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Victorious over Russians By: Andy Lin

Japan beat the largest nation in the world in a war. Japan attacked Russia on 8 February 1904. This decision was made so that Japan could win control of Korea at all costs. Japan navy destroyed Russian fleets and were also victorious on the land. This war went on for more than a year and was ended by the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth. The Russo-Japanese war took place in Korea and Manchuria. Japan troops driven out Russia troops in Korea during a span of over three months. Japanese troops suffered heavy losses but kept on moving northern in Manchuria. Japan capture Port Arthur and Mukden City after a five month siege. Meanwhile, Japan’s navy, led by Admiral Togo, routed the Russian navy in Strait of Tsushima. This war led to a great outcome for the Japanese which shocked the entire world. With barely any help, Japan, the tiny nation defeated Russia in a

Political Cartoon of Japan fighting against Russia

war. Japan not only gained reputation, but also was benefited by the treaty that ended the war, The Treaty of Portsmouth. Due to the treaty, Japan gain control over Liaotung Peninsula, the southern Manchurian Railway and the southern half of the island of Sakhalin. More importantly Russia also recognized Japans interest in Korea. This was the second major war that Japan won. First was against the Chinese in the Sino-Japanese war.

Inside the Issue

Victorious Over 1 Russo-Jap War Editorial- 3 New Constitution Creates New Power 3 Rebellion In 3 Interview with the Financial Advisor of Meiji- Ichiro 4 Life Style - Fashion, Western Fashion in 4 pg. 1

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Map of Russo-Jap War. It shows the route of Japanese and Russians military movement



NEW Constitution Creates NEW POWER NATION

By: Roronoa zoro We now declare to respect and protect the security of the rights When I was still a child, my and of the property of Our people, and to secure to them the family didn’t want me to go to school, but instead forced me to complete enjoyment of the same, within the extent of the provisions stay at home and work. It wasn’t of the present Constitution and of the law until my mother Married a -Joyu wealthy man after my dad died so i could have proper Document of the Constitutions with the Seal By: Andy Lin schooling. I am one of the really On 11 February 1889, Emperor Meiji fortunate ones. Ordinary people handed down a written constitution to only learned to write, read and Prime Minister Count Kuroda. It was the the abacus. In 1971, our highness- meiji second constitution that Japan used. decided to change the policy so The Meiji Constitution was a constitution that every child is eligible of that operated under an absolute going to school. Every single m o n a r c h o r e m p e r o r. T h e M e i j i one of us Japanese has to go to Constitution was a Prussian (German) at least 4 years of primary based system while the first one was a school. This was an excellent British based constitution. move by the meiji government. The first constitution, or the ‘Constitution of 1868’ was a failure. Although it was More people could be proper effective in the early years but it was opposed by different groups since it failed to educated and there is going to deal with two problems: it did not provide Japan with a modern constitution and a be a brighter future for us and national parliament that would earn western respect and the support of the citizens. the generations exceeding us. In 1875, the oligarchs recognized the problems in the Osaka agreement. It called for My son is seven years old, a creation of a constitutional government in gradual stages and senate was even though i am not wealthy, he is able to at least go to appointed to draft out the constitution. Between 1876 and 1878, the senate school for 4 years. And if he prepared four draft constitutions which were too liberal for the oligarchs. Which all of does well in his school, he might the oligarchs later on submit their own views. Okuma Shigenobu failed to have able to move on to middle same thoughts with the other oligarchs and was forced out of the government. Ito school, or even high schoo. We Hirobumi became the architect of Japan’s second constitution. Under Ito’s direction, m u s t t h a n k s t h e M e i j i Hermann Roesler, a German, helped to complete the new German based Meiji government for this policy Constitution. It gave Japan western respect and had the Japanese’s support. change. This change of education provided since 1971 is definitely going to benefit our By: Andy Lin The Tong Hak society from Korea rebelled whole country. Our economy against the government of the King of Korea in and world reputation is going to the year of 1894. The rebellion broke out in grow because of this policy. I truly believe that changing southern Korea and the rebellion lasted for a our education was a smart thing year. China and Japan both send troops to aid to do. People get educated, they Korea. When they arrived, Tong Hak Rebellion get smarter. People get smarter, was already been put down by Korean forces. our country will get more Tong Hak society wished to preserve their Picture of Korean Tong Hak powerful. All of us citizens society soldiers cheering and ‘Eastern Learning’ and get rid of foreign should be thankful towards our shouting before the war. influences, including the Japanese. Now, Tong government and do the best we Hak society is wept out, but Japan and China can for our beloved country. pg. 3 troops remain in Korea.

