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DECADE IN REVIEW (1890-1900)




Sino-Japanese War comes to an end By Kevin Xu

Inside This Issue End of Sino-Japanese War Treaty of Shimonoseki sets guidelines for further peace talks between Japan and China and marks China’s official surrender. Pages 1-2 Extra A labeled map indicating major events in the war. Page 3 Prince Yoshihisa’s Death The Prince dies at the age of 48 while leading the Japanese Imperial Army in battle on the island of Formosa.

Above: An i!ustration of the meeting between Chinese and Japanese delegates during the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The war between China and Japan had officially come to an end on April 17th, 1895, with the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, also known as the Treaty of Maguan, at S h u n p a n r o Ha l l . T h e p e a c e conference took place from March 20th to April 17th. This ended the year-long war (1894-95) between the

Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire of China. The Treaty of Shimonoseki drew out Japan’s demands as the victor of the war. These demands included a 200 million tael indemnity paid to Japan, the opening of 4 Chinese ports for trade, the handing over of the Liaotung Peninsula, Pescadores Islands (Please turn to Page 2).

Pages 1&4 The Lifestyle: Yuba, Origins and Recipes Page 4-5 Editorials: Sino-Japanese Relations Page 5 Exclusive Interview Pages 6

PRINCE KITASHIRAKAWA YOSHIHISA’S DIES, AGE 48 Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa, 2nd head of the colllateral branch of the Imperial Family, died in November from a supposed malaria infection while campaigning with the Japanese Imperial Army to capture the islands of Formosa from the Chinese. There were also unconfirmed rumors of his death as a result of an attack by Taiwanese guerillas, but no evidence has been put forth to confirm this.


By Yamata Hahjee

The prince was the ninth son of Prince Fushimi Kuniye (1802-1875). During the overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate, Prince Yoshihisa fled with other Tokugawa Partisans from Edo. Later on, he was made the head of the Northern Alliance which was an alliance consisting of all the domains of northern Japan under a military-political coalition. (Please turn to Page 4).


DECADE IN REVIEW (1890-1900)

TREATY OF SHIMONOSEKI ENDS THE WAR BETWEEN CHINA AND JAPAN (Continued $om Page 1) Formosa, to During the war, Japan won several Japan, and the demand China officially decisive victories on both land and at recognize Korea as an independent sea. The Battles of Yalu (see map on state. Page 3 for details) and the following The war itself was a drawn out, Battle of Weihaiwei marked Japan’s bloody affair. The war began in 1894, victory in the seas with the destruction with the breaking of the stalemate of of China’s Beiyang Fleet. This marked troops from both countries, who were the downslide of the war on the sent to aid the King of Korea in Chinese side. crushing an internal uprising. The uprising was initiated by a religious group known as the Tong Hak Society, who wished to preser ve ‘Eastern Learning’ and rid the country of foreign influences.

Above: Fleet Admiral Count Ito Sukeyuki, Commander in Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet which took part in the decisive Battle of Weihaiwei which resulted in the destruction of China’s Beiyang Fleet.

This allowed the Imperial Army to shift their focus purely on supporting their land-based infantry and allowed the navy to move unchallenged over the seas. This advantage would prove critical in the remaining days of the The Qing Empire of China and the war. Empire of Japan both responded to the King’s plea for help by sending troops to aid the crushing of the rebellion, but the rebellion had been stopped once soldiers from China and Japan had arrived. Both Empires refused to withdraw troops and Japan broke the stalemate by sinking the British owned charter s h i p , t h e Ko w s h i n g , w h i c h h a d attempted to bring in Chinese reinforcements.

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Above: An i!ustration depicting the Chinese surrender to Admiral Ito, commander of the Japanese forces, a'er the Battle of Weihaiwei.



DECADE IN REVIEW (1890-1900)


Battle of Pungdo July 25th, 1894 The Japanese cruisers Yoshino, Naniwa, and Akitsushima encountered the British leased ship, the Kowshing, carrying Chinese reinforcements bound for Korea. After several hours of failed negotiation in which the Japanese attempted to free British hostages, the Japanese opened fire and sunk the ship. The German and British officers escaped and were rescued by Japanese ships while roughly 1,100 chinese troops drowned.

Battle of Pyongyang September 15th, 1894 The Japanese Imperial Army defeated a much larger Chinese army and drove the remaining Chinese forces out of Korea.

Battle of the Yalu River September 17th, 1894 One of the largest battles in the war, it occurred near the mouth of the river. The Chinese Beiyang fleet suffered heavy losses in their fleet with 8 out of 10 ships lost to the Imperial Japanese Navy.

This map depicts the movement and battles between Japanese and Chinese forces.



DECADE IN REVIEW (1890-1900)

PRINCE YOSHIHISA DIES DURING MILITARY CAMPAIGN IN FORMOSA (Continued $om Page 1) Following the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, in 1873, Emperor Meiji recalled all imperial princes who had left or fled from the court to return. While doing so, the Emperor allowed the princes to regain their secular status, which officially announced Prince Yoshihisa as the second head of the House of Kitashirakawa-no-miya. Military Career Prince Yoshihisa traveled to Germany to complete his military training as a professional soldier and upon his return to Japan, he was given the rank of a Major General in the Japanese Imperial Army. As a Lieutenant General, he was given the command of the 4th Division in the Imperial Army in 1887. During the initial start of the Sino-Japanese War, he was transferred to the 1st division of the army and participated in the invasion of Formosa. Prince Yoshihisa’s death marked the first death of an imperial family member outside of Japan, and in war. The state plans to erect Shinto shrines in Taiwan to honor his service in the year long war.

