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bkaÈhd o¾Yk

28 jkfj¿u n ksl=;=j 3 n cQ,s - wf.dai; a = 2014

;dlaI‚l iyfhda.s;dj jvd;a hym;a wkd.;hla i|yd

50 jirl b;dwdi fiajh bkaÈhdj ish 68 jk ksoyia Èkh iurkakSh

ixpdrl fudaiï wêfõ.h

kjHlrKh bkaÈhdj ú,dis;djkag mKfohs

id¾:l;ajh lafjdkagï bkaÈhdkqfjda


fmdÜmqß bka È hdfõ meje;a ù ug ks h ñ; W;a i j Boa-W,a-*s;¾

uila mej;s Wmjdi ld,h tkï rduidka ld,fha wjidkh iurñka meje;afjk Baoa-W,a-*s;¾ úYajdih ixfla;kh lrhs. fuu Èkh mqrd ;Hd.hka yd iqn me;=ï yqjudre flf¾. b;du iq,N iqndYssxYkh jkafka —Boa uqLdrla˜ h’ th ñysß W;aijh f,io ye¢kafjk w;r ful< ó;s fijhshka ^ñysßs uqrelal=& m%Odk fldg.;a úúO jQ ri leú,s msß fNdack ix.%y meje;afõ. ljodo: wf.daia;= 20 fld;eko: bkaÈhdj mqrd

fyñia W;aijh

fudaiï c, ieKfl,sh

áfnáhdkq nqÿ oyfï m%drïNlhka w;frka flfkls moauiïNj iñ÷ka fyj;a .=re ßïfmdaÉ' Èk folla mqrd osfjk fyñia W;aijh Tyqf.a Wm; iurk w;r tu.ska wdOHd;añl Yla;sh yd hym;a fi!LHh ,efnk njg úYajdi flf¾' idïm%odhsl ix.S;h" j¾Kj;a fjia uqyqKq k¾;k yd w;alï fmd< fuys W;aijY%Sfha wx.hka fjhs'

fuu.ska flar,fha jhkdoa ys fudaiï jreidfõ iqkaor;ajh ieuf¾¡ úúO jQ .Dyia: yd t<suyka wx. /ilska o ixialD;sl jevigyka j,ska o iukaú; fuh Èk ;=klg jeä ld,hla iurkq ,efí. ljodo: wf.daia;= 11 -13 fld;eko: l÷lr Èia;%sla iudch, fld,.mamrd, jhdkdoa Èia;%slalh, flar<h

ljodo: cQ,s 7 - 8 fld;eko: fyñia wdY%uh" f,ka

rdlaI nkaOka ifydaoßhka ;u ifydaorhka w; rdÅ ^úis;=re m,|kd& n¢k fuu W;aijh u.ska wdorfha iqúfYaIs ne£ï iurkq ,efí. ifydaorfhda ;u ifydaoßhka wdrlaId lsÍug m%;s{d fo;s. leú,s yd ;Hd.hka yqjudre lrñka fuh ieuf¾. ljodo: wf.daia;= 10 fld;eko: bkaÈhdj mqrd

ckuIaÜñ l%sIaKd foú÷kaf.a Wm; úN+;sfhka yd W;al¾Ifhka hq;=j ieuf¾. tu Èkh mqrd úfYaIs; jQ m%KS; wdydr mdk wkqNj flfr;s’ l%sIaKd foú÷kaf.a Wmf;a isg ;reK úh olajdo Tyqf.a Èúh mqrd Tyq mE úúO jQ m%d;syd¾hhkao f.kyer olajk ckals ;kñka ksfjia w,xldr flf¾. ljodo: wf.daia;= 17 fld;eko: bkaÈhdj mqrd

.fkaIa p;=¾;s

.fkaI foú÷kaf.a m%;sudjka ksfji ;=< fyda hdno f;drKl ^je÷ï msoqï i|yd ;djld,slj lrk ,o bÈlsßula& ia:dmkh lr tu foú÷kaj jkaokd lrk Èkhhs' fuu W;aijh Èk 10 la mqrd meje;afõ' th wjika jkafka m%;sudj .`.l fyda uqyqfoa .s,aùfuks' ljodo: wf.daia;= 29 fld;eko: bkaÈhdj mqrd úfYaIfhka uydrdIag%h


fmrjok kj hq.hla Wod fjoa§ bkaÈhdj ish 15 jk w.%dud;Hjrhdf.a Èjqreï§u ÿgqjdh' kf¾kaø fudaä" §m jHdma; nyq;rhla Ndr;Sh ck;d mlaIh fjkqfjka ,nd .ekSug odhl jqKq m<uq kdhlhd" kj È,a,sfha rdIag%m;s Njka ud,s.fha§ 2014 uehs 26 jk Èk Èjqreï ÿkafkah' fï w;r;=r" bkaÈhdj ish bkaÈhkq ;dlaI‚l yd wd¾Ól iyfhda.s;dj iu.ska f.da,Sh jYfhka úYsIag;dj úiqrejd ,Sfï kshqla;j isà' tu jev igyk úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYfha wkkH uQ,drïNhls' bkaÈhdkq ;dlaI‚l yd wd¾Ól iyfhda.S;dj fï jif¾§ ish iaj¾K chka;sh iurk neúka" wms tu.ska ks¾udKh lrk ,o fjki foi .eUqre ne,aula .kafkuq' oekqu yqjudrej" mqyqKqj iy Odß;d f.dv ke.Su ud¾.fhka rgj,a 161 la mqrd fuys m%;sM, l%shd;aulhs' bkaÿ - ñhkaud¾ ne£ï kej; Yla;su;a lsÍfï§ bkaÈhdkq mqrdúoHd iólaIKh u.ska lrk ,o hym;a fiajh foi o wms n,kafkuq' 12 jk ishjig wh;a ñhkaudrfha wdkkao úydrh ms,silr lsÍfï iy ixrlaIKh lsÍfï wNsfhda.d;aul ld¾hhg Tjqka w;.id ;sì‚' wf.daia;= 15 Èkg fhfok 68 jk bkaÈhdkq ksoyia Èkh iurkq jia" wms ksoyia jHdmdrhg wdY%s; ixfla;uh jákdlulska hq;a ia:dk myla ms<sn| m%o¾Ykd;aul ,smshla bÈßm;a lrkafkuq' fï bkaÈhdj .fõIKh lsÍug lÈu wjia:djla fõ' wms bkaÈhdfõ §¾>;uhka w;ßka tlla jk ysïid.¾ wêfõ.S ÿïßfha ud¾. i,l=Kq" kej;=ïm, myla Wmqgd olajñka fudaiï ld,fha ixpdrhl isßh f.k tkafkuq' Tn bkaÈhdfõ w,xldrh wef.a —j¾Khka— u; kdNs.; l< úfYaI PdhdrEm úfYaIdx.hla iu.ska w;a olskakg hkafkysh' tys cïuq yd ldYaó¾ yS §ma;su;a Yafõ; j¾Khka isg flar,fha yß; kS, Èhfò j¾Kh;a ;j;a fndfydajl=;a olskq we;' uEl;§ ksudjQ lekia Ñ;%mg Wf<, ms<sn| is;a fhduñka" wm bkaÿ - m%xY Ñ;%mg ks¾udK m%h;akhka ú.%y lrkakg hkafka bkaÈhdj iskud;aul iyksIamdokfha il%Sh f,i ksr; nj fmkajd foñks' ixialD;sl Wiianj .ek È.gu olajkakg" wm uqÿka uÜgfï bkaÈhdkq iïNdjH k¾;k l,dlrejkag l:d lf<a kjuq m%jK;djka je<| .ekSfï§ l,dj úiska wod<;ajh oelajQfha flfiao hkak iy f,dal jHdma;j wdl¾IKh jeä lr .ekSfï hdj;ald,h ch.;a wdldrh .ek ud;%hla Tng §fï woyisks' m%Odk fmf<a bkaÈhdkq ú,dis;d ie,iqï Ys,amS inHidÑ uql¾Ô idïm%odhsl bkaÈhdj kùk m%jK;djka w.h lrkafka flfiao hkak ms<sn|j ish is;=ú,s fnod yod .kshs' wms miq.sh udi lsysmfha§ t,s ÿgq úúO w;alr .ekSï .ek o ne,aula fy,kakg hkafkuq - lafjdkagï bkaÈhdkqfjda" úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYfha fmdÿ rdcH ;dka;%sl uQ,drïNhla" fyd|u wOHdmksl Ñ;%mgh fjkqfjka cd;sl iïudkh Èkd .ekSu iy .+.,a Ækd¾ tlaia ;Hd.h i|yd fnx.dÆre mokï jQ bkaÿia lKavdhu ,ehsia;=fõ by<g meñŒu ms<sn|j flá igykla ;nkafkuq' wk;=rej f.dakaä NdIdj i|yd l%uf,aLhla iy f*dkaÜ wl=re fudaia;rhla ks¾udKh lsÍu .ek lshuq' f.dakaä mq¿,a f,i jHdma; f.da;%sl NdIdjls" äðg,a udOHh wdl%uKh lsÍfï ÿ¾,N jru Wmhd .kakd ,§'

bkaÈ 28 j

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bkaÈhd o¾Yk

28 jk fj¿u n ksl; = j = 3 n cQ,s - wf.dai; a s= 2014

ixialdrl( fihsâ wlandreoa§ka iydh ixialdrl( ksÅf,aIa älais;a úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYh ldur wxl 255, ta - wka;h, Ydia;%S Njka kj È,a,sh, 110001 bkaÈhdj ÿrl:k( 91'11'23383316" *elaia( 91'11'23384663 fjí wvúh( http://www.indiandiplomacy.in Tnf.a m%;spdr $ úuiSï i|yd( osdpd2@mea.gov.in

uelaiafmdaIqj¾ óähd .DDma bkaähd mqoa.,sl iud.u m%ldYl yd m%Odk fufyhqï ks,OdÍ( úldia fcdydß m%Odk úOdhl ks,OdÍ yd l<uKdldr wOHlaI( m%ldIa fcdydß m%Odk uQ,H ks,OdÍ( l=,a§ma isx úOdhl ixialdrl( fi!rí gkaLd m%Odk ld¾hd,h uelaiafmdaIqj¾ óähd .DDma bkaähd mqoa.,sl iud.u F2B tallh" fojk uy," MIRA ixia:dms; ldur fldgia wxl 1 yd 2" BYaj¾ k.¾" u;=rd mdr" kj È,a,sh" 110065" bkaÈhdj ÿrl:k( +91.11.43011111, Fax: +91.11.43011199 CIN No: U22229DL2006PTC152087 Tnf.a m%;spdr $ úuiSï i|yd( indiaperspectives@maxposure.in

úuiSï | MMGIPL i`oyd ÿrl:k( +91.11.43011111 *elaia( +91.11.43011199 www.maxposure.in

bkaÈhd o¾Yk" wrdì" nyid bkaÿkSishd" bx.%Sis" m%xY" c¾uka" yskaÈ" b;d,s" meIafgda" m¾ishdkq" mD;=.Sis" reishdkq" isxy," iamd[a[ yd fou< NdId j,ska m%ldYhg m;a flf¾¡ ldur wxl 255, ta - wka;h, Ydia;%S Njka, kj È,a,sh, 110001 ys úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYfha (MEA) taldnoaO f,alï (XP) yd ks, udOH m%ldYl fihsâ wlandreoa§ka úiska bkaÈhd o¾Yk uqøKh lr m%ldYhg m;a lrkq ,nk w;r tall F2B, fojk uy," MIRA ixia:dms; ldur" fldgia wxl 1 yd 2" BYaj¾ k.¾" u;=rd mdr" kj È,a,sh" 110065 ys uelaiafmdaIqj¾ óähd .DDma bkaähd mqoa.,sl iud.fï§ (MMGIPL) m%ldYhg m;a lrkq ,nhs¡ bkaÈhd o¾Yk jirlg 6 jrla m%ldYhg m;a fõ¡ ish¿u ysñlï weúßKs¡ fuys m<jk ,sms" ie,iqï yd $ fyda PdhdrEm bkaÈhd o¾Yk ys wkque;sh we;sj Ndú;d l< fyda kej; ks¾udKh l< yelsh¡ MEA yd MMGIPL, úfYaI b,a,Sula fkdue;sj imhk ,o ksIamdok" w;a msgm;a" PdhdrEm" ie,iqï úksúoNdjh yd fjk;a oE j,g isÿjk ydks fyda mdvq ms<sn|j j.lshkq fkd,efí¡ iÕrdj ;=, we;s woyia w;HjYHfhkau MEA fyda MMGIPL ys woyia fkdjk nj i,lkak¡

tkak wm yd( http://www.facebook.com/IndianDiplomacy http://www.twitter.com/IndianDiplomacy http://www.youtube.com/Indiandiplomacy —bkaÈhd o¾Yk˜ msgm;a i|yd wdikak;u bka§h ;dkdm;s ld¾hd,h wu;kak¡

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ms hjr1: Download 1( iPhonethe fyda Step free Android i|yd fkdñf,a ARplay app for iPhonefhojq or u ,nd fok ARPlay Android. nd.; lrkak

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mshjr 3( ùäfhda Step 3: Watch the videos. krUkak

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cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

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kj mqj;a

ol=Kq wdishdj kj bkaoSh wdrlaIlhdf.a

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bkaÈhd o¾Yk

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cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

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joka | uksIa pdkaoa

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cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014


bkaÈhdfõ rdcia:dkfha áf,dakshdkq fnhd*qÜ fld,sðfhaÈ fnhd*qÜ ñ;a;Kshka ud¾;= 8 jk Èk cd;Hka;r ldka;d Èkh iurñka

ixj¾Okh jk f,dalfha jvd jeä bvla .ksñka ;sfnkqfha ±kqï ifydaor;ajhla u.sks' ud,Èjhsfka isg fudieïìla" .hkd olajd;a" >dkdj yd we*a.ksia:dkfha isg wd¾ckaákdj olajd;a n,.ekaùfï yd iafjda;aidyfhka yev.eiSfï m%jK;djhka ±lsh yelsh' ixj¾Okh jk f,dalh b,lal lr .;a ITEC kï jq Odß;d j¾Ok yd udkj iïm;a ixj¾Ok jevigyk yryd ±kqu flakaø fldg .;a yjq,aldß;ajhka yd olaIsK-olaIsK iyfhda.S;ajhla we;s lsßug bkaÈhdj keue;s ke.S tk n,h ork m%h;akh fuu úm¾hdihka u.ska kej; kej;;a mila lr fohs' 1964 È Èh;a flreKq bka§h ;dlaIKsl yd wd¾Ól iyfhda.; s d jevigyk (ITEC) .;jQ oYl myl ld,h uq¿,af,a uydoaùm isidrd f.dia we;s w;r jir .Kkdjla ;sif a ia bkaÈhdfõ meje;afjk flá ld,Sk mqyK q q mdGud,djkaa fj;ska úúO jQ yelshdjka Tma kxjd .;a oyia .Kka wdÈ YsIHhka fj;ska fmdaIKh fjñka rgj,a 161 la fj; wduka;K % h fldg we;' meyeÈ<s f,iu ITEC mek ke.=fka olaIK s - olaIK s iyfhda.; s djfhka Èÿ,k WmyerKhla f,i jk w;r tys n,mEu f,dj úúO m%fõY fj;ska o¾Ykh fjñka yd ±fkñka ;sfí'

f;dr;=re ;dlaIK n,h WodyrKhla f,i bkaÈhdfõ f;dr;=re ;dlaIK wdh;k ;=<ska uDÿldx. fla;kfha ixlS¾K lafI;%hka fyd¢ka m%.=K l< ;reK úhÜkdï cd;slhka úhÜkduh ;=< ta yd iudk wdh;khka we;s lr ;u ifydaor ck;dj n,.ekaùu f.k yer mE yelsh' jemsrE îc me,ú w;=m;r úysod,k uyd jDlaIhla njg m;a ù we;s w;r úhÜkduh w.aksÈ. wdishdkq l,dmfha ke.S tk uDÿldx. uOHia:dkh njg m;a fjñka we;' tfukau ie;mqï ish .Kkla wE; ngysr wm%sldfõ >dkdys ITEC hgf;a bkaÈhdkq wdOdrfhka msysgqjk ,o f;dr;=re ;dlaIK uOHia:dkh fnfyúka ixj¾Okh ù we;s w;r j¾;udkfhaÈ ish .Kka jQ >dkd YsIHhkag f;dr;=re ;dlaIK iy;sl Wmdëka o msß kukq ,nhs' ITEC jevigyfka uqyqKqjr njg m;aj we;af;a f;dr;=re ;dlaIKhhs' ta" ±kqï l¾udka;hka ;=< bkaÈhdj i;= Yla;su;a jQ úfYaI{;d n,h ksidfjks' wm%sldj" ,;ska wfußldj" uOHu wdishdj" ol=Kq wdishdj yd w.aksÈ. wdishdj hk m%foaYj, YsIHhka yd uOH uÜgfï jD;a;slhka f;dr;=re ;dlaIK mdGud,d i|yd fnfyúka Wkkaÿh' bkaÈhdfõ

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yjq,aldß;ajh úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYfha ITEC ndrj isák iu f,alï l=ud¾ ;=yska fufia mjihs' ITEC jevigyk hgf;a msßkuk 250lg wêl mdGud,djka w;r f;dr;=re ;dlaIK mdGud,djka b;du;au ckm%shhs' f;dr;=re ;dlaIK mdGud,d i|yd fl;rï by< b,a¨ula we;af;ao h;a ish¨u whÿïlrejkag fuu mdGud,djka ;=< wjia:dj ,nd §u;a wmyiq ù ;sfnkjd'ZZ

we;=¿ mdGud,d 75 la muK fuhska mssßkuhs' kj jHidhlhka 6000 lg jeä m%udKhla ;u yelshdjka Tma kxjdf.k we;' tfukau CIDEC u.ska mqyqKqj ,enqjka Tjqkaf. au jQ jHdmdrhla wdrïN lr we;s w;r ±ka bkaÈhdj yd ldïfndach w;r mq¿,a wd¾Ól iyfhda.s;djhlg lghq;= lrñka isá'

