl t&G,af &mufonftxd aexdik cf o hJ nf/ 2/

ynmoifb0

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0efxrf;b0

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Ekid if aH &;b0

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135 Adkvfvufsm\ trdefYay;csuft& wyfrsm;pk&kH;NyD; oabFmjzifh &efukefNrdKUodkYcsDwufcJh&m oabFmay:a&mufrS *syefwu Ykd vufeufrsm;jyefvnfay;tyfonf/ &efuek Nf rKd UodaYk &mufaom tcg pdet f efaxmfeaD usmif;wGif pcef;csNy;D &efuek Nf rKd UvkNH cKaH &;udk wm0ef,&l onf/ pdeaf xmfeD ausmif;rS a*:&muke;f odYk wyfrsm;ajymif;a&TU Ny;D aemuf zsmykrH w S yfrsm;udk wm0ef,o l ifwef; ay;um tkycf sKy&f onf/ xdaYk emuf tif;pdecf &dik w f yfrsm;udk tkycf sKy&f ef xyfrw H m0efay;tyfjcif; cH&Ny;D tif;pdew f yfrsm;udk pk&;Hk um yJc;l NrKd UodYk ajymif;a&GUcJo h nf/ OD;pde0f if;onf 1942ckEpS w f iG f Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmfukd ArmhumuG,af &; wyf r awmf (bD - 'D - at)tjzpf ajymif ; vJ z J G U pnf ; aomtcg bD - 'D - atwyf & if ; (3) pufaoewfBuD;wyfpk wyfpkrSL; wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ wyf&if;rsm;&Sdt&m&Sd(10)OD;pD vlaygif;(30)? r*Fvm'Hk- Akdvfoifwef;ausmif;? yxrywf oifwef;wufaeolrsm;ESifhtwl a&G;cs,fcH,lí oGm;a&mufppfynm oif,l&efjzpfonf/ a&G;cs,fxm; onfht&m&Sdrsm;ukd wyf&if;rsm;wGif ppfynmrsm; oifMum;ay;vsuf&Sd onf/ *syeftBuHay;t&m&Sd ]'kd;td}rS olwm0ef,l&onfh wyf&if; (2)rS t&m&Sd(10)OD;ukd ynmoiftjzpf tm;vHk;ta&G;cs,fcH& apcsio f nf/ ppfynmrsm;ukd wyf&if;wGif jyif;jyif;xefxef oifMum;ay;cJo h nf/ t&m&Srd sm;rSm bD-tkikd -f atwGif wyfrLS ;/ bD-'D-at ü oH;k vkid ;f wpfyiG /hf jyefwrf;0ift&m&St d jzpf ceft Y yfjcif; cH&olrsm;ukd *syeftMuaH y;t&m&Srd sm;rS *syefjynfoYdk ppfynmoif,&l ef apvTwv f Mdk uonf/ Ekid if aH wmfvw G v f yfa&; r&&Sad o;ay/ eHeufyidk ;f ppfynmoifwef;Ny;D onft h cg aeYv,fwiG f oifwef;om;t&m&Sd 30 rS ysOf;rem;ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf ppfXmecsKyfü *syefpm oif,lcJh&onf/ AkdvfBuD; pdef0if;onf oifwef;om;acgif;aqmiftjzpf aqmif&GufcJhNyD; *syefpmoifoifMum;ykcYd say; olrmS Akv d rf LS ;tqif&h dS *syefBuaH y;t&m&Sjd zpfonf/ ysO;f rem;NrKd UwGif ppfoifwef;rsm; Ny;D onft h cg wyf&if; (2) &efuek o f aYdk jymif;a&TUcJ&h onf/ &efuek Nf rKd U? odrjf zLvrf; 0efBuD;rsm;&Hk;ESifh rsufESmcsif;qkdif txufwef;ausmif;taqmufttHkwGif ]] OD;Owår*wfaum}}[k *syefbmom pmoifausmif;BuD; wGif t&m&Sd 30 tm; txl;tpDtpOft& xkdausmif;BuD;wGif *syefpm tcsdefjynfhoifcJh&onf/1 wyf&if;(2)rS wyfcGJrSL; rSm zufqpfawmfveS af &;wGif txufArmjynfwidk ;f rSL;? &Sr;f jynfe,fawmifyidk ;f ü usq;kH oGm;ol atmifyef;NrdKUwGif txdef;trSwfausmufwkdif pkdufxl*kPfjyKcH&ol? ppfausmif;BuD;rsm;&Sdae onfw h yfe,fudk ]] Axl;wyfNrKd U }}[kowfrw S *f P k jf yKc&H aom Akv d rf LS ; Axl; jzpfonf/ Akv d Bf u;D pde0f if;onf xkyd *k Kd¾ vEf iS hf Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmfwiG f xm;0,fNrKd UrS vku d yf gvmcJo h nf/ 1

rauG;jrifah rmif/ wyfrawmfppfonfwpfOD;\rSwfwrf;rsm; rsm;/ (&efuek ?f 0if;pmay? 1999) pm 242 /


136 ysOf;rem;NrdKUwGif oifwef;wufNyD;aemuf &cdkif&dk;rodkY jynfNrdKUrSwpfqifh wyf&if;wpfckvkH; csw D uf&mwGif yg0ifco hJ nf/ 1944ckEpS w f iG f ysO;f rem;NrKd Uü bD-'D-at wyf&if;(6) zJUG pnf;cJ&h m pufuav;aoewfBuD;wyfcJG wyfcJGrSL;tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1945ckESpfwGif wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf wd;k jri§ x hf rf;aqmifNy;D ysO;f rem;NrKd UrS o&ufNrKd Uodw Yk yf&if;ajymif;a&GUonf/ o&uf taemufjcrf; ur®? o&uf? rif;vS? rif;wkef;NrdKUrsm;wGif zufqpfawmfvSefa&;twGuf pnf;&kH;vIyf&Sm;rI rsm;jyKvkyfonf/ o&ufNrdKUwGif 1945ckESpf?rwfv 27 &ufaeYü zufqpf awmfvSefa&; pwifqifEJGonf/ awmfvSefa&;wGif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u AdkvfrSL;tqifhodkY wd;k jri§ ahf y;onf/ zufqpfawmfveS af &; qifEaGJ epOf Adv k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf r[mrdww f yfrsm; awGUqkaH &;udk Akv d rf LS ;pde0f if;rSwm0ef,al qmif&u G cf NhJ y;D aemuf zufqpf*syefrsm;udk wdu k x f w k &f ef ewfwvif;NrdKUodkY wyfrsm;ajymif;a&GUí ewfwvif; ta&SUbufprf;BuD;? "r®i,f? uefpk ppfrsufESmudk wm0ef,lNyD; yJcl;&dk;rtaemufjcrf;ppfqifa&;udk uGyfuJcJhonf/ zufqpfrsm; ppfawmif;odkYqkwfcGmaomtcg bD-'D-atwyf&if;(6)udk OD;pD;NyD; yJcl;&dS wdkif;trSwf(4)ESifh yl;aygif;cJhonf/ ppfawmif;jrpfppfrsufESm wGif anmifudkif? u'Gwf? bdk;pyÜm,f? usKH&J? AdkvfuawmfwdkYudk ppfrsufESmwpfcktjzpf wm0ef,lcJh&onf/ xdkppfrsufESmwGif bD-'Datwyf&if;(6) udw k yf&if; (106)rsK;d cspAf rmhwyfrawmf [k jyifqifzUGJ pnf;onf/ 4-1/

vGwfvyfa&;acwfwGifwm0efxrf;aqmifrI(1945-1948)

Akv d Bf u;D tqifjh zifw h yf&if;(6)wyf&if;rSL; wm0efxrf;aqmif pOf 1945ckEpS ?f rwfv 24 &ufaeYwGif wdkif;(7)ppfXmecsKyf pcef;cs&m tmvH(ajrxJ)NrdKUe,f? jyvdkY&GmwGif Adv k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf twl wdik ;f (7)wdik ;f rSL; Adv k rf LS ; atmif? wyf&if;(2) wyf&if;rSL; Adv k Bf u;D pef ; ,k w d k Y E S i f h t wl zuf q pf awmf v S e f a &;jyif q if r I rsm;ud k aqG ; aEG ; cJ h M uonf /1 Akv d Bf u;D pde0f if;onf rwfv 27 &ufaeY eHeuf(7)em&Dcefw Y iG f o&ufNrKd UtpGe&f dS wyf&if;(6) ppfXmecsKyw f iG f Adv k rf LS ;atmif? Adv k Bf u;D pderf eS ?f wyf&if;(2)wyf&if;rSL; Adv k f pef;,k wdEYk iS t hf wl rwfv 27 &ufaeYnü zufqpf*syefwdkYtm; pwifawmfvSefrnfh tpDtpOfESifh wyf&if;^ wyfcrGJ sm; csw D ufMurnft h pDtpOf? wyfcsxm;rnfh pcef;rsm;ESihf wdu k yf rGJ sm; pwifonft h pDtpOf wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyEf iS hf wyf&if;rsm;tquftoG,rf jywfa&; &efoo Yl wif;rsm; tvsit f jrefyYkd a&;ESifh jynfolvlxktm; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;ESifh ywfowfí 0g'jzefYcsD vIHaqmfa&; tpDtpOfrsm;? &yf&mG umuG,af &;ESihf tkycf sKyaf &;udprö sm;udk aqG;aEG;cJMh uonf/ 1945ckepS ?f rwfv 27 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfBuD;pdef0if;OD;pD;onfh wyf&if;(6)onf nae 3 em&DtcsdefwGif 1

ocifwifjr? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;XmecsKyfESifh wdkif; (10) wdkif; / 3 -Budrf/ (&efukef? r[meE´ pmay? 1976) pm 334/


137 rif;wkeef ,foYdk csw D ufco hJ nf/ n 11 em&D 30 rdepftcsed w f iG f rif;wJ&mG bkeBf u;D ausmif;ESihf teD;tem&Sd acsmif;jyifwGif &yfem;cJhNyD;aemuf wyf&if;(6)rS *syeftMuHay;t&m&Sd(2)OD;ESifh wyfMuyfBuD;(3)OD;? wyfMuyf(1)OD;wkdYtm; zrf;qD;&m tzrf;rcJhbJckcHojzifh ypfcwf okwo f ifc&hJ onf/rif;wJrS qufvufcsw D ufc&hJ m rwfv 28 &ufaeY eHeuf 4 em&Dtcsed w f iG f wGif;v,fokdY a&muf&Sd&yfem;cJhNyD; zufqpf*syefwkdYtm; wkdufckduf&efwyfjzefYcJhonf/ / Akv d Bf u;D pde0f if;OD;pD;onf wyf&if;(6)onf o&ufpcef;okq Yd ufvufcsw D ufcNhJ y;D n11 em&D tcsed w f iG f yif;tkid pf cef;wGif wyfpcef;csco hJ nf/ rwfv 31 &ufaeYwiG f wkid ;f rSL; Akv d rf LS ;atmif? 'kwidk ;f rSL; Akv d Bf u;D pderf eS w f EYdk iS t hf wl Akv d Bf u;D pde0f if;onf ppfaoemywd Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;xHoYdk oGm;cJMh uonf/ {Nyv D 4 &ufaeYwiG f Akv d Bf u;D pde0f if;OD;pD;onf wyf&if;(6)onf yif;tkid pf cef;rS ykPmÖ ;&GmokaYd jymif;a&TUcJo h nf/ {Nyv D 16 &ufaeYwiG f &efo(l 300)cefY rif;uke;f rS o&ufbufoYdk csDwufvmMu&m anmifi,f&GmwGif&Sdaom wyf&if;(6) pufBuD;wyfcGJrS t&mcHwyfMuyf cspx f eG ;f ESihf &Jabmfwpfa,mufwo Ydk nf {&m0wDjrpfaMumif;twkid ;f txufrpS ek q f if;vmaom &efoal vSwpfpif;ukd urf;yg;ay:rS ypfcwfwu dk cf u dk &f m &efoal vSwpfpif;ESpjf rK§ yí f avSay: ygvmaom *syef(30)cefYusqHk;cJhonf/ {NyDv 25 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfBuD;pdef0if;OD;pD;aom wyf&if;(6) ppfXmecsKyfpcef; ykPÖm;&GmwGif wyfrSL;rsm;tpnf;ta0;usif;ycJhonf/1 tpnf;ta0;okYd wkid ;f (7)wkid ;f rSL; Akv d rf LS ;atmif? Akv d Bf u;D pderf eS ?f wyf&if;(2)wyf&if;rSL; Akv d pf ef;,k? wyf&if;(6)wyf&if;rSL; Akv d Bf u;D pde0f if; ponfww Ydk ufa&mufco hJ nf/ {Nyv D 27 &ufaeYwiG f wGif;v,fpcef;wGif wyf&if;(6)wyfcGJ(1)rS uif;axmufvmaom &efol(7)a,mufESifh xkdawGYwkdufckdufcJh&m &efol(5)a,mufusqHk;cJhonf/ arv 7 &ufaeYwGif ppfaoemywd AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhtzGJU ? AkdvfBuD; pdef0if;\ wyf&if;(6)ppfXmecsKyfpcef; ykPÖm;&GmokdY a&muf&v dS mcJo h nf/ Akv d cf sKyaf tmifqef;trdet Yf & txufrif;bl;? rif;vSe,fppfa&;tajctae ESihf pufrv I ufrw I yf&if;(2)\ vIy&f mS ;rItajctaersm;ukd od&&dS ef wyf&if;(6)ppfXmecsKyrf S wyfpw d w f pfpw d u f dk Akv d x f eG ;f wifO;D pD;apNy;D rif;bl;e,foaYdk pvTwf axmufvrS ;f apcJo h nf/ 1945 ckESpf? ZGefvukefwGif AkdvfBuD;pdef0if; OD;pD;onfhwyf&if;(6)onf wkdif;(7)ppfXmecsKyf vufatmufrS wkid ;f (4)ppfXmecsKyv f ufatmuf? yJc;l ppfrsuEf mS okYd ajymif;a&TUwm0efxrf;aqmif 1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmforkdif; ('kwd,wGJ)? 1945zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umv &;umv/ w-Budrf/ (&efukef? owif;ESihf pme,fZif; vkyif ef; ?1999) pm 77/

2

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmforkdif; (wwd,wG)J ? 1945-1948 / (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1995) pm 60/


138 cJh&onf/ OD;pdef0if;onf uE´DpmcsKyft& ArmhwyfrawmfjyefvnfzJGUpnf;aomtcg 1946 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwiG f 'kAv kd t f qihjf zifh ppf&;Hk csKyw f iG Xf mecJt G &m&dt S jzpf wm0ef ay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/2 qufvufíArmhaoewfudkifwyf&if; (3)wGif wyfpkrSL;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ oefvsiNf rKd UwGif pcef;csaepOftwGi;f wyfc(GJ 3) udOk ;D pD;í a';'&J? zsmykHodkY ajymif;a&GUwm0ef,l&onf/ 1946ckESpfwGif uavmNrdKUü t&m&dSi,foifwef; wufa&muf onf/ qufvufí Adv k Bf u;D tqifjh zifh Armhaoewfuikd w f yf&if;(3)wGif 'kwyfcrGJ LS ; wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1947ckEpS w f iG f ppfO;D pD;wuúov kd o f w Ykd ufa&mufNy;D Adv k rf LS ; tqifjh zifh Armhaoewfuikd f wyf&if; (3)wGif wyfcrGJ LS ;wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/vGwv f yfa&;ay;&ef wdik ;f jyKjynfjyK vTwaf wmfac:aomtcg oefvsiNf rKd UodjYk yefíwyfp&k ;Hk onf/ 1947ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 19 &ufaeYwiG f Adv k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESit hf wl tmZmenfacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm; vkyBf ucH &H aom tcg &efuek o f w Ykd yfrsm; ajymif;a&GUNy;D &efuek Nf rKd UvkNH cKaH &;udk wm0ef,&l onf/ 1947ckEpS w f iG f ppf&w J yfrsm;zJUG pnf;a&; twGuf jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D XmeodYk Adv k rf LS ;tqihjf zifh txl;t&m&dt S jzpf ajymif;a&GU xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 4-2/

vGwv f yfa&;&Ny;D acwfwiG Bf uKd ;yrf;rI(1948-1962)

OD;pdef0if;onf 1948ckESpf? vGwfvyfa&;&NyD; ajcvsifwyfrsm;zJGUpnf;aomtcg r*Fvm'k&H Sd ajcvsiw f yf&if;(1)wGif Adv k rf LS ;tqifjh zifh 'kwyf&if;rSL;wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ u&ifaomif;use;f ol rsm; x<uykeu f efcsed w f iG f tif;pdew f u kd yf ?GJ pmAl;awmif;wdu k yf rGJ sm;ü yg0if wdu k cf u kd cf o hJ nf/ 1948ckEpS w f iG yf if 'kAv kd rf LS ;Bu;D tqifo h Ykd wd;k jri§ jhf cif;cH&Ny;D ajcvsiw f yf&if;(1) wyf&if;rSL;wm0ef qufvufxrf;aqmifonf/ 1950jynfEh pS ?f Zefe0g&dv 20 &&ufaeYwiG f yxrtBudrfwyfrSL;nDvmcHü wyf&if;rSL;wm0efxrf;aqmifpOf wufa&mufcJhonf/1 1951ckEpS f wGif awmifyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyüf ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)tjzpf vnf;aumif;? 1951 ckESpf? rwfv 28 &ufaeYwGif ajcjrefwyfr[m(3)rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif; wyfrSL;nDvmcHokdY wufa&mufco hJ nf/1952wGif wef;jrift h &m&do S ifwef;wuf&ef t*FvefEikd if o H Ykd oGm;a&mufchJ onf/ 1953ckESpfwGif AdkvfrSL;BuD;tqifhodkY wdk;jr§ifhcH&NyD; wyfr[m(2)wyfr[mrSL; wm0ef xrf;aqmifonf/ 1956ckEpS f wGif ydik ;f avmhoifwef;wuf&ef xkid ;f Edik if o H o Ykd mG ;a&mufco hJ nf/ 1957ckESpfwGif wyfr[m(4) wyfr[mrSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1958ckESpfwGif ppf&kH;csKyfü wJzG ufppfaxmufcsKyt f jzpfvnf;aumif; xrf;aqmifonf/ 1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmforkdif; (pwkww ¬ )JG ? 1948-1962 / (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm 133/


