RISING SUN INSIDE THIS ISSUE Page 1Sino-Japanese War -By Tyler Marshall Page 2Modernization Cont. -By Tyler Marshall Lifestyle -By Sarah Vonbonfile Page 3Russo-Japanese War -By Naoki Kudo Page 4Life of a Samurai: An interview with Kamui Gakupo -By Jonathan Crane Editorial -By Tyler Marshall
JANUARY 26, 2010
RISING SUN Sino-Japanese War The war that changed Western look on Japan
The war as the Japanese advance into China.
By Tyler Marshall We all know about Japan’s win over China, but how exactly did they attack China? What eﬀect did it have? The war all started with Korea. For a long time, it had been paying tribute to China. The Treaty of Kanghwa was forced upon Korea, using the same gunboat tactic as Perry. This opened us three ports for trade, and Japan saw Korea as an independent state. In 1894, a rebellion started in southern Korea. The king requested that China and Japan send in troops. But by the time they got there, the Korean forces had already dealt with it. After the rebellion, both countries refused to withdraw their troops. Ito Hirobumi, the Japanese prime minister, demanded changes in the Korean government, which China refused.
The Japanese troops then captured the king’s palace. They demanded him to declare Korea’s independence. The king then signed an order to get rid of any Chinese in China. Two days later, the Kowshing, a Chinese troopship, was sunk by the Japanese Navy. The troopship was attempting to bring in reinforcements. This then started the SinoJapanese war. The war, which lasted less than a year, was d e c l a r e d o n Au g u s t 1 s t . O n t h e 1 6 t h o f September, Japan won battles at P’yongyang. The next day, Japan sunk Chinese warships on the Yalu River. On the 21st of November, Port Arthur falls to the Japanese. The 12th of February, the fall of the Chinese fleet at Weiwhawei signals the final battle of the war. -Continued on page 2-
The Treaty of Shimonoseki oﬃcially ended the war on 17th April, 1895. Korea was recognised as an independent state, four ports were opened in China for Japanese trade, Japan had most-favoured rights in China, and China had to pay a fine of 200 million taels. The Liaotung Peninsula, Formosa, and the Pescadores Islands were given to Japan also. Even though the Japanese won, the war had a huge negative a f f e c t . T h i s w a s d u e to t h e Japanese attack on Port Arthur, which is called the Massacre at Port Arthur.
JANUARY 26, 2010
The siege lasted nearly three months. The Japanese lost only 300 men, while the Chinese lost over 60,000. This was because of the behaviour of the Japanese troops.
This behaviour showed the rest of the world that Japan could not control its troops. They lost respect as a world nation, and also resulted in the Triple Intervention.
The Japanese troops had lost control. They shot anyone they saw, a nd, a cco r d i n g to t h e i r journals, they enjoyed it, too.
We killed people in their homes... We shot some, hacked others.... Firing and slashing, it was unbounded joy. -Taken from Okabe Makio’s, a trooper in the 1st division, journal
very quickly, along with bread, beer, and various dairy products. 1872, a four year Also, silk is no longer just for education was mandatory Teriyaki and higher classes. Everyone is now able to for all Japanese children. Sukiyaki, two enjoy any material of clothing. Western Tokyo University, Japan’s popular foods dresses are now standard for al l first teritary institution, that appeared ceremonies, such as the ‘Morning Coat’. w a s f o u n d e d i n 1 8 7 7. during the Other universities, such Now it’s time to have fun! Ballroom Cultural as Kyoto, Fukuoka, and dancing has now become very popular. Revolution Sapporo, were also Everyone who wants to can try. It’s established. even popular in the higher classes. The Rokumeiken opened in 1883. It is a two storey high social hall in Tokyo, -By Sarah Vonbonfile dedicated to ballroom dancing. Every So, what’s hot today in the country S u n d a y n i g h t , i t o p e n e d u p f o r of Japan? Ever ything Western, of politicians, business people, and foreign course! The Cultural Revolution has diplomats to dance. When it closed in come, and now it’s time to modernise! 1889, it was noted as the end of the modernisation. W E S T E R N Everything from the west is being Because of the modernisation, encouraged by the emperor. Hairstyles, HAIRSTYLSES! education has also been improved. In such as long, braided hair, are now very Get a great new look! popular. These types of hairstyles are replacing the traditional topknot. Styles taken straight from Another thing being encouraged is the eating of meat, even though it is against Buddhist beliefs. Teriyaki and Sukiyaki are becoming very popular
the west! Now at Sakura Salon!