Wmßu md,kh

ITEC mdGud,d w;r ;j;a ckm%sh mdGud,djla jkafka isú,a mßmd,khhs' uqfidaßys ksikai, bkaÈhdj wdishdfõ ;=kajk úYd,;u wd¾:slh jgmsgdjl msysgd we;s ,d,a ny¥¾ Ydia;%s f,i;a kfjHda;amdok yd jHjidhkaf.a mßmd,kh ms<sn| cd;sl welvñfha lafIa;% uOHia:dkh f,i;a ke.S tau ;=< ixj¾Okh mßmd,k mqyqKqj ,o f,dj mqrd isák YsIHhka jk rgj,a jHjidhsl ixialD;shla we;s lr iy uOHu uÜgfï jD;a;slhka ;u fid÷re .ekSfï ,d blaukska fhduq u;lhka fnod yod .ks' 2013 - 2014 jkafka bkaÈhdj foigh' jirj,È wi,ajeis nx.a,dfoaYfha ixj¾Okh fjñka mj;sk rgj, isú,a fiajlfhda 140 la lKavdhï olaIsK rgj, wNs,dIfhka msß ;reK ck;dj 4 lÈ lafIa;% mßmd,kh ms<sn|j jHjidhl;ajfha jHidhl;aj mqyqKq mdGud,djka mqyqKqj ,enQy' fuu mßmd,lhka .sks mqmqre fj;g jeä jeäfhka wdl¾IKh wo jk úg bkaÈhdj yd ta ta me;srùug fõ' kjÈ,a,sfha we;s cd;Hka;r rgj, ñ;%;ajfha ks, fkdjk bkaÈhdfõ l<ukdlrK wdh;kh yd ;dkdm;sjreka njg m;aj we;' m%Odk ffmf,a wyuodndoays l<ukdlrKh ms<sn| l,ukdlrK bka§h wdh;kh jkdys olaIsK há;, myiqlï f.dv wdh;k ie§ rgj,g jHjidhl;ajfha .sks ±,a, kexùu meyeÈ isá m;=rejk wdh;k w;ßka lsysmhls' há;, myiqlï f.dvkexùu wdishdka talShlrKfha bka§h i|yd iyh ±laùu ITEC ys ;j;a uQ,drïNfha (IAI) mq¿,a jQ id¾:l mshjrls' wdishdj" wm%sldj fldgila f,i ldïfndach" ,d´ih" ñhkaudrh yd ,;ska wfußldj mqrd há;, myiqlï yd úhÜkdï hk rgj, jHjidhl;aj ixj¾Ok f.dvkexùug wod, jHdmD;s i|yd bkaÈhdj uOHia:dk msysgqùug bkaÈhdj wdOdr imhd uQ,HdOdr imhd we;s w;r uE; ld,Sk jirj,È we;' wyuodndoays bka§h jHjidhl;aj uOHu wdishdkq ckrchka (CAR) fj;o tu ixj¾Ok wdh;kh (EDII) úiska 2006 fmnrjdß wdOdr ,ndfok ,È' ITEC jevigykg ia;=;s uiÈ ldïfndac - bkaÈhdkq jHjidhl;aj jkakg lshqndjg yd fldiagdßldjg iQ¾h ixj¾Ok uOHia:dkh (CIDEC) msysgq ùug n,Yla;s wx.k ,eìk' ITEC hgf;a isÿl, iyh ,nd fok ,È' miq.sh jir lSmh ;=< ;j;a ld¾hhka lsysmhla kï fifk.,a rcfha fuu uOHia:dkh w;s id¾:l fjñka we;s w.ue;s ld¾hd,h mß.Kl lsÍu" ol=Kq wm%sldfõ w;r ueiSu" jdhq iñlrK mdG ud,d" à I¾Ü wOHdmk l%uh fjkia lsÍug wdOdr ,nd §u yd uqøKh" úÿre lemSu" h;=re ,shkh" fldKavd ldïfndach yd Wiafnlsia:dkfha lD;su wjhj fudaia;r ±óu" yd .%e*sla fudaia;rlrKh noaO lsÍu wdÈhhs'

jHjidhl;aj Ôj .=Kh

mqyqKq ieishla

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

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ITEC" f,dj mqrd fjfik YsIHhka tlg f.dkq lrhs

wdydr wdrlaIdj

lrKh" jHidhl;aj mqyqKqj úfoaY lghq;= hkdÈfhys isg jdKscHh" úoHdj yd udOH olajd jHdmD;s i|yd iyh ,nd§fïÈ lDIsl¾uh jHdma; ù we;' flfryso ITEC úfYaI wjOdkhla fhduq lrhs' >dkdj" fik.d,h" nq¾lskd *dfida" ud,s yd ITEC wdÈ YsIH ixioh iqßkdï hk rgj,g lDIsld¾ñl WmlrK yd ITEC ys wdÈ YsIHhka ;u ;ukaf.a rgj, cd;sl jHjidhl;aj iyh ,nd È we;s w;r ITEC mqkreoh i|yd jk ux fmkajkakka njg m;aù wm%sldkq rgj, buy;a m%idohg ,laù we;' we;s neúka yd tu l%shdj,sfhaÈ olaIsK m%foaYfha ;j ;j;a by<g ixj¾Okh ùfï yd rgj,a yd bkaÈhdj w;r Yla;su;a ixialD;sl yd yelshdjka W;afY%aKs.;lr .ekSfï fkdksñ rdcH ;dka;%sl in|;djhka we;s ùu;a fya;=fjka wdYdjlska hqla;j ITEC mdGud,djka ITEC ifydaor;ajfha f,dal jHdma; ixj¾Okh jk f,dalh ;=< buy;a úhukla úhd we;s nj fmkS hhs' ckm%sh;ajhg m;aj we;' iEu fcda¾odkfha isák ITEC wdÈ jirlu fuu mdGud,dj i|yd ITEC yd YsIHhka Tjqkaf.a fCIa;%j, jeo.;a bkaÈhdj n,d tk m,ia;Skqjka 100 tys m% ; s M ,hla N+ñldjka r`. olajk w;r bkaÈhdj fokl=f.a muK Ôú;h w¨;ska jk SCAAP" ;=<È uq,H l<ukdlrKh yd ,sùug ITEC mdGud,djka fya;= wd¾Ól ixj¾Okh ms<sn|j Tjqka f;dr;=re ù we;' >dkdj" nq¾lskd *dfida" bf.k .;a foa ms<sn|j wNsudkfhka ;dlaIKh fgdaf.da yd ishrd ,sfhdka jeks l;d lrhs' fndÜiajdkdys wdrlaIl úoHdj yd ngysr wm%sldkq rgj, ks,Orhka wxYhkaf.a ks,Odßka fndfyduhla 1"100 lg jeä m%udKhla úúO jQ udOH we;=¿ fuu jevigyk hgf;a mqyqKqj ITEC mdGud,d hgf;a mqyqKqj ,nd mdGud,d 250 la ,enqfjda fj;s' gekaidkshdfõ we;' uOHu wdishdfõ YsIHhka msß kuhs fcHIaG ks,Odßkaf.ka ishhg 24 iy uOHu uÜgfï jD;a;slhka lg jeä m%udKhla ITEC w;a±lSï .Kkdjlg f;dr;=re ;dlaIKh" iys; jQfjda fj;s' bx.%sis NdId m%ùsK;djh" uQ,H l<ukdlrKh" zzwOHdmkh" úoHdj yd ;dlaIKh hk lDIsl¾u mßph" md¾,sfïka;= wOHhkh" fCIa ;%hka i|yd bkaÈhdj b;d ÈhqKq rgla' mdßißl ;dlaIKh yd Ôj ;dlaIKh hkdÈ bkaÈhdfõ ixj¾Ok w;a±lSï wm%sldkq mdGud,d u.ska mqyqKqj ,nd § we;' uyoaùmhg b;du;au wod,hs'ZZ gekaidkshdkq olaIsK - olaIsK iyfhda.s;djh i|yd ysgmq weu;sjrhl= yd bkaÈhdfõ gekaidkshdkq bkaÈhdfõ ;sridr lemùu fmkakqï lrk ;dkdm;sjrfhl=j isá wdpd¾h i,Sï wyuâ ITEC jevigyk ;u úfYaI{Ndjh fmkakqï i,Sï mjihs' ixj¾Okh jk f,dj mqrd isák lrñka ixj¾Okh jk olaIsK m%foaYfha rgj,a ITEC wdÈ YsIHhka weu;sjreka" fcHIaG rdcH iu. bkaÈhdfõ ixj¾Ok w;a±lSï fnod yod ;ka;s%lhka " úoaj;=ka" rdcH ks,Orhka" m%Odk .ksñka we;' bkaÈhdkq rcfha wdOdr i|yd jk fmf,a jHjidhlhka yd Ñka;k kdhlhka oaúmd¾Yaúl jevigykla f,i werUqkq ITEC njg m;aj jeo.;a ia:dkhla ysñlrf.k we;' tys m%;sM,hla jQ SCAAP ^fkdne¢ cd;skag fuu mdrixialD;sl ifydaor;ajfha iqúfYaIs wOdr imhk úfYaI wm%sldkq jev igyk& o jQ w;a±lSïj, yog ±Kqkq ye`.Sï yd u;lhka we;=¿j f;dr;=re ;dlaIKh" frÈms<s fudaia;r

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yjq,aldß;ajh

fuu mdGud,djkaysÈ wka;¾ l%shdldß;ajh ;=<ska bf.kSug isiqkag wjia:dj ie,fia

ITEC Facebook msgqfõ yd bkaÈhdfõ úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxY fjí wvúfha ±lsh yelsh'

kj udkhka ( m%cd;ka;%jdoh f.dvke.Su

wkqnoaO m%cd;ka;%jdoh yd ue;sjrK l,ukdlrKh ms<sn| bka§h cd;Hka;r wdh;kh (IIIDEM) u.sks'

iaj¾Kuh hq.h( ux fmkajkafkda

miq.h s jir .Kkdj ;=< ixj¾Okh jk ITEC" fuu jif¾ iema;eïnrfhaÈ ish 50 jk f,dj iu. kj in|;djhka we;s lr .ekSug jirg t<fUk w;r th msúfikafkaa fuf;la ITEC iu;a ù we;' ñ,shk .Kka ck;dj ;u meñKs ffjj¾K .uka u. foi wdmiq yeÍ ksfhdað;hka f;dard .ekSug ;u f>daIdldß ne,sh yels yd olaIsK m%foaYfha ixj¾Okh jk yd j¾Kj;a jQ ue;sjrK ;=<È Pkaoh m%ldY rgj,a iu. foaÿKq meye ±kqï md,ula ieliSug lsÍu mq¿,a f,dalfha we.hSug;a l=;y = ,hg;a fmru. n,d issák iaj¾Kuh hq.hghs' fya;= ù we;s w;r ;ju;a wdOqkl s m%cd;ka;j % dÈ fjkiaùu yd iaj-yev.iau ITEC Ôjfhka rdcHhka bkaÈhdj wdo¾Yhla f,io mqnoq k uka;h % fjhs' fuu i,lkq ,nhs' fï miqìu u; woyia oajhh fyd¢kau yl=¿jd ITEC wdÈ jir 3 lg fmr ue;sjrK mqyK q q olajk wjia:dj jkqfha zziQ¾h jevigykla Èh;a l< w;r fï jk ñ;a;Ksh s kaf.aZZ jd¾Isl pdßldjhs' YsIHhkaf.ka úg fhaukh" >dkdj" f,nkkh" iEu jirlu fik.d,a" isfhrd fndfyduhla fcda¾ðhdj" N+;dkh yd wm%l s dfõ ,sfhdak"a fid,uka ÿm;a" jkqwgq" weu;sjreka" kj;u rdcHh jk ol=Kq iqvdkh lsßn;s" kdjqre" t,a ie,ajfoda¾" yhsá" rdcH;dka;%slhka jeks úúO jQ rgj, ue;sjrK iekain s d¾ yd iqvdkfha wE; msáir yd úoaj;=ka ks,Odßkaf.a buy;a wdl¾Ikhg th .ïj, Èú f.jk kQ.;a yd w¾Ofjñka iudcfha fya;= ù we;' idlaIr ldka;dfjda rdcia:dkfha jeo.;a ia:dk fuu jevigykg fï jif¾È wÊu¾ ys we;s l=vd .ïudkhla jk ysñlrf.k isá iyNd.s jQjkag úfYaI jQfha" áf,dakh s d fnhd*qÜ fldf,aÊ fj; bf,lafg%dksl Pkaoh m%ldY meñfK;s' Tjqka kej;;a ;u .ï lsÍfï hka;%h l%shd;aul lsÍu rgj,a n,d hkafka iQ¾h Yla;s yd w;a±lSïj,ska msÍ ue;sjrK fldñifï bxðfkarejka f,i mqyK q j q ,enq úrejka f,isk's ks,Odßkaf.ka Pkao uOHia:dk j, wdrlaIdj ITEC uQ,HdOdr u; fnhd*qÜ fld,sðh jeks ue;sjrK l<ukdlrKfha úúO wm%sldj mqrd ñ;a;Kshka 300 la mqyqKq lr we;s uqyqKqjrhka bf.k .;a ksid muKla fkdj w;r uq¿ uy;a wm%sld uyoaùmhgu isák tlu f,dj úYd,;u m%cd;ka;%jdÈ l%shdj,sh f,i iQ¾hn, bxðfkarejka Tjqka muKla nj fnhd*qÜ ie,flk bkaÈhdfõ ue;sjrK ieKfl,sfha fld,Sðfha mqfrda.dñ nkal¾ frdahs mjihs' iDcq w;a±lSï o ,enq ksidfjks' fnhd*qÜ ñ;a;kshka ITEC ys ±lau ms<ì s Uq ue;sjrK mqyqKq mdGud,dj werô 2012 lrñka tys mqk¾Ôjkfha wOHd;aufhka woyia yd .sïydkfha isg fuu jir ;=k ;=< rgj,a 40 ±kqu ;=<k s a ifydaor ck;dj n,.ekaùu;a úoyd l uOHu uÜgfï ue;sjrK ks,Odßka 90 la olajhs' rka ixj;air ieurefïÈ fuu m%Ndj;a muK mqyqKq lr we;' fuu mqyqKqj isÿlrkq Ôj .=Kh ixj¾Okh fjñka mj;sk f,dalh u; ,nkafka bkaÈhdkq ue;sjrK fldñiug ;j;a fndfyda ld,hla m;s; jkq we;' uksIa pdkaoa hkq India Writes ys m%Odk ixialdrljrhdh 'www.indiawrites.org cd;Hka;r lghq;= yd bka§h lghq;= ms<sn|j jk b- i`.rdjla yd c¾k,hls'

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

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yjq,aldß;ajh

úYsIag;ajfha

rka ixj;airh

f,dj mqrd issák" bka§h ;dlaIKsl yd wd¾Ól iyfhda.s;d jev igyk (ITEC) ys m%;s,dNsyq tyss 50 jk jir ieurefïÈ ta ms<sn|j fufia woyia m<l<y “ITEC jevigyk uf.a Ôú;h hdj;ald,sk lr .ekSug Wmldr

l<d' ug mqoa.,sl mdi,l f;dr;=re ;dlaIK foaYlhl= f,i w¾Old,Sk /lshdjla ,enqkd' uu ±ka jegqma folla ,nkjdZZ' fcdi*ska kuqmq,d wkaðka " keïìhdj' f;dr;=re ;dlaIK l=i,;d yd bx.%Sis NdIdj ms<sn| m%ùK;d iy;sl m;%h" 2013 ckjdß isg ud¾;=

“ug isïndífõ rdcH fiajd fldñifï ;j;a j.lSï Ndr fokq ,enqjd' fjk;a ld¾hhkag wu;rj uf.a fomd¾;fïka;=j i|yd fjí wvúhla iE§fï;a iy;sl m;% yd m%pdrl m;% ie,iqï lsÍfï;a kshef,kjdZZ' ìhqá uqIkaäka.d" isïndífõ fjí ie,iqïlrKh ms<sn| m%ùK;d iy;sl m;%h 2008 cQks - wf.daia;=

—uf.a mdGud,dj wjika lr udi kjhlg miq rdcH uQ,f,aLh fj; Wiia lrkq ,enqjd ' fï jk úg uu lshqndfõ yjdkdys keóìhd ;dkdm;s ld¾hd,fha f;jk f,alï f,i lghq;= lrkjd' uu b;d wdvïnrfhka lshkak leu;shs ud ±ka issák ;;ajhg ud m;a lf<a ITEC nj˜'

tkafc,d lkaÊjdf¾ " isïndífõ" bx.%Sis ikaksfõokh ms<sn| m%ùK;d iy;sl m;%h" 2012 ckjdß - ud¾;=

—fuu mqyqKqfjka miq uf.a wud;HdxYfha kj N+ñldjla yd j.lSula ud fj; ndr fokq ,enqjd' udkj iïm;a fomd¾;fïka;=fõ mqyqKqlsÍfï m%Odksfhl= f,i ud fiajh lrkjd' tfukau cd;Hka;r W;aij ixúOdkh lsÍfïÈ uQ,f,aL fomd¾;fïka;=jgo ud le|jkq ,nkjd' ud bx.%Sis muKla l;d lrk cd;Hka;r ksfhdað;hka yuqfjkjd˜' wekaä wf.daiq" fnkska" bx.%Sis yd f;dr;=re ;dlaIK l=i,;d ms<sn| m%ùK;d iy;sl m;%h" 2013 ud¾;= - uehs

—fuu mdGud,dfjka ud ,nd .;a ±kqu fulaisfldafõ uf.a úYaj úoHd,fha bx.%Sis NdId iaj wOHhkh i|yd fjí wvúhla ks¾udKh lsÍfïÈ fndfyda fihska jeo.;a jQjd˜' Tiald¾ - fudrdf,aia iekafÉiaa" fulaisfldaj fjí ie,iqïlrKh ms<sn| m%ùK;d iy;sl m;%h 2010 ud¾;= - uehs

—fuu.ska ud f,dj fj; újr jQjd, uu cd;Hka;r udOH lshùu wdrïN l<d, bx.%Sis NdIdj jeä ÈhqqKq jQjd, ud ixialdrjrfhl= f,ihs lghq;= lf<a, ±ka ud wka;¾cd, wxYfha wOHlaI f,ig;a isßhd rEmjdysksfha ks, fjí wvú foll m%Odk ixialdrl f,i;a lghq;= lrkjd˜ >ika hQiq*a - isßshdj bx.%Sis NdId ikaksfõokh ms<sn| m%ùK;d iy;sl m;%h 2009 wf.daia;= - Tlaf;dan¾

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yjq,aldß;ajh

bkaÈhdkq ue;sjrK m%m[aph

ms<sn| wOHhkhla

bkaÈhdkq ue;sjrK fldñifï n, jmißh ;=< msysgqjd we;s" m%cd;ka;%jdoh iy ue;sjrK l<ukdlrKh ms<sn| bkaÈhdkq cd;Hka;r wdh;kh" iyNd.s;aj m%cd;ka;%jdoh iy ue;sjrK l<ukdlrKh i|yd jk yeoEÍu" m¾fhaIKh" mqyqKq lsÍu iy cd;Hka;r iyfhda.s;dj ms<sn| Wiia iïm;a uOHia:dkhls

bkaÈhdkq ;dlaI‚l iy wd¾Ól iyfhda.s;dj ^b;dwdi&" wm%sldkq jev igyk i|yd úfYaI fmdÿrdcH uKav,Sh iyfhda.h ^ialema& iy ;dlaI‚l iyfhda.s;d fhdackd l%uh" fld<U l%uh hgf;a" ixj¾Ok fjñka mj;sk rgj, udkj iïm;a ixj¾Okh yd Odß;d ixj¾Okh i|yd úoHudk wdldrhlska odhl;ajh olajd we;' fï jevigykaj, WmfhdacH;dj iy wod<;ajh jeä jk bka§h ixl%u‚l iyNd.

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slhka ixLHdfjka ms<sìUq fõ' m%cd;ka;%jdoh iy ue;sjrK l<ukdlrKh ms<sn| bkaÈhdkq cd;Hka;r wdh;kh" bkaÈhdkq ue;sjrK fldñiu hgf;a 2011 § ia:dmkh lrk ,§' th iyNd.s;aj m%cd;ka;%jdoh iy ue;sjrK l<ukdlrKh i|yd jk yeoEÍu" m¾fhaIKh" mqyqKq lsÍu iy cd;Hka;r iyfhda.s;dj ms<sn| Wiia iïm;a uOHia:dkhls' fï uQ,drïNl wÈhf¾§" m%uelmsbcdwd" ks¾jdpdka idodka yS§


2012 wdh;k f.dvke.S,s i|yd mokï .,a we;sÍfï W;aijfha§

mqyqKq ,dNSka 150 fofkl=g myiqlï iys;j mdGud,d fufyhqï l%shd;aul lrhs' flfiafj;;a" w;s kùk mqyqKq uOHia:dkhla" fkajdisld.drhla" mqia;ld,hla iy iïm;a uOHia:dkhla iys;j" ;ukagu wh;a úoHd mSGhla ia:dmkh lsÍfuys ,d wdh;kh ld¾h nyq, fjhs' m%uelmsbcdwd" i;=j ixrpl y;rls - mqyqKq lsÍu yd Odß;d ixj¾Okh" Pkaoodhl wOHdmkh iy iudc iyNd.s;ajh" m¾fhaIKh" kjHlrKh yd m%f,aLkh" iy cd;Hka;r jHdmD;s yd ;dlaI‚l wka;¾ iyfhda.s;djh' ue;sjrK l<ukdlrKfha§ hym;a mßphka yqjudre lr .ekSu ms‚i cd;sl uOHia:dkhla f,i wdh;kh l%shd lrkq we;' úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYh iu. iyfhda.h we;sj" m%uelmsbcdwd" b;dwdi hgf;a — ue;sjrK l<ukdlrKh - uQ,O¾u iy mßph— uefhka úfYaI mdGud,d id¾:lj ixúOdkh lr we;' m<uq mdGud,dj 2012 Tlaf;dan¾ 8-20 w;ro fojekak 2013 wfma%,a 10-23 ld,fhao meje;ajqKq w;r f;jekak 2014 wfma%,a 9-23 ld,fha § meje;aú‚' jev igyka j, iM,odhl;ajh yjq,aldr rgj,ska ,efnk b;d

m%n, m%;spdrj,ska ueksh yels fõ' tmuKla fkdj" fndfyda wjia:dj,§ ish¨‍u mdGud,d i|yd mj;sk wdik ixLHdj fuka lsysm .=Khl wêl;r odhl;ajhla ,enqKq w;r yeu jdrhl§u fmdfrd;a;= f,aLkfha iyNd.slhka úYd, .Kkla úh' fï olajd mej;s mdGud,d ioyd wdishd;sl" hqf¾ishdkq" wm%sldkq" iy ,;ska weußldkq rgj,a 44 lska iyNd.slhka meñK ;sfí' f;jeks mdGud,dj" 2014 wfma%,a 9 Èk wdrïN jQ w;r" 16 jk f,dala iNd ue;sjrKh iu. iu.dój isÿ úh' bkaÈhdkq ue;sjrK fldñiu u.ska meje;ajqKq ienE ue;sjrK l%shdj,shl w;aoelSï ,nd .ekSug" iyNd.slhkag tla jqKq jdishla meje;sfhah' bkaÈhdkq ue;sjrKj, ksrfmalaI fufyhqï mßudj yd ;ru fukau úoHq;a Pkao i,l=Kq lsÍfï hka;% l%uh uE; ld,fha§ f.da,Sh wdl¾IKh ,nd f.k ;sfí' rgj,a lsysmhlskau bkaÈhdkq úoHq;a Pkao i,l=Kq lsÍfï hka;% w;alr .ekSfï Wkkaÿj m< ù ;snqKq w;r úfYaIfhkau wmf.a wi,ajeis rgj,a yd wm%sldkq rgj,a ta w;r fjhs'