139 OD;pde0f if;onf 1958ckEpS ?f tdraf pmift h pd;k &vufxufwiG f td;k tdrXf me? vrf;XmeESihf jyefvnfxal xmifa&;Xmersm;ü 'kw, d OuúXwm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nft h jyif ppfypön;f Bu;D Muyf a&;tzJUG Ouú|ESihf wJzG ufppfaxmufcsKyw f m0efrsm;udyk g yl;wJx G rf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ 1961ckEpS f wGif AdkvfrSL;BuD; tqifhjzifh awmifydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf wdkif;rSL;wm0efxrf;aqmifae&mrS Adv k rf LS ;csKyf tqifo h Ykd wd;k jri§ jhf cif;cH&onf/ ppfwikd ;f rsm;jyefvnfzUGJ pnf;aomcg tv,fyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf wdik ;f rSL;wm0ef xrf;aqmifonf/ 4-3/

1962-1985 twGi;f BuKd ;yrf;rI

OD;;pde0f if;onf 1962ckEpS ?f rwfv 2 &ufaeUwGif awmfveS af &;aumifpu D Ekid if aH wmf tajctae t&yf&yfudk xdef;odrf;wm0ef,laomtcg awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtzJGU0if jzpfvmonf/1 1963 ckEpS ?f rwfv 29 &ufaeYwiG f tv,fyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f rSL;taejzifh wyfrLS ; nDvmcHwufa&mufcJhonf/21963ckESpfwGifjrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD ygwDpnf;urf; xde;f odr;f a&;aumfrwD0ifwm0efuykd g yl;wJx G rf;aqmifonf/ 1964ckEpS w f iG f awmfveS af &; tpdk;&tzJGU jynfolYvkyfief;ESifhtdrf&maqmufvkyfa&;Xmewm0efcH(0efBuD;)tjzpf wm0ef ay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1971ckESpf? yxrtBudrf ygwDnDvmcHwGif ygwDvkyfief;pdppfa&; aumfrwDOuú|tjzpf xyfrHa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;cH&onf/ 0efBuD;tzJGU0ifrsm;tm; wyfrawmfrStNidrf;pm; ,lcGifhjyKa&;rlt& 1972ckESpf?{NyDv 20&ufaeYwGif wyfrawmfrS tNidrf;pm;,lNyD; aqmufvkyfa&; 0efBuD;Xme?0efBuD;wm0efqufvufxrf;aqmifonf/ 1974ckEpS ?f {Nyv D 26 &ufaeY yxrtBurd f jynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS hf jynfoUl aumifpt D qifq h ifh a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyJGwGif xm;0,fNrdKUe,f trSwf(1)rJqE´e,frS jynfolYvTwfawmf ud, k pf m;vS,t f jzpf a&G;cs,cf &H Ny;D yxr tBurd f jynfov Yl w G af wmftpnf;ta0;u Edik if aH wmf 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf a&G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1977 ckEpS ?f rwfv 28 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyf tjzpf tem;,lNy;D 1977ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f wGif jynfoUl vTwaf wmf\ Edikd if aH wmfaumifp0D iftjzpf a&G;cs,o f wfrw S jf cif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1985ckEpS ?f Edik 0f ifbmvwGif Edik if aH wmfaumifp0D iftjzpfrS tNird ;f pm;,lco hJ nf/ 1

jr0if;? wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;orkdif;tusOf; (1941 rS 1990 jynfhESpftxd)/ 3Burd ?f &efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1992/ pm 31/ 2

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmforkdif; (yOörwGJ) 1962-1974 / 'k-Burd /f (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1999) pm 123/


140 5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

OD;pde0f if;onf Edik if w hH m0efrsm;udk BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u G cf jhJ cif;aMumifh Edik if aH wmfu cs;D jri§ t hf yf ESi;f onfph nfow l q H yd ?f oD&yd scH sb D UGJ ? ta&;awmfyw Hk q H yd ?f vGwv f yfa&; pnf;&k;H rI wHqdyf? vGwfajrmufa&; wHqdyf? vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if(yxrqifh)ESifh EdkifiHh*kPf&nfbJGU (yxrqif)h wdu Yk kd &&dcS o hJ nf/1 6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

OD;pde0f if;onf Ekid if aH wmfwm0eft&yf&yfukd xrf;aqmifaepOftwGi;f Edik if jH cm; wdkif;jynfrsm;odkY wm0efjzifhtBudrfBudrfoGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 1952 ckESpfwGif t*FvefEkdifiH? 1958ckESpfwGif a[mifaumif? zdvpfydkifESifh xkdif;EdkifiH rsm;odkYvnf;aumif;? 1959ckESpfwGif tpöa&;Edik if EH iS hf *smrPDEikd if o H v Ykd nf;aumif;? 1960jynhEf pS w f iG f ESpw f iG f tar&duef? 1964 ckEpS w f iG t f Ed , ´d Edik if EH iS hf ygupöwefEikd if rH sm;odv Yk nf;aumif;? 1968ckEpS w f iG f pifumylEikd if EH iS hf rav;&Sm;Edik if H rsm;odv Yk nf;aumif;? 1972ckEpS w f iG t f ar&duefEidk if o H v Ydk nf;aumif;? 1975 ckESpfwGif eDaygEdkifiHodkYvnf;aumif;? 1976ckESpfwGif oD&dvuFmEkdifiHodkY vnf;aumif; oGm;a&mufco hJ nf/ 7/

rdom;pk

OD;pde0f if;onf 1943ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 3 &ufaeYwiG f rEÅav;NrKd Uae Adv k Bf u;D baz? a':rke;f wd\ Yk orD; a':jra&TEiS hf vufxyfco hJ nf/ jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&;twGuf oufpeG BYf uKd ;yrf; xrf;aqmifcNhJ y;D Edik if aH wmfwm0efrsm;udk pGr;f pGr;f wrHxrf;aqmifcahJ om tNird ;f pm;Adv k rf LS ;csKy?f tNird ;f pm;Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyEf iS hf tNird ;f pm; Ekid if aH wmfaumifp0D ifO;D pde0f if;onf 1993ckEpS ?f ZGev f 29 &ufaeYü &efuek Nf rKd UwGif uG,v f eG cf yhJ gonf/ uG,fvGefcsdefwGif ZeD;a':jra&TESifhom; OD;zkef;rif;acgif+a':at;at;oG,f? OD;wifhrif;acgif+a':jrifhjrifhat;? OD;aX;rif;acgif;? OD;Munfrif;acgif+a':Zifrmatmif? OD;oefYrif;acgif? a':rDrDzkd;om? OD;atmifrif;acgif? orD;a':cifOD;vGif? a':at;at;vGif wku Yd secf o hJ nf/

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1994 1994/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1994) pm 186/


141

yH(k 13) OD;armifarmifc (0efBuD;csKyf) [ 1977 ckESpf ]


142

OD;armifarmifc (0efBuD;csKyf) (arG; 7-6-1920 uG,v f eG -f 30-4-1995) 1/

i,fpOfb0

tNird ;f pm;Akv d rf LS ;Bu;D ESihf tNird ;f pm;Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyf OD;armifarmifcudk tz OD;cspaf z? trda':cifwifw h rYdk S 1920 jynfEh pS ?f ZGev f 7 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uü arG;zGm;cJo h nf/ arG;csi;f nDtpfuEdk pS Of ;D teufti,fjzpfonf/ i,fpOfwpfEpS o f m;wGif zcifu, G v f eG o f mG ;Ny;D rdcifrmS vnf; aemuftrd af xmifjyK oGm;í ta':tysKd Bu;D rsm;ESit hf wl t&G,af &mufonftxd aexkid cf &hJ onf/ 2/

ynmoifb0

1929 ckESpf touf 9 ESpfa&mufrS rlvwef;ynmukdpwifoif,lonf/ ausmif;wGifynm xl;cRefaomaMumifh q&m? q&mrrsm;rS twef;ausmfí wifay;jcif;cH &onf/ 1936 ckEpS f touf 16 ESpw f iG f 10 wef;pmar;yGu J dk jrefrmpm*kPx f ;l jzifh xl;cRepf mG atmifjrifonf/ 1937 ckESpfwGif &efukefwuúokdvf okdYwufa&mufíynmoif,lcJhonf/ &efuek w f uúov dk af eYausmif;om;toif;ESihf pufro I yd aHÜ usmif;toif;rsm;wGif toif;0ifjzpf onf/ 1941 ckESpf bDtufpfpD(tif*sifeD,m) aemufqHk;ESpfwGif bGJUr,lbJwuúokdvfrS EkwfxGufNyD; awmfvSefa&;wGif yg0ifqifEGJcJhonf/ OD;armifarmifconf 1955 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 29 &ufaeYrS 1956 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 7 &ufaeYtxd refcsufpwm pufrw I uúov dk w f iG f ynmoif,cl o hJ nf/ 3/

0efxrf;b0

OD;armifarmifconf 1944 ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmhwyfrawmfo0Ydk ifa&muftrIxrf;Ny;D 1944 ckESpf? arv 27 &ufaeYwGif *syefacwf wwd,ywf ppfwuúokdvf Akdvfoifwef; wufa&mufco hJ nf/ 1 Ek0d ifbmv 30 &ufaeYwiG f ausmif;qif;cJNh y;D av,mOfypftajrmufBu;D wyfwGif wyfpkrSL;tqifhjzifh wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ *syefawmfvSefa&;wGifwkdif;(1) wyf&if;(106)ü wyfprk LS ;tjzpf awmfveS af &;Ny;D qH;k onftxd wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ OD;armifarmifconf awmfveS af &;Ny;D qH;k Ny;D onft h cg ppfjyefb0jzifh &&mtvkyrf sm; 1

Akv d rf if;ñk?d *syefacwfppfwuúokdvf/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969)

pm223/


143 vkyfukdifumb0ukd &kef;uefonf/ 1947 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 6 &ufaeYwGif wyfrawmfokdY wpfzefjyefvnf0ifa&mufcJhonf/ 1948 ckESpf? atNyDv 19 &ufaeYrS Mo*kwfv 15 &ufaeYtxd Akdvfoifwef;jyefvnfwufa&muf onf/ Akdvfoifwef;qif;NyD; 1948 ckESpfrS 1962 ckEpS t f xd wyfrawmfvQypf pfEiS phf ufrw I yfzUJG ? umuG,af &;ypön;f xkwv f yk rf w I yfzUJG rsm; wGif 'kwd,AkdvftqifhrS 'kwd,AkdvfrSL;BuD;tqihftxdvnf;aumif;? umuG,fa&ypönf; xkwfvkyfrI nTefMum;a&;rSL;tjzpf AkdvfrSL;BuD;tqifhtxdvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmif cJo h nf/ 4/

Ek d i f i H a &;b0

OD;armifarmifconf 1962 ckEpS rf pS í pufr0I efBu;D XmewGif wGzJ uftwGi;f 0ef? twGi;f 0efEiS hf 'kw, d 0efBu;D wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifonf/ 1974 ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmqk&d , S v f pf vrf;pOfygwD tvkyo f rm;a&;&m XmeBu;D wGif aumfrwD0iftjzpfvnf;aumif;? A[kjd ynfoYl tvkyform; aumifpDwGif tvkyftrIaqmif aumfrwD0ifESifh OuúXtjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ yxrtBudrfygwDnDvmcHwGif t&efA[kdtvkyftrIaqmif aumfrwD0iftjzpf a&G;cs,jf cif;cH&Ny;D pufr0I efBu;D XmeESihf tvkyo f rm;0efBu;D Xme 0efBu;D tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1973 ckEpS f 'kw, d tBurd yf gwDnv D mcHwiG f t&efA[kd tvkyt f rI aqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf xyfrHa&G;cs,fjcif;cH&onf/ 1972 ckESpf? {NyDv 20 &ufaeYwGif Akv d rf LS ;Bu;D tqifjh zifh tNird ;f pm;,lco hJ nf/ 1974 ckEpS f yxrtBurd f jynfoYl vTwaf wmfEiS hf jynfolYaumifpD tqifhqifha&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyGJwGif vIdifNrdKUe,ftrSwf(2) rJqE´e,frS jynfolYvTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f tjzpfta&G;cH&NyD; pufrI0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ wwd,tBudrf ygwDnDvmcHwGif A[kdtvkyftrIaqmif aumfrwD0if tjzpfvnf;aumif;? yxrtBudrftvkyform;tpnf;t&Hk; OuúXtjzpf vnf;aumif;a&G;cs,jf cif;cH& onf/ 1977 ckEpS ?f rwfv 29 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyf tjzpf pwifxrf;aqmifcJhygonf/1 1978 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYrS 15 &ufaeYtxd usi;f ycJah om 'kw, d tBurd f jynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt D qifq h ifah &G;cs,yf w JG iG v f nf; 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpfxyfraH &G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ onf/ wpfzef 1985 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 4 &ufaeYrS 18 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJah om wwd,tBurd f jynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt D qifq h ifh a&G;cs,yf v JG nf;aumif;? 1985 ckEpS ?f atmufwb dk mv 6 &ufaeYrS 20 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJh aom pwkw¬tBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfESifh jynfolUaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJwGif

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1978 1978/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1978) pm 6 /


144 vnf;aumif; 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf 3 Burd q f ufwu dk f a&G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ olwpfa,mufjzpfonfudk awG&Y &dS ygonf/ 0efBu;D csKyOf ;D armifarmifc wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOfumvjzpfaom 1988 ckepS ?f rwfv 12 &ufaeY n 9 em&D 15 rdepf tcsed cf efw Y iG f BuKd Uuke;f blwmteD; pE´m0if; vufzuf&nf qkid üf pufrw I uúov dk 'f w k , d ESpaf usmif;om; 2 OD;ESihf t&ufr;l aeonf&h yfuu G f vli,f 5 OD;wkdYonf uufqufoDcsif;acGzGifhckdif;&mrStp ckduf&efjzpfyGm;cJhMuygonf/ ,if;&efponf xkrd QEiS yhf if &yfwefrY oGm; cJb h J aemufwpfaeYjzpfonfh rwfv 13 &ufaeYn 8 em&D 30 rdepf tcsdefcefYrSpí BudKUukef;&yfuGufrS t&yfom;rsm;ESifh pufrIwuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm; wpfzufESifhwpfzuf tkyfpkzGJU tMurf;zufwkdufckdufrIrsm; jzpfyGm;cJhygonf/ trIdufup jyó'frD;avmifqkdouJhokdY ausmif;om;rsm; qlylqE´jyrIrsm; wpfNrdKUNyD; wpfNrdKUjzpfay: vmcJyh gonf/ Edik if aH wmftusKd ;twGuf wm0ef&o dS t l zGUJ tpnf;rsm;rS rnfrQyif aqmif&u G af y; apumrl EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsm;? qlylvkdolrsm;rS wpfjynfvHk; twkid ;f twmjzifh qlyt l <kH ua&;uko d m tm;pku d v f yk af qmifcMhJ u ygonf/ vltyk Bf u;D rsm;jzifh vHNk cKH a&;wyfzUJG 0ifrsm;tm; tMurf;zufowfjzwfrrI sm;? wku d cf u dk &f efjyKrrI sm; jyKvyk v f mcJMh u ygonf/ xkdtawmftwGif; ausmif;0if;rsm;twGif;wGif EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;omru EkdifiHjcm;oHwreftcsdKUwkdYyg 0ifxGuf ajc&Iyfjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfvmMuygonf/ xkdhYaMumifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf ,if;wkdY\ ajr§mufyifhay;rI rsm;? 0g'jzefYvIHUaqmfay;rI rsm;aMumifh ausmif;om;rsm;ta&; oufoufuo dk m awmif;qkcd MhJ u &mrS ]] ppfreS af om 'Dru dk a&pD&&Sad &; aqmif & G u f a y;&ef } } [l o nf h Ek d i f i H a &;oabmouf 0 if o nf h awmif ; qk d c suf r sm;uk d pwifawmif;qkv d mcJMh uonf/ ausmif;0if;rsm;twGi;f wGiv f nf; vuf0v J uf,mya,m* rsKd ;pHk 0ifa&mufvmrIwaYdk Mumifh ausmif;yk&0d P k rf sm;twGi;f wGif Ekid if aH &;ykrd &dk yI af xG;vmcJyh gonf/ &efuek Nf rKd UwGif qlyt l Murf;zufrrI sm;jzpfymG ;aepOftwGi;f Zlvidk v f 7 &ufaeYwiG f awmifBu;D NrKd Uü vnf; qlyrl rI sm;jzpfymG ;cJyh gonf/ 1988 ckEpS ?f rwfvtwGi;f jzpfymG ;cJah om ta&;tcif;wGif jzpfay:vmaomudpö rsm;twGuf wm0efruif;aMumif;awGU&Sd&ojzifh 0efBuD;csKyfarmifarmifctm; EkdifiHawmf 0efBuD;csKyf tjzpfrS Ekwfy,fvkdufaMumif; EkdifiHawmfaumifpDrS 1988 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 26 &ufaeYwiG f aMunmcJyh gonf/1

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 19789 19789/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1989) pm 10/


145 1988 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 25 &ufaeYrrS 27 &ufaeYwiG f rav;&Sm;Ekid if 0H efBu;D csKyf 'gwGw&f &S D a'gufwm r[moD,m rk[ d mrufonfvnf;aumif;? azazmf0g&Dv 29 &ufaeYrS rwfv 5 &ufaeYtxd xkid ;f Ekid if t H rd af &SUrif;om; r[mAm*s&D m avmifueG o f nf vnf;aumif;? xkdif;bk&ifhvufeufukdifwyfzGJUrsm;\ ppfaoemywdESifh ppfOD;pD;csKyf AkdvfcsKyfBuD; csmAvpf a,mifcsdKif,k'fonf {NyDv 21 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;? b*Fvm;a'h&SfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH or®wBu;D [lped rf [ dk mruftm&Swo f nf {Nyv D 26 &ufaeYrS 28 &ufaeYtxdvnf;aumif;? Oa&mybHak ps;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;aumfr&Sit f zGUJ 0if uavmh'af &Sqef onfZv l idk v f 5 &ufaeYrS &ufaeYtxdvnf;aumif; tvnftywfvma&mufco hJ nfudk awG&Y &dS ygonf/f 5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