Rebellion in Korea

Interview with the Financial Advisor of Meiji ICHIRO KOHJIMA by: Kenshin Matsuzaka Matsuzaka: Economy played a huge role in Japan during the Meiji restoration. It was a key factor for Japan’s success. Today we are going to talk about the economy and what changed in Japan’s the economy. Joining me is Ichiro Kohijima, the financial advisor of Meiji. Great honor to see you, Mr. Kohijima. Kohjima: Pleasure to meat you. Matsuzaka: Mr. Kohijima, can you tell us what were some big changes that happened during the meiji restoration in terms of economics? Kohjima: During the Meiji restoration, we did make some big changes. First of all was to adopt yen as the unit of currency. It replaced over clan notes that was used between clans. We also created a centralized European banking system, which replaced the original american style banks. It controlled the nations banking system. One other major change was the introduction of the new land tax. Farmers had to pay 3 per cent of their crop to the government annually. In 1876, we reduced it into 2.5 percent. Matsuzaka: Why was it necessary to create a european style bank instead of American style bank? Kohjima: It is simple, the american bank system does not work in Japan. We had four american style banks but it all ended up in serious financial troubles due to poor management, no cooperation and they couldn’t compete with foreign and local banks. So we had to change our bank system.

Ichiro Kohjima in his house Matsuzaka: Besides the enforcement of the banking system, which change between adoption of currency and the new land tax that benefitted Japan more? Kohjima: You know, that is a tough question. Both strengthened Japan’s economy. The setting of the basic unit of currency helped the economy since that merchants could now easily trade, since the value of the currency is the same. The new form of taxation definitely helped the economy. Think about it, 3 per cent from every farmer, that is a lot of crops. The new taxation helped to ease the burden of the huge amount of public spending on industry. Both of the changes helped Japan a lot, it is really hard to tell which one did more. Matsuzaka: Thanks for your time, Mr. Kohjima Kohjima: Thank you.

LIFE STYLE SECTION FASHION- Western Fashion in Japan Guess what is the latest fashion trend in Japan? Yep, it is the western style clothing that caught most of the attention. Before the Meiji Period, the dress of the social classes were strictly controlled. Even though all classes wore traditional Japanese clothes, but the materials that made the clothes for higher classes are better than the ones from the lower classes. This all changed. In 1872, the government that western dresses should be worn for all court and official ceremonies. The cutaway or “morning coat” became the official dress for formal occasions. Men were to wear western suit and hats. Women were to western skirts and dresses instead of traditional Japanese kimonos. Besides the clothing, western accessories, such as watches also became the top seller. Not only things that you wear became popular, western haircuts also shocked the whole Japan. Instead of the topknots, there were hundreds of new hairstyles in replace. The younger generation liked the new western hairstyles a lot, and it became a symbol of westernization. Even though the majority loved the new hairstyles, samurais in Japan hated it. Most of the samurais failed to change their hairstyle and remained having a topknot. They thought that cutting their topknots were not respecting their ancestors, which are also samurais. Even though samurais oppose against all the clothes and hair changes, the wave of western fashion still had a huge hit in Japan. Western clothing and hairstyles remained as the top choice for Japanese when they are buying clothes or getting a new haircut. pg. 4

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