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yjq,aldß;ajh

iyksIamdok lafIa;%fha

bkaÈhdfõ NjH;dj ckm%sh úfkdaodiajdoh iy m%cdkk ufkdaúoHdj w;frys" bkaÈhdkq iskudj w.hhka ;yjqre lrñka ;u wkkH udj; fidhd.kakd ,o w;r" ixialD;Ska jHdma; lsÍfuys ,d w;HjYH fuj,ula njg m;a ù we; joka | ß;sla nek¾Ô

tys yrhg mlaImd;" bkaÈhdkq iskudj" jir 101 lg fmr" fjkia m%;HlaIhla ;=<ska iskudjg m%fõYùfï kj udj;l m%fõY ,laIHh u; p,k Ñ;% iy tys,d jk úldYh úiska wm u; mjrk ,oao wmg y÷kajd fok ,§' bkaÈhdkq Wmuydoaùmh ;=<" p,k Ñ;% úiska iudc lv;=rdj taldnoaO lrk ,o w;r wkHhka f;areï .ekSfï laIs;sch mq¿,a lrkq ,en we;' iuyr úg iskudj ud¾.fhka ixialD;Ska uqiq lsÍfï l,dj bkaÈhdj ;=< tys NjH;dj fidhd .kshs' bkaÈhdkq iskud iïm%dma;sh;a iu.u" Ñ;%mg ks¾udKlrejka úiska úfkdaodiajdoh f,iska y÷kd.kq ,enQ h:d¾:jdofha ueðla f,dalhla wmg y÷kajd fokq ,eîh' tys§ ;:H iy Í,h w;r wNsidß;djh §¾> ld,hla i|yd Èkfha ms<sfj, jk njg fmkS .sfhah' wmf.a iskudfõ úfkdaodiajdofha f¾Çh msúiqu ld,h Tiafia .uH;dj Èkd .kq ,en iy Ôú;fha iEu me;slvl§u

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o¾YkSh rx. Yd,djl u;sh i,iajkq ,en jQ .;sl;ajfha uQ,hka oelSug ld,fha ;Srh we;' p,k Ñ;% ud¾.fhka" wm ljodg;a jvd Tiafia wdmiq .uka lsÍug wm fm<Uùh' ld,amksl ù ;sfí' rx. yd,dfjka msg;§ f,dal iskud od¾Ykslhkaf.a is;ayS w;smqrdK Ôú;fha h:d¾:h ms<sìUq lsÍug fi,shqf,dhsâ rx.Yd,djlg §¾> ld,h;a mqrd iSud ù ;srfha h:d¾:h lsisÈkl iu;a fkdjQfõ jqjo ;snQ" bkaÈhdkq iskudj" wka;¾.;fhka wms iskudjg ia;=;s jkakg" ieu w;súfYaIfhka nyqúO udk. úgu mYapd;a ;srlrKfha fjkia ekSfï .=Kh ms<sn| Tmamq ù we;' fkdlrk ,o wmf.a brKu iu. o ,kaÉfndlaia iy lsiaid ^folu bkaÈhdj i;=j kshuhka lrd msúfikakg yqrenqyqá tkat*aãiS u.ska iyksIamdokh noaO jHdmdr ms<shula fidhd.;suq' tfiajqj;a" lrk ,§& jeks Ñ;%mgj, yryd ixialD;Ska msßiqÿ úfkdaodiajdofha iSud ;,a¨‍ uE;ld,Sk fi!kao¾hd;aul iy uqiqlsÍfï lsÍu iy wod<;ajh úuiSu hkq wd¾Ól id¾:l;ajh fojkqjg lS idïm%odh ;sì‚' iuld,Sk bkaÈhdkq iskudfõ foh iaÓr lrhs' ksyv hq.fha isg lemSfmfkk úfYaIdx. fol jk bkaÈhdj i;=j noaO jHdmdr l;dkdo wjÈh w;r ta miq.sh oYl lsysmfha§ wm yryd ixialD;Ska uqiqlsÍfï úiska idlaIs orñka isák fohhs' idïm%odh ;sì‚' ksyv hq.fha isg olajd" 1913 iy úfoia ìïyS" bkaÈhdkq iskudfõ l;dkdo wjÈh olajd" 1913 iy 1940 1940 w;r ld,h ieuÍu" hqfrdamfha § bkaÈhdkq w;r ld,h ;=<" bkaÈhdkq iskudj ;=<" bkaÈhdkq iskudjg we;s úi,a ms<s.ekSu ksIamdokfhka j¾Okh jQ w;r iskudj iy bkaÈhdkq iskud l¾udka;fha úúO l,dmhka Tjqkaf.au iskudjla ksIamdokfhka fiajd kshe,s úfoaYslhkaf.a Èÿ,k y÷kajd§fï ,d wdrïNhla .;af;ah" j¾Okh jQfhah tald.%;dj" úúO wjia:dj,§ ;jo uQ,sl úIhh f,i foajl:d noaO jHdmdr úIhfhys bkaÈhdkq idys;Hh Ndú; lrk ,§" kuq;a fj<|mf,a NjH;dj jvd;a fyd¢ka f;areï ta ksy~ ld,fþoh ;=<§" úúO W;aidyhka o .ekSug wm in, lrkq ms‚i" iy wdo¾Yfha cd;Hka;r noaO jHdmdr ud¾.fhka Ñ;%mg yÈis ke.au kshu f,i oelaùu ms‚i ks¾udKh lsÍfï,d .kq ,en ;sfí' iSududhsïj,g tmsáka msysá cd;Skag Tífnys 1924 §" noaO jHdmdr yryd hqfrdamSh

jfï isg ol=Kg( ksrEmud fld;arE" wOHlaI ^Ñ;%mg&" bka§h f;dr;=re iy úldYk lghq;= wud;HdxYh¦ ksIamdol fndî fíä¦ rx.k Ys,amS Wfoa fpdmard¦ m%xYfha bkaÈhdkq ;dkdm;s wreka fla isx.a¦ rx.k Ys,amS - wOHlaI wdpd¾h lu,a yika¦ ìu,a cqla,d" f,alï" bka§h f;dr;=re iy úldYk lghq;= wud;HdxYh¦ Ñ;%mg ks¾udKl rdfïIa ismamS¦ wdpd¾h ta Èod¾ isx.a" uyf,alï" t*awhsiSiSwhs iy Ñ;%mg ks¾udKl iqë¾ ñIard 2014 lekia Ñ;%mg Wf<f,a§

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yjq,aldß;ajh

;dlaIK{hka leu;s lrjd .kakg W;aidyhka m<uq mkacdí Ñ;%mgh jQ fIhs,d" mskaoa od l=ä .kakd ,o w;r l,algdfõ ^oeka fld,algd& hkqfjkao ye¢kajqKq w;r 1936 § l,algdfõ§ udodka ;shg¾ia i;=j b;d,shdkqjka iy m%xY rEm.; flre‚" iy ,dfyda¾j,§ ksl=;a lrk ,§' cd;slhka ish ld¾h uKav,fha r|jd isák w;r ,dfydarh oeka mdlsia:dkhg wh;ah' frdaufha hQiS bgd,shdkd iu. noaOj idú;%S ;u m<uq úfYaIdx.h f,i ilikq ,en we;' woyiaj, iy NjH;dfõ wNsidÍ;dj jir lsysmhlg by; ks¾udKh jQ" ,hs,d uÊkQ" ld,h mqrdjg" noaO jHdmdr úldYkh úh' ì%;dkH k¿jka t;=< r|jd .ekSug ksoyig fmr bkaÈhdj noaO jHdmdr iu;a úh' kuq;a ta ysudkaIQ rdhs Ñ;%mg iïnkaOfhka jvd;a il%Sh jQfha kï" ks¾udK lrejd ;u Ñ;%mg i|yd mYapd;a ksoyia bkaÈhdj iskudj 1978 § fla úfoaY iyfhda.hkaf.a leue;a; Èkd ud¾.fhka ixialD;Ska fj; msúiSfï ta wíndia .ekSug iu;alï oelajQ mqoa.,hdh' Tyq fïrE udj;la oek isáhdh' weußld úiska m¾foaiS c¾uksfha *%dkaia Tiaáka iu. jev tlai;a ckmoh iy reishdj jeks ks¾udKh lrk lrñka wdrïN l< w;r fï oaú;ajh rgj,a iu.ska mriamr .;sl;ajhla ,§' t*a iS fïrd úiska 1925 § ks¾ñ; ,hsÜ T*a taishd" fidhd .kq ,eì‚' 50 oYlfha miqNd. úiska w,s ndnd 1928 § ks¾ñ; Isrdia iy 1929 § ks¾ñ; fha§" Ñ;%mg ks¾udK Ys,amS biaudfh,a ´¾ pd,sia fpda¾ w f;%da T*a vhsia jeks Ñ;%mg wmg u¾pkaÜ weußld tlai;a ckmohg .sh ksIamdokh odhdo lf<ah' w;r fÊïia whsjß iu. tlaj u¾pkaÜ lf<ah' miqj bkaÈhdkq Ñ;%mg ks¾udKlrefjda" whsjß ksIamdok fm< ks¾udKh lrk 1931 § isÿjQ l;dkdofha imeñŒu;a ,oafoa 1961 §h' weußldj u¾pkaÜ Tjqka úiska iu." foaYSh NdIdj iy ixialD;sh whsjß oaú;ajh wkdjrKh lf<a reishdj iu.ska ;srh u; iy bkaÈhdkq Wmuydoaùmfha kï" reishdj rdÊ lmQ¾ fidhd .kq fidayakS udysjd,a iskud Yd,d ;=< ms,sìUq lsÍug mgka.;a ,enQfhka 1970 § fïrd kdï fcdal¾ ksIamdokh lrkq w;r pl%SlrKfha iy fnodyeÍfï ks¾udKh l<dh' tys reishdkq i¾lia ,eì‚ ud¾.j,ska kuH ksrfmalaIhla w;alr Ys,amSka rÕkq ,eîh' bkaÿ-reishdkq .;s' 1933 §" ysudkaIQ rdhs" l¾ud ksuehQ iyksIamdok wkqnoaOhka .Kkska w;r th bkaÿ-ì%;dkH noaO jHdmdrhla úh' jeä jkakg mgka.;s' 1978 § fla ta wíndia úiska ;dlaI‚l fya;= ksidfjka" l,dmSh Ñ;%mg m¾foaiS ks¾udKh lrk ,§' t*a iS fïrd úiska tla l,dmhla ;=< ksmojqKq w;r ;dlaIK{hka w,s ndnd ´¾ pd,sia fpda¾ ksIamdokh lf<ah' miqj rfÜ úúO m<d;aj,ska meñ‚fhah" fjk;a Tjqka úiska reishdj iu.ska fidayakS udysjd,a fmfoil ksjeis m%cdjla ika;¾mKh i|yd ksIamdokh lrkq ,eì‚' flfiafj;;a" fï noaO woyi we;sj wka fmfoil fnodyßk ,§' jHdmdr uQ,sl jYfhka fm!oa.,sl ;ks ;ks

bkaÿ- m%xY Ñ;%mg ks¾udK Ys,amSka 2014 lekia Ñ;%mg Wf<f,a§ iuksIamdok NjH;djka ms<sn|j idlÉPd lrhs

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rx.k Ys,amS - wOHlaI lu,a yika 2014 lekia Ñ;%mg Wf<f,a§ Ñ;%mg úpdrl wkQmud fpdmard iu.

ksmehqïlrejka úiska wdrïN lrk ,o tajdh' jk vhiafmdard rislhka lrd iïuQL lrjk 1982 §" Y%Su;a ßpâ wefgkafndfrda f.a .dkaê idOlhla f,io ie,fla' iu ksIamdok lafIa;%fha m<uq úfYaIdx. Ñ;%mgh njg m;ajQ w;r ks, iu bkaÈhdkq NjH;djh" tkhska m%lgh' ksIamdol jQfha bka§h cd;sl Ñ;%mg ixj¾Ok bkaÈhdj iu.ska iu ksIamdokfha tla m%Odk ixia:djhs' 80 oYlfha w. Nd.fha isg fï olajd" Èß.ekajqula fyda NjH;djla úh yels jkafka" rgj,a wms iu ksIamdok fm<lau ÿgqfjuq' i;Hð;a rdhsf.a w;r Wmdh ud¾.sl yjq,aldÍ;ajhla f.dvke.Suhs' ^fcrdâ fvmd¾ähq iu.ska& wNsu;hka" wefvda¾ iu ksIamdokh ud¾.fhka" rgj,a folu" Ñ;%mg f.damd,l%sIaKka" nqoaOdfoaí odia.=ma;d" ;dlaIK{hka i|yd oaùmd¾Yaúl mqyqKq uqr,s kdhs¾ iy ;j;a fndfyda fofkla jevigyka ks¾udKh lsÍfï foig úfoaY iu ksIamdok i|yd ms<sfh, ;j;a mshjrla .ekSug yelshdfjka f;dr;=re iy l< ksidfjka f,dalh mqrd úYd, risl hqla; jkafkah' úldYk lghq;= le<la lrd ióm jkakg iu;a ùh' bkaÈhdj iu.ska iu ksIamdok wud;HdxYhg uE; ld,fha§" bkaÈhdj úiska iyNd.sl rg iïnkaOfhka n,k l< wkqj" bkaÈhdj" oaùmd¾Yaúl .súiqï ud¾.fhka rEm.; lsÍfuka WmÈk kj wd¾Ólhl n%iS,h" m%xYh" ixialD;sl ne¢hdjka j¾Okh lr mQ¾K m%;s,dNhla w;alr .kq úh jeks rgj,a .kakd ,§' f;dr;=re iy úldYk yelaflah' WodyrK jYfhka" foaYSh iu.ska Ñ;%mg lghq;= wud;HdxYhg wkqj" bkaÈhdj" N+ñfha§ iskaod.S kd ñf,a.S fodandrd n%iS,h" m%xYh" c¾uksh" b;d,sh" fnd,sjqâ Ñ;%mgfha uE;ld,Sk iy wfkl=;a fmda,ka;h" iamd[a[h" kjiS,ka;h" id¾:l;ajh bkaÈhdkqjka iamd[a[h Y%jHoDYH tlai;a rdcOdksh iy uE;l§ lekvdj lrd hdug Èß .ekajQ w;r tkhska wka;¾.;hka jeks rgj,a iu.ska Ñ;%mg iy wfkl=;a iamd[a[fha ixpdrl jHdmdrh ckm%sh wdjrKh lrñka Y%jHoDYH wka;¾.;hka wdjrKh ùug bjy,a úh' iu ksIamdok lrñka iu ksIamdok .súiqï w;aika iu ksIamdok iy iu ks¾udK .súiqï w;aika lrkq ,en we;' lafIa;%j, bkaÈhdkq NjH;djh úiska lrkq ,en we; bkaÈhdfõ§" ixialD;sh fõ.j;a ksYaÑ; jYfhkau mriamr;dj iy whqßka —uDÿ n,h— f,i y÷kd .efkk iyl%shdjlg W;am;a;sh §fï woyiska w;r l;s;dj;a ks¾udKfha§ jeo.;a N+ñld rÕkq tllg tlla ióm ks¾udKd;aul l=i,;dj ,nd ,nhs' il%Sh bkaÈhdkq iskudfõ§ iu ksIamdok .ekSug Èß .ekaùï imhkq we;' iu ksIamdok ksr;h Ñ;%mg l¾udka;fha fõ.j;a iy lïmkh lafIa;%fha ;j;a bkaÈhdkq NjH;djla úh yelafla" jk j¾Okhla ;yjqre lsÍfï w.fhka n,k l< tys isák olaI Y%u n,ldhhs' iu ksIamdokfha tla myiqlï imhkafkl=f.a N+ñldfjka ie,flkjd uQ,sl ldrKhla úh yelafla" oekqu yqjudrej kej; muKla fkdj" m%Odk oyrdfõ cd;Hka;r n,d;aul lsÍu iy ia:djr yqjudre hdka;%Khla fj<|m,g msúiSfï§ wmf.a k¿ ks<shkag WmldÍ foig <Õd ùuhs' f,aLlhd meßia kqjr mÈxÑ ;Sre ,sms rplfhls'ç

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m%.;sh

‘iqmsß

,shú,a,ʼ

ixLHdxlSlrKh

f.dakaä ^mq¿,a f,i me;sß f.da;%sl NdIdj& l%uf,aLh iy wl=re fudaia;rh" äðg,a udOH u; meje;au ;yjqre lrñka ÿ¾,N úfYaI;ajhla Wmhd .kS joka | fkydßld ud;+¾ isxyd

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uydpd¾h ù l%sIaKd ^ol=fKa&" iudfhdacl" od,s;a iy wdÈjdiS wOHhk iy mßj¾;k uOHia:dkh" yhsødndoa iriúh" .=kacd,d .ïudkfha§

jvd;au mD:q, ck >K;ajh we;s bka§h f.da;%h tkq we;' —f;dr;=re ksOdkhla b;sydi{hka" jQ f.dakaäfha idys;Hh" l,dj yd b;sydih ms<sn| mqrdúoHd{hka iy m¾fhaIlhka lrd ,eìh yels ÿ¾,N f;dr;=re r|d isák wjodkug ,la jQ w;a fia f.fkkq we;' th f.dakaä f.da;%fha nd, msgm;a Okhla fõ' yskaÈ iy f;<sÕ=‍ NdIdjkag mrdïmrdjg Tjqkaf.a ksoyia wr.,h" ixialD;sh mßj¾;kh flfrñka tajd m%Odk idys;H oyrdjg iy Ôjk rgdj ms<sn| yeoEÍfï§ Wmldr lrkq f.k tafï wruqK we;sj" yhsødndoa iriúfha od,s;a we;'— bkaÈhdfõ yhsødndoa iriúfha" udkj Ydia;% iy wdÈjdiS wOHhk uOHia:dkfha m¾fhaIK wOHhkdxYfha" od,s;a yd wdÈjdiS wOHhk iy úoaj;=ka iu.ska úoHd¾Òka lKavdhula bkaÈhdfõ mßj¾;k uOHia:dkfha iudfhdacl" uydpd¾h ù f;,Õkd l,dmfha wÈ,dndoa l%sIaKd mjihs' Èia;%slalfha wkagQ¾ uKav,a ys .=kacd,d ,shú,a, i;=j bkaÈhdj mqrd úisÍ .ïudkhg .shy' uydpd¾h fÊë¾ isák 41 la jk úúO f.dakaä ksldhka bkaÈhdkq rch ;sreKdu,a rd´ ^wdrdê; uydpd¾h& taldnoaO lsÍfï yelshdj ;sfí' —fï ó<Õ wOHhk úiska kdhl;ajh .kakd ,ÿj" u.ska f.da;%sl iy iïNdjH bkaÈhdkq j¾Ifha isg lKavdhu úiska w;a msgm;aj, ieÕù mr;rh wvq lsÍug bjy,a jkq we;"— rcfha úoHd, ;snqKq l,dmfha wñ, b;sydih yd uydpd¾h l%sIaKd woyia tla lrhs' idys;Hh wkdjrKh lr .;a w;r tajd f.dakaä l,dlrejkaf.a iydh 15 l f.dakaä ixLHdxlSlrKhg iy f,aLfkdam.; we;sj" f.dakaä wlaIr w¢k ,o w;r" b.ekaùug lsÍug o ;SrKh lrk ,§' Y%SO¾ iu.ska taldnoaO W;aidyhkays§" ie,iqï uydpd¾h rd´ ta jkúg;a f.dakaä uydpd¾h rd´" od,s;a iy wdÈjdiS l%shd;aul lrhs ,shú,s i|yd wl=re fudaia;rhla wOHhk iy mßj¾;k uOHia:dkh ,nd .ekSfï l%shdj,shl ksr;j iy bka§h f.da;%sl ixj¾Ok isáfhah" ta jydu" taldnoaO f.da;%sl ixj¾Ok ksfhdað;dh;kh" wkagQ¾ uKav,a" f.dakaä ,shú,s ksfhdað;dh;kfha iyfhda.h we;sj" wkagQ¾ uKav,a i|yd" j¾K ud,d" Woa§ma;hka iy wxlk ie,iqï iy wÈ,dndoa Èia;%sla mßmd,kh iu." f*dkaÜ lrk ,§' bkaÈhdkq rch f.dakaä ,shú,af,a fojk ie,iqïlre Y%Sldka;ï Y%SOr uQ¾;s fï jif¾§ ta iy ;=kajk mka;s i|yd fm< fmd;a ilia lsÍfï l%shdfõ id¾:l;ajh ,nd .;s' wl=re fudaia;rh il%Sh f,i ksr; ù isákakSh' ó<Õ wOHhk u.ska f.dakaä NdIdfõ Ndú;h m%j¾Okh lrkq j¾Ifha isg rcfha úoHd, 15 l f.dakaä b.ekaùug we;s w;r" th f.da,Sh fõÈldj f;la /f.k ie,iqï l%shd;aulhs'

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m%.;sh

úm¾hdifha

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f.da,Sh jYfhka iïNdjH k¾;k ú,dihka ckm%sh lsÍug kjHlrK ixl,am yÿkajd foñka mj;S joka | iqm%shd w.d¾j,a