OD;armifarmifconf jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rIwGif yg0ifcJhjcif;aMumifh Ekid if aH wmfu cs;D jri§ o hf nfh vGwv f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if('kw, d tqif)h ukv d nf;aumif;? Ekid if aH wmfu ay;tyfonfh wm0ef rsm;ukdBudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhjcif;aMumifh EkdifiHawmfu csD;jr§ifhonfh aZ,sausmfxif ppfrIxrf;aumif; wHqdyfESifh EkdifiH*kPf&nf(yxrqifh)ukdvnf;aumif; &&Scd o hJ nf/ 6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

Ekid if aH wmf wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOftwGi;f 1957 ckEpS w f iG f *syef? a[mifaumifEiS hf xkid ;f Ekid if rH sm;okYd vnf;aumif;? 1959 ckEpS w f iG f ta&SUOa&myESihf taemufOa&myEkid if rH sm;okYd vnf;aumif;? 1960 jynfEh pS ?f Zlvidk v f wGif tar&duefEidk if o H Ydk vnf;aumif;?1 1961 ckEpS w f iG f xkdif;? uarÇm'D;,m;? rav;&Sm;ESifh w&kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiHrsm;okdY vnf;aumif;? 1962 ckEpS w f iG f csuu f pdk vkAd m;uD;,m;? *smrPD? tDwvDEiS jhf yifopfEidk if rH sm;okYd vnf;aumif;? 1964 ckEpS w f iG f &lar;eD;,m;? MopaMw;vs? *smrPDEiS hf *syefEidk if rH sm;okv Yd nf;aumif;? 1965 ckEpS w f iG f w&kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? 1966 ckESpfwGif &lareD;,m;? csufukdpvkd Aufu;D ,m;Ekid if EH iS hf MopMw;D ,m;Ekid if rH sm;okv Yd nf;aumif;? 1969 ckEpS w f iG f taemuf*smrPDEiS hf t*Fvef EkdifiHrsm;okdYvnf;aumif;? 1970 jynfhESpfwGif *syef? jyifopfESifh tdE´d,EkdifiHrsm;okdY vnf;aumif;? 1977 ckEpS w f iG f taemuf*smrPD? tDwvD? MopaMwvs? t*Fvef? qGpZf mvef? tif'edk ;D &Sm;ESihf pifumylEidk if H rsm;okv Yd nf;aumif;? 1979 ckEpS w f iG f uk&d ;D ,m;? a[mifaumifEiS hf pifumylEidk if rH sm;okv Yd nf;aumif;? 1980 jynfEh pS w f iG f xkid ;f ? jyifopfEiS hf pifumylEidk if rH sm;okYd 1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmforkdif; pwkw¬wGJ (1948-1962) (1948-1962)? (&efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1995) pm 158/


146 vnf;aumif;? 1984 ckESpf? {NyDv 4 &ufaeYwGif MopaMw;vsEkdifiH? {NyDv 7 &ufaeYwGif e,l;ZDvefEidk if ?H Ek0d ifbmv 15 &ufaeYwiG f csuu f pdk vkAd ufq&dk , S v f pfor速wEkid if ?H 1 1986 ckESpf?{NyDv 10 &ufaeYwGif w&kwfjynfolYor速wEkdifiH? Mo*kwfv 11 &ufaeYwGif ,l*q dk vm;AD;,m;Ekid if ?H Mo*kwv f 14 &ufaeYwiG f ,lar;eD;,m;Ekid if ?H pufwifbmv 9 &ufaeY wGif *syefEidk if ?H pufwifbmv 18 &ufaeYwiG f pifumylEidk if rH sm;okv Yd nf;aumif;? 1987 ckEpS ?f {NyDv 9 &ufaeYwGif xkdif;EkdifiH? ZGefv 29 &ufaeYwGif tif'kdeD;&Sm;or速wEkdifiH? Zlvkdifv 4 &ufaeYwGif pifumylESifh rav;&Sm;EkdifiHrsm;okdYvnf;aumif;? 1988 ckESpfwGif pifumyl? t*FvefEiS hf bla*;&D;,m; Ekid if rH sm;okv Yd nf;aumif; wm0efjzifh oGm;a&mufco hJ nf/ 7/

rdom;pkb0

OD;armifarmifconf OD;a&T? a':jrwifw\ Ydk orD; a':cifcifav;ESihf vufxyfc&hJ m om;wpfOD;ESifh orD;wpfOD;xGef;um;onf/ om;jzpfolrSm uG,fvGefoGm;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/ jrefrmhvGwfvyf a&;BudK;yrf;rIwGif wpfwyfwpftm;yg0ifcJhNyD; EkdifiHawmfwm0efrsm;ukd BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhaom tNidrf;pm; AkdvfrSL;BuD;ESifhtNidrf;pm;EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf OD;armifarmifconf 1995 ckESpf? {NyDv 30 &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKU端 uG,fvGefcJhygonf/ uG,v f eG cf sed w f iG f ZeD;a':cifcifav;? (OD;rsKd ;nTe)Yf + a':vGiv f iG jf rif?h a':EkE&k D + (OD;vTr;f rk;d )ESihf arG;pm;orD;wpfO;D ESihf ajr;ESpOf ;D use&f pfonf/trSw(f 10)? oD&v d rf;? yg&rD&yd o f m? &efuif;NrKd Ue,f wGiaf eonf/

1

1984 ckESpf jynfjrefrmm/ jr0wDt,f'DwmtzGJU/ ( &efukef? jr0wDyHkESdyfwkduf? 1985) pm 227/


147

yHk (14) ol&OD;xGef;wif (0efBuD;csKyf) [ 1988 ckESpf ]


ol&xGef;wif (0efBuD;csKyf) (arG arG ; 10-2-1923 1/

)

i,fpOfb0

ol&xGef;wif ukd 1923 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwGif jrpfBuD;em;NrdKUü arG;zGm;cJo h nf/ 2/

ynmoifb0

wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk;0ifausmif;om; oHrPdacgif;aqmifESifh ajratmuf awmfveS af &; acgif;aqmiftjzpf aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf/ Oypm(odyb HÜ UJG )&&Scd o hJ nf/ 3/

0efxrf;b0

1944 ckESpf? arv 27 &ufaeYwGif *syefacwf wwd,ywf ppfwuúokdvf f yfa&; Akv d o f ifwef;wufa&mufNy;D Ek0d ifbmv 30 &ufaeYwiG f ausmif;qif;cJo h nf/1 vGwv wku d yf rJG sm;wGif ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmfwyf&if;(3)? wyf&if;(1)? r*Fvm'Hk ppfwuúov dk Ef iS hf wkdif;(7)ppfXmecsKyf? rsdK;cspfArmhwyfrawmfwGif wkdif;(7)e,fajr? oeu(4)wkdYü wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJhonf/ vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if yxrtqifhukd &&SdcJhonf/ 1948-1949 ckEpS t f xdwyf&if;(5)wGif wyfcrJG LS ;tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ jrefrmjynfvw G v f yfa&; &NyD;ptcsdef a&mifpHkolykef[kac:aom aomif;usef;olrsm;x<uaeaomtcsdefjzpfonf/ autrf'DtkdwkdYuvnf; tiftm;tBuD;rm;qHk;ESihf tjyif;xefqHk; xkd;azmufppfukd BuHKawGUcJh&onf/ wyfcGJrSL; AkdvfBuD; xGef;wifonf wyf&if;(5) ]]*}}wyfcGJudk wm0ef,l&NyD; tif;pde?f BuKd Uuke;f ESihf &mausmq f &mawmf bk&m;Bu;D ausmif;Mum;wGif ae&m,lc&hJ onf/ Adv k Bf u;D xGe;f wif onf ol&Y aJ bmfrsm;ukd ]]nwkid ;f rpkrYd yk&Yd efoal wGu ypfaew,fumG ? tvum;tdyaf &;ysuw f ,f? 'Dn igaumif;aumif;tdyrf ,f? &efov l pHS yG v f mrxk;d rcsi;f ighrEI;d eJU}} 2 [k 1

Akv d rf if;ñk?d *syefacwfppfwuúokdvf/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969)

pm223/ 2

&efukeftpdk;&acwf tif;pdef&,f---wyf&if;(5)&,f}}?rS rSL;ordef? ]]&ef wyfrawmfa&T&wk/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1995/ pm 111/


149 rSmNy;D pdwcf svufcstyd af epOf eHeuf 3 em&Dcefw Y iG f aoewforH sm;qlnaH eatmif Mum;&csdefwGif tdyf,mrSxcJhMuonf/ wkdufay:rSatmifqif;NyD; a&wGif;ab;wgif rsufESmopfaepOf aoewfoHrsm; aygufaygufavSmfouJhokdY rsm;jym;vmcJhonf/ xkdtcg Adv k Bf u;D xGe;f wifrS ]]at;...'Dwpfcgxl;jcm;w,f? &efolefwkdufNyDxifw,f? tm;vHk; owdxm;Mu? ae&m,lMua[h}}1 [ktrdefYay;vkdufonf/ uysmu,m ppf0wfpHkaumuf0wfvkdufNyD; em;pGifh rsuv f ;kH zGihf avhvmaepOf eHeuf 4 em&Dceft Y csed w f iG f pufrw I uúov dk af usmif;bufrS E Coy (wyf&if;(5)rS tm;jznf&h efyv Ydk u dk o f nfv h o l pfrsm;ESizhf UJG pnf;xm;onfh topfwyfc)JG rS wyfMuyfEiS hf &Jabmfrsm;rS ]] Akv d Bf u;D ...&efot l yk ef UJ oif;eJU odyrf sm;w,f? usr;f pmoifausmif; bufu&,f 0yfa&Smhbufu&,f vSdrfhqif;vmw,f? olwkdY&JUtm;rwfum;wef;BuD;vnf; bDtkdpD"gwfqD qkid v f eG Nf y;D wHwm;em;a&mufomG ;Ny}D } [kowif;ykcYd o hJ nf/ xkt d csed u f ol&OD;xGe;f wifowå&d ydS u kH dk f iG f a'gufwmarmifarmifa&;cJah om ]] jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifh AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;}} pmtkyw ]]wyfcrJG LS ; Akv d Bf u;D armifviG 'f Pf&m&w,f? tustqH;k rsm;vGe;f wJah eUrSm &JabmfawGwuf&eftrdefYay;aomfvnf; rwufcsif rwufMuawmhbl;? 'geJUxGe;f wif (,ck Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKy-f tNird ;f pm;)rS xNy;D vrf;avQmufjy& w,f? usnq f aH wGu oleY m;w0D0ED iS hf wpfcsurf rS eS b f ;l ? olu ]]Munfyh guG? vlqkdwm aoaeYaphrSaowm}} qkdNyD; &JabmfawGukd &Jaq;wifw,f? NyD;awmhwufzkdY trdefY ay;awmh wufMuw,fvkdY AkdvfcsKyfae0if;u owdw&ajymw,f[ak &;om;xm;ygonf/}} 2 au'DtkdwkdYxkd;ppfonf oHcsyfum;um;rsm;ukd a&SUwef;wifí wkdufckdufojzifh tif;pde-f &efuek u f m;vrf;ay:&Sd wyfrawmf\a&S;wef;umuG,af &;pnf;usKd ;aygufomG ;cJo h nf/ apmbifqifNc&H dS wyf&if;a&SUwef;uGyu f aJ &;pcef;vnf; usomG ;cJo h nf/ xkt d csed f bDtidk af t OD;xGe;f a&Ttrd üf ae&m,lxm;aom wkid ;f ppfXmecsKyrf S tajctae odocd si;f wyfrLS ;Bu;D uk, d w f idk f toif&h adS om a&wyfrawmfrS bkzd mtajrmuf]]wHjrufpnf;}}ukd um;vrf;ay:wifNy;D &efol tm;rwfaumfvHtvmukd apmifhtypfckdif;cJhonf/ wHjrufpnf;u ypf&eftoifhjzpfjzpfjcif; 1

&efukeftpdk;&acwf tif;pdef&,f---wyf&if;(5)&,f}}? rS rSL;ordef? ]]&ef wyfrawmfa&T&wk/ (&efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1995)? pm 111/ 2 a'gufwmarmifarmif? jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969)? pm 322/


150 ypfuGif;xJokdY &efolum;rsm;a&muf&SdvmcJh&m ypfcwfwkdufckduf&m csufaumif;rSefNyD; &efoltm;rwfum;rD;avmifysufpD;cJhonf/ a&SUqHk;rS &efoltm;rwfum;\um;armif;olukd t&ufr;l atmifwu dk x f m;Ny;D ajcaxmufudk oHBuKd ;cwfcsnf aomhcwfxm;ojzifh qif;rajy; Ekid b f J ae&mwGif yGcJ si;f Ny;D aoqH;k cJo h nf/ umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xmeppf&Hk;ü ntdyfaom OD;pD;csKyfrSvnf; owif;&&csif; t&efxm;aoma&wyfrS Akv d Bf u;D awmfr&D u dk Ef iS hf bkzd mtajrmufrsm;? Akv d Bf u;D armifarmifBu;D \ atmfvDuef*rf;rsm; apvTwfcJhygonf/ ,if;uJhokdY tm;rwfum;awGxdrSefNyD; rwufEkdif aomfvnf; ajcvsiEf iS w hf pfz?YJG um;ESiw hf pfzUJG au'Dtw dk Ydk &efuek u f dk csw D uf&ef BuKd ;pm;cJMh uonf/ okaYd omf tif;pdet f 0if BuKd Uuke;f bk;d awmf&mausmaf usmif;wGif wyfpx JG m;aom Akv d Bf u;D xGe;f wif \ wyfc]JG ]*}}onf aemufrqkwb f u J secf o hJ nf/ Akv d Bf u;D xGe;f wifu, dk w f idk f owå&d &dS EdS iS hf jzwfNy;D xkd;ppfqifwkdufckdufcJhonf/ &efolonf ppfoabmt& aemufausmrvHkrI ESifhppfxkd;rIukd txl;aMumufMu&onfh xHk;wrf;pOfvmt& wpfcsdK;wnf;qkwfcJh&onf/ AkdvfBuD;xGef;wif vnf; tif;pdefwkdufyGJwGif ol&bGJcsD;jr§ifhcHcJh&onf/ trSwf(4)ajcvsifwyf&if;ESifhtwl &efBuD;atmif ppfqifa&;wGif yg0ifwkdufckdufcJhonf/ wyf&if;rSL;? acwåwyfr[mrSL;? ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)? 1971 ckEpS w f iG f wyfrawmfavhusiahf &;rSL;? wyfxed ;f csKyw f m0efrsm;ukd xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 4/

Ekid if aH &;b0

1971 ckESpf? ZGefv 28 &ufaeYrS Zlvkdifv 11 &ufaeYtxdusif;ycJhaom yxrtBudrfygwDnDvmcHESifh 1973 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 8 &ufaeYrS 21 &ufaeYtxd usif;yaom 'kwd,tBudrfygwDnDvmcHG1981ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 3 &ufaeYrS 8 &ufaeYtxd usi;f yaom pwkwt ¬ Burd f ygwDnv D mcHwüYdk ygwDA[kt d vkyt f rIaqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf a&G;cs,jf cif;cH&onf/ 1974 ckEpfS ? Zefe0g&Dv 27 &ufaeYrS azazmf0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYtxd usif;ycJhaomfyxrtBudrfjynfolYvTwfawmfESifhjynnfolYaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJ ESifh 1978 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYrS 15 &ufaeYtxdusif;ycJhaom'kwd,tBudrf jynfolY vTwfawmf ESifhjynfolYaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJü jrpfMuD;em;rJqE´e,f(1)rS jynfolY vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&onf/ tvkyform;0efBuD;Xme0efBuD;? or0g,r0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D tjzpfwm0ef xrf;aqmifco hJ nf/ 1981 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbm 9 &ufaeYrS 12 &ufaeYtxdusif;ycJhaom wwd,tBudrfjynfolYvTwfawmfyxrtpnf;ta0;ü ewåvif;NrdKUe,f rJqE´e,f(1)rS ol&OD;xGef;wiftm; 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf? pDrHudef;ESifh b@ma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;tjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;cHcJh&ygonf/ 1985 ckESpf? atmufwb dk mv 6 &ufaeYrS 20 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJah om pwkwt ¬ Burd f jynfov Yl w T af wmf


151 ESijhf ynfoaYl umifpt D qifq h ifah &G;cs,yf w JG iG v f nf; 'kw, d Burd af jrmuf 'kw, d 0efBu;D csKy?f pDru H ed ;f ESib hf @ma&;0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D tjzpf xyfraH &G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ ygonf/ 1988 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 27 &ufaeYwiG f pwkwt ¬ Burd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmfta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;ukd jynfov Yl w T af wmf tpnf;ta0;cef;rüusi;f ycJ&h m ol&OD;xGe;f wiftm; 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufchJ f m0efrS tem;,lcyhJ gonf/ Muygonf/1 1988 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 17 &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKyw 5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif; ppfrx I rf;aumif;wHqyd Ef iS hf Ekid if *hH P k &f nfbUJG (yxrtqif)h ukd &&Scd o hJ nf/

6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

1977 ckESpf? {NyDv 24 &ufaeYwGif MopMwD;,m;ekdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? 1980 jynfEh pS ?f {Nyv D 28 &ufaeYwiG f tif'edk ;D &Sm;Ekid if EH iS hf *syefEidk if o H v Ydk nf;aumif;? pufwifbmv 23 &ufaeYwGif tar&duefEkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? 'DZifbmv 6 &ufaeYwGif jyifopfEkdifodkY vnf;aumif;oGm;a&mufco hJ nf/ 1982 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v f 6 &ufaeYwiG f *syefEidk if o H Ydk oGm;a&mufchJ onf/ 1984 ckEpS ?f {Nyv D 21 &ufaeYwiG f e,fomvef? NAw d ed ?f AJv*s, D rfEidk if o H Udk vnf;aumif;? ZGefv 16 &ufaeYwGif w&kwfEkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif w&kwEf idk if o H v Ydk nf;aumif;oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf/ 1985 ckEpS w f iG f atNyv D 20 &ufaeY rS ar 20 &ufaeYtxd *syefEidk if ?H xkid ;f Ekid if ?H rav;&Sm;Ekid if H wkEYd iS hf atmufwb dk mv 12 &ufaeYwiG f ukd;&D;,m;or®wEkdifiH? 1986 ckESpf? arvwGif zdvpfykdifEkdifiH? atmufwkdbmvwGif tar&duefEidk if ?H 1987 ckEpS ?f atNyv D 19 &ufaeYwiG f *syefEidk if ?H pufwifbmv 15 &ufaeYwiG f tar&duefEidk if H wko Yd Ydk toD;oD;oGm;a&mufco hJ nf/