Above: Prince Yoshihisa in fu! military uniform complete with honors and medals.

The Lifestyle: Yuba, Origins and Recipes By Ito Chenji When soy milk is heated slowly in a shallow, open pan at high temperatures, a cream-yellow colored, flavorless, ‘film’ forms, which is known as yuba. The films are removed from the soy milk’s surface and then hung to dry, and marked as fresh or dried sheets, sticks, or chips, or made into a variety of protein products. somewhat similar to China’s tofu.

Above: Yuba being added as an ingredient for soup.


Origins There has been a large amount of speculation concerning how yuba was introduced to Japanese food culture. Some people believe it was brought to Japan through Chinese Buddhist monks during the 10th century while others say it was the opposite way around, and that Japanese monks visiting China brought back the idea in the 13th century. It is also said a famous samurai by the name of Masahige Kusnoki used the food as provisions during a siege at Chihaya castle in the 14th century. Regardless, yuba has become a common sight in Japanese cuisines and restaurants alike. Recipe Yuba is used in a variety of recipes. They mainly take the form of wrappings in dishes. (Please turn to Page 5)


DECADE IN REVIEW (1890-1900)

YUBA RECIPE (Continued $om Page 4) Deep-Fried Yuba Rolls

This dish serves a small snack or appetizer, serves a maximum of 8. Ingredients -8 slices of dried yuba, about 8 inches square -2 ounces (60g) of nagaimo yam -1 teaspoon of salt -salt, used for garnish -white pepper -2 tablespoons of cornstarch

-2 tablespoons of all-purpose flour which should be dissolved into 2 tablespoons of water -vegetable oil for deep frying -8 fresh shiitake, finely diced -1/2 ounce (15g) of carrots

Directions 1. Wrap each slice of dried yuba in a wet cloth, leave it for about 30 minutes until soft 2. Place the sliced and peeled shiitake, yam, and carrot in a bowl and sprinkle with pepper, cornstarch, and salt. Mix. 3. Lay out the yuba slices and divide vegetables into 8 portions. Put vegetables on a yuba slice. Fold the yuba to make a rectangular envelope and seal with a water-flour mixture. 4. Preheat vegetable oil to 170 Celsius and deep fry the envelopes until a rich, gold-brown. 5. Cut the yuba and vegetable envelopes in half and garnish with salt. Left: The final product of the recipe.

Editorials: Sino-Japanese Relations Editor: Ever since the ending of the Sin-Japanese War, relations between the two countries have been tense. Both countries are watching the other for signs of a*ressive expansion.

A m i s t a ke o n b e h a l f o f o u r Government By Kuroji Sahishima

United States and Great Britain. However, I think Japan is not ready to join those world powers yet, and must prove it can control its expansive desires first, without harming international relations.

Our government has made a rushed decision If Japan continues to act in this way, on the matter of expanding into Chinese territory. eventually, they will hit a wall that is too high to When Japan attacked and took Korea from China, climb over, and too thick to break through. In we gained territory, yet made other words, I believe Japan a new enemy located right on “Were it be me leading will find a country which is our doorstep and forever set Japan right now, I would be obviously far stronger than it relations on a bad start. is. However because of our I could list quite a few curbing outside growth and country’s pride and hunger t h i n g s Ja p a n c o u l d h a v e solving internal problems for expansion, we’ll continue benefited from China if they such as poverty first.” to fight until we are at the had not gone to war. Japan hands of a complete defeat or could gain far more trading destruction. rights and wealth than the Treaty of Shimonoseki, Were it be me leading Japan right now, I or any treaty for that matter, could provide. would be curbing outside growth and solving In my opinion, our country was simply itching internal problems such as poverty first. The only to flex its newly developed military arm and place thing Japan achieves by expanding like this is itself among the ‘conquerers’, along side the gradual, internal weakness.


DECADE IN REVIEW (1890-1900)



Saojori: Today, we have a special guest, Colonel Chenji Oyokama. It’s an honor to meet you. Oyokama: Thank you. Saojori: I would like to ask a few questions on the subject of the Sino-Japanese War. Why was the navy so successful in the Battles of Weihaiwei and the Yalu River? I remember hearing the Chinese had more ships and twice the manpower. Oyokama: Of course. The Chinese did have more ships and soldiers during many of the battles, but we won mainly due to the fact our and troops were far more thoroughly drilled and ships were far more reliable. We were a reflection os a first-class European army. Saojori: Could the statement about discipline be applied to the soldiers during the massacre at Port Arthur? Oyokama: No, our troops completely disregarded their training and discipline there. They turned to utter savages. Had I taken part in that, I would have committed seppuku on the spot. Saojori: Do you think Japan will be able to rise as a world power with its military arm alone?

Oyokama: Maybe. Since many countries are in, or have been in political Above: Japans’s military improvements turmoil, their military branch is all that stands in the way of domination by another country. included the use of heavy industries for shipbuilding. Saojori: Ah, I see. Compared to other countries, especially the western nations such as the U.S., where do you see Japan standing? Oyokama: A few steps below the U.S. After let’s say, a couple decades, we could match the United States in military status and become a world power. Saojori: I never knew we were so close. Well then, thank you for your time.


Imperial Japanese Army Enlist today! Join the army and serve your country!

Right: The political cartoon displays an artist’s view of Japan’s hunger for expansion into Asian territories.


Head to your local constable station for details on recruitment centers and details.

Xu K  

A newspaper featuring selected major events from the Meiji Restoration period.

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