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m%lS¾Kl jHdmdr" wd;aóh ix.S;h iy .ekSula njg m;aúh" ta w;r;=r Tjqkgu iudfhdað; ;kq''' fï §¾> ld,hl mgka wkkH ú,dis;djka iy w¾: l:khka Bg bkaÈhdkq iïNdjH k¾;k tla fjhs' fï kjHlrKhka ú,dihka wjfndaOhg m;a ia:dms; ùfï§ uq,a wdldrhhs' fïjd úfkdaodiajdofha fi!kao¾hhka ta wdldrfhkau tf;r úfoaY j,ska rEmdldrhla jkjd muKla fkdj" kv;a;= lsÍug fndfyda rx.k tk ck;dj mjd kuq;a tkhskau ixialD;sho" Ys,amSka odhl;ajhla olajk iïNdjH l,d bkaÈhdkq Wreufha fkdì¢h yels nj iy;sl lrhs' fï ish,a, wdlD;Ska yeoEÍug fldgila jk foúhka yd iïnkaO fkdfõ' tf;r úfoaYsl bkaÈhdj lrd ùfï§ tk jkaokdfõ ud¾.Sh ck;dj mjd iïNdjH l,d meñfK;s iajrEmhlao jkafkah' ld,fha fõohka yeoEÍug bkaÈhdjg úm¾hdih;a iu.u" fï mqrd;k meñfK;s' i;H jYfhkau" k¾;k ú,dihka kkaúO mßj¾;khka Tjqk;ßka iaj,amhla fokd bkaÈhdkq iïNdjH ;=<ska .uka .;s' tajd È.= ld,hla hdfï§" k¾;kfha ixj¾Okh Wfoid jev lsÍug fï fjkialï fndfyda jD;a;slhkaf.a je<| f;dard .ks;s'

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Tnf.a whsfmdaka$wekafv%dhsâ Wmdx. u;g tawd¾maf,a nd.; lr f.k iïnkaê; ùäfhdaj keröug fuu wkqrej u; mßf,dalkh lrkak

W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


m%.;sh

Nr;kdgHï Ys,amskS iú;d Ydia;%S l,d Ys,amh kejqïj mj;ajd .; hq;= nj iú;d úYajdi lrkakSh" Bg kjH l:dka;r bÈßm;a lsÍu wjYH jkafkauh' wef.a k¾;k rx.kj,§" kjH;dj y÷kajd §ug;a iy bkaÈhdkq iïNdjH k¾;k ú,dihka i|yd ;reK msßi w;r we,aula we;s lsÍug;a weh b,lal lrhs' ;reK mrïmrdj úl,am k¾;k ú,dihka flf¾ jeä jYfhka we§hk nj weh úYajdi lrkakSh" th i,aid fyda fnd,sjqâ úh yelsh' —fïjd yodrkakg myiqh' uf.a rx.khlg miqj Tjqka ud yuqjg meñK" —wmg fï k¾;k ú,dih bf.k .ekSug wjYHhsæ— hkqfjka mejiQ úg ud le<ôug m;ajqKd'— iú;d mjikakSh'

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m%.;sh

iQ*s l:la jD;a;sl ukacÍ pd;=¾fõÈ iQ*sjdofha ksrfmalaI ÿrjfndaOfha .eg¿ ,syd ouñka" l:la k¾;kfha fYdaNudk;ajh úoyd olajñka" wehf.a p,khka tl tlla l:djla lshhs' ,lakõ >drdkdjg wh;a" kj k¾;k wdlD;shla y÷kajd§fï f.!rjh Èkd" iQ*S l:la Ys,amSkS" ukacÍ úYajdi lrk wkaoug" iQ*s l:la ú,dih ;=<ska" wdOHd;añl m%y¾Ifha m%y¾Id;aul Wiaìï m%ldYhg m;alrk YdÍßl NdIdjlska iQ*s ix.S;fha iy ldjH Ydia;%fha ishqï fjkialï wjOdrKh lrhs' —bkaÈhdkq iïNdjH k¾;kh l<ska y÷kdf.k fkd;snQ udj;la ms,silr lrñka ud tys .ufka fhÿK neúka th myiq tlla fkdùh" wdlD;s.; fkdjQ i¾j n,OdÍ;ajfha kdufhka tu is;=ú,af,a wkqidrfhka fuu kj l,d wdlD;sh ìys l<d'— ukacÍ mjikakSh'

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Ydia;%Sh k¾;fõÈkS wkafõid uyka;d zzud k¾;kh úúO udkj,ska m%;HlaI lr .;a;d" mshjrl tla tla ks¾udKfha § iy m%;HlaIfha§ Bg Wreu Ñka;kfha .;sl p,khka wjfndaO lr .ekSug W;aidy lrñka isákjd' wm m%d.afcHda;s cd;Hka;r k¾;k W;aijh yryd BidkÈ. k¾;k ú,dihka m%j¾Okh i|yd W;aidy lrñka isákjd" tu W;aijh bka§h rcfha úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYfha ixialD;sl in|;d i|yd jk bkaÈhdkq WmfoaYl iNdfõ iydh ,nkjd' th tlu fõÈldjla ;=< bkaÈhdkq k¾;k wdlD;Ska m%o¾Ykh lsÍug ixl,amkh ù ;sfnkjd'— wkafõid mjikakSh'

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Nr;kdgHï k¾;k Ys,amSkS wf,laikaød ñp,aiald isx.a bkaÈhdkq iïNdjH k¾;kh flf¾ jQ wef.a we,au weh fmda,ka;fha isg yeu wdldrhlskau bkaÈhdjg /f.k tkq ,enqjd' f,dal ixialD;sl mokfï idudðldjla f,iska" wf,laikaød bkaÈhdkq yd fmda,ka; hk forfÜu wka;¾ixialD;sl wOHdmkh Wfoid jev lrhs' —óg wjqreÿ 12 lg fmr fmda,ka;fha§ ud Nr;kdgHï bf.k .ekSug mgka .;a;d" k¾;kh weiqfrka wdOHd;añl wjÈu;aNdjh i|yd WmldÍ úh yels .=rejrfhl= fidhdf.k ud foaY iSudj ;rKh l<d'— weh woyia f.dkq lrhs'

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TäIs jD;a;sl Idfrdaka f,dajka weußld tlai;a ckmofha ãfg%dhsÜ ys isg bkaÈhdjg meñfKñka 1973 §" Idfrdaka uksmQß k¾;kh yeoErEjd h<s lsisÈkl fkd.shdh' —rg mqrd olakg ,enqKq úiauh ckl f,iska WKqiqï iy.;" l%udkql+, kuq;a wjHdc ms<s.ekSu yuqfõ m%idohg m;a ud fuys k;r jQjd" th ug idïm%odhhka bÈßhg f.khdug iy kv;a;= lsÍug wjYH N+ñldjla ksrEmKh lsÍug bv ,nd ÿkakd'— f,dajka mjikakSh' weh TäIs bf.kSfuyso kshqla; jQjd oeka bkaÈhdkq iïNdjH k¾;k lafIa;%fha úYsIag;dj ms<sn| kula Èkd isákakSh'

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m%ùkfhl= úiska msisk rdcia:dka wdydr l,dj foi YsIHhka n,d isáhs, .%yKh lrhs

uyd bkaÈhdkq bjqï

msyqï mdi,

ksjdvq .; lsÍu iy ixialD;sl ixpdr i|yd bkaÈhdkq ìug meñfKkakka w;r bjqï msyqï mka;s jeä jeäfhka ckm%sh fjñka mj;S' Tfí ksjdvqj ix.%yhla njg m;a lsÍug iy;sl l< tajdhska lsysmhla fukakæ joka | j;ai,d ldjq,a nek¾Ô

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hï rgl fyda ixialD;shl rih tys bjqï msyqï l,dfõ ;Hd.S Ndjh" ixlS¾K;ajh iy rihka ;=< .eí ù mj;S' ish jeählau reÑldrl wdydr jÜfgdare lsysmhla f,dalhg ,nd fokakg" bkaÈhdfõ úiauhe;s nyqúO;ajh iy wd.ka;=l i;aldrfha mqrd;k idïm%odh" tys foaYSh" kejqï iy wkkH ksIamdok" l=¿nvq iy irlal= iïm;ska fmdfydi;a oE iu. uqiq ù mj;S' bjqï msyqï l,dfõ ryia oekisàu iy ta .ek úia;rd;aulj m%d.=KHh ,nd .ekSu" Tng l,dmfha ixialD;sl úhuk ms<sn| wjfndaOhla fokjd muKla fkdj" Tfí fïih u; thska —fm;a;la— ;sfnkakg ie,eiaùuo lrhs''' ;jo fndfyda iqnme;=ï iu.ska Tn Èkd .ekSuo lrhsæ

;ñ,a kdvqfõ rih fpÜákdoa isg uÿfrhs olajd" fldka.=kdvq isg lkHl=udß olajd" ;ñ,akdvqj fmd,a iy lrmsxpd fld<" wn weg" iy fld< lrouqx.= iqj¢ka iqj|j;a ù ;sfí' idïm%odhsl ;ñ,a Ydluh fukqjla ms,sfh, lrk wdldrh Tng yodrkakg mq¿jk( iqjodhl idïnd¾ ^mßmamq&" ier iqj|e;s riï ^mßmamq iqma tlla&" lsrdß ^fld< t<j¿ jHxckh&" fyda fmdaßh,a ^yeÈ.dñka nÈk ,o t<j¿&' udxYuh wdydr .kafka kï" fmdkaäfpß iy fldruekav,a fjr< úfYaIhka fõ( óka l=IdïnQ ^ishU,d iu.ska ñßia rie;s ud¿ jHxckhla&" fyda uqia,sï ú,difha W;aij

;ñ,akdvqfõ msyqï ieishla flrñka mj;sk w;r;=r§

fukqjla( l=l=¿ uia nqßhdks" jïngq mdpdä ^t<j¿& iy ÆKq rdhsgd'

m%S;sh okjk ldYaórh m%Œ; whqßka ixlS¾K iy úúO ldYaór bjqï msyqï l,dj i;=j rij;a Odrdjka folla fõ ldYaór uqia,sï l,dj iy mdkaä;a wdydr l,dj tajdhs' widudkH fhda.Ü Ndú;h" udxYuh wdydr jÜfgdarej,§ mjd" ;jo wifudao.ï iy úfYaI .rï uid,d ^ksrka;rfhkau mjqf,a ryils& rihka" th jvd;a m%sh Wmojk wdydr l,djla njg m;a lrhs' hdlaks ^uia&" pduka ^mekS¾&" fyda kdâre ^fk¿ï kgq&" frda.ka fcdaYa ^uia jHxckhla&" geneld udia ^lsfrka msi

frda.ka fcdaYa hkq ixpdrlhka w;r buy;a ckm%sh bkaÈhdkq wdydrhls

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flar, wdydr fi!LHh yd rih w;r iunr;djls

nÈk ,o kdrá& iy t¿uia fld*agdia fukau gudgd¾ pduka ^;lald,s iy mekS¾&" ydla ^foaYSh fld< iys; t<j¿jla&''' Tng ,ehsia;=ju f;dard .; yelshsæ

flar,Sh ks¾udK fmd,a .d f.k" ñßld lsß f.k''' Tõ" Tn isákafka foúhkaf.a fmd,a foaYfhah' flar,fha i¾mhkaf.ka .yK fjr< ;Srh m%sh Wmojk u;aiH wdydr f.k ths¦ th n;a iy u[af[dlald msá j,g tla lrhs" jeú,af,ka tk l=¿nvq" iy wu;l fkdjk wdydr mrdihla Tng ,efí' Tnf.a msÕdk wdmam ^uDÿ yd,a msá mEka flala j¾.hla&" ud¿ fudhs,S ^fmd,a lsfrka msiQ ud¿& fyda fudms,dya nqßhdks j,ska ilid .; yelsh''' jÜfgdarej wjika fkdjkakls" th Tng wdrdOkd lrhs' ke;skï mßmQ¾K t<j¿ fudhs,S" wúh,a ^t<j¿" ó lsß iy fmd,a wdydrh&" mpdä ^wÉpdre jeks uqiqj&" fyda ckm%sh je,afoys n;a'

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fnx.d,s fNdack ix.%yh fnx.d,s uq¿;eka f.j, ishqï iy È,sfik rihka ms<sn|j fkdokafka ljqo@ jvd;au kejqï ksIamdokh f;dard .kak" mßmQ¾K ÆÑ ^neomq fm;s lmk ,o mdka&" wÆ fvdï ^w¾;dm,a jHxckh&" fpda,d¾ mßmamq ^fnx.d,s OdkH jHxckh&" biaika uef,a jHxckh" n;a" ld,Sk ud¿ jHxck iy ndhs.=ka ndcd ^me<ù f.k tk îc& jeks Ydluh wdydr ta w;r fjhs' B<Õg we;af;a w;=remihs( lS¾" u,amqjd iy mdfhaIa'

rij;a w;=remi rdcia:dkh fN!ñl m%Œ;hka" Yla;su;a rildrlhka iy .skshï l=¿nvq" fvda,dma tlla iy iqj|e;s .sf;,a iu. bÈßm;a lrhs' ldhs¾ ika.%S ^úfYaI úh<s t<j¿ fnß tlla&" .eÜ lS iqíis ^pdkd vd,a msá-frda,a jHxckh&" ldâys ^m<;=re mqäï iu. OdkH msá wdydrh&" ,diqka lS pÜks ^iqÿ<QKq ri.ekaùu&" .egd mQf,da ^úfYaI


f.dawdka msyqï l,dj wkkH jQ wka;¾.;hka mdúÉÑ lrhs

n;a&" nd;s ^fm;s fkdlemQ mdka&" áfmdaf¾ ^kejqï fld< ñßia wÉpdre&" pq¾ud ^;sßÕ=‍ iy OdkH msá w;=remi&" memdâ iy ;j;a foa w;=ßka f;dard .kak' udxYuh wdydr .kakka i|yd" ckm%sh ,d,a udia ^ñßia rie;s r;= uia&" fidfõgd ^uia iy l=¿nvq ;=< msiQ bßÕ=‍& iy ;j;a foa mj;S'

f.dawdka lrd hkak ysre-je,s-uqyqo mdrd§ih me‚ri" weUq,a ri iy l=¿nvq ri hk ri ;%s;ajh o fõ' ßfidhsia ä ludfrda ^fidaia ;=< .s,ajQ biaika mqäu&" ud¿ ßlshdfvda ^meks-weUq,a-l=¿nvq we;sß,a,l nydÆ ud¿&" l=l=¿ uia fIdal=á ^fmd,a /,s ;=< l=l=¿ uia& iy t<j¿ le,aäka ^fmd,a lsfrka ;eïnQ t<j¿& j, isg fiardvqrd ^wdukaâ úiaflda;= w;=remila& iy fvdfvd,a ^n;a" fmd,a iy ;,a yl=re wdydrhla& olajd wdydr mka;shla fõ' f.dawdka ud¿ jHxckh" l=l=¿ uia le*aßh,a ^mD;=.Sis ú,dis;dfõ l=l=¿ uia wdydrhla&" W!re

uia úkavdÆ ^idïm%odhsl jHxckhla& iy ud¿ le,aäka w;ßka o Tng f;dard .; yels fõ'

kjdì fNdack ix.%yh Tng oeka Tnf.a rdclSh idoh msi f.k wdydrhg .; yelshæ W;a;¾ m%foaYa j,g jvd fyd| ;ekla fidhd .; yels fõúo" tys kjdí fïij,g ,efnkafka wjdê wdydrj,g jvd wvq ;ekls" úfoaYSh l=¿nvq iu.ska ieÿï fõ" úh<s m<;=re iy iqj|j;a ie*arka iam¾Yh ,efí' m%d.=KHh ,eîug wjqreÿ ish .Kkla .; jk mßmQ¾K;ajh ,eìh yels wdldrh fuys uq¿;eka f.j,ska Tng W.; yels fõú' wjdê flda¾ud ^fmdfydi;a fydoaola ;=< hï;ñka ;ïnd.;a uia&" Idñ flndíia ^úfYaI óÜfnda,a j¾.hla&" f,iqks rdhsgd ^ó lsß-iqÿ<QKq wdydrhla&" Idys gqlavd ^fmdfydi;a w;=remila& msiSug Tng blaukskau mq¿jka jkq we;''' ;jo Tnf.a rdclSh rihg iïudk ,nd .ekSugo mq¿jka fõú'

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,vla ys l=xl=u j¾Kh foaYfha W;=re fldgfia NslaIQka m<¢k isjqre ;=< wdOHd;añl;djh" iduh yd iyÔjkh Tma kexfjhs' .iaj, uq,a" w," fmd;=" u,a" fld< yd M, j,ska ,nd .kakd fuu j¾Kh iajNdúl j¾Khls'

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mkacdnfha mS; j¾Kh W;=re bkaÈhdfõ mkacdí kï lDIsld¾ñl rdcHfha wn fl;a hdhkah fndfyda .eñ .S; fukau iqm%isoaO l,d ks¾udKhkag Ôjh imhkqfha¡ rka ly meyefhka nn,k fï fl;a hdhka iuDoaêu;a Ndjh" iemj;a Ôú;h yd ireidr nj f.k yer olajhs'

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W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


PdhdrE

flar<fha yß; j¾Kh ol=Kq bka§h flar<fha b;d m%isoaO l,mq wdY%s; jDlaI,;dÈh c,h u; m;s; ù woaú;Sh jQ yß; meyehla u;= lrhs'

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

n

38

n

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014


f.dafõ kS, j¾Kh ngysr bkaÈhdfõ fuu ixpdrl mdrd§ih yev lrk wrdì uqyqo" ks,a meyefha isg kS,uKs kS, meyehg;a w;s kS, meyehg;a Èfkka Èk fjkia fjhs'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

n

39

n

W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


PdhdrE

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

n

40

n

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014


rdcia:dkfha ÿUqre j¾Kh ngysr bkaÈhdfõ ldka;druh m%foaYh wk.s jQ yd ksula fkdfmfkk ÿUqre yd je,s meyehlska ierfihs'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

n

41

n

W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


PdhdrE

cïuq yd ldYaórfha Yafõ; j¾Kh W;a;r bkaÈhdfõ rdcHhla jk cïuq yd ldYaórfha ysu ñÿkq .sß ysia zzñysu; mdrd§ihZZ kï ish úreodj,sh ikd: lrhs'

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

n

42

n

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014


Bidk È. bkaÈhdfõ ifydaor ima; rdcHhkaf.a ld, j¾Kh kd.,ka;h" weiEuh" wreKdp,a m%foaYh" fï>d,h" uksmq¾" ñfidaardï yd ;%s mqr jeishka ld, j¾K jQ iïm%odhsl we÷fuka ierfia'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

n

43

n

W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


id¾:l;ajh

ñhekaudrfha fjiaÜ

ñksiag¾ wefí ñhkaudrfha msysá 12 jk ishjig wh;a wdkkao mkai, bkaÈhdfõ mqrd úoHd iólaIKh u.ska ixrlaIKh lr m%;sixialrKh flfrhs joka | isoaOd¾;a tï fcdaIs

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

n

44

n

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014


ñhkaudrh yd bkaÈhdj w;r we;s ne£ï j;aukaa foaYmd,k l%u mej;Sug fmr ;snQ ld,h olajd Èj hhs' Tjqyq ióm wi,ajeishka f,i woyia" ixialD;ska" ;dlaIKh yd ck;dj yqjudre jk iújr foaY iSudjla fnod .ks;s' fuu in|;d Yla;su;a lrkq msKsi 2010 cQ,s uiÈ bkaÈhdkq rch yd ñhkaudr rch w;r ñhkaudrfha n.ka ys msysá wdkkao mkai, ixrlaIKh lsÍfï wjfndaO;d .súiqula w;aika lrkq ,eîh'

bka§h mqrd úoHd iólaIK wxYfha (ASI) lafIa;% wOHhk yd mÍlaIK j,g miq mqrdúoHd{hska" ixrlaIlhska" Ys,d f,aLk úfYaI{hska" ks¾udK ie,iqï lrejka yd úoH{hskaf.ka ieÿï ,;a lKaavdhula fj; mkaif,a w;HdjYH ixrlaIK lghq;= yd ridhksl ixrlaIK lghq;= ndr fok ,È' zzñhkaudrfha fjiaÜñksiag¾ wefíZZ f,i wdorfhka y÷kajkq ,nk wdkkao mkai, 12