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1989 1989/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1989) pm243/


tydkfif;(3) ed*Hk;ESifhtBuHjyKoHk;oyfcsuf


152

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153 xkrd Qruor®wBu;D OD;ae0if;onf vGwv f yf&jy;D acwfwidk ;f jynfuu dk ,fwifcyhJ ?kH tdraf pmifh tpd;k &tjzpfwpfBurd ?f awmfveS af &;aumifpt D pd;k &taejzifw h pfrsKd ;? jynfaxmifpk qkd&S,fvpfor®wEkdifiHawmftpkd;&taejzifhvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonfrSm orkdif;aMumif;t& avhvmoHk;oyfawGU&SdEkdifygonf/ ¤if;tjyif or®wBuD; w&kwf-jrefrm e,ferd w d f e,fyidk ;f jcm;onfph mcsKyu f dk csKyq f Edk idk cf yhJ u kH v kd nf; awGU&SEd idk yf gonf/ 1974 ckEpS f Ekid if aH wmfzUJG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya't& usi;f yaom a&G;aumufyrJG &S &So d nfh jynfoYl uk, d pf m;vS,f rsm;tm; Ekid if aH wmftmPmukd pepfwusvt JT yfEidk cf yhJ gonf/ ¤if;aemufor®wBuD;OD;pef;,k onf AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef; vufxufrS uG,v f eG o f mG ;onft h csed x f d wkid ;f jynftay:opöm&S&d dS wm0efoo d d BuKd ;yrf; aqmif&u G cf yH u kH dk awGjY rifEidk yf gonf/ or®wBu;D OD;pdev f iG o f nfvnf; jynfxaJ &;ESio hf moema&;0efBu;D ? ygwDtaxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL; wm0efrsm;ay;tyfjcif;cH&NyD; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH awmftwGuf OD;vnfrokeBf uKd ;yrf;cJ?h aqmif&u G cf o hJ w l pfO;D jzpfygonf/ Ekid if aH &;tajctaeaumif;rGejf cif; r&Sad omcsed w f iG f or®wtjzpf a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cHc&hJ oljzpfcyhJ gonf/ or®wBuD;a'gufwmarmifarmifonfEkdifiHa&;tajc taeaumif;rGefr&Sdaom tcsed w f iG f or®wtjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifc&hJ ygonf/ xkt Yd jyif Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmifonf Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rI wnfaqmufa&; tzGJU (,aeYEkdifiHawmf at;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpD)OuúXtjzpf vGwfvyfa&; jyefvnf qH;k ½H;I &awmhrnft h ajctaeokaYd &muf&adS ecsed w f iG f wkid ;f jynfudk orkid ;f ay;wm0eft& u,fwifc&hJ oljzpfonf/ wpfzef jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfwiG w f m0efxrf;aqmifcahJ om0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ek onfvnf;wkdif;jynfukd vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdatmif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;wkdYESifhtwl BudK;yrf; aqmif&u G cf o hJ jl zpfonf/ Ak'b ¨ momukd Ekid if aH wmfbmomtjzpftodtrSwjf yKay;Ekid jf cif;rSm jrefrmvlrsKd ;wk\ Yd bmomomoemxGe;f um;ap&ef &nf&, G í f jyKvyk af y;cJo h nfrmS tvGeyf if *kPjf yKavmufonf[, k q l &ygonf/ OD;pde0f if; onf jynfaxmifpq k &dk , S v f pfor®wEkid if aH wmf\yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyjf zpf onf/ *syefacwfrS 1972 ckEpS f wyfrawmfrS tNird ;f pm;,lonft h csed x f d Ekid if aH wmftusKd ;ukd wyfrawmfom;b0jzihf BudK;yrf;cJholjzpfonf/ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhtwl zufqpf awmfveS af &;wGif &Gy&f yG cf RcH RH wku d cf u dk Ef idk cf o hJ jl zpfonf/ wpfzef0efBu;D csKyb f 0tjzpf Ekid if aH wmfudk BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf ukad wG&Y EdS idk yf gonf/


154 0efBuD;csKyf OD;armifarmifconf jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwDacwfwGif 0efBuD;csKyftjzpf 10 ausmfwm0efxrf;aqmifcJholjzpfonfhtjyif xkdygwDwnfNrJEkdifap&ef twGuf BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u G cf o hJ w l pfO;D jzpfygonf/ 0efBu;D csKyf ol&OD;xGe;f wif Ekid if aH &;qlyrl jl zpfymG ;aeaomtcsed w f iG f 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf a&G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&oljzpfygonf/ 'kw, d 0efBu;D csKyt f jzpf 7 ESpcf efw Y m0efxrf;aqmifchJ ygonf/ a'gufwmarmifarmifwEYdk iS t hf wl wm0efxrf;aqmiforl sm;jzpfonf/ þpmwrf;onf 1948 ckESpfrS 1988 ckESpf tcsefumvtxd jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkid if aH wmfwiG f wm0efxrf;aqmifcahJ om or®wBu;D rsm;ESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\ tw¬Kyw Ü u då dk wpfpw k pfa0;wnf; jyKpx k m;jcif;jzpfojzifh vly*k Kd¾ vw f pfO;D wpfa,mufp\ D b0ESihf vly*k Kd¾ vt f pk tzGJUwpfck\ b0rsm;ukd aygif;pyfavhvmvQif twk,lp&mrsm;? ynm,lp&mrsm;? avhvm p&mrsm;ukd wpfpw k pfpnf;wnf; awGjY rifEidk yf gonf/ ]]pmayonfacwf\aMu;rH?k pmtkypf mayvlrY w d af qG? pme,fZif;wkid ;f acwforkid ;f ? tvdrm® pmrSm&So d nf? pmMunfw h u dk w f cH g;wpfcsyzf iG x hf m;jcif;onf tusO;f axmifwcH g;wpfcsyf ydwo f nfrnf\}} tp&Sad omaqmify'k rf sm;t& þpmwrf;jzifh pmMunfw h u dk Ef iS o hf yk nmXme twGuv f nf;aumif;? rdrw d m0efxrf;aqmifaeaomwyftwGuv f nf;aumif;? wyfrawmf twGufvnf;aumif;? EkdifiHawmftwGuf wpfaxmifhwpfae&mrS tusdK;&SdoGm;rnfqkdvQif pmwrf;jyKp&k jcif;twGuf yDwjd zpfaernfjzpfygaMumif; ½kad ousKd ;EGpH mG jzifh wifjytyfygonf/


155

usr;f uk;d pm&if; jrefrmpmtkyrf sm; 1/

ausmNf ird ;f ? &JabmfoHk;usdyf/ &efuek ?f tif;0pmaywku d ?f 1998/

2/

ausm0f if;? OD;/ jrefrmEkid if aH &; 1958-1962 (wwd,wG)J / wGb J ufa&;ol OD;jr[efEiS hf OD;odef;vdIif/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1991/

3/

MunfñeT ?Yf cspfMunfa&; &;/ OD;Ek-OD;avm&Hktaygif;tygrsm;ESifhe,fcsJU*kdPf;/ &efuek ?f cspfMunfa&;pmaywkduf? 1970/

4/

cspaf qG? arNrdKUU-/ jynfolcspfaomAkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ &efuek ?f ajreDuek ;f pmaywku d ?f 1970/

5/

cspaf rmif? ocif? 0d"l&--/ uRefb0Armjynf/ &efuek ?f aAmawmhpmay? 1968/

6/

- - - / vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemufjrefrmjynf/ &efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969/

7/

pHNidrf;? OD ;/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 (yxrwGJ)/ wGJbufa&;ol a'gufwm a':jrifhMunf/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD; Xme? 1991/

8/

pk;d armif? armif? 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ &efuek ?f ormrdw?å 1955/

9/

pdejf rif?h OD;/(vkyo f m;rsm;aumfvyd )f -/ ESpf-200 jrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;tbd"mef/ &efuek ?f yifra&pD;pmay? 1969/

10/

refrmvlausmf 100 yxrwGJ/ &efuek ?f EG,ef pD may? 2002/ aZ,sm? armif/ jref

11/

nDnD? a'gufwmm/ jrefrmEkdifiHtrsdK;om;armfuGef; (1975)? rsufarSmufumv jrefrmEkdifiH rSwfwrf;/ &efuek ?f urÇmvH;k pmay? 1978/

12/

awmfvSefa&;aumifpDvkyfaqmifcsuforkdif;tusOf;csKyf/ &efuek ?f jynfov Yl w T af wmf? [1965]/

13/

wifjr? ocif/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;XmecsKyfESifh wkdif;(10)wkdif;/ w-Burd ?f &efuek ?f r[meE´pmay? 1976/

14/

1974 ckESpfrS 1987 ckESpftxd jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;XmerSxkwfa0aom vpOfxkwf a&SUokdY*sme,f/


156 15/

vpOfxw 1948 ckEpS f rS 1959 ckEpS t f xdxw k af 0aomvpOf k pmayAd fpmayAdrmefr*¾Zif;rsm;/ twGJ(1)? trSwf(12) rS twGJ(7) trSwf(10) txd/

16/

1948 ckESpfrS 1988 ckESpftxd aeYpOf xkwf aMu;rHkowif;pm pm/

17/

1948 ckEpS rf S 1988 ckEpS t f xd aeYpOf xkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm pm/

18/

wyfrawmfa&T&wk 1995? rwf/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1995/

19/

xGef;aepOfowif;pm pm/ (20 Zef 1958)/

20/

Ek? oci ocif/ ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf/ &efuek ?f jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwku d ?f 1946/

21/

Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ OuúX? wyfrawmfumuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Akv d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmif\ wkid ;f jynfow Ydk ifjycsuaf rwåm&yfccH surf sm;? Ekid if jH cm; owif;pmq&mrsm;ESifhawGUqHkaqG;aEG;csufrsm;rdefYcGef;rsm; rsm;/ p-Burd ?f &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1989/

22/

ESi;f auo&m/ jrefrmEkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;pepftrsdK;rsdK;(at'D 1824rS at'D 1987 txd )/ &efukef? jr0wDyHkESdyfwkduf? 1993/

23/

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmf t|rESpfywfvnfpmapmif/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;Xme? 1956/

24/

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmf e0rESpfywfvnfpmapmif/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;Xme? 1957/

25/

jynf a xmif p k j ref r mEk d i f i H a wmf {u'orES p f y wf v nf p mapmif / &efukef? jyefMum;a&;Xme? 1959/

26/

jynfjrefrm 1980 1980/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1981/

27/

jynfjrefrm 1981 1981/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1982/

28/

jynfjrefrm 1982 1982/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1983/

29/

jynfjrefrm 1983 1983/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1984/

30/

jynfjrefrm 1984 1984/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1985/

31/

jynfjrefrm 1985 1985/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1986/

32/

jynfjrefrm 1986 1986/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1987/


157 33/

jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; 0efxrf;wyf ESpfygwfvnfpmapmi mapmif/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;Xme? 1951/

34/

AaqG? OD ;/ ygwDwGif;tjzpfrSef/ &efuek ?f zqyvyHEk ydS w f u dk ?f [1957]/

35/

AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;rdefYcGef;rsm; rsm;/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1971/

36/

AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;tw¬KyÜwå/d wnf;jzwfol ocifu, dk af wmfridI ;f / &efuek ?f trsKd ;om; yHkESdyfwkduf? 1951/

37/

)-/ ArmhawmfvSefa&;orkdif;/ &efuek ?f t&kPOf ;D pmay? baomif;? AkdvfrSL; (armifokw)1967/

38/

rkd;BudK;owif;pm pm/ (14 Ekd 1962)/

39/

armifarmif/ ouf&Sd&mZ0if/ &efukef? ormrdwå? 1956/

40/

armifarmif? a'guf w mm/ EkdifiHawmfvkyfBuHrI? jynfaxmifpkESifhOD;apm/ &efukef? 0if;armfOD;pmay? 1974

41/

- - - / jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifh AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ &efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw f u dk ?f 1969/

42/

- - - / om;armifppfonfokdY/ &efukef? yk*Hpmtkyfwkduf? 1973/

43/

jr?&J sm;/( &efukef? &J a bmf - / zuf q pf a wmf v S e f a &;jynf o l Y & J a cgif a jymuf u sm; jr&myifpmaytkyfwkduf?1971) pm- 153? 486 pm/

44/

jr0if;/ wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;orkdif;tusOf; (1941 ckESpfrS 1990jynhfESpf txd)/w-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMuma&;0efBuD;Xme? 1992/

45/

jr[ef/ ukdvkdeDacwfjrefrmhorkdif;tbd"mef/ w-Burd ?f &efuek ?f orkid ;f Xme? 1999/

46/

J ufa&;ol jrifMh unf? a'gufwmm/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 ('kwd,wGJ)/ wGb a'gufwm aemftif*svif;/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1991/

47/

jrifah rmif? rauG;/ wyfrawmfppfonfwpfOD;\rSwfwrf;rsm; rsm;/ &efuek ?f 0if;pmay? 1999/

48/

jrifv h iG ?f uarÇmZZ-/ ArmjynfESpfaygif;200 rSwfwrf;BuD;/ &efuek ?f arh*P k &f nfpmtkyf wkduf? 1999/


158 49/

jrifha0? OD ; (wyf r awmf j rif h o EÅ m ))-/ Armh a wmf v S e f a &;tbd " mef / &efukef? py,fOD;pmay? 1972/

50/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ; (pwkw¬wGJ) 1948-1962 1948-1962/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1996/

51/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ; (qXrwGJ) 1974-1988/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1998/

52/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ; (wwd,wGJ) 1945-1948 1945-1948/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1995/

53/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ; ('k w d , wG J ) 1945 zuf q pf a wmf v S e f a &;umv &;umv/ w-Bud r f ? &ef u k e f ? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1999/

54/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ; (yxrwGJ)1824-1945 1824-1945/ p-Burd ?f &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1999/

55/

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku d Ef iS w hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku d /f wyfrawmforkdif; (yOörwGJ) 1962-1974 1962-1974/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1999/

56/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ; (owårwGJ) 1988-1993 1988-1993/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 2000/

57/

jrefrmEkdifiH? EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU? wkdif;usdK;jynfjyK? Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ \aqmif&u G cf suo f rkid ;f 0ifrw S w f rf; (1988 ckESpfrS 1991 ckESpf)/ &efuek ?f ,if;tzGUJ ? 1991/

58/

jrefrmEkdifiHa&;pepfajymif;umv (1962-1974)(yxrwGJ)/ OD;jr[efEiS t hf jcm; pma&;olrsm;/ &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1993/

59/

jrefrmEkdifiHa&;pepfajymif;umv (1962-1974)('kwd,wGJ)/ OD;jr[efEiS t hf jcm; pma&;olrsm;/ &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1993/

60/

jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;atmifyGJ/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;ESit hf oHviTG Xhf me? (1948)/

61/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1978 1978/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1978/

62/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1979 1979/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1979/


159 63/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1980 1980/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1980/

64/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1981 1981/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1981/

65/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1982 1982/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1982/

66/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1983 1983/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1983/

67/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1984 1984/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1984/

68/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1985 1985/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1985/

69/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1986 1986/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1986/

70/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1987 1987/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1987/

71/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1988 1988/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1988/

72/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1989 1989/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1989/

73/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1990 1990/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1990/

74/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1991 1991/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1991/

75/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1992 1992/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1992/

76/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1993 1993/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1993/

77/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1994 1994/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1994/

78/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1995 1995/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1995/

79/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1996 1996/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1996/

80/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1997 1997/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1997/

81/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1998 1998/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1998/

82/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1999 1999/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1999/

83/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2000 2000/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2000/

84/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2001 2001/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2001/

85/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2002 2002/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2002/

86/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2003 2003/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2003/


160 87/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2004 2004/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2004/

88/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2005 2005/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2005/

89/ &efukefowif;pm (13 azazmf0g&Dv 1959)/ 90/ a&TOMo/ wpf c sd e f u xif & S m ;cJ h a omacgif ; aqmif B uD ; rsm; rsm;/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? 0if;jrifhatmif pmay? 1997/ 91/

vSrsdK;? &Jabmf-/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;0ifpmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm; rsm;/ &efuek ?f vSrsdK;pmay? 1968/

92/

vSorde/f urÇmh'kdif,m&DESifhjrefrmh'kdif,m&D/ &efuek ?f tvif;a&mifpmaywku d ?f 1967

93/

0krif;? a':&kdoD/ acwfjrefrmwnf[ef/bmomjyefol OD;wifarmif&if/ &efukef? jrwfEkd;olpmay? 1978/

94/

owif;pmq&mwpfO;D / ArmarmfuGef;rSwfwkdifrsm; sm;/ &efuek ?f ca&zl;pmpOf? (1955)/

95/

oef?Y OD ;? jynfawmfomc&D;(yxrykdif;))/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1961/

96/

- - - ? jynfawmfomc&D;('kwd,ykdif;))/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1961/

97/

oef;xGef;/ jynfolYvTwfawmfESifhEkdifiHa&;jyóemrsm; 1948-1958 1948-1958/ &efukef? orkdif;Xme? 1978/

98/

ode;f azjrif/h awmfvSefa&;umvtawGUtBuHKrsm; rsm;/ 'k-Burd ?f &efuek ?f ,rHek mpmay? 1967/

99/

odef;vIdif? OD ;/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;pepfajymif;umv (1962-1974)(wwd,wGJ)/ wGJbufa&;ol a':cifvS[ef/ &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1993/

100/ [Hom0wDowif;pm (26 pufwifbm 1961)/ 101/ tdZrk , d wwfpak &m/ uRefawmfyg0ifcJhaomrDemrDuDuef;/ bmomjyefol a':cif&/D &efukef? bmomjyefESifhpmtkyfxkwfa0a&;Xme? 1981/


161 t*Fvdyfpmtkyfrsm; 1/

Ba U,U. My Burma : The Autobiography of a President. New York : Taplinger Publishing Co,Inc.,1958.

2/

BURMA : The Fourteenth Anniversary. Rangoon Vol. XI, No. 1. Rangoon : The Director of Inofrmation, 1962.

3/

BURMA : The Fighth Anniversary. Yangon Vol. VI, No. 2. Rangoon : The Director of Inofrmation, 1957.

4/

BURMA : The Ninth Anniversary. Yangon Vol. VII, No. 2. Rangoon : The Director of Inofrmation, 1957.