JANUARY 26, 2010
RUSO-JAPANESE WAR -By Naoki Kudo The Ruso-Japanese war, a battle between Japan and Russia, started on the 10th of February, 1904. Japan wanted to stop Russian expansion, and for Russia to accept Japan’s position in Korea. Japan made an oﬀer with Russia, if they recognised their rights in Korea, then they would recognise their rights in Manchuria. Russia only half accepted the request, because it might threaten their control of the railway. Because of this rejection, Japan declared war on Russia. The war started with a surprise attack on a Russian naval fleet at Port Arthur, on the 8th of February. Two days later, war was officially declared. By May, all Russian troops were pushed out of Korea, to the Yalu River. Japan then had full control of Korea. In September, the Japanese troops moved into southern Manchuria, and, after a five month siege, took control of Port Arthur. Two months later, in March of 1905, the Japanese also took control of the city of Mukden. On the 28th of May, the Russian fleet near the Straits of Tsuhima fell to the Japanese. This was the last war of the RusoJapanese war.
The war ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth. The treaty was an oﬀer made by the President of the Un i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , Theodore Roosevelt. The treaty was signed at New Hampshire, in the US, on the 5th of September, 1905. Because of the treaty, Russia had to recognise Japan’s position in Korea. The lease of the Liaotung Peninsula and the control of the Manchurian Railway was given to Japan, as well as the southern half of Sakhalin. Also, due to the treaty, whenever China made a desicion in Manchuria, both Japan and Russia could not disrupt them. The Ruso-Japanese war was important because it was the first time any asian countr y had beaten an established E u r o p e a n p o w e r. T h o u g h t h i s w a s extremely important for Japan, they had resulted in many serious casualties.
IN THE ORIENT This political cartoon, named In The Orient (meaning in the East), is taken from The Lost Angeles Times, March 5th, 1904. It shows Japan and Russia ﬁghting in Manchuria and Korea, with the Western powers
RUSO-JAPANESE MAP This map shows the location of the Ruso-Japanese war, as well as the land and naval advances
JANUARY 26, 2010 LIFE OF A SAMURAI: AN INTERVIEW WITH KAMUI GAKUPO
G: In 1876, they banned the wearing of swords. We were only to wear them on special occasions! This was very upsetting to the Samurai.
J: Ver y upsetting! So, I’ve heard many things about the Jo n a t h a n : He l l o Satsuma Rebellion. Could you everyone. I’m here perhaps explain what this was? today with Kamui G: Of course. The rebellion Gakupo. He wishes to talk about the Saigo Takamori led 30,000 exsamurai’s during the s a m u r a i i n to a f i g h t a g a i n s t Meiji Restoration. military forces. So, Gakupo, what’s it J: Who’s Saigo Takamori? like? G: Saigo Takamori was the By Jonathan Crane
Kamui Gakupo, A samurai struggling through the Meiji Restoration. all!
military leader for the Satsuma Gakupo: It is awful. forces. He had helped overthrow We are getting our the Shogun, back in 1868. rights taken away! It J: What was the result of the is a dishonour to us Satsuma rebellion?
G: It was very bad for the J: Really? How exactly is this samurai. The battle lasted for six happening? months. Saigo took his own life, G: First, they changed the and nearly all the samurai were hierarchy. We were no longer killed at the feet of the new army. considered Samurai, but J: Why do you say ‘nearly’? landowners. G: For I am still here! J: That sounds like it really doesn’t hurt you. G: Ah, but there is more! Our swords became optional, and we could cut oﬀ our topknots, which many of us refused. In 1872, the government created an army. This was clearly a sign they wanted us out of the way! They were replacing us with citizens! J: I see! Oh, about your swords. Why do you not wear them now? Where are they?
EDITORIAL TYLER MARSHALL I can see how the Meiji Restoration is a good thing. We gained many things, and many wars were won. But lots of people’s rights were taken away. These people were the Samurai’s and the women. This was very unfair to them. Why ever y single aspect of western ideas got taken is not right. The Japanese should use their own ideas, though only take some Western a spects. For example, the eating of meat was encouraged, even though it was against many people’s religion. I also believe that their expansion should probably stop soon as well. This is because something bad might happen, such as the Massacre at Port Arthur. They lost a lot of respect as a world nation, and it could easily happen again.
Tyler Marshall gives her opinion on the Restoration. Lol at the picture.