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

n

45

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W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


id¾:l;ajh

jk ish jfia .Dy ks¾udK Ys,amfha úYañ; w¨;ajeähd lghq;= o f.ìu w¨;ajeähdjo ks¾udKhla jk w;r m%Odk mkai, jgd c,jyk moaO;sfha jeä ÈhqKq lssÍïo kef.kysr lsf,daóg¾ lSmhlu l=vd ia:Qm 4000 la muK fldgfia w;sßla; mia ;ekam;= bj;a lsÍuo iukaú; fjhs' oyia .Kka ckhd m%dido uqLh msßisÿ lsÍuo hkdÈ jkaokd lsÍug yd wd.ñl W;aaij jev lghq;= isÿ lf<ah' fojk jev i|yd frdo n¢k fuh iÔú ieish ^2013 - 2014& werUqfka 2014 fuu mkai, mkai,ls' tneúka ish¨u ixrlaIK uehs 31 Èkh' jkdys 12 jk fufyhqï lghq;= mkai,a Ndr fN!; ridhksl l%u ;=<ska ish jfia .Dy lñgqj iu.o ñhkaudr rcfha kef.kyssr Yd,dfõ wdrelal= ks¾udK Ys,amSh mqrd úoHd fomd¾;fïka;=j iu.o ;=¿ ieõj u; we;s >k yqKq úialula jk idlÉPd l< hq;=j we;' ia:rh hg ie`.jqKq w,xldr w;r tys m%Odk ASI ys ixrlaIK lghq;= ì;= is;=jï ksrdjrKh lr .; f.dvke.s,af,a 2012 uehs ui È fuu ia:dkfhaÈ yels úh' .e,ù .sh lmrdre yd isg lsf,da óg¾ wdrïN jq w;r wëlaIK mqrdúoHd ¨yq j¾K iïmsKavkh ù we;s lSmhla jgd l=vd bxðfkare wd¾' tia' cïjd,af.a w;r me¨ï yd ysveia tu øjH kdhl;ajfhka hq;= ;dlaIK j,skau yd fmd,aúks,a welafÜÜ ia:Qm 4000 lg lKavdhu hgf;a 2012 Tlaf;dan¾ mdhdifhka msÍ f.dia ;sfí' wêl ixLHdjla j¾Idfjka miq kej;;a tu lghq;= mkaif,a wNHka;rh wdrlaId msysgd we; werôKs' fuu lKavdhu ;u m<uq lr.kq jia fyd¢ka ia:dmkh l, jev ieisfhaÈ ^2012-2013& olaIsK c, úl¾Ilhka ±lsh yel' zzm<uq mkai,a oajdrh" m%Odk nqÿ ueÿf¾ olaIsK oajdrh mQ¾K msßisÿ lsÍfuka miqj fojk msßisÿ lsÍu fj;ska tk nrd|h" ksß; È. mdolh" Bidk i|yd jir 10 l mr;rhla ;nd ;sfnkjdZZ È. mdolfha nqÿ ueÿr hkdÈfha w;HjYH cïjd,a mjihs'

jev ìfuysÈ

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

n

46

n

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014


uq,ald,Sk mkai,

wdkkao mkai, ms<sn|j lr we;s b;d yelsj ;snq fuu ld¾hhg fi!kao¾hd;aul jeo.;au ksÍlaIKh jkafka mqrdúoHd;aulj udkhla tla lrñka lghq;= l< ASI" we.hsh yels tys ia:dkh yd ;;ajhhs' ue÷r ;=<g mlaISka yd jjq,kaf.a meñKSu th msysgd we;af;a n,y;aldr je,flkakg cfk,a ljq¨ u;g we;=¨ùï j,ska ksoyia jQ fkdhs÷,a lïì ±,a iú lf<ah ^.Kkska ìïlvlh' fuu m¾hka;h ;=< 24 la&' lgq rEm i|yd ùÿre ffY,uh úúO jQ m%udKfha boslsÍï ;sî wdjrKhlska hqla; yd wjYH mßÈ m%;sud lSmhla we;' kshu wdlD;shg wkqj jd;dY%h ,efnk f,i isÿre l< yd lgq rEm m%;sixialrKh l< ffY,uh f;alal ,S rduq imhk ,È' lSmhla m%;sud lSmhla yd lgq rEm kj ixrlaIK l%u Ndú;d m%;sixialrKh lsysmhla fuys ;sfí' ì;a;s u; lrk w;ru mkai,a ìfuys merKs lr we;' ì;a;s we;s uk n|k f,i Tm ±uQ M,lo wdVH;djho tf,i iq/lsks' u; ;snQ uk ridhkslj msßisÿ lrkq ,en we;' zzixialD;sj .;a l< wdkkao hkq n¢k f,i mqrdúoHd;aulj jeo.;a idïm%odhsl bka§h .Dy ks¾udK Tm ouk ,o iss;a weo .kakd iq¿ merKs Ys,amfha yd l,dfõu È.=jls' tl, fgrfldgd ia:dkhl Ys,amSh;ajfha wmQ¾j bkaÈhdfõ bÈlsÍï i|yd fhdod.;a M,lo msßisÿ nj tf,iu ;nd .ekSu b;du;a ;dlaIKhu fuys§o fhdodf.k jeo.;a ld¾hhls' tneúka ;sfnkjd' tneúka th ixrlaIKh flßKs wkd.; ydksj,ska wdrlaId yd wdrlaId lsÍu wmf.a idrOd¾ñl lsÍu;a merKs Ôj .=Kh wdrlaId j.lsula' fujka iyfhda.s;djhka lr.ekSu;a hk ld¾hhka oaú;ajhu tl úg u.ska ixialD;sl ne£ï h<s mqnqÿjkjd muKla isÿ lsÍu wNsfhda.hls' fjk;a úfgl yqÿ fkdj cd;Hka;r in|;d o jeä ÈhqKq fjkjdZZ Wmfhda.s;djdÈ m%;sixialrKhla njg m;aúh cïjd,a lshd isá'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

n

47

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W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


id¾:l;ajh

úoHdjg

yrir

bka§h úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYfha uyck rdfcHdmdh uQ,sl;ajhla jk lafjdkagï bkaÈhdkqjka uE;l§ meje;ajqkq bkaÈhdkq cd;sl Ñ;%mg iïudk Wf<f,aos 2013 jif¾ fyd|u wOHdmksl Ñ;%mghg ysñ iïudkh Èkd .kakd ,È rdcd fp!oaß úiska rpkd fldg wOHlaIKh l< yd PSBT iy úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYfha uyck rdfcHdamdh wxYh úiska ksIamdokh l< lafjdkagï bkaÈhdkqjka fN!;sl úoHd lafIa;%hg fï jk f;lau iqúfYaIs jQ odhl;ajhla ±lajq úoH{hska ;sfokl= jk i;fHkaø kd;a fndaia" ›u;a iS'ù rduka yd fõ>akdoa iyd fj; ms<s. kajkq ,enq yrirls' fndafidak" fndaia - whskaiaghska ixLHdk" rduka wdprKh" iyd iólrKh hkdÈh y÷kajd ÿka fuu úoHd{fhda úoHdj i|yd bkaÈhdj ,enq tlu fkdfn,a ;Hd.h i|yd bjy,a jQ w;r 1920 .Kka j,È lafjdkagï fN!;sl úoHdj úma,ùlrKhg n÷ka lsÍu fya;=fjka buy;a m%idohg m;a jQy'

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

n

48

n

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

cd;sl iïudk cQßhg wkqj zzfuu Ñ;%mgh lS¾;su;a úoHd{hska ±lajq odhl;ajh b;d M,odhs yd ksjerÈ f,i úYaf,aIKh lrk w;r tu.ska wo mrïmrdjg wOHdmkh ,nd fokjd muKla fkdj ixlS¾K úoHd;aul m%mxphka fj; myiqfjka msúish yels wdldrfhka m%;sfõokh lrhs'ZZ iïudkh ,nd .ekSfuka miq wOHlaI rdcd fp!oaß mejiqfõ fuu Ñ;%mgh ksu lrk ,oafoa ;u jD;a;Suh úl,amhla njg úoHdj m;alr .ekSu i|yd ;reK bkaÈhdkqjka fm<Uùu;a tu.ska fuu úoHd{hskag wjYH jQ mßoafokau bkaÈhdj fY%aIaG ia:dkhla njg m;a lsÍug bv m%ia:dj újr lr .ekSug nj;ah'


kj mqj;a

f.da,Sh

msúiqu 1939 ld,fha fojk f,dal uyd ix.%dufha wdrïNh;a iu.u iuia; bka§h .=jka úÿ,sfha ndysr úldYk fiajdj mgka .eKqks. thska mYapd;a bkaÈhdkq ksoyia ld,iSudfõ oejeka; N+ñldjla Wml,amkh flfrhs iuia; bka§h .=jka úÿ,sh ^wdldYajdks iu.ska Tjqka WfoHda.su;a lsÍug" wOHdmkh ke;skï thd¾& bkaÈhdfõ cd;sl .=jka ,nd §ug fukau oekqj;a lsÍug úÿ,s fiajh jk w;r uyd mßudK uykais fjhs' 1984 Tlaf;dan¾ 25 f.da,Sh msúiqula iys; f,dalfha Èk isg" úfoaY lghq;= wud;HdxYh úYd,;u .=jka úÿ,s cd,j,ska yryd weußld tlai;a ckmofha" tlla fõ' iuia; bka§h .=jka lekvdfõ iy tlai;a úÿ,sfha ndysr fiajd wxYh u.ska rdcOdksfha fjfik bkaÈhdkq f.da,Sh iïfma%IK lghq;=j, j. ckj¾.hka Wfoid úfYaI n,d .kshs' th NdId 27 ^úfoaY i;sm;d lemaishq,hla ms<sfh, NdId 15 la iy bka§h NdId 12 flrk w;r úldYkh flf¾' la& lska rgj,a 108 la mqrd úldYk th i;=j m%Odk ndysr fiajd lghq;=j, kshef,hs' wvx.= úfoaY myla fõ" tkï" W¾ÿ" fmdÿ tf;r NdIdj,g fmdÿ tf;r fiajd fiajdj$bx.%Sis" yskaÈ" fnx.d,s hgf;a tk wrdì" nd¨‍Ñ" n¾óia" iy fou< tajdhs' ndysr fiajd Ök" vdß" m%xY" bkaÿkSishka" wxYfha ish¨‍u fiajdjka m%j¾;k iuia; bka§h m¾ishka" meIafgda" reishdkq" iïnkaO;d" fi!LHh" l%Svd" .=jkaúÿ,sh rgj,a isxy," iajdys,S" ;dhs" ;sín; iy iy idys;H jev igyka Tiafia bx.%Sis we;=,;a fõ' bkaÈhdkq úysfok mrdihl jev igyka 108 la mqrd NdId NdId jkafka fnx.d,s" .=crd;s" úldYkh lrhs' Bg fm!oa.,sl 27 lska - úfoaY yskaÈ" lkakvd" u,hd,ï" fkamd,s" iïuqL idlÉPd" .=jkaúÿ,s NdId 15 lska yd mkacdì" idrdhsls" iskaê" fou<" kdgH" .S;uh ixo¾Yk iy ;j;a bkaÈhdkq NdId 12 f;<sÕ=‍ iy W¾ÿ hk NdIdjkah' fndfyda oE we;=,;a fõ' tu.ska" lska fjkiajk ndysr fiajd wxYh bkaÈhdfõ i;sm;d úldYk iu.ska" bkaÈhdkq bkaÈhdkq uqyqKqjr fjkiajk uqyqKqjr m%lafIamKh ck ix.S;h f,dj mqrd Woa§mkh lsÍug iy foaYSh l,dj iy lsÍu ms<sn|jo b,lal lrhs¦ iEu m%lafIamKh lrhs ixialD;sh Woa§ma; lsÍug b,lal Èklu bkaÈhdkq ix.S;fha újO lrhs' j¾Okh fjñka mj;sk me;slv m%o¾Ykh flfrkakdjQ bkaÈhdkq vhiafmdardj iu. iy bkaÈhdj úfYaIdx. lsysmhla bÈßm;a lrhs' ndysr fiajd flfrys jeäjk f,dal we,au iu." th kkaúO wxYfha ;j;a iqúfYaIhla jkafka f,dal uÜgfï bka§h iudch iy m%Odk cd;sl yd cd;Hka;r mqfrda.dó fm!reIhka iu. flfrk iïuqL m%Yakj,§ olajk wdl,am ms<sn| jevigyka idlÉPd fm<hs'

iuia; bka§h .=jkaúÿ,sfha ndysr fiajd wxYfha jev igykaj, iúia;rd;aul Wmf,aLkhla i|yd" lreKdlr" Tnf.a yqrenqyqá ÿrl:kh wdOdrfhka fuu lsõwd¾ fla;h mßf,dalkh lrkak'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

n

49

n

W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


ixpdrl

1

fudaiï

wêfõ.h

fï fudaifï§" ÿïßh ia:dk 72 l kej;=ï ,nk yd bka§h m%dka; kjhl lsf,daóg¾ 3711 la wdjrKh lrñka Èfjk iS>%.dó ysïid.¾ ÿïßh u; pdßldjla fhdackd lruq

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

n

50

n

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

2


bkaÈhdfõ§ fudaiï ld,hla w;aoelSu wdfõ‚l úh yels kuq;a jeis iufha§" cïuq ;dú isg lkHl=udß olajd §¾>;u ÿïßh ud¾.hl pdßldjla hkq ieneúkau wu;l fkdjk tlla fõú' iS>%.dó ysïid.¾ ¥ur:h ìxf.j,a" ldkaÿ iys; fudfydr ksïk" óÿï .yk uxfm;a" bjrhla fkdjk fmdo jeiai" lvd yef,k Èh myr" jkdka;r ìï" l÷lr fmfoia Tiafia .ufka fhfok neúka''' wE; ÿr W;=f¾ wdrïNl ia:dkfha isg ol=Kq È. wka;fha wjika kej;=u olajdu" lsf,daóg¾ 3711 l ÿrla f.jk w;r meh 70 la muK jk .ufka§ mehg lsf,daóg¾ 53 l muK fõ.fhka ÿjhs'

mkacdnfha md;kafldÜ mkacdí" ysudp,a m%foaYa iy cïuq yd ldYaó¾ hk bka§h m%dka;j, yuqùï ,laIHhla jk md;kafldÜ" cïuq yd ldYaó¾" pdïnd iy lka.d% l÷lrhg msúiSug fmrd;=j mj;sk .suka ksjï q m< nyq,j Ndú;hg m;aj ;sfí'

t<ôh hq;=u ia:dk

nr  dÊmqÜ ciamd,a isx.a úiska 1505 § bÈlrk ,o IdyamQ¾ldkaÈ n,fldgqj ^lsó 20& oeka kgnqkaj mej;sho ukrïh' nr  kað;a id.¾ fõ,a, ^lsó 20& bkaÈhdfõ Wiskau hq;= miska msrjQ fõ,s j,ska tlls' nm  qfrda.dó bkaÈhdkq c,úoHd m¾fhaIK ia:dkh ud,slamQ¾ ys msysgd we; ^lsó 7&' nl  ka.%d rdclSh rdÊmqÜ mjq, úiska bÈlrk ,o lka.%d n,fldgqj ^lsó 90&' th iuyrúg bkaÈhdfõ mer‚;uh úh yelsh'

W;a;¾ m%foaYa ys" w.%d gdÊ uy,a iy wfkl=;a fuda.,a .Dy ks¾udKfha úiauhka ksidu m%lg ù we;s w.%dj fm;d ^w¨‍ mqy, q a j,ska idok ri leú,a,la& .eko m%ios ê a hla Wiq,hs' gdÊ ufyda;i a õ iy gdÊ idys;H W;aijh yeu jirl§u l,dlrejka iy idys;HOrhka tla /ia lr .kakd wjia:d njg m;aù ;sfí'

t<ôh hq;=u ia:dk

n 1 6 jk ishjfia wland¾ wêrdchd úiska f.dv kxjk ,o w.%d n,fldgqj iy *dfÜmQ¾ islaÍ ^lsó 35& f,dal Wreu wvú' nu  dkalfïYaj¾ fldaú," Ysj foúhka Wfoid lemjQ mer‚ fldaú,a y;r w;ßka tlls" fuda.,a hq.h olajd mer‚ hhs ie,flk fndfyda .Kklska hq;a fj<| m, j,ska jg fldg ieÿï ,oafoah' nn  dn¾ fuda.,a wêrdchd úiska f.dv kxjk ,o" rdï nd.a mer‚;u fuda.,a WoHdkh'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

n

51

n

W W W. I N D I A P E R S P E C T I V E S . I N


ixpdrl

3

4

5 uyd rdIaG%fha kd.amQ¾ wkd.; f,dal kd.ßlhla f,i kï lr we;s" kd.amQ¾" fodvï k.rh f,io m%lg ù we;af;a fodvï i|yd m%Odk fj<|m,la ù we;s fyhsks' bkaÈhdfõ fldá wNhN+ñ .Kkdjla hd flfrk neúka" th fldá w.k.rh f,io y÷kajkq ,efí' bkaÈhdfõ N+úoHd;aul flakaøh olajk Y+kH ie;mqï i,l=K iu.ska foaYfha flakaøfha kd.amQ¾ msysgd ;sfí'

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

n

52

n

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

t<ôh hq;=u ia:dk

ni  sgdnq,aä n,fldgqj" ì%;dkH iy urd;d w;r hqoaOfha ck ixydrh iurñka 1757 § bÈlrk ,oaols' nk  .rfha úYd,;u wïnidß jej iy wjqreÿ 275 la meß‚ Iqlardjdß c,dYh' ng  efvdand wkaodß fldá wNhN+ñh ^lsó 150&" fmkaÉ cd;sl WoHdkh ^lsó 160&" iy fnda¾ fldá wNhN+ñh ^lsó 75&'


flar,fha t¾kdl=,ï fuda.,a hq.fha wdrïNfha§" t¾kdl=,ï udkj jdiia:dkh jQ w;r thska fvda,aukaia iy k.rfha úúO fldgiaj,§ oelsh yels ks¾ñ; Ys,duh .=yd jeks fudfkda,s;sl iaudrl yuqfõ' th tlajrla fldÑka ^oeka fldÖ& rdcOdksfha w.k.rh úh' we;a; jYfhkau" mqrd;k iy uOHld,Sk hq.j,§" flar,h iy ndysr f,dalh w;r fj<| iïnkaO;d fmdaIKh l< jeo.;a N+ñldjla ksrEmKh l< ia:dkhla úh'

t<ôh hq;=u ia:dk

nf  ldÖ ^lsó 8&" wrdì uqyqfoa /ðk f,i jvd;au m%lgj" f,dalfha iajNdúl jrdh w;ßka wk.s;uhla .ek mqridrï lshhs' bkaÈhdfõ È.=u jej o úYd,;u jeõ w;ßka tlla o jk fjïndkdoa jej o fuys msysáfhah' n 1 555 § mD;=.SiSka úiska f.dv kxjd rdcd ùrd flar, j¾ud fj; bÈßm;a lrk ,o ud;a;dkafpß ke;skï ,kafoais ud,s.h fuys fõ' yskaÿ fldaú,a l,d" is;=jï iy fldÖ rcjrekaf.a m%o¾Yl ksrEmKh lrk uqr,a .Kkdjlg th jdiia:dkh fõ' nh  qfoõ ke;skï mrfoaiS oyï mdi," fmdÿrdcH uKav,Sh cd;Skaf.a mer‚;uh" 1568 § fldÑka hqfoõ m%cdj úiska fldÑka rdcOdksfha bÈlrk ,§'

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t<ôh hq;=u ia:dk

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w;alr .ekSu

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k, ud¾. t<Su id¾:lj iïmQ¾K l<dh' j¾;udkfha§" úfoaYa ,sñgâ i;=j reishdj" isßhdj" úhÜkduh" fldf,dïìhdj" iqvdkh" ol=Kq iqvdkh" fjfkiqfõ,d" n%i, S h iy wi¾nhscdkfha j;alï 11 lska tk ksIm a dokhla mj;S' úfoaYa ,sñgâ 2012-2013 ld,fha§ fldf,dïìhdfõ .fõIK fldgia folla w;alr .;a;dh' fldf,dïìhdfõ .=jd´*a-2 fldgi 2012 ,kaiq jdrfha§ w;alr .;a w;r 2012 foieïn¾ 3 jk od BwekaâmS fldka;d% ;a;j = w;aika lrkakg fhÿ‚'

iudc j.lSï bIag lsÍu úfoaYa ,sñgâ wfkHdkH úYajdih yd f.!rjh u; f.dveke.=Kq id¾:l yjq,l a dÍ;ajhka ixj¾Okh lsÍu u.ska Okd;aul iudc n,mEula ks¾udKh lsÍfï ,d lemù isákakh S ' nÿ wdodhï f.ùu" wOHdmkh iy mqyK q j q hk wxYj, wdfhdackh iy ;j;a fndfyda foa jeks ud¾.j,ska jákd odhl;ajhla iud.u úiska olajkakh S '

f.da,h S iïm%dma;h s úfoaYa ,sñgâ yS úfoaY ld¾hd, 22 la fõ( tajd" fydaÖ ñka k.rh ^úhÜkduh&" hqIf a kda ilayd,skl a i a a ^reishdj&" ne.avE.a ^brdlh&" fgyardka ^brdkh&" g%f s md,S ^,sìhdj&" yjdkd ^lshn q dj&" ld¾leia ^fjfkiqfõ,dj&" wia;dkd 2000 ckjdßfha§" yd weáfrda ^lilia;dkh&" fndf. dagd ^fldf,dïìhdj&" veuialia úfoaYa ,sñgâ ^isßhdj&" l,a.dß ^lekvdj&" iy ndl= fj; úfYaI rdcH ^wi¾nhscdkh& hk k.rj, msyg s d we;' n,.ekaùfï ´tkaÔiS khs,a .x.d îù i;=j ,shdmÈxÑ m%odkhla ld¾hd, fko¾,ka;fha weïiag¾vEï" flreKq w;r th iqvdkfha ld¾fgdaï" ol=Kq iqvdkfha fl%daf¾ 200 la cQnd iy tys md,s; iud.ï i;=j olajd wdfhdack n%i, S fha ßfhda ä cefkafrda iy ihsmi % a ;SrK .ekSu yS ksfldaih s d k.rj, msyg s j q d we;'

i|yd fõ

;rÕ lsÍfï yelshdj ´tkaÔiS úfoaYa ,sñgâ 1965 ud¾;= 5 jk od yhsfv%dldnkaia bkaÈhd m%hf s jÜ ,sñgâ f,iska brdkfha f;,a .fõIKh iy ixj¾Okh lrf.k hdug uQ,l s jYfhka wdrïN lrk ,oaols' 1989 cqks 15 od th ´tkaÔiS úfoaYa ,sñgâ kñka kej; fn!;Siu a lrkakg fhÿks' 1990 .Kkaj,§" iud.u Bðma;j = " fhaukh" áhqki S h s dj iy úhÜkduh hk rgj, .fõIK l%h s dldrlïj, ksr;j isáhdh' l%u l%ufhka" úfoaYa ,sñgâ" úfoaYhkays .=Kd;aul ;;a;j a fha f;,a iy .Eia w;alr .ekSfï b,lalhla u;g tiú‚' úfoaYa ,sñgâyS ksIm a dok lghq;= 2002-2003 j¾Ij,§ wdrïN jQ w;r Bg 2003 ckjdßfha werUqKq úhÜkdufha 06'1 fldgfia ksIm a dokh;a 2003 § werUqKq iqvdkfha uyd khs,a f;,a jHdmD;sh;a we;=,;a úh' thg f;,a iudkdldr fug%l s a fgdka ñ,shk 0'25 l uqij q la tla úh' iud.u 2005 § uOH oyrdjg tlaj fj<| lghq;= lrkakg jQ w;r iqvdkfha lsf,daóg¾ 741 l ksIm a dok