5/

BURMA : The Tenth Anniversary. Yangon Vol. VIII, No. 2. Rangoon : The Director of Inofrmation, 1958.

6/

Government and Politics of Asian Countries: Myanmar/ edited by Verlinder Grover. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications PVT. Ltd, 2000.

7/

Johnston, William C., A Chronology of Burma's International Relations 19451958. Rangoon : Rangoon University,1959.

8/

Aung San, Burma's Challenge. Rangoon : The New Light of Burma Press Ltd, 1946.


162

&JabmfoHk;usdyf pOf 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/

trnf ocifatmifqef; ocif½Iarmif ocifausmfpdef ocifcifarmifOD; ocifaiG ocifapmvGif ocifpHjr ocifpHvIdif ocifpkd; ukdaqmif; ocifwifat; ocifxGef;cif ukdxGef;&Sdef ocifxGef;a&T ocifxGef;vGif ocifxGef;tkyf ocifA*srf; ocifarmifarmif udka&T ocifvS ocifvSaz ocifvSarmif ocifvSNrdKif ocifopf ocifoef;nTefY ocifoef;wif(1) ocifoef;wif(2) ocifat;armif ocifatmifoef; ukdatmifodef;

*syeftrnf Om'oda Monji Takasugi Susumu Takahashi Monya Masaru Katsura Yamaoka Kiyoshi Nakagawa Ichiro Omura Tadashi Kono Monya Hiroshi Chinda Seiji Nakamura Hitoshi Yamashita Teruo Utsumi Susumu Otani Hiroshi Ichihara Ishiro Baba Takeshi Tsuchiya Taniguchi Shin-ichi Ito Hitochi Tani Kiyoshi Kaga Masashi Itoda Tei-ichi Osawa Okawa Yamada Tsubota Mizuno Saburo Hirata Masao Hayashi

AkdvfbGJUtrnf AkdvfawZ Akdvfae0if; Akdvfrkd;ñkd Akdvfwm&m Akdvfapmatmif Akdvfrif;acgif Akdvfawmufxdef Akdvfatmif Akdvfjrifhatmif Akdvfxdef0if; Akdvfbkef;jrifh AkdvfjrifhaqG Akdvf&efEkdif Akdvfvif;,kef AkdvfAv ------------Akdvfva&mif AkdvfOmP AkdvfausmfaZm Akdvfrif;a&mif Akdvfvufsm AkdvfaZ,s Akdvf&efatmif Akdvfapmaemif AkdvfZifa,mf Akdvfoef;wif Akdvfjr'if Akdvfrdk; AkdvfpMufm Akdvf&JxG#f


163

1943 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv (1) &ufaeY *syefay;aomvGwfvyfa&;acwf jreffrmEkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/

a'gufwm barmf ocifjr AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; ocifEk(OD;Ek) OD;b0if; a'gufwmodef;armif OD;at; OD;odrf;armif OD;vSaz OD;vSrif; OD;jr (aysmfbG,f) OD;pdef (AE¨Kv)

-

13/ 14/ 15/ 16/

OD;xGef;atmif ocifvGef;abmf ocifoef;xGef; ocifav;armif

-

t"dywdt&Sifrif;BuD;? 0efBuD;csKyf? ppfaoemywdcsKyf 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf umuG,fa&;0efBuD; EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD; jynfxJa&;Xme0efBuD; b@ma&;Xme0efBuD; tcGefawmfXme 0efBuD; w&m;a&;Xme0efBuD; opfawmESifhow¬KwGif;Xme0efBuD; ynm? usef;rm? pnfyifom,ma&;Xme0efBuD; ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;ESifh pufrIvufrI0efBuD; 0g'jzefYcsDa&;? omoema&;? r[mArmESifh Armh0efxrf;Xme0efBuD; yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;Xme0efBuD; vrf;yef;ESifhjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;Xme0efBuD; ajrESifhv,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;Xme0efBuD; vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;ESifh qnfajrmif;Xme0efBuD;


164

1948 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufaeY jynfaxmifpkor®wjreffrmEkdifiHawmftpkd;&tzGJU p0fa&Tokduf 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/

ocifEk Akdvfvufsm OD;wifxG#f OD;ausmfNidrf; OD;wif OD;A*srf; ocifwif Akdvfbkd;uGef;

-

9/ OD;nkdxGef; 10/ OD;jr ([oFmw) 11/ OD;ukdukdBuD;

-

12/ ref;0if;armif

-

13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/

-

OD;xGef;jrifh apmpHbkd;oif qrm;'l;0g;qif0gaemif apm0PÖ OD;0rf;olarmif AkdvfpdefrSef

or®w 0efBuD;csKyf 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyfESifhumuG,fa&;0efBuD; EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xme0efBuD; jynfxJa&;Xme0efBuD; b@ma&;ESifhtcGefawmfXme0efBuD; w&m;Xme0efBuD; v,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;ESifh opfawma&;Xme0efBuD; ynma&;-jynfo0Yl efxrf;ESi-hf jyefvnfxal xmifa&;Xme 0efBuD; owif;ESifhjyefMum;a&;Xme0efBuD; trsdK;om;pDrHudef;ESifhpufrIvufrIXme0efBuD; ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;-axmufyahH &;ESio hf ,f,yl adk qmif a&;Xme0efBuD; vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;-taqmuftODESifhtvkyform; Xme0efBuD; &Srf;jynfe,f0efBuD; u&ifa&;&m0efBuD; ucsifjynfe,f0efBuD; u&ifeDjynf0efBuD; csif;a&;&m0efBuD; Xmevufukdifr&Sd0efBuD;


165

1/ 2/

3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/

9/ 10/ 11/

12/

13/

14/

1958 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv (28)&uf tdrfapmifhtpkd;&tzGJU OD;0if;armif - or®w owkd;oD&dok"r® AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; - EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf? umuG,fa&;Xme? trsdK;om;pD;rHudef;Xme t*¾r[moa&pnfolowkd; - 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf? EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xme? om oD&dok"r® OD;odrf;armif oema&;Xme? usef;rma&;Xme? jynfolY0ef xrf;Xme owkd;r[moa&pnfol - &Srf;jynfe,f0efBuD; p0f[Hkz a'gufwm apmvSxGef; - u&ifjynfe,f0efBuD; 'l0gaZmfvGef; - ucsifjynfe,f0efBuD; p0fpPÖ - u,m;jynfe,f0efBuD; OD;xefvsef; - csif;a&;&m0efBuD; r[moa&pnfol - jynfxaJ &;Xme? jyefMum;a&;Xme?'Dru dk a&pD OD;cifarmifjzL a'oEÅ&tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifha'oEÅ&tzGJUrsm; XmESifh vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESifhtrsdK;om; rSwfyHkwifa&;Xme0efBuD; owkd;r[moa&pnfol - w&m;a&;Xme0efBuD; OD;csefxGef;atmif OD;ausmfNidrf; - b@ma&;ESifhtcGefawmfXme0efBuD; pnfolOD;bMum; - ukefoG,frIwkd;wufa&;Xme? or0g,rESifh ukefpnfjzefYjzLa&;XmeESifhypönf;axmuf yHha&;Xme0efBuD; oa&pnfolOD;pHñGefU - o,f,yl aYdk qmifa&;ESihf vrf;yef; qufo, G f a&;XmeESifhjynfolYvkyfief;ESifh tdrf&m aqmufvkyfa&;Xme0efBuD; OD;um - ynma&;Xme? v,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;ESifhopf awma&;XmeESifhv,f,majrEkdifiHykdif jyKvkyfa&;Xme0efBuD; oD&dysHcsDOD;cspfaomif; - pufrIvufrIXme? ow¬KwGif;XmeESifhtvkyf orm;Xme0efBuD;


166

1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeY jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf? awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuúX 1/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;

-

umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf

-

'kwd,umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf(Munf;) 'kwd,umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf(a&) 'kwd,umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf(av) ppfaxmufcsKyf wkdif;rSL;? taemufajrmufwkdif;ppfXmecsKyf wkdif;rSL;? tv,fykdif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyf wkdif;rSL;? ta&SUawmifwkdif;ppfXmecsKyf wkdif;rSL;? taemufawmifwkdif;ppfXmecsKyf wkdif;rSL;? ta&SUykdif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyf ppfOD;pD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; ppf&mxl;cefYtwGif;0ef e,fjcm;a'otkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;csKyf wGJzufppfaxmufcsKyf avhusifha&;nTefMum;a&;rSL; aq;0efxrf;nTefMum;a&;rSL; 'kwd,&JwyfcsKyf? jynfapmifh&JwyfXmecsKyf

tzGJU0ifrsm; 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/

AkdvfrSL;csKyf AkdvfrSL;csKyf AkdvfrSL;csKyf AkdvfrSL;csKyf AkdvfrSL;csKyf AkdvfrSL;csKyf AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD;

atmifBuD; oef;az wDuvpf wifaz pef;,k pdef0if; aomif;Munf Munfarmif armifa&T oef;pdef ausmfpdef apmjrifh cspfNrdKif cifnkd vS[ef wef,kqkdif


167

1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeY jynfaxmifpkor®wjreffrmEkdifiHawmf? awmfvSefa&;tpkd;&tzGJU

1/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if; (awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuúX) 2/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf atmifBuD; 3/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf wifaz

-

4/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf oef;az 5/ OD;oD[ef

-

6/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; ausmfpkd; 7/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; apmjrifh 8/ 'kwd,AkdvfrSL;BuD; beD

-

umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xm? b@ma&;XmESifh tcGefawmf 0efBuD;Xme? w&m;a&;0efBuD;Xme/ ukefoG,frIESifhul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;0efBuD;Xme? pufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme/ v,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;ESifh opfawma&;0efBuD;Xme? or 0g,rESifh ukefpnfjzefYjzLa&; 0efBuD;Xme ynma&;0efBuD;Xme? usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme? tvkyform;a&;0efBuD;Xme? tdrf&maqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme? ow¬KwGif;0efBuD; Xme/ jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme? vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;0efBuD;Xme/ jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme/ vrf;yefqufoG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme/


168

1962 ckESpf? rwfv 4 &ufaeY jynfaxmifpkor®wjreffrmEkdifiHawmf? awmfvSefa&;tpkd;&tzGJU

1/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;

-

2/ 3/ 4/ 5/

-

AkdvfrSL;csKyf atmifBuD; AkdvfrSL;csKyf wifaz AkdvfrSL;BuD; ukdukd OD;oD[ef

6/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; ausmfpkd;

-

7/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; apmjrifh

-

(1) 0efBuD;csKyf&Hk; (2) trsdK;om;pDrHudef;0efBuD;Xme ypönf;axmufyHha&;0efBuD;Xme v,f,majrEkdifiHykdifjyKvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xm 0efBuD;rsm;tzGJUtwGif;0ef jynfolYvkyfief;XmeESifhjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;Xmersm; ukd tdrf,maqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;XmeESifhyl;aygif; tkyfcsKyfoGm;&ef (1) 'Dru dk a&pD a'oEÅ&tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf a'oEÅ&tzGUJ rsm;0efBuD;Xme (2) omoema&;ESifhvlrI0efxrf;0efBuD;XmerS omoema&;Xmersm;ukdtkyfcsKyfaqmif&Guf oGm;&ef (3) trsKd ;om;rSwyf w kH ifa&;Xmeukv d 0l ifrBI u;D Muyfa&; 0efBuD;XmeESifhyl;aygif;tkyfcsKyfoGm;&ef (1) u,fq,fa&;? jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;ESit hf rsKd ; om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;0efBuD;Xme (2) vlrI0xrf;ESifhomoema&;0efBuD;XmerS vlrI0ef xrf;Xmersm;ukdtkyfcsKyfoGm;&ef


169 jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmfvSefa&;aumifpD? aMunmcsuftrSwf 72 (1968ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 4 &uf) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH jynfwGif;nDnTwfa&;tBuHay;tzGJU 1/ OD;ausmfNidrf;

17/ rGefzkd;csdK

2/ OD;ausmfrif;

18/ OD;AaqG

3/ Akdvfcifarmifuav;

19/ Akdvfrif;acgif

4/ Akdvfcifarmif

20/ OD;a&TBudKif

5/ ocifcspfarmif(0d"l&)

21/ ocifvGif

6/ ocifcspfarmif(jrefatmif)

22/ ocifvSauR

7/ p0fpkdif;vHk

23/ ocifav;armif

8/ ocifpHjrifh

24/ OD;vGefykrf

9/ 'l0gaZmf&pf

25/ p0f0PÖ

10/ 'l0gaZmfvGef;

26/ ref;0if;armif

11/ ocifwif

27/ z'kda0aom

12/ OD;wifnTefY

28/ ocifoif

13/ OD;xyfvIdif;

29/ ocifomcif

14/ OD;xGef;jrifh(vif;ac;)

30/ q&momxkd

15/ OD;Ek

31/ OD;omxGef;

16/ p0fjynfh

32/ AkdvfrSL;atmif 33/EkdifatmifxGef;

1/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH awmfvSefa&;aumifpDokdYwifoGif;aom jynfaxmifpkjrefrm Ekid if jH ynfwiG ;f nDnw G af &;tBuaH y;tzGUJ \tpD&ifcpH mm/ (ae? xkw?f ESpf ryg)/ 84pm


170 1974 ckESpf? jynfaxmifpkqkd&S,fvpfor®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf tpkd;&tzGJU OD;ae0if;

-

or®w

1/

OD;pdef0if;

-

0efBuD;csKyf

2/

OD;vGif

-

3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/

OD;ukdukd OD;armifarmifc a'gufwmnDnD OD;omausmf OD;xifausmf AkdvfrSL;BuD; pdefvGif AkdvfrSL;BuD; Munfarmif a'gufwm cifarmif0if;AkdvfrSL;csKyf wifOD; OD;&Jacgif OD;pef0if; OD;xGef;wif OD;cspfcif OD;Aeful; OD;at;armif OD;vSbkef; -

'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf? 0efBuD;? pDrHudef;ESifhb@ma&; 0efBuD; 0efBuD;? jynfxJa&;ESifh omoema&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? pufrI0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? ow¬KwGif;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? ykdYaqmifqufoG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? aqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? or0g,r0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? ynma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? v,f,mESifhopfawm0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? ukefoG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? tvkyform;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? vlrI0efxrf;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;? EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme


171 EkdifiHawmf Nidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU zGJUpnf;jcif; Ekid if aH wmf Nird 0f yfyjd ym;rI wnfaqmufrt I zGUJ \ 18-9-88 aeYpyJG gpmtrSwf (1^88)t& EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJUukd atmufygyk*d他Kvfrsm;jzifh zGJUpnf;onf 1/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; apmarmif Ou炭X 2/ 'kwd, AkdvfcsKyfBuD; oef;a&T tzGJU0if 3/ AkdvfcsKyf armifarmifcif tzGJU0if 4/ AkdvfcsKyf wifxGef; tzGJU0if 5/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf atmif&Jausmf tzGJU0if 6/ AkdvfcsKyf bkef;jrifh tzGJU0if 7/ AdkvfcsKyf pdefatmif tzGJU0if 8/ AkdvfcsKyf cspfaqG tzGJU0if 9/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf ausmfb tzGJU0if 10/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf armifoifh tzGJU0if 11/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf armifat; tzGJU0if 12/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf OmPfvif; tzGJU0if 13/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf jrifharmif tzGJU0if 14/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf jroif; tzGJU0if 15/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf xGef;Munf tzGJU0if 16/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf at;aomif tzGJU0if 17/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf rsKd;単GefY tzGJU0if 18/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf cif単GefY twGif;a&;rSL; (1) 19/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; wifOD; twGif;a&;rSL; (2) wkdYjzpfMuonf/


172

a'gufwmarmifarmifa&;cJhaompmtkyfrsm; jrefrmpmtkyfrsm; wkdYjynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHzGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk/ &efuek ?f 1959/ 1/ EkdifiHawmfvkyfBuHrI/ &efuek ?f 1968/ 2/ jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ &efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw 3/ f u dk ?f 1946/ om;armifppfonfokdY / &efuek ?f yH*k pH mtkyw 4/ f u dk ?f 1973/ ouf&Sd&mZ0if/ &efuek ?f 1956/ 5/ aoG ; eD/ &efukef? 1946/ 6/ t*Fvdyfpmtkyfrsm; 1/ Aung San of Burma / &efukef? 1962/ 2/ Burma and General Ne Win/ &efukef? 1969/ 3/ Burma in the Family of Nations / &efukef? 1956/ 4/ Burma's Constitution / &efukef? 1959/ 5/ Burma's Teetrhing Time/ &efukef? 1949/ 6/ Eggar's Law of Evidence / &efukef? 1959/ 7/ The Forgotten Army / &efukef? 1946/ 8/ Grim War against the KMT / &efukef? 1943/ 10/ London Dirary / &efukef? 1952/ 11/ A Trial in Burma / &efukef? 1962/


173

OD;Eka&;cJhaompmtkyfrsm; 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/

umrwPSm/ &efukef? a'ompmaywkduf? 1982/ urÇmwywf/ &efukef? bmomjyefpmaytoif;? 1957/ urÇmeJUowå0gtp,Ofaus;rItptwGJ(1) 1)/ &efuek ?f atmifavmupmay? 1968/ aus;Zl;&Sif/ &efuek ?f *kPx f ;l pmay? 1984/ acgif;aqmifrsm;vufpGJ/ &efuek ?f zqyv(oef&Y iS ;f )tzGUJ csKyo f wif;ESijhf yefMum;a&; Xme/ *E¨mv&mZfrSwfwrf;/ &efuek ?f bmomjyefpmaytoif;? 1955/ ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf(1941-1945) 1941-1945)? &efuek ?f a,m*DyEkH ydS w f u dk ?f 1946/ qkd&S,fvpf0g' g'/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef/ wmawpaeom; wmawpaeom;/ bHkab? - ? 1967/ 'Drkdua&pDukdumuG,fMu u/ &efuek ?f Armhacwfowif;pmwku d /f zdESdyfrIUwkdufyGJtqifhqifh/ &efuek ?f zqyv(oef&Y iS ;f )tzGUJ csKy?f 1959/ jynfaxmifpkeDwdpä/ &efuek ?f oef&Y iS ;f zqvytzGUJ csKy?f 1960/ jynfaxmifpkyef;wkdif/ &efuek ?f bmomjyefpmaytoif;? 1956/ rdwåAv#Dumm/ &efukef? pmayavmupmtkyfwkduf? 1996/ jrefrmhobifavmu vmu/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1967/ &ufpufygayhuG,f/ &efuek ?f O'gef;pmay? 1967/ vlxkatmfoHjyZmwf/ &efuek ?f oDwmat;yHEk ydS w f u dk f 1957/ vkdw&? EkdifiHa&;tbd"mef? &efuek ?f jrefrmjynfpmtkyjf zefcY saD &;Xme? 1940/ tmZmenf/ &efukef? bmomjyefpmaytoif;? 1949/