úfoaYa ,sñgâ úiska bkaÈhdkq f;,a iud.u iy tlafidkafudì,a" ì%áIa fmÜfrda,h s ï" fI,a" Btkawhs" fgdagd,a" frmafida,"a iagdfgdhs,"a fpõfrdka" fmÜfrdn%dia" fidfvflda" fidald¾" frdiafk*aÜ" fâjQ" liauk q dhs. Eia" fmÜfrda úhÜkdï" iStkami S "S isfkdafmla" mSãùtiat"a fmfg%dkdia iy tfldafmg%,a we;=¿j cd;sl f;,a ixia:d j, i;aldrhka iu. Yla;u s ;a yjq,l a dÍ;aj ixOdk ixj¾Okh lrkq ,en we;' iud.u u.ska w.h lsÍu" w¾: l:kh" wd¾Ól wdlD;slrKh" bÈß wka;fha bxðfkare ie,iqïlrKh" f;,a iy .Eia jHdmD;s ie,iqï lsÍu iy leŒu i|yd myiqlï f.dv k.kq ,en ;sfí'

bÈßh foi ne,Su úfoaYa ,sñgâ ix.; f;,a iy .Eia .fõIK iy ksIm a dok l%h s dldrlï ud¾.fhka bkaÈhdfõ f;,a iy .Eia wdrlaIKhg iyfhda.h §ug b,lal lr we;' 2030 ie,iqug wkqj" úfoaYa ,sñgâyS f;,a iy .Eia ksIm a dokh mj;akd uÜgu jk f;,a idudkdldr fug%l s a fgdka ñ,shk 7'26 isg" 2017-2018 § ñ,shk 20 iy 2029-2030 § ñ,shk 60 olajd jeä lsÍug hq;j = mj;S'

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i|u; frdfnda wNHdjldY hdkdjla f.dv niajd Google Lunar X Prize Èkd.ekSug bka¥ia lKavdhu woyia lrhs joka | Wmdikd ljqrd

fjkia jQ miqìïj,ska mej; tk bkaÈhdkqjka mia fofkl=f.a lKavdhula zzbkaÿia lKavdhuZZ kñka f.dKq ù i| 2'0 (moon 2.0) f,io y÷kajk Google Lunar X Prize Èkd.ekSfï ;r.fha by<u ;r.lrejka w;rg tlaù ;sfí' Google wdh;kh yd Lunar X Prize moku u.ska ixúOdkh lrk Google Lunar X Prize jQ l,s 2015 foieïn¾ ui i| u; frdfnda wNHjldY hdkhla f.dvnEu i|yd jk f.dA,sh ;r.hls' fufia ;kk wNHjldY hdkh i| u;= msg ó 500 lg jeä ÿrla .uka fldg mDÓúhg tys m%;spdrhka túh hq;=h' i| u; m%:u jrg f.dv nisk lKavdhug we'fvd' ñ,shk 40 l ;Hd.hla ,efnkq we;' fuu lKavdhug kdhl;ajh imhkqfha tys ;dlaIKsl m%Odkshd jk f;dr;=re ;dlaIKsl jD;a;sl rdyq,a kdrdhkah' wfkl=;a mqfrda.dñ idudðlhka jkafka bkaøks,a pl%fnda¾;s ^wf,úlrK m%Odks& ió¾ fcdaIs ^fufyhqï ks¾udK Ys,ams& cq,shia wïß;a ^wdfhdaack m%Odks& yd iu mqfrda.dñ È,sma píßhd ^ixia:dms; in|;d m%Odks& h' bkaÿia lKavdhu rgj,a 17 lska meñfKk lKavdhï 29 la yd ;r. jÈkq we;' fuh m%Odk lafIa;% folla hgf;a jk ;Hd. i|yd kï lr we;' tkï f.dvnEï l%u fõoh yd rEmK l%u fõoh i|ydh' fï ish,a, werUqfka 2009 - 10 jirj, mdi,a ñ;=rka foofklaj isá kdrdhka yd pl%fnda¾;s fuu ;r.h ms<sn|j ±kqj;aj ta u|yd iyNd.s ùug ;SrKh lsÍu iu.sks' miq.sh jif¾È fuu lKavdhu È,a,sfha isg fnx.d¨re fj; ;u ld¾hd,h f.k .sfha tys ;sfnk wNHjldY m¾fhaIK uOHia:dkh (ISRO) Tjqkaf.a wkd.; ie,iqï i|yd ;SrKd;aul jk neúks' 2015 foieïn¾ ui jk úg ISRO u.ska Tjqkag Èh;a lsÍï hdkhla yd O%eùh pkaøsld Èh;a lsÍfï hdkhla ,nd fokq we;'

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kfjHda;amdokh

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mqo. a ,fhl= f,i uu b;d cd;sljdÈ jk fufyhqula f,i Ndú;d lsÍu wrUñka w;r uf.a ikakduh tu ±ä cd;sljdÈ Ndjh bkaÈhdkqjka tlg f.dkq fldg nkaOkh mrdj¾;kh lrhs' th bkaoh s dfõ wdvïnrhhs' th fldg ;nk ,È' fjk;a ´kEu cd;sl we÷ula idïm%odhsl;ajh Wlyd .ks" bkaÈhdj je<| .ks" fukau bka§h cd;sl we÷uo b;d m%n, oDYHuh th iurhs" th bka§h l,djka fmrg f.k ths' wkkH;djhla f.dv k.k w;r iudch tld f,dj iqfLdmfNda.; s j a fhka jeä m%udKhla fuka f.dkq lsÍug;a wka;¾ iïnkaO;dj Wm; ,enqfõ fï m%foaYfhka nj;a" thsk; q a mj;ajd .ekSug;a th i;= Yla;sh w;s uy;ah' jeä fldgila zzbkaÈhdkqZZ ùfï wmf.a idßh jkdys iÔú yd kej; iqmß s isÿ Ñka;k iïm%odfhka ìysj kej; ksmofjk úúOdldrfhka th ngysr úiska Wlyd .kq ,en w¾: .ekafjkakla jk w;r bka§h we÷ï Tjqkf a .au jQ fohla ilid .;a tys i;H yd uQ,sl wdldrfhys me,÷ï fjk;a njg;a uu b;d ±äj úYajdi lrñ' fjkila fkdue;sj fM;sydislj cd;s l we÷ï fuu ;dlaIK jHdma;s hq.h mßkduh fjñka we;' me,÷ï fukau ;=< bkaÈhdj uqyqK fok m%Odk uf.a wjxl úYajdih wkqj b;d m%n, oDYHuh wNsfhda.h jkafka wmf.au jQ bkaÈhdfõ iÔú iïm%odhla f,i wkkH;djhla Wreuh fufyhùfï yd th th udkj úoHd;aulj ixrlaIKh úoyd mdk w;r ixrlaIKh lsÍfï ksjerÈjQ l< hq;=h' idßh flfrys jk uf.a th i;=j iudch oelaula we;slsÍuhs' f.da,Sh .re;ajh zzidßh /l .ksuqZZ kï ixo¾Nh ;=< bka§h ùfï tlaj ne| ;eîug;a jk uQ,drïNl l%shdj,shla njg jeo.;alu ms<sn|j wm ksisf,i fmr,S ;sfí' tys yrh jkafka idß iïnkaO;djhka wjfndaO lrf.k fkdue;s nj fj<|fmd< mq¿,a lr .ekSu fkdj we;s lsÍug;a úYd, uu úYajdi lrñ' WodyrKhla tys iudc yd ixialD;sl wod,;ajh n,hla we;' wmf.a f,i idïm%odhsl cd;sl we÷ula ixrlaIKh lsÍuhs' uu th wÊrla" idßh iÔúh ^costume) f,ig fkd.efkk cïodks" LdÈ" ldkaÑmqrï" fnkdris iqúfYaIs jQ cd;sl we÷ula yd fmdoïm,a,s fj;ska uQ,dY% (national dress) bkaÈhdjg we;' cmdkh jeks fldgf.k we;' rgj, lsfudakdj idïm%odhsl cd;sl we÷u jk iudc udOH yd wdlD;s.; ú,dis;d f,dalhla w;r tx.,ka;fhaÈ" idïm%odhsl rdclSh we÷u ;=<" bkaÈhdj i;H jYfhkau fmkS isákafka kdgHuh fyda fM;sydisl ksrEmkhkag muKla l=ula fjkqfjka o hkak wm isys ;nd .; w¢kq ,efí' hq;=h' YsIaG;ajh" l,dj" l,d fl!Y,Hh" uy;aud .dkaê LdÈh iudc n, .ekaùfï ixfõ§;ajh" ixialD;sh" wOHdmkh" wd.u yd

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kfjHda;amdokh wdOHd;añl;djh fjkqfjks' tfukau wod, foa b;sß fldg f.k h,a mskQ foa neyer fldg bÈßhg hdugo wm isys ;nd .; hq;=h' ikakduhla f,i wm W;aidy lrkafka" wmf.a mdßfNda.slhka ljqreka o hk nj;a Tjqkaf.a ixialD;sh yd Wreuh l=ulao hkak;a Tjqkag jgyd § Tjqkaf.a wkkH;djh fidhd .ekSug Wmldr lsÍuhs' wmf.aa mdßfNda.slhka ;=< wm we;s lsÍug W;aidy lrkafka ;u uq,a ms<sn| wdvïnrhla we;sjk úYajdikSh njls' orejka i|yd jk wmf.a zzfpdagd iLHZZ hkakg Ôjh iemhqfka uf.a ujf.ks' l,dldßkshla jk weh fndySñhdkq oDYaáhlska hq;=j l,dj ms<sn| idjOdkd;aul ùug;a th w.h lsÍug;a ud Èßu;a l< w;r uf.a

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iLHiÑ ys msßñ fudaia;r tl;=j iïm%odhsl jDkaohkaf.ka f,i ,nd .;a fudaia;r tl;=jla fjhs'

ish¿ ks¾udK wef.ka wdNdih ,nd we;' th wm b;d fjfyi jQ w;r tu l%shdj,sh wdrïN orejkaa i|yd ixialD;suh jQ we÷ï ikakduhls' jQfha 10 jirlg fmr§h' th /<s iys; idß" tïfn%dhsvß l< cQ;s yd w;a fuu Wml%uh jkafka uf.a jHdmdrfha moku nE.a j,ska iukaú; fjhs' th foudmshka ;=< jk l,d Ys,amSka i|yd b,a¨ula yd iemhqula w;S;ldó ye`.Sï cks; lrhs' we;s lssÍug;a tu.ska Tjqkg ;sridr jHdmdrhka fudaia;r ks¾udK Ys,amsfhl= i|yd bv újr lssÍu;ah' ud iy f,i ug ye`.S hkafka ck;djg uf.ka wkqm%dKh ,enq fj<|fmd< fudaia;r ks¾udK yd l,djg ud i;=j j.lSula we;s w;r Ys,amSh uÜgfï ck;dj úYd, Ys,amsfhl= f,i njhs' bka§h frÈms<s ug b;d m%udKhlg wm /lshd wjia:d ,nd wmf.a ck;djg jeo.;a fjhs' uf.a ikakdufha § we;' wd;auh yd ieliqu jkafka tajdh' m%Odk fmf<a ldka;djka yd l,d Ys,amhg bkaÈhdj ;=< úhels hk frÈ wdVH;djfhka hq;=j r;= m,i j.lSula we;s nj úhk m%cdjkag Wmldr lsÍug u;ska iLHiÑ ikakduh m<¢k uu is;ñ' bka§h wm W;aidy lrk w;r uq¿ l,d úg b,a¨u jeä jk w;r th l,d frÈms<s ug b;d .ïudkhla kej; k.d isgqùug Ys,amfha mqk¾Ôjhg;a tu.ska ìï jeo.;a jk w;r uf.a iud.u odhl;ajh imhoaÈ ud uÜgfï j¾Okhg;a rel=,a ,efí' uf.a ikakdufha yg ±fkk ;Dma;sh yd i;=g lshd wo jk úg iLHiÑ ukd,sh jkdys wd;auh yd ksu l< fkdyel' wmf.a ikakduhg;a jvd mD:q, jQ ieliqu thhs bkaÈhdj ;=< wmg úia;D; jQ m%mxphls' th ixialD;suh we÷ï zwdkqNdú;Z fj<| fmd<la ±lsh me,÷ï j, ieureuls' zziqkaor;ajh yelsh' ta ksid ud tla jirl lkaÔjrï tl;=jla fidhd uu f,dj mqrd ieß ierefjñ" túgh ud l< ú.i tu l,dj m%dKj;a lrñka fj<|fmd< ÿgqfõ uf.a ksjykg tmsáka jk msKs ì|l" ;K ;=<o th ksIamdokh ùu werfUk nj uu oksñ' msh,a,l tu iqkaor;ajh we;s njZZ hkqfjka fnkdßia kej; wdrïN fldg m%dKj;a lsÍug ;df.da¾ jrla mejiSh'

iLHiÑs uqL¾ð hkq bkaÈhdfõ m%Odk fmf,a fudaia;r ksrEmk Ys,amskshls

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ysgmq m%Odk ue;sjrK flduidßia wdpd¾h ã' jhs' l=rhsIsf.a kj;u .%ka:h jk zzwf,aLk.; wisßh: uyd bka§h ue;sjrKhkaf.a ksuejquZZ kï lD;sh bkaÈhdfõ m%cd;ka;%jdoh mj;ajd .ekSfï jeo.;alu wdh;khl l%shdj,sh ms<sn|j idlÉPd lrhs joka | mrkafcdahs .=yd ;l=¾;d

ish¨u bkaÈhdkqjka ksr;=reju mdfya wdvïnr jk wdh;khla we;akï ta ue;sjrK fldñiuhs' ks,n, l%uh" úfYaIfhka rcfha ks,Orhkaf.ka iukaú; l%uh ksrka;rfhka w,i" m%;sM, rys;" ¥Is; yd úIu núka msÍ we;s njg fmdÿfõ ms<s.efka' flfia fj;;a fuu ks,orejkau ks¾jdpka ioka fj; we;=¿ jQ iefKka ksoyia yd idOdrK ue;sjrKhla f,dj úYd,;u m%cd;ka;%jdÈ rdcHh ;=< meje;aùu i|yd j.lshk iajdëk yd j.lsj hq;= msßila njg m;afj;s' ue;sjrK iuhlÈ isÿjk uqo,a n,h yd fjk;a wl%ñl;d uev,Su i|yd Tjqkau ms<s.kakd mßÈ ;j;a fndfyda ÿr hdhq;=j ;snqKo fuu jHjia:dkql+, wêldßh jißka jir jeä jeäfhka n, .ekafjñka ;sfí' bkaÈhdkq mßmd,k fiajhg 1971 È we;=,;aù 2006 isg 2012 f;la m%Odk ue;sjrK flduidßia OQrh;a ue;sjrK flduidßia OQrh;a fynjq

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wdpd¾h l=rhsIs bkaÈhdfõ m%Odk ue;sjrK flduidßia f,i lghq;= lrk ld,fhaÈ

wdpd¾h tia' jhs' l=rhsIs úiska rÑ; ^rEmd ;dlaIKfha Ndú;h" wdo¾Y p¾hd ix.%yh" m%ldYk& fuu .%ka:h t<s olajd i;s lSmhla ue;sjrK ld,h ;=< udOHfha ld¾h Ndrh we;=<; 16 jk uyd ue;sjrKh meje;ajqKq yd Pkaoodhl wOHdmkh -m%:u j;djg w;r thska 1951 - 1952 isg ue;sjrKfhaÈ Pkao m%ldY meje;ajQ uy ue;sjrK ;=< lsÍug iqÿiqlï ,enqjka ue;sjrK isÿjQ 8 jk rdcH ;dka;%sl ;sfofkl=f.ka foofklau l%shdodufha ish¨ fjki isÿ úh' w¾O jYfhka ;u Pkao n,h m%ldY lrkq l%shdoduhka" mqoa.,sl w;a±lSï ms<sn| rpkd ,enqfõh - hkdÈh ms<sn|j ;dlaIKfha o w¾O jYfhka bkaÈhdfõ Wkkaÿjkakkag fuu .%ka:h Ndú;h yd m%cd;ka;%jdoh mj;ajd b;d m%fhdackj;a jkq we;' fjk;a fndfyda .ekSfï j.lSu orK jeo.;au bkaÈhdj f,dj oE ms<sn|j wdh;kfha ksujqu o úoyd úYd,;u muKla Wkkaÿ jkakkag olajk fuu .%ka:h idfmalaIj fkdj f,dj fyd|u fuu .%ka:h b;d iq¿ fodaIhka yd wl%sh ùï m%cd;ka;%jdÈ rdcHh b;d jeo.;a yd uOHfha f,dj úYd,;u jQ ks, ùug l< hq;= ;j;a rij;a jkq we; n, l%uhla id¾:lj l%shd;ul oE fudkjd±hs lrkd wdldrh ms<sn|j ±k.ekSug wdpd¾h ksrka;rj u;= flfrk m%Yak .Kkdjlg l=rhsIs f.a ó<`. .%ka:h t<s ms<s ;=re imhhs' ±laafjk ;=re n,d wmg isàug ue;sjrK l%shdodufha ish¨ l%shdj,ska" isÿjkq we;'

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Add INDIAN DIPLOMACY fuu f,aLlhd wjqreÿ 36 lg wêl ld,hla w;a±lSï ,;a iajdëk udOHfõÈfhl= yd wOHdmk{fhls'

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b;sydih

lemlsÍï yd wr.,h

ms<sn| l;djla

bkaÈhdj ish 68 jk ksoyia Èk iurK fuu jif¾È bkaoshdkqq ksoyia wr.,h yd iïnkaO fM;sydisl ia:dk myla yd tajd j¾;udkfhaÈ m%isoaO ù we;s wdldrh wms f.kyer olajkafkuq

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lfldaaß" W;a;¾ m%foaYa

u.fkdyeßh hq;=

1925 wf.daia;= 9 jk Èk lfldaß yd ,lakõ wdikakfha we;s w,ïk.¾ w;rÈ lfldaß ÿïßh uxfld,a,h isÿúh' ì%;dkHhkag tÈßj igkafldg Tjqkaf.a .%yKfhka ñ§u i|yd wdhqO ñ,§ .ekSug uqo,a fidhd .ekSu msKsi rdï m%idoa ìiaud,a yd wYajL,a,d Ldka fuh ie,iqï l< w;r pkafYaL¾ widoa ;j;a ksoyildñka i;aa fofkl== iu. tlaù fuu uxfld,a,h isÿ lf<ah' fuu ÿïßh n%s;dkH rdcH NdKavd.drhg wh;a uqo,a nE. /f.k hñka ;sìK'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

lfldaß ^rdcH w.k.rh jk ,lakõ ys isg ls'ó' 14 l ÿßka msysgd we;'& b;d m%KS; flndí" i¾fodais ^tïfn%dhsv¾ jev& yd ÿiafiyaß wU j,g m%isoaO ia:dkhls'

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b;sydih

wkaouka yd ksfldnd¾ ¥m;aj, íf,hd¾ f;dg

íf,hd¾ f;dg oyia .Kka jQ ksoyia igkaldñka ;u ksfjiaj,ska ie;mqï oyia .Kklg tmsáka r|jd ;enq /|jqï l|jqr ksid fukau fkgdð iqndIa pkaø fndaIa úiska kdhl;ajh fokq ,enq widoa yskaoa *jqÊ ys ;djld,sl uQ,ia:dkh o ksid jeo.;a fõ' 19 jk ish ji w. Nd.fhaÈ tu m%foaYfhaÈ fi,shq,¾ nkaOkd.drh bos lrkq ,eìK'

fi,shq,¾ nkaOkd.drh

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u. fkdyeßh hq;= bkaÈhdkq" hqfrdamSh yd nqreu wdydr hkdÈfhka ;=gq jk w;ru ixpdrlhkag fuys fjr< yd ¥m;a iuQyh mqrd iafkdl,ska yd fndaÜgq me§fï ksr; úh yelsh' íf,hd¾f;dg bkaÈhdkq kdúl yd fjr<drlaIl uQ,dia:dkh fya;=fjkao jeo.;a fõ'


órEÜ" W;a;¾ m%foaYa

1857 uehs 10 jk Èk È,a,shg ls'ó'72 la tmsáka we;s órEÜ l|jqre k.rh ;=< bka§h ksoyia igfka m<uq hqoaOh werôKs' ì%;dkH yuqodfõ fiajh l< widOdrKhg ,lajq bkaoSh fin¿ka úiska wêrdcHjdÈ n,hg tfrysj igka jeo k.rfha n,h w,a,d .kakd ,È' bkamiq È,a,sfha r;= fldgqj foig .uka l< Tjqyq tho w,a,d .;ay' ñrEÜ ys tfia werUqKq .sks mqmqre bkaÈhdj mqrd me;sÍ th ksoyi i|yd jk cd;sljdÈ wr.,hla njg m;a úh'

u. fkdyeßh hq;= u;fNaohg ;=vq ÿka mf;dfrdï Ndú;d lsÍu m%;slafIm lsÍug o~qjula f,i bkaÈhdkq fin¿ka 85 fokl= isrlr ;enq úlafgdaßhd WoHdkh yd m<uq bkaÈhdkq igfkaÈ Èú msÿ úrejka fjkqfjka ;ekQ ùr iaudrlh hd hq;=u ia:dkhka fjhs' idïm%odhsl w;a hka;% frÈms<s yd l;=re l¾udka;hg m%isoaO órEÜ iSks isrma fyda meKs ;=< ;, weg nyd ilik w;=remila jk .cla ksido m%p,s;h'

úre iaudrlh

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b;sydih

wïß;aid¾" mkacdí

c,shkajd,d n.a fj; tla/ iajq nhsidÅ jkaokdlrejka yd wysxidjdÈ úfrdaO;dlrejkag fjä ;eîug ì%f.aäh¾ fckrd,a frðfkda,aâ vh¾ ksfhda. ÿkafka 1919 wfm%a,a 13 jk odh' wirK bkaÈhdkqjkaag t,a, l< lDDr;u m%ydrh f,i ie,flk fuu.ska ish .Kkla ureuqjg m;ajQ w;r oyia .Kkla ;=jd, ,enQy' fufia Èú msÿ wysxil bkaÈhdkqjka ixfla;j;a lrk iaudrlhla njg tu ia:dkh j¾;udkfhaÈ m;a lr we;' wïß;aidrfha rka fofjd, f,i y÷kajk yd¾ukaȾ iysí msysá we;af;ao fuysh' th bkaÈhfõ isla ck;djf.a wdOHd;añl yd ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh f,i o ie,fla'

u. fkdyeßh hq;= ixpdrlhkag *ßâla fyda f.daúkao .d¾ya f;dgq fj; msúish yelsh' iqm%isoaO wïß;aidß l,apd ^uqyqka l< mdka& yd pkakd ^lv,& o riú¢h yelsh' tfukau hdhq;= ;j;a jeo.;a ia:dkhla jkafka bkaÈhdj yd mlsia:dkh fjka lrk tlu ud¾. udhsu jk j.dya udhsuhs'

c,shkajd,d n.a ys iaudrlh

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flißhd ia:Qmh fM;sydisl ikaêia:dkhls

pïmrka" ìyd¾

u. fkdyeßh hq;= wfYdal rcq úiska l%s'j' 200 yd 750 w;r ld,fhaÈ ;kk ,o bkaÈhdfõ úYd,;u ia:Qm w;ßka tlla jk flaißh ia:Qmh tys§ kerôh yelsh' tfia ke;fyd;a ia:Qm f.dve,s 15 lska iukaú; f,daßhd kkaoka.d¾ya fyda n,fldgq 52 l kgnqka iys; njka.d¾ys kerôh yelsh' flidßhd fmvd" Lcd" u,amqjd" Lq¾ud" ú,al+Ü yd f;l=jd jeks m%KS; w;=remi i|ydo pïmrka m%isoaOh'

1916 È pïmrka Èia;%slalfhaÈ uy;aud .dkaê m<uq i;H.%y jHdmdrh wdrïN lf<ah' oyia .Kka jQ ìï wysñ f.dùka" w| lïlrejka yd ÿ.S f.dúhkag Ôj;aùu i|yd wjYH wdydr fnda.hka fjkqjg bkaäf.daa yd fjk;a ñ, l< yels j.djka j.dlrk f,ig n,mEï t,a, lrk ,È' tfukau f.dùkag ,nd ÿkafkao b;d iq¿ jkaÈhls' bkaäf.da j.dlrejl= jk rdÊ l=ud¾ Iqqla,d" pïmrka fj; hdug uy;aud .dkaê fmd<Ujd .;a w;r tys .sh t;=ud wdY%uhla msysgqjd i;H.%y jHdmdrh wdrïN lf<ah' wjidkfhaÈ ì%;dkH rch jvd jeä jkaÈ m%odkh lrñka yd j.djg jvd jeä n,hla ,nd foñka .súiqulg w;aika ;enqfõh'

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b;sydih

bkaÈhdkq

u;h

Tyqf.a ol=Kq wm%sldkq úiqï iufha§" fudaykaodia lrïpdkaoa .dkaê" bkaÈhdkq idOlh .ek —mlaIj l:d lsÍu— g b,lal lrñka nyqNdId iÕrdjla wdrïN lf<ah joka | rdupkaø .=yd

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^uqÿfka jfï iy my< jfï& uyd;aud .dkaêf.a nEKdjreka- pd.ka,d,a iy u.ka,d,a ^ol=fKa& .dkaêf.a fojk m%Odkshd" ;ïì kdhs¥" 1913 i;H.%yh w;r;=r§ v¾nka wi, ckldh wu;ñka

1897-1898 ld,fha§" Tyq kdgd,a kqjr mÈxÑj isá ka uqo,a tl;= lsÍu;a" bx.%Sis" .=crd;s" yskaÈ iy ld,fha" ol=Kq wm%sldj ;=< bkaÈhdkq m%Yakh ms<sn|j fou< NdId y;frka uqøKh lsÍug kshñ; i;sm;d b,lal lrñka mqj;a m;la wdrïN lsÍfï is;=ú,a,la iÕrdj, ,shú,s w;alr .ekSu;ah' kid¾f.a .dkaê ;=< úh' oeka" 1903 .sïydkfha§" Tyq ish ld¾hh jQfha tla tla ksl=;=jla ie,iqï lsÍu;a" woyi kej; mK.ekajQ w;r ;udg Wmldr lsÍug ,sms iy mßj¾;k i|yd wjYH lghq;= ms<sfh, iQodkñka miqjQ ñksiqka fofofkl= lsÍu;a" msgm; ixialrKh lsÍu;a" iy fidhd .;af;ah' m<uqjekakd" ukaIqLd,a uqøKfhka msgjk f;la iÕrdj n,d ysrd,d,a kid¾" fnfyúka ixpdr m%sh .ekSu;a fõ' fcdyekakian¾.a kqjr isg" ukaIqla,d,a l< .=crdá cd;slfhl= jQ w;r Tyq .dkaê úiska nqoaêuh iy ffO¾huh ysrd,d,a kid¾, fndïfí kqjr§ ffjoH Ydia;%h Wf.k fufyhùu imhkq we;" thg Tyq úiska 1903 ol=Kq ;snQ ol=kq wm%sldjg ixl%uKh ùug rpkd lrk ,sms .Kkdjlau we;=,;a wm%sldfõ § fmrd;=j ,kavka kqjr jHdmdrhla jkq we;' mqj;am;la ms<sn| l< wfhla úh' fojekakd" udokað;a 1903 jk úg" v¾nka kqjr wdY%s;j woyi kej; jHjydßla" v¾nka kqjr f.a% ùÈfha uqøKd, oyy;rla muK úh' ish,a, mK.ekaùfï ,d uqøKd,hla ysñ lr f.k isá l<ska whs;s lrf.k ld¾hh kshqla;j isáfha .dkaêg iydhg mdie,a .=rejrfhl=j isá wfhls' iqÿ ñksiqka úiskah' tlu jH;sf¾lh meñ‚ m<uq uqøKd,fha ux., wdrdOkd" jHdmdßl jQfha jHjydßlah' kj nyqNdId iÕrdj" mqoa.,hd úh ldâm;a" fukqm;a" .sKqï wdlD;sm;a" bx.%Sisfhka muKla ,shejqKq" uqøKh isys t<jqï m%ldYk" pl% f,aL" ,ÿm;a jqKq iy lshjkq ,enQ jdr i.rdj, fmd;a" iy tjeks foa" .=crd;s" fou<" yskaÈ" W¾ÿ" talj¾K miqìug tfrysj ke.S isáfhah' ld¾h ySn%E" urd;s" ixialD;" m%xY" iQÆ NdIdj,ska uqøKh uKav,h iqÿiq whqßka úúO;ajhla .;s - l¿ flß‚' oekgu;a úia;D; fuu ,ehsia;=jg oeka cd;slfhl=" uqßisfhka meñ‚ wfhl=" .=crdá i;sm;d u;sl iÕrdjla tla jkq we;' cd;slhka lsysmfofkl= iy hg;a msßfihska fou< .dkaêf.a wdOdrlrefjda ol=Kq wm%sldfõ bkaÈhdkq cd;slhska fofofkl= o ta w;r úh' ckÔú;fha uOHia:dkh jQ v¾nka yS mÈxÑj iÕrdj bkaÈhdkq u;h kï úh' m<uq ksl=;=j" isáhy' jHjydßlaf.a ld¾hh jQfha fjf<kaokaf. 1903 cqks 4 jk od t<s ng w;r" bkaÈhdkq m%cdfõ

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b;sydih

jfï isg Trf,daiq uqyqKf;a Èidjg( .dkaêf.a foudmshka" lrïpdkaoa .dkaê iy mqÜ,s ndhs¦ rdÊfldÜ yS Tyqf.a mdi,¦ ^my<& fmda¾ndkao¾ ys msysá .dkaêf.a ksjfia oiqka

y~ f,iska ish m%ldYkh l<d" oeka ol=Kq wm%sldfõ iy wfmalaIdjka ms<sn| woyila— ,nd foñks' —foaYmd,k foayfha y÷kd.;a idOlhla— fõ' — iÕrdfõ b,lal ms<sn| fuu m%ldYfha w;ayereKq wêrdcHjd§kaf.a is;a ;=<— Tjqkg tfrysj mej;s — foa kï ol=Kq wm%sldfõ úYd,;u ck.yKh jQ mQ¾j úksYaph— mokï jQfha —uõN+ñh fj;g ì%;dkH wm%sldkqjka .ek ljr fyda i|ykls' Och hgf;a mlaImd; msáirhka yeu l,aysu bkaÈhdkq u;fha tla tla ksl=;=jla msgq wglska lrk ,o iyidOl fiajh ms<sn| ieÈ tlla f,i Èh;a flß‚' ljr fkdmyka wu;l lroeóu— u;hs' tu msgqfõ iÕrdfõ ku iy th uqøKh l,dmfha ;snQ ,smshla fuu mlaImd; ù we;s NdIdjka .ek i|ykla úh' bkaÈhdkq Ndjh iqÿiqlula f,i olajd ;snqfka" fj<| oekaùï fm<lao m< úh' v¾nka u;fha tla tla ol=Kq wm%sldj ;=<" —hqfrdamShhl= úiska ys idmamqjla ish /f,a nhsisl,a .ek ksl=;=jla msgq wmrdOhla fyda pß;uh wkdpdrhla wjOdkh Èkd .ekSfï § —oDV" fõ.j;a" wglska hqla; lrk ,oafoa kï" th ;ks fohla jQ úYajdiodhS"— f,i y÷kd § ;sì‚" ;j;a úh' th uqøKh kuq;a" th bkaÈhdkqjl= w;ska jQfha idmamqjla —fmrÈ. wdNrK— f;d. flreKq NdId kï th cd;sl uÜgfï jrola jk nj— ms<sn|j tys mdGlhka f.a wjOdkh i|yka lrñks' Èkd .ekSug h;ak ord ;sì‚' kdgd,a ljr msgqfõ bkaÈhdkq u;h wdrïNfha§u" .dkaê yS k.rj, idudkH fjf<kafoda ny¨‍ ,ehsia;=.; ù ;udj Tijd .kq ,enQfha oekqï iïm;a we;=,;a lr ;snq‚' tfukau úfYaIs; ;snq‚ odhlfhl= f,i iy kj ux újr idmamq is./Ü iy frÈms<s fj<|dfï lrkafkl= f,ih' iÕrdj ;=< ol=Kq kshqla; úh' wfkl=;a fj<| oekaùï wm%sldfõ bkaÈhdkqjka" bkaÈhdfõ bkaÈhdkqjka m%jD;a;s m;%h u.skau th ms<sn|j oeuQ tajdh¦ ms<sn| mqj;a iy —iudc" ffO¾huh iy nqoaêuhfïjdhska —fyd| hka;% l%shdlrefjl=— .ek wid ish¨‍ úIhhka— ms<sn| fmdÿ ,sms /f.k tkq ;sì‚" ke;skï —m<uq mka;sfha fou< rplhl=— we;' tu.ska bkaÈhdkq idOlh .ek —mlaIj l;d ms<sn|jh" ;j;a tll yskaÈ iy bx.%Sis NdId folu flfrkq— we;af;a" hqfrdamShhkag —bkaÈhdkq is;=ú,s fyd¢ka lshúh yels wfhl= .ekh'

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jfï isg Trf,daiq uqyqKf;a Èidjg( bkaÈhdkq u;h" uyd;aud .dkaê úiska iudrïN l< iÕrdjls¦ foaYmd,k{ f.damd,a l%sIaKd f.dalaf,a ^jfï& udkj Ydia;%{ rdgdka gdgd iu." fmd,sia fjä ;eîfuka urd oeuqKq jev j¾ð;hka wkqiaurKh lrkq jia .dkaê iqÿ j;ska ieriS" .dkaêf.a WmfoaYl m%dkaðjdka fï;d" v¾nka jHdmdßl md¾iS reiafgdïÔ

m<uq msgj q ta wdldrfha úh¦ Bg miqj bx.%i S f s hka jQ bkaÈhdkq u;fha bx.%Sis iy .=crd;s fldgia mqj;a iy úia;r úpdr úh' Bg;a miq msgj q , .=crd;s .dkaêf.a odhl;ajh u; jeählau hems‚ ,sms m<jQ w;r" wjidkfha yskÈa iy fou< ,sms úh' ^ks;ru uqøKh jQfha l¾;D kduh rys;jh&' kdgd,a ys§ jd¾Isl odhl;ajh is,xs 12 l=;a mekai Tyq úúO ud¾;Dld iïnkaOfhka flá igyka yhla jQ w;r msg m%foaYj, is,xs 17 la úh ^l<ska iy m%Odk ,sms rpkd lf<ah' k.rdêm;sjrekaf.a f.jkafka kï&' ;ks msgm;a wf,ú iy wdKavqldrjrekaf.a m%ldY Wmqgd lrk ,oafoa tlla mekai ;=kla ne.sk's olajd ;sì‚' rdcH ksfõok iy bkaÈhdkqjka flfrys n,mE kdgd,a f,aLk idrdxY .; lr ;snq‚' ysxik bkaÈhdkq fyda g%dkaiajd,a yS kj kS;s" úfrdaO;d" iy wiudk;aj ie,lSï ms<sn| ldrKd u;fha bx.%Sis ÿ¾NslaI" iy úYsIag foaYfma%óka .ek úYaf,aIKh flß‚' iy .=crd;s uõráka tk mqj;a - fïjd bkaÈhdkq .dkaê iïnkaOfhka jpkhla fldgia u;h m< lrkq ,enQ ish¨‍ NdIdj,ska mjikafka kï" fï ld, mßÉfþofha .dkaêf.a jk mßÈ kej; ilikq ,eì‚' Tyqf.a ,shú,s Tyqf.a m%ios O a l%h s dldrlï odhl;a jh u; wfkl=;a ,sms ;ks ;ks m%cdjka i|yd u.ska fnfyúka wdNdIh ,nd ;sn‚ q ' fnfyúkau fhda.H mßÈ ielis‚' fou< fldgfia bkaÈhdkq u;fha l¾;D jdlH msgq ish hemq‚ ol=Kq bkaÈhdfõ mj;ajkq ,enQ W;aij .Kkla iy jd¾;d" ks,OdÍkag iy .ek wdjrK we;=,;a úh' .eyeKq jHjia:dodhlhkag hefjk fm;aiï" <uqka i|yd jQ mdie,a iïnkaOfhka th jvd;a tlai;a rdcOdksfha iy bkaÈhdfõ wkql, + ;dj b,lal lrk ,§" t;eka mgka - fï wjÈfha§ olajkakkag hefjk kS;u s h igyka iy ,shï q ish .=crdàkag jvd ldka;d wOHdmkfha ,d fou< wh .Kkla w;rueo" Tyqf.a fm!oa.,sl Ôú;hg wod< jvd;a Wkkaÿjla oelaùh' ÿ¾,N" ixlaIm s ; a " oelSï ud;% .Kkdjla fõ'

rdupkaø .=yd úiska rÑ; bkaÈhdj wNshi .dkaê .%ka:fhka Wmqgd .e‚ks ^we,ka f,aka" fmka.=hska fmd;a uqøKhls&

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.fõIKh

jeis jefgk

úg...

bkaÈhdj mqrd fudaiu mshdm;a úod yßk úg" f;acdkaú; uyd j¾Idj ú£ug wms fyd|u ia:dk fidhd hkafkuq''' joka | l,HdKs m%I¾

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Tn fidnd oyug wdorh lrkafka kï" N+ñ Nd.hka ÿUqre meyefha isg fld< meyehg yerùug c,h i;= yelshdj ú£ug leue;af;a kï" Tn jgd uyd jeis weo yef,k jk ueol WKqiqï f;a fldamamhla f;d, .Efï is;sú,a,g wdYd lrkafka kï" bkaÈhdfõ fudaiï ksjdvq ld,h Tng lsis Èkl wu;l fkdjkq we;'

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.fõIKh

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

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äíre.d¾ya" weiEuh

f;a hdhla ´kEu úgl is; k,jk nj fkdlsjukdh' tfy;a w÷re j,djka by, wyfia uy;a f>daIdfjka w;amqä ;,k úg uyd jeis ;sr frÈ ta jgd tf;k úg yß; meye nquq;=reKq jka ;K m,ia Ôjudk jk whqre isyshg k.d .kak' rfgys úYd,;u f;a wmkhklrejd jk fuu k.rh fudaiï l,È o¾YkShu f,i Èiajk ia:dk w;ßka tlls' kef.kysr bkaÈhdfõ n,j;a n%yaumq;% wi, msysgd we;s fuu l=vd k.rh f;a hdhkaf. ka muKla fkdj cd;sl WoHdk follska yd jeis jkdka;rhlska hqla;j úiauh iy.; f,i fld< meyefhka nn,hs' l=vhla /f.k f;a hdhl ixpdrhlg tla jkak' jeis Èkl Tnf.a f;a j;= nx.,dfõ oajdrh u; ys| fyd|u weiEu f;a n÷kla f;d, .dñka j¾Idj krUkak'

furg úYd,;u f;a wmkhklrejd jk äíre.d¾ya i;=j o¾YkSh jeis jkdka;r yd cd;sl WoHdk we; cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

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.fõIKh

l=iqï ñáhdj;" W;a;r Ldkaoa

th tal foaYsl u,aj,ska" ÿ,n ;=re,sfhka yd j|fjñka mj;sk i;aj yd mßir úfYaI j,ska .yKh' l=iqï ñáhdj; cd;sl WoHdkh fidndoyug wdorh lrkakkag ienE wdYajdohla f.k fohs' fuu WoHdkh fj; <`.d ùug uyd ud¾.fhka W;a;¾lkaoa ys yßoajd¾ fyda foyarÿka fj;ska msúish yels fcdIsudka isg ls'ó' 17 la hd hq;=h' l=iqï ñáhdj; fj; jefgk ud¾.h" .ïudk yd jd;,h iqj¢ka mqrjd,k le,E u,a hdhj,a miq lrñka Èfjhs' fuu u. Èf.a weúÈk Tng le,E frdaij, iqj| ú£ug;a jeis jeàfuka kejqï jQ m%fndaOu;a jQ N+ñh ú£ug;a yelsh' fuys <`.d ùug fyd|u ld,h jkafka j¾K /ilska ñáhdj; msß;sß hk mYapd;a wf.daia;= ld,hhs'

fudaiï ld,h ;=<È ukrï oiqka ujñka l÷lr mqIamhka 300 lg wêl m%udKhla Tng wdpdr lrkq we; bkaÈhd o¾Yk