174

OD;AaqGa&;cJhaompmtkyfrsm; 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/

Armjynfq&dk , S v f pfygwDtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf OD;AaqG&iS ;f vif;csu/f &efuek ?f Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfygwDXmecsKyf? 1951/ Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfvrf;単Tef/ &efuek ?f jynfawmfp;dk yHEk ydS w f u dk ?f 1955/ Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfvrf;単TefESifhigwkdYEkdifiHa&;vrf;pOf/ &efuek ?f jynfopYl maywku d ?f 1953/ ArmhawmfvSefa&;ESifhArmhvkyfom;vlxk/ &efuek ?f jynfopYl maywku d ?f 1955/


175


176 175-u


177 175-c


176

tnTef; jrefrmpmtñTe;f

(u) taMumif;t&m ucsijf ynfe,f ucsijf ynfe,fvyI &f mS ;rIrsm; ucsiaf omif;use;f olrsm; u'Gwf uae'g uAsmzGUJ jcif; u,m;aoewfuidk w f yf&if; u&if u&ifwidk ;f &if;om;rsm; u&ifjynfe,f u&if-Armacgif;aqmifrsm; u&ifArm&Jacgifajymufusm; u&ifbifc&mtzGUJ u&ifa&aemuf u&if&mG u&ifvil ,frsm;tpnf;t&H;k u&ifoyl ek f u&iftrsKd ;om;wyf uav;jyKpak &;Xme uavmNrKd U u0drsurf eS f uom uomNrKd U umuG,af &;ypön;f xkwv f yk rf w I yfzUJG rsm; umuG,af &;0efBu;D umuG,af &;0efBu;D Xme umuG,af &;0efBu;D Xmeppf&;kH

pmrsuEf mS 62? 84? 86? 90? 97 60 84 136 77 122 59 106? 121 23 18? 82? 84 37 24 5 58 35 24 7 5 50 59? 138 122 23 12 143 37? 38? 41? 61? 123? 128 88? 91 150


177 taMumif;t&m umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf umvuwåm;ppfwuúov dk f umvuwåm;aq;&Hk um0g&S;D rm; uDqaum uDr&l mESit hf *D srD m ukvor*¾ ukvor*¾qidk &f mtNrw J rf;uk, d pf m;vS,t f zGUJ &H;k ukvm; ukvm;xk;d toif; ulvD ]]aubkw d idk }f } autif't D dk autif't D rdk sm; autif,l autkid af t autrfww D &kwjf zLwyfrrsm; autrfww D yfrsm; autrfww D yfom; aumvdyaf usmif;om; aumvdypf um;&nfvyk JG aumhu&dwNf rKd U ukdukdBuD;? OD ; uked ef'KdG i;f ? tmom uk&d , D mrm&l; uk&d ;D ,m; uk&d ;D ,m;Ekid if H uk&d ;D ,m;or®wEkid if H ukv d b H Ndk rKd U ukv d b H u dk eG zf &if;

pmrsufESm 43 23 24 32 35 35 8? 74 51 121 122 121 126 19? 25? 44? 150 40? 112 24? 94 84? 86? 90 81 41 8 122 13 134 107 13 32 77? 145 70 64? 97? 151 118 118


178 taMumif;t&m ukv d b H pdk pfpcef; ukt d mtiif;tzGUJ 0if 91 Xmetkycf sKyaf &; ]]uufo&if;*Guaf xmf}} uif;b&pfcsuifwm&D aumifppf0ef&;kH ukid &f Ndk rKd U uefpk uE´pD mcsKyf uE´pD mcsKyo f abmwlncD suf uE´ND rKd U ukeo f , G af &;aumifpD ukeo f , G af &;vkyif ef; uyÜvu D Re;f urÇmppfwq H yd f urÇmat;apwDawmf urÇmat;bk&m;vrf; urÇmu h ek pf nfjyyGJ urÇmNh ird ;f csr;f a&; urÇm&h mZ0if urÇmo h rkid ;f &mZ0if uarÇmZ&dyo f m uarÇm'D;,m; uarÇm'D;,m;Ekid if H uarÇm'D;,m;omoemykid q f &mawmfBu;D ur® urf;A&pfcsw f uúov dk f urf;bmvif;ppfoabFm uk, d u f siw hf &m; uk, d yf idk t f yk cf sKyaf &;

pmrsufESm 13? 23 31 103 122 10 51 110 136 138 59 39? 106 48 94 50 64 8? 96? 116 10 48 118 118 123 47 45? 77? 116? 132? 145 118 19 136 10? 13-16 17 15 100


179 taMumif;t&m usLukwNf rKd U usL;ausmpf pfyJG ausmfNidrf;? uk d ausmfNidrf;? ocif f ausmfNidrf;? OD ; ausmfaZm? Ak d v f ausmfxGef;? ocif ausmaf e0if; ausmufBu;D ausmufqnf ausmufww H m;NrKd U ausmufrsu&f wemjyyGJ usKd ur© D usKd uv f wf usKd uo f v H efoydwpf cef; usifjr? a': usi0hf wf ausmif;yk&0d P k f ausmif;om;oydwf ausmif;om;or*¾ ausmif;om;or*¾trIaqmifa&G;aumufyJG usKd i;f wHk usKd i;f wHak 'o use;f rma&; usKH weD; usKH aysmf usKH aysmw f w H m;opf usKH aysmNf rKd U usKH &J

pmrsufESm 8 p 101? 105? 124 36 26? 107? 113? 125? 127 128? 129? 130 39? 127 129 55 81? 83 81 50 48 134 59 134 77 16 144 57 103? 121 101 81 8? 82 15 82 82 63 23 136


180 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

Bu;D yGm;a&; ]]aMujimcsut f rSw7f 2}} aMu;rH0k if;? a': BuKd Uuke;f BuKd Uuke;f blwm BuKd Uuke;f bk;d awmf &mausmaf usmif; BuKd Uuke;f &yfuu G f BuKd Uyif MuufajceDtoif; Muufarmufawmifqnf Munfrif;acgif? OD ; uGupf w d f uGeq f maA;wpftwku d t f cHrsm; uGeyf sLwmvkyif ef; uGejf rLepf uGejf rLepfacgif;aqmifrsm; uGejf rLepfygwD uGejf rLepfrsm; uGejf rLepfrmufp0f g' uGejf rLepf0g'pmay uGr;f ,mqkid zf iG jhf cif; uReyf nma&; uRejf yKtyk pf ;dk jcif; ]]uREyfk \ f jrefrmEkid if }H }

122 131 55 148 91? 144 150 92 24 20 49 140 52 109 94 107? 126 117 7? 111? 128 129 123 104 122 102 15 20

(c) c&kid af umfrwD0if c&kid 0f ef c&pf,mefbmom c&rfppfqifa&; cJ,rf;rsm;

134 q 50? 113 84 89


181 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

cufvefwrH cifcifav;? a': cifpef;EGUJ ? a': cifwifh? a': cifaroef;? a': cifarmifuav;? Ak d v f cifjrif?h a': cifO;D vGi?f a': cifat;oufwif? a'gufwm Munfh cifat;Ek? a': acwåwyfr[mrSL; csLaw; csLtifvidk ;f acsmu f efawmifMum; csuu f pdk vkAd ufu;D ,m;Ekid if H csuu f pdk vkAd ufq&dk , S v f pfor®wEkid if H acsmuf&Sufpul? eDukdvkduf? rpö w m csi;f cspf? ocif cspMf unfa&;rdwq f uftzGUJ csppf ed ?f apm cspw f if? ocif cspx f eG ;f cspfaz? OD ; cspaf rmif? ocif cspNf rKd i?f Akdvf cseaf u&Swt f pk;d & csHK? p0f cGecf sKd ? p0f cGepf ed ?f ocif

49 146 118 142 55 79? 107 77 140 118 150 117 117? 118? 129 86 9? 54? 145 146 64 106 124 117 5 30 137 142 129 127 117 2 113 81


182 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

(*) *a&mhpAf if;em;a[mufpaf [mfw,f *l*s&D wDausmif; a*:uD? ruf Z if a*:&muke;f *k;dk vfa[mpfwaJ &pfxyd f *kPx f ;l aqmifyxrqifq h w k q H yd f *wf0pfjrif;yGJ *E¨mv&mZf *efaY *ga'o *syef *syefausmif;om;rsm; *syefacwf *syefppfXmecsKyf *syefppft&m&Sd *syefawmfveS af &; *syefEidk if H *syefjynf *syefbmompmoifausmif;Bu;D *syefowif;pm *syeftpk;d & *syeft,f'w D m *smreD *smrPDEidk if H *sD? pD? bD? at *sb D a&mfvw f ma&vufMum; *sLeD,m[m',f? z&efuvif

110 80 104 135 14 132 16 117 86 37? 54? 77? 118? 145 15 142 105 57 142 64? 74? 132? 145? 146? 151 31? 125 135 104 104 105 54? 77? 145 132? 140 110? 101 13 90

(i) iysi;f &Gm iokid ;f acsmif;

58 15


183 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

ig;ykpeG af rG;jrLzrf;qD;a&;vkyif ef; ]]ig;ESp&f moDArmjynf}} aiGpkd;? OD ; aiGpuúLrsm; aiGawmifqnf Nird ;f csr;f a&; Nird ;f csr;f a&;oabmwlpmcsKyf Nird ;f Nird ;f ? a':

94 117 55 48 49 111? 118 19 20

(p) pMumoD[bk&m; pwD;bk&m;om;opfurk P Ü D pwm;wHqyd f pwkwt ¬ Burd yf gwDnv D mcH pwkwt ¬ Burd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmfta&;ay:tpnf;ta0; pwkwt ¬ Burd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS hf jynfolUaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJ peaA' pepfopfynma&; pavESiu hf Re;f acsmif;"gwfajrMoZmpuf&kH pmMunfw h u dk ?f jywku d Ef iS jhf yyGrJ sm;Bu;D Muyftyk cf sKyaf &;Oya' pmwku d Ef iS ahf Mu;eef;XmecGJ pmyl;awmif;wku d yf JG pmzwfjcif; pma&;jcif; pm&if;ppfcsKy&f ;kH pDp0D rfwmyefa'o pDru H ed ;f ESib hf @ma&;0efBu;D Xme pdru H ed ;f ESib hf @ma&;0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D pDtm&f'b D t D zGUJ pD;yGm;a&;jyóem

72 36 64 150 151 143? 150 123 49 49 50 29 138 122 122 94 89 150 151 90 91


184 taMumif;t&m pl*;D ? wum plprl ?k wupkud apwemh0efxrf;aeYuav;xde;f Xme apm? OD ; apmcif? a': apmarmif? qm pHxGef;? OD ; pH'g;? p0f pHz? p0f pHaz? OD;? q&mBuD;pHarmif? uk d pHvS? OD ; pkd;? Ak d v f pkd;? ocif puúLjzLpmwrf; pufaumfwu dk yf JG pufrpI u dk yf sKd ;a&;ESit hf oufarG;ynma&;Oya' pufrw I uúov dk f pufrw I uúov dk af usmif;om; pufrv I ufrw I yf&if;(2) pufr0I efBu;D Xme pufro I yd aHÜ usmif;toif; puf&akH ygif; puf&iS w f &m;olBu;D pifumylEidk if H ppfuidk ;f ppfaq;a&;txl;cH;k &H;k tzGUJ ppfwuúov dk f ppfawmif; ppfawGaumvdyf

pmrsufESm 33 35 50 39? 76 100 3 79 100 10 81 30 27 82 86? 104? 105? 123? 128 17? 38 59 49 91? 92? 144? 149 53 137 143 142 49 17 77? 140? 145? 146 69? 79 17 142 82 62


185 taMumif;t&m ppfaxmufcsKyf ppfynm ppfNy;D acwftyk cf sKyaf &; ppfrx I rf;aumif;wHqyd f ppfreS af om'Dru dk a&pD ppf&mxl;cefcY sKy&f ;kH ppfa&;csKyf ppfav,mOf pD-47 ppfvufeufypön;f rsm; ppfo&l aJ umif;bGUJ ppfaoemywd ppfaoemywdcsKyf ppfO;D pD;wuúov dk f ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;) ppftyk cf sKyaf &; ppftyk cf sKyaf &;Oya' pnfow l q H yd f pE´m0if;? a': pE´m0if;vufzuf&nfqidk f pef;pef;Ek pef;,k? AkdvfBuD; pef;,k? AkdvfcsKyfrSL; pef;,k? AkdvfrSL;csKyf pef;,k? OD ; pdefrSef? Akdvf pdefrSef? AkdvfBuD; pdefvGif? OD ; pdef0if;? AkdvfBuD; pdef0if;? AkdvfrSL; pdef0if;? AkdvfrSL;csKyf

pmrsufESm 60 31 10 64 144 60 88 90 89 54 38 47? 59 59? 98? 138 150 p? 38? 125 69 140 55 91? 144 118 58? 136 47 60 57? 92? 97 7? 111 136? 137 67 58? 135? 136 136 82


186 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

pde0f if;? OD; pdet f efaxmfeaD usmif; prf;acsmif;NrKd Ue,f

134 135 132

(q) qrm;a'ao q&mpH qmbGJU qDqidk af 'o ql*D;? rpf Z l ½ I qlZu l ;D ]]qlZu l ;D }} qlZluD;? au*sD qkwmed? tDemtkdrd ql;avbk&m;vrf; aq;ausmif; aq;a';a'o ]]qHyifñy§ q f idk zf iG jhf cif;}} qkdifz? p0f qk*d eG ;f NrKd U qkAd , D ufEidk if aH wmftpk;d & qk&d , S v f pfpepf qk&d , S v f pfp;D yGm;a&;pepf qk&d , S v f pfp;D yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f aumfrwD qk&d , S v f pfygwD qk&d , S v f pfygwD0if qk&d , S v f pfygwDOuú| qkdvHkz? p0f qkd;az? OD ; aqmufvyk af &;0efBu;D Xme

84 17? 103 20 81 31 35 36? 37 31 31 108 57 82 122 10 34 19 ps 48 48 128 112 123 10 20 139


187 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

qifjzL&Si*f P k x f ;l aqmifbUJG qifh? OD ; qif;'0pfvrf; aqmif;yg;a&;jcif; qnfajrmif;wmwrHw;l azmfa&;vkyif ef;rsm; q|o*Fg,emwifyBJG u;D q|o*Fg,emr[m"r®obifBu;D qdwf? OD ; qE´c, H yl JG qG'D ED idk if H aqG-Nird ;f tkypf k qGpaf umhuw d cf sb f w l m&Hk qGpZf mvef qGryf &mbHak 'o

54 72 80 122 95 116 19 12 19 118 130 14 16? 77? 145 84

(Z) Z&yfBu;D ZD;uke;f aZ,s? Ak d v f aZ,sausmx f ifppfrx I rf;aumif;wHqyd f aZ,s0wD aZmwdu? OD ; aZmfw;l aZmf'ef aZmfrif;? Ak d v f Zmwfq&m Zmwfeyd gwfyjkH yif ZGaJ e0if;

83 15 39 145 82 36 86 86 39 117 52 55

(ps) aps;uGupf ;D yGm;a&;pepf

94


188 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

(n) nD? ocif anmifuidk f anmifi,f&mG anmifwek ;f anmifwek ;f a'owku d yf JG anmifa&TNrKd U anmifa&TapmfbmG ;Bu;D nGefU? a': nTeMf um;a&;rSL;

32 136 137 83 59 2? 10 107? 109 12 143

(X) aX;rif;acgif? OD ;

140

(w) wwd,tBurd yf gwDnv D mcH 43 wwd,tBurd jf ynfoUl vTwaf wmfEiS hf 143 jynfolYaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJ wwd,tBurd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmfyxrtpnf;ta0; 150 weoFm&Dwidk ;f 94? 121 wyifa&Tx;D 84 w&m;vTwaf wmf 17 w&m;vTwaf wmfcsKyw f &m;0efBu;D csKyf 18 w&m;0efBu;D 17 w&m;a&;0efBu;D Xme 68 w&m;&H;k csKyzf UJG pnf;jcif; 51 w&kwf 9? 77? 121 w&kwaf usmif;om;rsm; 15 w&kwu f eG jf rLepfygwD 88? 89 w&kwEf idk if H 9? 27? 97? 116? 117? 118? 151 w&kwjf ynfEiS &hf &k mS ;jynf 31 w&kwjf ynfoUl or速wEkid if H 54? 64? 84? 89? 132? 145? 146


189 taMumif;t&m w&kwjf zL w&kwjf zLulrifwef w&kwjf zLvIy&f mS ;rIrsm; w&kw-f Arme,fpyfvx l t k pnf;ta0; w&kw-f jrefrme,ferd w d pf mcsKyf w&kw0f efBu;D csKyf wmcsv D w d f wmawpaeom; wm&m? Ak d v f wkofbD? &k d i f wdy#d u"&pmar;yGrJ sm; wDvb f m&D awZ? Ak d v f awmfrD&kduf? AkdvfBuD; awmfveS af &;aumifpD awmfveS af &;aumifpOD uú| wku d sKd NrKd UjrefrmtzGUJ &H;k wkAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k awmfveS af &;aumifpOD uú|Bu;D wHwm;OD; wku d sKd NrKd U wkd0Jvf? vpf(p)? avmh'f wuúov dk yf nma&;pepf wuúov dk yf nma&;Oya' wuúov dk &f efyakH iGtzGUJ wuúov dk 0f ifpmar;yGJ wuúov dk o f r*¾trIaqmif wuúov dk o f r*¾Ouú| wku d yf idk &f rJ LS ; wif? ocif

pmrsufESm 44 83 60 129 60 129 81 100 36 13 96 13 35 150 ps? Z? 27? 47? 75? 83? 131? 139 47? 55 51 30? 103? 104 131 81 31 108 49 49 20 29 102 102 134 113