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fldhskd" uydrdIag%h fudaiï ld,h ;=<È yß; meyefhka nn,k ngysr >Üia l÷ jeáh f,dj b;du iqkaor m%foaY mrojd Tmj;a fjhs' fldhskd hkq Ñma,ka yd lroa w;r msysá t;rï m%p,s; fkdjQ k.rhls' fldhskd fõ,a, ukrï oiqkla ujk w;ru uq¿ k.rhu Èh we,s yd c, foay j,ska w,xlD;j Èÿ,hs' tfukau fnx.d,s fldáhdo" wdishdkq iqr`.k kS, l=re,a,d jeks úúO jQ l=re¿ úfYaIo iys; fldhskd jkÔù wNh N+ñho k.rh irihs'

t;rï m%isoaO fkdjk ksid fuu k.rh ikaiqkah" ksikai,h' fldhskd fõ,a, wi< fndfyda ixpdrl ksfla;ko kej;S isáh yels ksfjiao fjhs

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.fõIKh

f.daj

m%isoaO ixpdrl mqrjrhla jk ngysr bkaÈhdfõ f.daj m%foaYfha uy mssßia u. yeÍug wjYH kï j¾Id ld,fhaÈ tys meñfKkak' Tng uqyqÿ fjr<g fyda fjk;a ia:dk keröug hd fkdyels jkq we;' tfy;a j¾Idj uOHfha f.daj k.rh mqrd Tnf.a ßh meoùu pu;aldrckl w;a±lSula jkq we;' ukialdka; oiqkla ujk ukafodú .f`.a voaid.¾ Èh we,a, Tn uú; lrjkq we;' tfia ke;fyd;a idrj;a l=¿nvq jeú,s yryd fyda .ïudk yryd ßh mojkak' Tng wu;l fkdjk w;a±lSula ,efnkq we;'

j¾Idfõ iqkaor;ajh keröug idrj;a l=¿nvq j.djka Tiafia ßh mojkak' tfia ke;fyd;a f.daj N+ñh u; ksoyfia irkak

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l=¾.a" l¾Kdgl fudaiï ld,h ;=<È j¾Idj m<uqfjka meñK wjikaj msgj hk m%foaYh ol=Kq bkaoshdj neúka thh ful, mskaj;au N+ñh jkqfha' bkaÈhdfõ jeäfhkau jeis ,efnk m%foaY w;ßka tlla jk l+¾.a" tys fldams j.djkao jeis weo yef,k úg udhduh úÑ;%j;a njla .kakd idrj;a yß; jkdka;ro ksid Ñr m%isoaOh' WKq WKqfõ fmk k.sk fldams fldamamhl ri ú¢ñka yß; ìïlv >ke;s iqÿ fmdfrdakdjlska T;ñka meñfKk óÿu krUkak' ldfõß kÈh werfUk ia:dkho k.¾fyda,a jkÔù wNh N+ñho Tng kerôh yelsh' Èh we<s o l÷ jeá o m%KS; fNdackhkao ksiel jYfhkau Tn fuys kej; meñKSug fya;= jkq we;'

fldams j.djka ksid mrisÿ l=¾.a i;=j o¾YkSh l÷ mx;Ska" Èh we<s" l=Uqre yd jkdka;ro fjhs cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

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.fõIKh

weoys,a, iy

úYajdih

f,dalh mqrd úisß fldaú,a úid, .Kkska wkq.dñlhka tla lr .ksñka isà" wd.ñl fya;= ksidu muKla fkdj tajdfha ksrfmalaI w,xldrh iy úN+;sh ksido fï foa isÿ fõ

wre,a óyq kjYla;s úkhd.¾ fldaú, udfya" iSfI,aia iSfI,aia ys tlu yskaÿ fldaú,hs" wre,a óyq kjYla;s fldaú, 1992 § bÈlrk ,oaols' th úkhd.¾ Ydia;Djrhd kñka lem fldg ;sfí" Tyq iqrlaIdfõ iy iuDoaêfha foú÷kah' kdhl;ajh hkafka .fkaI foú÷kagh' uqre. ka" kvrdcd" ÿ¾.d" Y%Sksjdi" fmreud,a" nysrj iy pkaoflaiaj¾ m%;sud .DydNHdka;rfha fjhs' fldaúf,a f.damqrï ^fldaú,a msúiqï fodrgqj& w,xldr" fmdfydi;a f,iska úis;=re" j¾Kj;a foaj foaù leghñka ieriS ;sfí' úfYaI wjia:dj,§ úúO foújreka Wfoid hdÈks fufyhka mj;ajkq ,efí' 1993 § ff;%mQiï ldjdä W;aijh iSfI,aia ys§ wdrïN lrk ,o w;r m<uqfjka fldaú,a we;=,a ñÿf,a § isÿ lrk ,§' oeka th isÿ flfrkafka ndysr wx.kfhah' fmryr i|ydu j¾Kj;aj irik ,o lr;a;hla msg;g .efka' fuu W;aijh fnfyúkau ckm%sh jQfhka iSfI,aia rch úiska tÈk yska¥ka i|yd ksjdvq Èkhla f,i m%ldYhg m;a lr we;' th 1998 isg l%shd;aulhs'

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iajdñ kdrdhka fldaú, f,hsfiiag¾" tlai;a rdcOdksh mer‚ fvksï l¾udka; Yd,djla oeka f,hsfiiag¾ yS bkaÈhdkq vhiafmdardj úiska Èÿ,k iqÿ lsß.re~ fldaú,la njg mßj¾;kh lrkq ,en we;' .=crdgfha leghïlrejka úiska w;ska fk<k ,o fi,a ms<su miqj f,hsfiaig¾ olajd m%jdykh lr 2011 § fuys ;ekam;a lrk ,§' jHdmD;sh ksujd,Sug iïmQ¾K jir ;=kla muK .; úh' iduh iy w,xldrh ixfla;j;a lrñka wd.ñl iy fudKreka iy fk¿ï u,a we;=¿ ixialD;sl m%;sud,ska fldaú,a mßY%h úis;=re lr ;sfí' —YsL¾— ^ysud, m¾j; uqÿka

ixflaj;a lrhs& l=¿Kq ;=kla rkajka j¾Kfhka ke.S isák w;r mshiai jvd;a w,xldr lrhs' wdl¾IŒh óg¾ 15 la Wi iajdñ kdrdhka ms<srejla msúiqï ud¾.h wi, ia:dmkh lr we;s w;r fï fofjd, lemjkafka Tyq kñkah' wvq fjda,aàh;dfjka hq;= wdf,dal n,anj,ska iy n,Yla;s msßuik p,k ixfõ§ h;=rej,ska fofjd,a ixlS¾Kh jvd;a —wkqyia— we;s ia:dkhla njg m;a lrhs' we;a; jYfhkau" Bg —fyd|u wdf,dallrK— iïudkh msßkeuqKq w;r ì%;dkH ;drld ix.ufha ld¾hlaIu iy wjldY ñ;=re rd;%S wdf,dalh fjkqfjka fuu iïudkh ,eî ;sfí'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

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.fõIKh

OdflaiajÍ fldaú, Old" nx.a,dfoaYh Old w.k.rfha ia:dms;" OdflaiajÍ fldaú, nx.a,dfoaYfha cd;sl foajd,h f,i ie,l=ï ,nhs' 12 jk ishjfia § fiakd jxYfha rc jQ fnda,ka fika úiska fuu fldaú, f.dv kxjd we;' oekg mj;sk mqrdjD;a; j,g wkqj fuu fldaú, OdflaiajÍ kug lemfldg we;af;a weh Oldjg wêm;s fojÕk jk ksidfjks' w¿;ajeähdjka" kjHlrKhka iy m%;sixialrKhka hgf;a fldaú, mqrd;k meje;afuka uqojdf.k ;sfnkafka" oeka th rfÜ ixialD;sl Wreufha wúÉÑkak fldgila f,iska ie,l=ï ,nhs' iEu jirlu Tlaf;danrfha§" ÿ¾.d fojÕk fjkqfjka jd¾Isl jkaokd W;aijhla fuys ixúOdkh fõ' th úYd,;u fnx.d,s yskaÿ W;aijhhs' fldaú, ìfï isÿ flfrk ÿ¾.d mQcdj

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Y%S ld,s fldaú, heka.=ka" ñhkaud¾ Y%S ld,s fldaú," wiSñ; j¾Khkaf.a iy myka lrk iq.kaOhkaf.a il%Sh úoHdia:dkhla f,i kï l< yels fõ' ñhkaudrh ì%;dkH wêrdcHfha fldgila f,i mej;s wjêfha øúv ixl%u‚lhka úiska fuu fldaú, bÈlr we;s w;r th heka.=ka m<df;a msysgd we;' ld,s fojÕk kñka lemlr we;s fï fldaú," .Dy

ks¾udK Ys,amfha ydialula f,i ie,flk w;r yskaÿ foaj m%;sud ish .Kklska by< isg my< olajd jeiS hk whqßka ksujd ;sfí' ld,sh" .=ma; fukau Ôú;h ksfhdackh lrk" mßj¾;khg wêm;s n,j;a jQ fojÕkls' fuys .;jk yeu ojilau W;aijhls" Èkm;d hd. iy fydau mQcd meje;afõ' W;aij ux.,H iufha§" w,xldrj;a oiqkla ujd mdñka fldaú,a N+ñh ckhdf.ka msÍ ;sÍ hhs'

cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

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uQ,drïN

iduidOl ldka;dfjda

f,dalh iqjm;a lr;s

idkqlïmdj oeka iduidOl fufyjrj,§ kj kHIaÁh foayh jk w;r bkaÈhdkq ldka;dj ;SrKd;aul idOlhla nj Tmamq fjñka ;sfí joka | iquka;d rdf;da¾

,hsîßhdfõ tlai;a cd;Skaf.a fufyjf¾ kshq;= bkaÈhdkq n,we‚j, fmd,sia tallfha ks,OdÍka Tjqkf.a fiajh w.h lrkq jia meje;afjk molalï me<|ùulg iyNd.s fjhs

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,hsîßhdfõ fiajfha kshq;a ldka;d ks,Odßfhda

tlai;a cd;Skaf.a iduidOl fufyjr oeka bkaÈhdkq ldka;djf.a jeä fjñka mj;sk iyNd.s;ajh ms<sn|j idlaIs orñka ;sfí' ,hsîßhdj jeks l,dmj,§" ldka;djkag tfrys ysxikh wksjd¾h wx.hla ù we;s ia:dkhkays§" ldka;djkag fmrg meñŒug iy Tjqkf.a meñ‚,s ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍug n, .kajñka ;SrKd;au; N+ñldjla ksrEmKh lsÍfuka bkaÈhdkq ldka;d n,we‚ ish fiajh bgq lr we;' we;a; jYfhkau" bkaÈhdj úiska uq¿ukskau ldka;djkaf. ka ieÈ fmd,sia we‚hla m<uqjrg ,hsîßhdj fj;g msg;a lr yeßhdh' trfÜ isú,a hqoaOh iufha§ wl¾uKHNdjhg m;aù isá ldka;djka iy <uqka Ôjk ;;a;ajh w;ska uy;a fjkilg ,la lrñka bÈßhg f.k tau ms<sn|j tu we‚h uy;a w.h lsÍulg ,la úh' bkaÈhdkq iduidOl jD;a;slhka yqfolau ,hsîßhdkq ldka;djkag wdrlaIdj y÷kajd ÿkakd fkdj" Tjqka tu ldka;djkag yuqod fj;g ne£ug ffO¾h .kajñka ta;a;= .ekaùï mjd lr isáhdh' tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ,hsîßhdkq fufyjr úiska igyka .kakd ,o wkaoug bkaÈhdkq ldka;d iduidOl Nghkaf.a fiajhg miqj ,hsîßhdkq l,dmfha ldka;djka fmd,Sishg ne£fï m%;sY;h 2008 § mej;s ishhg 13 iSudfjka ñ§ 2009 jk úg ishhg 15 olajd jeä ù ;snQ nj fmkS .shdh' Tjqkaf.a ,hsîßhdkq fiajfha m%;sM,hla jYfhka" ldka;djkag tfrysj l%shd;aul jqKq widOdrKlï jd¾;d lsÍug Èßu;a lsÍu isÿ jQjd" ,sx.sl W,a,x>k ms<sn| jd¾;dlrKh o jeä úh' ldka;d ks,OdÍka ishhlg

jeä .Kkla iy msßñ ks,OdÍka 20 la muK 2007 ,hsîßhdkq fufyjrg wh;a jQ w;r isú,a hqoaOh úiska úkdY lr oud ;snQ trfÜ kS;sfha md,kh kej; ia:dmkh lsÍug iy iduh mj;ajd .ekSug l%shd lrk ,§' rd;%S ld,fha§" Tjqka ùÈ wmrdO w,a,d .ekSug l%shd l< w;r oyj,a ld,fha§ k.r wdrlaIdfõ kshe,S isáfhah' yuqod ne/lal lrd wdmiq meñ‚ ú.i" ùäfhda iïfï,k ud¾.fhka <uqka oekqj;a lrñka wdmiq ksfjia lrd meñŒug Èßu;a lsÍfï orejkag l;kaor lshd §ug lghq;= l<y' ler,slrejka úiska ;¾ckh lrkq ,eîfuka mSvdjg m;a whj¿ka foi wjOdkh fhduq l< ish msßñ ks,OdÍkaf.a ld¾hhg fuka fkdj" ldka;d iduidOl n,we‚j, ks,OdÍka f,dalfha hqoaOh we§ hk fmfoiaj, ldka;djka yd orejka flfrys wdrlaIdfõ wre; ,nd §ug l%shd lrhs' ler,slrejka mjd ldka;djla úiska fufyhjkq ,enQ l,a,shlg myr§ug fmr fojrla is;kakg fm<fUk wkaoug jev isÿjQ w;r ta ksidfjkau .egqï iy wj;ekaùï j, iïNdú;dj fnfyúka wvq úh' j¾;udkfha§" f,dal f.da,h mqrd ia:dk 16 l iduidOl fufyjr j, ldka;d ksfhdað;fhda ld¾hhkayS kshe,S isá;s' 1993 §" iduidOl ks,OdÍ .yKh ishhg 1 la muKla jQ kuq;a 2012 § th ishhg 3 la olajd by< ke. ;sfnk w;r ks,Odßkshka 40000 la iduh foig f,dalh ;,a¨‍ lrñka isáhs' fï jir wjidkh jk úg" tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ie,iqug wkqj" fmd,sia we‚j,ska ishhg 20 la ldka;d we‚j,ska ksfhdackh jkq we;' i;H jYfhkau" wdorhg iy ie<ls,a,g f,dalh iqjm;a lsÍfï yelshdj ;sfí'

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ixjdo

bkaÈhd o¾Yk

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‘wfkla lKavdhï

oeka wmg nhhs᾽

jhi 20 hs" §msld l=udß bkaÈhdj f,dal ÿkqú§fï is;shfï by< ia:dkhlg f.k ths joka | .eÍud j¾ud

ÿkqYs,amSka jk ,sïnd rdï iy fvda,d nek¾Ô" jir jrlg tla ;rÕdj,shla .ek ys;kak;a leue;shs' lsysmhlg by;§ bkaÈhdj f,dal l%Svd is;shfï ug <Õd ler .ekSug jqjukd foa ,ehsia;=jla ud hï ia:dkhla olajd f.k wdjo n,dfmdfrd;a;= <Õ keye" iEu ojilu uu ys;kafka ug yels bgqlr .ekSug iu;a fkdjQy' bkaÈhdj by< Wmßufhka l< hq;= foa lsÍughs"— j¾;udk f,dal iïudkhla lrd .uka wdrïN lf<a cd¾ldkaoa ys uÜgfï fojk ;ek Èkd isák m%;sjl% ldKavfha ,ÊcdYS,S hqj;sh f.a iïm%dma;sh iu.u fkdfõ' ldka;d ÿkq Ys,amsksh mjihs' 2009 § l‚IaG f,dal Y+r;dj Èkd .ksñka" §msld l=udß cd;Hka;r ;,fha lemùu iy uykais ;u imeñŒu iksgqyka l<dh' wo ù jev lsÍu weh msáhg Èkfha" ;ju;a jhi 20 §" weh f,dal wehf.a mqyqKqldß‚h" mQ¾‚ud msúiqK úg fYa%‚.; lsÍïj, m<uq ia:dkhg uydfgda mjik whqßka" §msld úiska weh u; ke.S meñŒug iu;a ù isákakSh' tu;=o fjka lr .kakd ,o —iqYS, ffO¾hh tk fndfyda fkdj 2010 fmdÿ rdcH uKav,Sh iy úYajdih— m%uqL fõ' —Tng jrla foa .ek wehg l%Svd Wf<f,a§ rka molalï folla w;ajer§ula ksÍlaIKh lrkakg yels wjfndaOhla ,nd .ksñka bkaÈhdjg molalï fõú" tfy;a §msld thska fyd|u mdvu ;sfnkjd" kuq;a igyfka ia:dkh /l .ekSug Woõ ,nd fkdf.k thg hdug yßkafka tajdhska n,mEug jQjdh' isõjrla f,dal l=i,dk keye"— weh mjihs' ;;a;ajhg <Õd fjñka" f,dal l=i,dk bkaÈhdj w.hla we;s ,lafkdù isàug wjidk ;rÕhl§ ߧ l=i,dkh Èkd ;rÕlrefjl= njg m;a lf<a ;rï weh .;a;dh" weh w¾cqk iïudkfhkao §msldf.a lemùuhs' —wfkla yqrenqyqáhs msÿï ,enqjdh' lKavdhï oeka wmg nhhs"— weh weh fndfyda fohla ÈkQ njg tlÕ mjikafka wdvïnrfhks' weh msáhg fj;;a" —b;d flá ld,hl§" kuq;a ug ;j;a msúiqK úg weh u; ke.S tk fndfyda foa .ek fndfyda wkd.; jev fldgila b;sß ù ;sfnkjd"— wehg wjfndaOhla ;sfnkjd" kuq;a tajdhska §msld mjihs' kuq;a weh ;ud fjkqfjka b,lal n,mEug ,lafkdù isàug ;rï weh yqrenqyqáhs' ;nd .ekSu fkdlrkakSh' —;rÕdj,shl m%;sM,h zzug l< yelafla uykais ù mqyqKq ùu;a yeu l=ula fõúoehs wmg ljodj;a lshkak neye" uu wjia:djl§u uf.ka ishhg ishhlau ,nd§uhs" j¾;udkfha Ôj;a jkak leue;shs" ta jf.au tla —wef.a wdl,amh thhs' cQ,s - wf.daia;= 2014

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ixjdo

Trf,daiq uqyqKf;a Èidjg jdudj¾;j( gdgd ÿkqú§fï welvñfha§" 2012 § w¾cqk iïudkh ,nd .ksñka" iy mqyqKq ieishl§

§ma;su;a wkd.;h 2014 .a,diaf.daõ fmdÿrdcH uKav,Sh l%svd Wf<f,a§ ^cQ,s 23 isg wf.daia;= 03 olajd& wef.a rka molalï /l .ekSug lemù isák w;r 2010 wdishdkq l%Svdj,§ fldßhdkqjkag tfrysj ,nd .;a f,dalv molalu Tjqkf.au N+ñfha§ meje;afjk ^iema;eïn¾ 9 isg Tlaf;dan¾ 4 olajd& wdishdkq l%Svd Wf<f,a§ jvd;a j¾Okh lr .ekSug udk n,kakSh' —fndfyda wdishdkq lKavdhï b;d Yla;su;a' fldßhdkqjkao tfyuhs" we;a; jYfhkau" fyd| wjia:djla Tjqkg ;sfnkjd' kuq;a ud okakjd wms iQodkï úh hq;=hs'˜ §msld úYajdifhka mjihs' 2009 § l‚IaG f,dal —miq.sh fojirl ld,h ;=< Y+r;dj Èkd .ksñka" §msld wms wmg by<ska isá lKavdhï l=udß cd;Hka;r ;,fha .Kkdjlau mer¥jd' tys ;u imeñŒu iksgqyka m%;sM,hla jYfhka" bkaÈhdkq ÿkq l<dh' wo Èkfha" weh l%Svdj ck;djf.a wjOdkhg md;% f,dal fY%a‚.; lsÍïj, ù ;sfnkjd' myiqlï yd há;, m<uq ia:dkhg meñŒug mjd ÈhqKq ù ;sfnkjd' oeka wmg iu;a ù isákakSh wdmiq ne,aula keye'˜

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