190 taMumif;t&m wifwif? a': wifrh if;acgif? OD; wif;(rf)jrpf awmifu&dk ;D ,m;Ekid if H awmifBu;D awmifBu;D aumvdyf awmifBu;D NrKd U awmifil awmificl &kid f awmifiel ,fajr awmifwiG ;f Bu;D awmifwiG ;f wl;ajrmif; awmifNyKd vuf0v J ufcaH &;pcef; awmifov l ,form;ta&;tcif; wkid &f m wkid ;f wm; wkid ;f (2) wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmf wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmfa&G;aumufyJG wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmftrwf wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw T af wmfOuú| wkid ;f rif;Bu;D wkid ;f &if;om;*sme,f 1972-1974 ckEpS t f yk cf sKyaf &;pepf 1974-1988 ckEpS t f xdtyk cf sKyaf &; 1960-1962 tkycf sKyaf &; 1962-1972 ckEpS t f xdtyk cf sKyaf &; 1958-1960 tkycf sKyaf &; 1954- ckEpS ?f arv 17 &uf 1919- ckEpS f 'kid t f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &;

pmrsufESm 55 140 13 88 69 62 62? 80? 92? 144 17? 69? 82? 83? 84 82 84 59 49 68 17 35 86 67 4? 39? 108? 138 24? 107 123 109 q 24 ps ps Z Z Z 19 q


191 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

1988 ckEpS t f xdtyk cf sKyaf &; 1942-1945 *syefacwftyk cf sKyaf &; 1945-1958 tkycf sKyaf &; 1945-1948 tkycf sKyaf &; 1948- ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeY 1935 ckEpS f (91)Xmetkycf sKyaf &; 1300 jynfah &eHajroydwBf u;D wnfNrzJ qyv wefpak &Smif wefvrG af &Smif wef, Y ef;e,fajrqlyal omif;use;f rIrsm; wyfuek ;f NrKd U wyfMuyf wyfxed ;f csKyf wyfrawmf wyfrawmfavhusiahf &;rSL; wyfrawmfvQypf pfEiS phf ufrw I yfzUJG wyfrawmftpk;d & wyf&if;rSL; wyfr[m(2) wyf&if;(4) wyf&if;(83) Bw*d aH 'o wGzJ ufppfaxmufcsKyf wGaH w; wGaH w;awmBu;D wef;

n q Z q 6 q 123 130 31 31 60 83 74 150 126 150 143 42 138? 150 82 67 67 84 138 83 83

(x) xrif;csuw f q H yd f x&de'd ufwuúov dk f xm;0,fNrKd U xm;0,fNrKd Utpk;d &txufwef;ausmif;

72 10 36? 69? 121? 124? 134 134


192 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

xm;0,for*¾ xm;0,ftrsKd ;orD;txufwef;ausmif; xD;&k;d abuw ax&0g'Ak'b ¨ mom ax&0g'Ak'u ¨ sr;f pm axmufvrS ;f a&;t&m&Sid ,f xifp?D ume,f xifew D aD [m(vf)(0g)a,&IUaumvdyf xkid ;f xkid ;f Ekid if H xkid ;f Ekid if b H &k ifrif;jrwf xkid ;f Ekid if t H rd af &SUrif;om; xkid ;f bk&ifrif;jrwf xkid ;f bk&ifv h ufeufuidk w f yfzUJG rsm; xef;wyif xef;wyifNrKd Ue,f xdef0if;? Ak d v f xGef;wif? AkdvfBuD;? wyfcGJrSL; xGef;wif? OD;? ol&xGef;&Sdef? ukd (Akdvf&efEkdif) xGef;a&T? e*g;eDxGef;a&T? OD;? bDtkdifatxGef;vif;? Ak d v f xGef;vIdif? OD ; xGe;f OD;? OD;

131 121 82 p 96 2 4 14 77? 145 97? 118? 138? 140? 145? 146? 151 132 145 27? 52? 54 145 82 24? 83 7 148 149 124 124 149 7? 107 121 81

(') '*kerf *¾Zif; '*HNk rKd Uopf 'nif;uke;f &yf 'vNrKd Uopf

122 94 134 94


193 taMumif;t&m 'D*&Daumvdyrf sm; 'D? a*s? pavmh 'Dru dk a&pD 'Dru dk a&pDa'oEÅ&tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf a'oEÅ&tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;0efBu;D Xme 'Dru dk a&;pDEiS Nhf ird ;f csr;f a&;tzGUJ csKyOf uú| 'D;'kw*f sme,f 'kw, d urÇmppf 'kw, d urÇmppfBu;D 'kw, d urÇmppfyBJG u;D 'kw, d ESpf 'kw, d 0efBu;D csKyf 'kw, d 0efBu;D csKyrf sm; 'kw, d or®w 'kw, d tBurd af usmif;om;oydwBf u;D 'kw, d tBurd yf gwDnv D mcH 'kw, d tBurd jf ynfov Yl w T af wmfEiS hf jynfolUaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJ a';'&J a'g&xwmwrH 'kq d efyef 'kAYd rmoDcsi;f 'kAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k 'k;d td 'ku d Of ;D ppfrsuEf mS a'gif;wHqyd f a'gif;eif;vrf; 'kid ef [ D ef 'kid t f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &; ]]'kid t f pfyef}}

pmrsufESm 62 102 ps 68 27 122 17? 23? 90? 91 30? 79? 104 34 57 40? 108? 123 113 81 122 143 143? 150 103? 138 49 33 29 29 135 59 36 110 33 p? q? 101 33


194 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

'H[ k ;D &Gm a'G;? a':

88 27

(") "EkjzLNrKd Ue,f "mwfawmfrsm; "mwfow¬KXme0efBu;D "r®i,f "r®apwDvrf; "r®pMumaeY "r®&u©w d uke;f awmf

83 115 24 136 80 115 63

(e) e*g;eDpmapmif e*g;eDpmay e*g;eDpmtkyt f oif; e*g;Ekid f e,l;ZDvefEidk if H e0wywåjrm; e0&wfo&zlywåjrm; e0if;acsmif; em*tMurrf;zufaomif;use;f olrsm; em;azmh eDejD rif?h a': eDayg eDaygEkid if H Ek? uk d Ek? ocif Ek? OD ; Ek? OD ;? 0efBuD;csKyfEk-wiftyk pf k EkEak qG? a':

124 29 116 8 146 97 97 57 84 84 55 54? 77 52? 140 103? 122 103? 105? 110? 117 60? 100? 102? 113 19? 42 130 132


195 taMumif;t&m EkE&k ?D a': Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf aeMunfAaqG? a': aepnfAaqG? a': aeñTefUAaqG? OD ; aexGe;f AaqG? OD ; aeEG,fAaqG? OD ; aezl;AaqG? OD ; aerif;AaqG? OD ; aersdK;? Ak d v f aersKd ;AaqG? OD ; ae&nfAaqG? a': ae&Sief ,fausmif; ae0if;? Ak d v f ae0if;? AkdvfcsKyf ae0if;? AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;? AkdvfrSL;BuD; ae0if;? OD ; aeol&ed &f BkH u;D aeol&ed t f pnf;ta0;cef;r aeYuav;xde;f Xme aemifawmfcRwcf Pf; Ekid if jH cm;aiG Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D Xme Ekid if jH cm;oHwref Ekid if jH cm;oHwreftcsKd U Ekid if aH wmfaumifpD Ekid if aH wmfaumifp0D if Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uú|

pmrsufESm 146 24? 40? 110 132 132 132 132 132 132 132 58 132 132 79 35? 37? 39 40? 112 26? 76? 77? 82? 113? 115? 131 38 29? 60? 92 39 106 50 116 48 104? 105 90 53 144 ps 134? 139 55? 62? 68? 69? 75


196 taMumif;t&m Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ Ekid if aH wmfppfrx I rf;wHqyd f Ekid if aH wmfw&m;&H;k csKyf Ekid if aH wmfzUJG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'Oya' Ekid if aH wmfbmom Ekid if aH wmfvNkH cKH a&;ESit hf yk cf sKyrf pI rD u H ed ;f Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyf Ekid if aH wmfoC H em,utzGUJ Ekid if aH wmfor®w Ekid if aH wmfor®wBu;D Ekid if aH wmftpk;d &tBuaH y;tzGUJ Ouú| Ekid if aH wmftmPm Ekid if aH &;pdw"f gwf Ekid if aH &;jyóem Ekid if *hH P k &f nf(yxrqif)h Ekid if *hH P k &f nfbUJG Ekid if *H P k &f nfbUJG (yxrqif)h ewfwvif; ewfwvif;NrKd U ewåvif;NrKd Ue,f eef;? p0f eef;NrKd U eef;,if;,if;? p0f eef;&if&if? p0f eef;a[rm? p0f er®wl erf[ h idk ;f e,fyidk f e,fomvefEidk if H ]]EGm;ok;d BuKd ;jywf}}

pmrsufESm n? 93? 95? 97 64 94 47 115? 131 ps 139 96 62? 68? 69? 75 19 19 115 102 91 54? 64? 76 117 54? 64? 76 58 136 150 2 80 10 10 10 86 86 q 151 117


197 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

ESi;f ykvb J w l m

36

(y) yckuLú ypdzw d pf pfrsuEf mS ppfyBJG u;D ypdzw d o f rk'&´ m yqD*g; ynma&;okawoeOya' y|ef; 24 ypön;f y'g;acsmif; yxptpk;d & yxrausmif;om;oydwf yxrBu;D pmar;yGrJ sm; yxri,f yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyf yxrqH;k or®w yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyf yxrvwf yxr0efBu;D csKyf yxro*Fg,em yxrtBurd yf gwDnv D mcH yxrtBurd jf ynfoUl vTwaf wmfEiS hf jynfoUl aumifpt D qifq h ifah &G;cs,w f ifajrm§ ufyJG yxrtBurd t f vkyo f rm;tpnf;t&H;k Ouú| ya'o&mZftyk cf sKyrf pI epf y&J,m;? AkdvfrSL; ytkUd 0fwidk ;f &if;om;rsm; ygupöwefEidk if H ygwDA[kt d vkyt f rIaqmifaumfrwD0if ygwDvyk if ef;pdppfa&;aumfrwDOuú| ygarmu©wZD;

69 59 34 84 49 116 82 19? 26 100? 101 96 96 101 48 110 96 111 116 75? 150 143? 150 143 p 82 80 45? 54? 77? 118? 140 150 139 73


198 taMumif;t&m ygvDrefvw T af wmf ygvDreftyk cf sKyaf &; yDuif;NrKd U yD-tm&f-yD (People's Revalutionary Party) ykBuD;? r ykZeG af wmifacsmif; ]]ykxZk aemOr®waum}} ykvq J yd u f rf; ykvyd u f if;tzGUJ ykvyd &f ;kH Bu;D ykord cf &kid f ykord Nf rKd U ykord af jrmufyidk ;f rJqE´e,f ykord t f pk;d &txufwef;ausmif; yJc;l yJc;l ppfrsuEf mS yJc;l wkid ;f yJc;l NrKd U yJc;l &k;d r yJc;l &k;d rtaemufjcrf; yJc;l a&Tarmfa"m yJc;l a&Tarmfa"mapwDawmf yJE, G u f ek ;f yJav;? a': ay:xGe;f ? qm ykUd quf ykUd aqmifqufo, G af &;0efBu;D Xme ykaYd qmifa&;ESiv hf rf;yef;qufo, G af &;0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D aygufuek ;f aygufp

pmrsufESm 25 Z 60 124 83 44 117 34 36 102 23 12? 17 24 13 36? 59? 69 137 50? 81? 94 135 83? 127 136 8 19 74 121 34 13 68 24 58 58? 84


199 taMumif;t&m yifvn kH v D mcH yif;tkid pf cef; aygif;wvnfNrKd U ypfu,f',fvq D yfuyf ypöwadk oewf ypöwt dk w d af qmifaoewf yOö"gwk[ewdbufapwDawmf ]]yOöraH jymufusm;ppf}} ykPmÖ ;&Gm yk'rf 116 yef*syf yef;cs?D yef;yk? yefwsmausmif; yef;waemf yef;waemftrsKd ;om;txufwef;ausmif; yef;vIid v f rf; yef;O,smOftoif; yHEk ydS v f yk if ef;rsm;ESix hf w k af 0olrsm;rSwyf w kH ifOya' yHyk gusif ydóEk;d NrKd Ua[mif; ysOyf BkH u;D ysO;f rem; ysO;f rem;e,f ysO;f rem;ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmfppfXmecsKyf jyZmwfpmay jyZmwfrsm; jyvkUd &Gm jyLapmxD; jyifopf jyifopfEidk if H jyifO;D vGif

pmrsufESm 3 137 29 15 90 36 52 36 58? 137 42 14 50 83 103 132 26 50 83 50 81 36 127 135 101? 104 116 136 82 16? 77? 132? 145 151 79


200 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

jyifO;D vGiNf rKd U ajymif;jyma&avSmifwrH jynf jynfc&kid f jynfNrKd U jynfawmfomoabFm jynfwiG ;f qdyu f rf;a&aMumif;? avaMumif;ESihf yifv,fqdyfurf;oGm;vma&;Xme0efBuD; jynfwiG ;f tBuaH y;tzGUJ 0if jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D Xme jynfxaJ &;ESio hf moema&;0efBu;D Xme jynfaxmifpq k &dk , S v f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf jynfaxmifpq k &dk , S v f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' jynfaxmifpq k &dk , S v f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmfor®w jynfaxmifpak eY jynfaxmifpyk gwD jynfaxmifpzk UJG pnf;tkycf sKyyf t kH ajccHOya' jynfaxmifpAk rmhtvHawmfBu;D jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if H jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if t H pk;d &tzGUJ jynfaxmifpo k r®w*smreDEidk if H jynfaxmifpo k r®wjrefrmEkid if H ]]jynfaxmifpo k r®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmfBu;D }} jynfaxmifpt k pk;d & jynfaxmifpt k zGUJ opf jynfy&efErdS w f q H yd f jynfv;kH uRwn f v D mcHBu;D

27 49 17 29? 57 29? 57 19 24 27 108? 126 68 68 48 ps 55 3 45? 46 18 5 31? 131 40 61 64? 97 111 128 8 114 64 114


201 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

jynfom,mppfqifa&; jynfoyl idk o f rd ;f qnf;jcif;vkyif ef; jynfoUl aumifpD jynfoUl ppfwu dk yf 0JG ifwq H yd f jynfoUl ppfrx I rf;tufOya' jynfoUl w&m;pD&ifa&;pepf jynfoUl awmifov l ,form;aumifpD jynfoUl &Jabmf jynfoUl vTwaf wmf jynfoUl vTwaf wmfu, dk pf m;vS,f jynfoUl vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;cef;r jynfoUl olemjyKtzGUJ jynfoUl ta&;awmfyykH gwD jynfoUl tvkyo f rm;aumifpD jynf;jynf;? p0f jyefMum;a&;ynmrsm; jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D jyefwrf;0ift&m&Sd yGw&f idk ;f ? vm;vf&m*sm

51 48 91 64 49 51 47 7 41? 48? 62 143? 150 151 20 124 47 10 73 104 135 14

(z) zqyv zqyvtpk;d & zqyvtzGUJ zqyvtzGUJ csKyf zqyvtzGUJ csKyBf u;D zqyvtzGUJ 0if zqyvtvkyt f rIaqmiftpnf;ta0; zqyvOD;pD;tzGUJ tpnf;ta0; zqyvOuú| zvl;

4? 39? 79? 123 6? 7? 40 24? 111 39? 128? 132 108 113 129 130 129 94


202 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

zvH?k p0f zmyGef zm;,m;Bu;D uefpk zdvpfyidk Ef idk if H zlut l u dk m azbD,H azmfrq dk m zkd;uGef;? Ak d v f zdk;c? OD; (aygif;wvnf) zkd;0J? OD ; zufqpf*syef zufqpfawmfveS af &; zufqpfwu dk zf suaf &;jynfoUl vGwv f yfa&;tzGUJ (zwyv) (Anti Fascist Organization)(A.F.O) zufqpfwu dk zf suaf &;jynfoUl vGwv f yfa&;tzGUJ csKyBf u;D zufqpfemZD zuf'&,frl azmifawmfO;D apwD zke;f rif;acgif? OD ; zsmyHk zsmyHck &kid f jzL; zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' zGUJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'opf zGUJ pnf;tkycf sKyyf t kH ajccHOya'

9 36 58 54? 140? 151 32 103 8 7? 111 29 30 58? 117? 126 23? 38? 136 38 106 38 26? 115? 130 2 140 59? 103? 138 17? 59 82? 83 25? 39? 46? 47? 68 61? 75 6

(A) Auy AuyESiahf utife, f l AaqG? uk d AaqG? armif

83? 84? 86? 89 93 105? 122? 124 121


203 taMumif;t&m AaqG? OD; Axl;wyfNrKd U Axl;? AkdvfrSL; Arm ArmEkid if aH wmfMum;jzwftpd;k &tzGUJ ArmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f mausmif;om;or*他 ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD Armjynfawmifwef;a'o Armjynf,m,Dtpk;d & Armvli,facgif;aqmifrsm; Armtpk;d & ArmumuG,af &;wyfrawmf(B.D.A) Armhacwfowif;pm ArmhawmfveS af &;wyfO;D Armhwyfrawmf(Burma Army) Armhxu G &f uf*P dk ;f Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmf Armhvw G v f yfa&;pDpOfrt I zGUJ Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmf(bD-tkid -f at) Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrsm; Armhaoewfuw dk yf&if; Armhaoewfuidk w f yf&if;(4) Aarmf? a'gufwm A[kt d zGUJ tpnf;rsm; A[kt d vkyo f rm;aumifpD A[kt d vkyt f rIaqmifaumrwD0if A[ef;NrKd Ue,f A[def;? uk d AD,uferfEidk if H aA'ifynm

pmrsufESm 26? 113? 125? 128? 129 135 38? 126? 135 106? 121 108] 123 83? 86? 88? 89 108 108 127 108 37? 74? 135 113 124 37? 38? 115 30? 104 125 104 34? 57? 134 134 2? 59 39 38 ps 47 143 61? 62 124 118 8


204 taMumif;t&m aAm"dyifysKd rsm; Ak'*¨ g,m Ak'b ¨ mom Ak'b ¨ mom0ifoal wmfpif Ak'b ¨ momtoif; Ak'b ¨ momuvsmP,k0toif; Ak'0¨ if&mZ0if Ak'o ¨ moemhE*k [ ¾ ausmif; AefaumufNrKd U AE¨Kv*sme,f AE¨Kvyef;NcH Aef;armf Aef;armfNrKd Ue,f Akv d &f mnGeUf vrf; Akv d o f ifwef; Akv d o f ifwef;ausmif; Akv d af tmifausmo f ydwf Akv d u f awmf A,fv*s, D efEidk if H Asaumyk NAw d o d Quufbed uftzGUJ NAw d o d Q"eo[m,e,fy,f NAw d o d QygvDref NAw d o d QygvDrefu, dk pf m;vS,t f zGUJ NAw d o d Qbm;rm; NAw d o d Q0efBu;D csKyf NAw d o d Qtpk;d & NAw d o d Qtifyg,m NAw d o d Qtyk cf sKyaf &; NAw d ed f

pmrsufESm 115 115 26? 46? 50? 113? 115? 141 116 121 13 101 73 34 122 109 57 84 80 142 23 134 136 151 82 108 109 109 108 102 110 18? 38? 110 100 p 54


205 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

NAw d ed Ef idk if H AGt D adk t

118? 151 52? 91

(b) bMuL; bMuL;? armif bckdif? ref ; bckdif? OD;? owif;pmq&mbcsdK? OD ;? 'D;'kwfbpD? OD ; bem*sD? ql&efj'me,f baz? AkdvfBuD; bbppfqifa&; barmf? a'gufwm b&efqidk ;f bvGif? OD ; boef;? a'gufwm b[ef? OD ; bOD;? qm bOD;? a'gufwm bOD;? OD;? a'gufwm bOD;BuD;? apm bmrif[rfppfoabFmBu;D bmoma&; bm;rm;-urf;b&pfcsw f uúov dk f bm;rm;pwm;wHqyd f bdvyf bdvyftpk;d & bDbpD D bD'aD t(Burma Defence Army) bD-tm&f-yD

16 12 24 103 103? 117 101 14 140 45 10? 17? 37? 104? 105 89? 90 117 55 36 18 18 12 19 5 8 15 64 103? 116 107 52? 91 37? 135 36? 124? 126


206 taMumif;t&m bD-'D-at wyf&if;(6) bDatbGUJ bDtpdk u D rk P Ü D bD-tk-d pDXme bD-tk-d pD "mwfqq D idk f bD-tkid -f at bD;vif;wHwm;opfBu;D bk&m;oH;k qlpcef; bk&ifcH bk&ifc\ H trIaqmiftzGUJ bk&ifpepf bk&ifpepftyk cf sKuaf &; bk&ifraumvdyf bk&ifrif;jrwfrsm; bk&ifah emif bla*;&D;,m; blrzd órkj'mAk'&¨ yk yf mG ;awmf blrad A'ynm&Sif ab*si;f NrKd U abmv,fuRe;f abmhwGefvD? tmom bku d av; bkzd mtajrmufrsm; bk;d pyÜm,f bkd;vS? OD ; bufwef? armifh? avmh b*Fvm; b*Fvm;a'h&fS b*Fvm;a'h&jfS ynfoUl or®wEkid if H b*Fvm;a'h&EfS idk if H

pmrsufESm 136 23? 102 23 57 149 135 63 94 107 108 15 p 15 116 8 146 52 34 88 83 3 59? 69 150 136 12 18 14 54? 68? 77 64? 97 70


207 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

b*Fvm;a'h&jfS ynfoUl or®wEkid if o H r®wBu;D abmif'&Dvrf; bPfvyk if ef;rsm; b@ma&;ESit hf cGe0f efBu;D b@ma&;ESit hf cGeXf mewm0efc?H 0efBu;D bwf&efYpf? [l;? qm befaumufNrKd U befa'gif;nDvmcHBu;D bde;f ukeu f ;l jcif; bke;f Bu;D ausmif; bke;f awmfBu;D rsm;

145 80 95 61 60 18? 107 52 118 15 121? 137 105

(r) rauG; rauG;awmif rav;&Sm;Ekid if H rav;&Sm;Ekid if 0H efBu;D csKyf r[mArmXme r[marm*¾vef? &S i f r[mjrwfrek b d &k m;Bu;D r[m,Ofaus;rIawmfveS ;f a&; r[mygomP*k[mvIP d *f al wmfBu;D r[m0dZ,apwDawmf r[m0dZmÆ bGUJ r[mor,aeY r[mor,okwf r[moD&o d "k r®bUJG rtlyifawmifyidk ;f rJqE´e,f rtlyifNrKd U rm&S,w f ;D wk;d rm&S,w f ;D wk;d ? or®w

17? 59 124 45? 64? 55? 77? 140? 146? 151 144 104 115 107 84 116 52? 63? 96 16 115 115 54 24 12? 17? 59? 81 20? 132 54


208 taMumif;t&m rm;,uf? uyÜwdef rdav;? a': (aygifacgif;) rDemrDuef rk'NkH rKd U rl*sm[pf rlvwef;BuKd ausmif; arcESiahf rvdc ar*saD wmfveS af &; arNrKd U (,ck jyifO;D vGi)f aroZifoef;xku d ?f a'gufwm rJZmBuKd ;wHwm; rJav rJoa0g armhp(f Moss) armfpw D ;kH armfz;dk au armfvNrKd iu f Re;f armfvNrKd iZf &yf armfvNrKd i'f *D &Daumvdyf armfvNrKd iNf rKd U rHpND rKd Ue,f rkd[mruf? r[moD,m? a'gufwm? 'gwGwf&S&D rk;d aumif;&Gm rkd;BudK;? Ak d v f rkd;ndk? Ak d v f rk;d ygavG rkd[mruf? [lpdeftm&Swf rufpu D adk w;rD;,m; rufpZÆi;f 0g'qkw d mbmvJ r*Fvm'Hk

pmrsufESm 13 29 31? 34 134 44 50 84 33 23 118 63 94 93 86 117? 118 94 117 102 62 37? 63? 69? 134 84 145 35? 37? 74 36 83 145 2 117 7


209 taMumif;t&m r*Fvm'Hpk pfwuúov dk f r*Fvm'Hak vqdyf r*Fvm'HAk v dk o f ifwef;ausmif; rif;acgif;? AkdvfcsKyf rif;wJ&mG rif;wJ&mG bke;f Bu;D ausmif; rif;wke;f e,f rif;wke;f NrKd U rif;'if rif;bl; rif;&Jausmpf mG rif;&efatmifppfqifa&; rif;vS armifuav;? OD ; armifawmf armifarmif? ukd (AkdvfrSL;BuD;armifarmif) armifarmif? a'gufwm armifarmif? Ak d v f armifarmifBuD;? AkdvfBuD; armifarmifcif armifarmifoef; armifhbufwef? vl0D? avmh rkid ;f qwfNrKd U rkid ;f wHk rkid ;f jzwf rkid ;f r rkid ;f ,ef; rkid ;f ,ef;a'o rnfrnf? p0f rZsrdö 0g'D

pmrsufESm 74? 148 8 135 88 137 137 58? 137 136 83 69? 137 84 82 127? 136? 137 79 68 124 72 127 150 107 83 39 8? 81 83 81 83 93 93 10 14


210 taMumif;t&m refusn;f usnaf wmuf&mG refcsupf wmpufrw I uúov dk f rdwv D¬ m rEÅav; rEÅav;wkid ;f rEÅav;NrKd U rEÅav;ta&SUajrmufNrKd Ue,f rEÅav;Oypmaumvdyf rkwrå rkew f idk af &avSmifuef rkef;? a': rH;k wyf rsKd ;csppf w d f rsKd ;cspw f yfrawmf(Patriotic Barmese Forces; P.B.F) rsKd ;cspyf gwD rsKd ;cspAf rmhwyfrawmf jr? Ak d v f jr? ocif jr? OD ; jrBuD;? &J a bmf jrpde?f a': jrwif? a': jrar? a': jrjrat;? a': jr&D? a': jroef;? uk d ajreDuek ;f ajr&Sipf epfzsuo f rd ;f a&;vkyif ef;rsm; ajratmufvQKd U0Sut f zGUJ NrKd Uawmfcef;rBu;D

pmrsufESm 57 142 59? 81 37? 69? 81? 126 75 79? 80? 104? 112 75 73 63? 82 49 140 86 121 38 37 59? 74? 136? 148 58 124? 126? 128 37 51 117 146 27 118 103? 118 30 8 48 30 108


211 taMumif;t&m NrKd Uykid f NrKd UjyumuG,af &;wyf NrKd UjyumuG,af &;tzGUJ NrKd Ujytkycf sKyaf &; NrKd Urtxufwef;ausmif; NrKd Utkyf ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f ppfXmecsKyf ajrmufO;D ajrmufOuúvmy jrifah qG jrifo h ed ;f ? ume,f ajrmif;jrc&kid f jrpfBu;D em; jrpfBu;D em;aumvdyf jrpf0uRe;f ay: jrw d f jrefrmcspMf unfa&;tzGUJ jrefrmpmaumfr&SiOf ya' jrefrmpm*kPx f ;l jrefrmpmay jrefrm-w&kwef ,ferd w d pf mcsKyf jrefrmwyfrawmf jrefrmEkid if u H ek o f nfrsm;uGe*f &uf jrefrmEkid if aH wmf*P dk ;f aygif;pHo k C H mnDñw G rf &I jdS cif;txde;f trSwf jrefrmEkid if yH a'o&mZfacwftyk cf sKyaf &; jrefrmEkid if b H momjyefpmaytoif; jrefrmEkid if cH &D;ESiAhf v dk cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; jrefrmEkid if aH &;tzGUJ csKyBf u;D jrefrmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f mvli,frsm;tpnf;t&H;k jrefrmEkid if v H w G v f yfa&;Oya'Murf;

pmrsufESm q 126 126 8 101 12 59? 91 63 46 2 4 17 23? 37? 62? 69 62 23 69 9 49 142 101 45 128 16? 123 52 p 110 149 100 103 109


212 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

jrefrmEkid if o H rkid ;f usr;f jrefrmEkid if t H rIaqmifaumifpt D zGUJ jrefrmjynf jrefrmjynfrcS spMf unfa&;uk, d pf m;vS,t f zGjU jrefrmjynftwGi;f 0ef&;kH jrefrmjynftoHviT Xhf me jrefrmrdwq f uftzGUJ jrefrm0efBu;D csKyf jrefrmorkid ;f ESiahf b;awmf? bk;d awmf bk&ifrsm; jrefrmoH&;kH jrefrmh&;dk &m,Ofaus;rI jrefrmhq&dk , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD jrefrmhq&dk , S v f pfvrf;pOfr0l g' jrefrmhwyfrawmf jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&;pmcsKyf jrefrmhtvif;acgif;Bu;D ykid ;f jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm r,fx&D rGef rGeu f &iftxufwef;ausmif; rGeaf w*l? rpöwm rGejf ynfe,f rGejf ynfe,ftzGUJ tpnf;rsm; rGeaf omif;use;f ol rSwf? a':

50 109 15 108 p 7 108 129 14 51 52 61? 139? 143 48 142 40 117 117 94 19? 121 23 100 62? 63? 81 19 94 79

(,) ,m,Dor®w ,m,Dtpk;d &tzGUJ

19 108? 109


213 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

,k0wD ,l*q dk vm;AD;,m;qk&d , S v f pfjynfaxmifpo k r速wEkid if H ,l*q dk vm;AD;,m;Ekid if o H r速w ,l*q dk vyfMu,fbUJG ,l*q dk vyfwcH eG af wmfbUJG ,l*q dk vyfEidk if H ,l*q dk vyfEidk if o H r速wBu;D ,l*sif;okduf? OD ; Munf h aq;0kdif? p0f Munfh qkdvef? p0f ,le, D *H sut f vH ,leefzef&dS ,ku d q l u dk ma&wyfpcef; ]],krd t D &l }D }owif;pm ,k;d ',m; ,k;d ',m;ausmif;om;rsm; ,k;d ',m;e,fpyf a,mifcsKd i, f 'k ?f csmAvpf

122 54? 55? 64? 97? 118? 146 20 117 20? 54 132 132 9

5? 102 129 32 31 106 15 125 145

(&) &ckid jf ynfe,f &ckid jf ynfe,fppfqifa&; &ckid t f rsKd ;om; &rnf;oif;NrKd Ue,f ]]&[kid ;f }} &mZ0if &mausmq f &mawmfb&k m;Bu;D &mZuf? OD ; &k&mS ; &l;ar;eD;,m;qk&d , S v f pfor速wEkid if H a&;ul;&yf

8? 19? 62? 63? 68 59 20 83 35 101 148 79 118 54? 55? 64? 97? 145? 146 116


214 taMumif;t&m a&ul;wHqyd f a&wm&Snf a&eHacsmif; a&eHacsmif;NrKd U a&rGerf ufaq;aq;qk a&eHajrtvkyo f rm;oydwf &Jausmo f l &JneG Uf wyfzUJG &JabmfjzL &Jabmf0g &Jabmfo;kH usyd f &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f if &Jtyk o f ifwef; a&mfbifqif? t,fvf ]]&ufpufygayhu, G }f } a&mifpo kH yl ek f a&mifpo kH yl ek rf sm; a&mifpakH omif;use;f ol &efuek af umvdyf &efuek u f efawmfBu;D &efuek cf &kid q f &dk , S v f pfygwDtpnf;ta0; &efuek w f uúov dk f &efuek w f uúov dk t f "dywd &efuek w f uúov dk af usmif;om;tzGUJ &efuek w f uúov dk *f syq f ifaumvdyf &efuek w f uúov dk Of ya' &efuek w f idk ;f &efuek jf ynfoUl aq;&HBk u;D &efuek Nf rLeDpy,ftzGUJG

pmrsufESm 72 82 69 57 54 117 90 79 7 7 32? 34? 35 39 134 15 117 148 7 112 13 126 130 20? 29? 73? 74? 82? 101? 103? 122? 142 24 128 23 49 68? 96? 83? 94 55 45


215 taMumif;t&m &efuek Nf rKd U &efuek Nf rKd Utkycf sKyaf &;tzGUJ &efuek jf rpfqyd u f rf; &efuek t f pk;d & &efBu;D atmif &efrsKd ;atmifapwD &yfapmufapmfbmG ; &dyf? a': &ky&f iS v f yk if ef;aumfyUdk a&;&Si;f &kyaf o;q&mBu;D rsm; &kyaf o;tpd;k & ½Iarmif? armif ½Iarmif? ocif ½I&Sif;? AkdvfcsKyfBuD; a&Sqef? uavmh'f a&S;a[mif;urÜn;f pmay a&S;a[mif;0w¬Kypön;f tufOya' a&S;a[mif;okawoejywku d f a&S;a[mif;txl;ypön;f rsm;tufOya' &S&J yfp?f rpöwm &Sdef0Suf? OD ; &Sirf [mAk'a¨ Cmoausmif; &Sio f mraP &Siaf pmyk &Sr[ f J &Sr[ f NJ rKd U &Sr;f &Sr;f apmfbmG ; &Sr;f ya'o&mZfapmfbmG ;rsm;

pmrsufESm 16? 36? 37? 40? 69? 76? 92? 101? 108? 109? 116? 132? 142 17 5 7 8 131 81 12 50 52 10 29 32? 33? 34 89 145 50 50 50 50 16 65 134 121 63 32 32 106? 121 131 43


216 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

&Sr;f ya'o&mZfrsm; &Sr;f jynfe,f &Sr;f jynfawmifyidk ;f &Sr;f jynfe,fajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f &Sr;f aomif;use;f ol a&G;aumufyBJG u;D Muyfa&;aumfr&Sif a&T? OD ; a&Tusif a&TuiG ;f Bu;D &Gm a&Tw*d akH pwDawmfjrwf a&Tw*d t kH v,fypö,H a&TawmifMum;vrf; a&TawmifNrKd U a&Tqkduf? p0f a&TaygufuNH rKd Uopf a&TjynfomNrKUd opf a&Tbdk a&T&if? OD ; ]]a&T&nfprd v f w G v f yfa&;}} a&TvJh? a': a&Tokduf? p0f

80 26? 43? 62? 93? 94? 106 80 86 4 18 46 84 36 63? 96 102 21 57? 58 2 94 94 69 23 37? 104 57 2? 19

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121 111 88 54 86 104 81 89


217 taMumif;t&m vlxt k pnf;ta0;Bu;D vlay:vlaZmfvyk ef nf; vlrsKd ;pkvw T af wmf vlrsKd ;pkvw T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoUl vTwaf wmfygvDref vlrsKd ;pka&;t"du&kP;f vl0ifrBI u;D Muyfa&;Xme vl0ifrBI u;D Muyfa&;ESit hf rsKd ;om;rSwyf w kH ifa&;0efBu;D Xme avbmtpk;d & av,mOf avm avmu"mwfoyd yHÜ nm avmuedAmÁ ef avmvD? AkdvfcsKyf vufeufc, J rf;rsm; ]]vufzuf&nfqidk zf iG jhf cif;}} vufbEGef vusmf? Ak d v f vuf0pJ mtkyt f oif; vifueG ;f tif; vif;xif vif;,kef? Ak d v f avmifuGef? Am*sD&m? r[m vIid Nf rKd Ue,ftrSw(f 2)rJqE´e,f vef'ef vef'efNrKd U vef'ef[;D o&k;d avqdyf vrf;yef;qufo, G af &; vGiv f iG jf rif?h a': vdP I *f al wmfBu;D v,form;rsm;tcGit hf a&;umuG,af &;Oya'

pmrsufESm 108 117 9? 25 25 130 45 68 109 90 77 111 111 82 82? 84 122 77 37? 39? 105? 134 116 73 82 36 145 143 13? 16? 20 90? 108 97 24 146 116 48


218 taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

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59 64? 140 7 64? 140 64 110 54 64? 132? 140 27? 76? 145 4 72 26 116 126 30? 31 94 23 79 129

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227 taMumif;t&m

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228 taMumif;t&m

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229

t*FvdyfpmtnTef; taMumif;t&m Air Raid Precaution-ARP Burma Looks ahead Burma under the Japanese : pictures and portraits East Pakistan Forward with the people From peace to Stability General Awrora KNDO Isles of Wright The People Win Through Patriotic Barmese Forces; P.B.F Plebiscite Prescott Most Illustrious order of Chula Chom Kloa of Thailand Yale University Yugoslav Banner (First Class)

pmrsuEf mS 34 117 117 86 117 117 86 83 97 117 38 14 30 27 74 20


Bios of President and Prime Ministers from Burma