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ENGLISH HOME LANGUAGE STUDY GUIDE Grade 8

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

CONTENTS

LESSON ELEMENTS..............................................................................................................................11 PREFACE..................................................................................................................................................12 YEAR PLAN.............................................................................................................................................14 UNIT 1: Weeks 1 – 2..............................................................................................................................15 LESSON 1: The sound of the ocean..................................................................................................15 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking .............................................................................................16 Activity 1: Complete a listening comprehension.....................................................................16 Activity 2: Have a discussion............................................................................................................18 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing .................................................................................................21 Activity 3: Know the parts of a book.............................................................................................21 Activity 4: Read part one of the short story and discuss the questions.........................24 Activity 5: Read part two of the short story and discuss the characterisation ..........28 Activity 6: Learn more about the characters and write a summary...............................31 Activity 7: Focus on literature .........................................................................................................32 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting ............................................................................................35 Activity 8: What is a reflective essay?...........................................................................................35 Activity 9: Brainstorm ideas and plan a reflective essay......................................................38 Activity 10: Write the first draft .....................................................................................................38 Activity 11: Revise and edit your first draft...............................................................................38 Activity 12: Proofread and present your reflective essay....................................................38 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions ...............................................................39 Activity 13: Prepositional phrases ................................................................................................39 Activity 14: Identify independent and dependent clauses .................................................40 UNIT 1: Weeks 3 – 4 ............................................................................................................................43 LESSON 2: Listen to the ocean ..........................................................................................................43 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking .............................................................................................44 Activity 15: Listen to a speech ........................................................................................................44 Activity 16: Prepare and present a speech ................................................................................45 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing .................................................................................................47 Activity 17: Read a speech ................................................................................................................47 Activity 18: Answer comprehension questions on the speech .........................................50 Activity 19: Study a visual text .......................................................................................................51 Activity 20: Focus on literature.......................................................................................................53 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting..............................................................................................54 Activity 21: Brainstorm ideas for a speech ...............................................................................54 Activity 22: Plan your speech and write the first draft.........................................................55 Activity 23: Revise and edit your first draft...............................................................................55 Activity 24: Proofread and present your speech.....................................................................55 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions................................................................56 Activity 25: Finite and non-finite verbs ......................................................................................56 Activity 26: Adjectival and adverbial clauses............................................................................58

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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

UNIT 1: Weeks 5 – 6 ............................................................................................................................60 LESSON 3: Is winning everything?...................................................................................................60 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking..............................................................................................61 Activity 27: Discuss an audio-visual text ...................................................................................61 Activity 28: Do a listening comprehension and present a role play................................62 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing..................................................................................................64 Activity 29: Read a short story........................................................................................................64 Activity 30: Answer comprehension questions on the story.............................................72 Activity 31: Study a poem: ‘If’..........................................................................................................72 Activity 32: Focus on literature.......................................................................................................74 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting..............................................................................................76 Activity 33: Read a letter....................................................................................................................76 Activity 34: Plan a letter.....................................................................................................................78 Activity 35: Write the first draft and revise your letter........................................................79 Activity 36: Proofread and present your letter........................................................................79 SECTION 4: Language structure and conventions..................................................................79 Activity 37: Diminutives.....................................................................................................................79 Activity 38: Adverbs of manner, time, place and degree......................................................80 UNIT 1: Weeks 7 – 8 .............................................................................................................................83 LESSON 4: Pressure to perform?......................................................................................................83 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking..............................................................................................84 Activity 39: Discuss a magazine article........................................................................................84 Activity 40: Give an unprepared speech on a magazine article.........................................86 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing..................................................................................................86 Activity 41: Read a newspaper article..........................................................................................86 Activity 42: Answer comprehension and language questions...........................................89 Activity 43: Study a poem: ‘Life is a race’....................................................................................90 Activity 44: Focus on literature.......................................................................................................91 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting..............................................................................................93 Activity 45: Write a newspaper article using a visual prompt .........................................93 Activity 46: Plan your newspaper article....................................................................................94 Activity 47: Write the first draft......................................................................................................94 Activity 48: Edit, proofread and present your article............................................................94 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions................................................................95 Activity 49: Match the proverbs to their meanings................................................................95 Activity 50: Use apostrophes...........................................................................................................96

UNIT 1: Weeks 9 – 10 ..........................................................................................................................98 LESSON 5: Where do we get our news? .........................................................................................98 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking..............................................................................................99 Activity 51: Are we really listening?.............................................................................................99 Activity 52: Run a survey...................................................................................................................99 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 101 Activity 53: Read an investigative report.................................................................................. 101 Activity 54: Study a poem: ‘The Road Not Taken’.................................................................. 104 Activity 55: Focus on literature..................................................................................................... 106 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 107 © Impaq

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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

Activity 56: Plan a report................................................................................................................. 107 Activity 57: Write the first draft.................................................................................................... 108 Activity 58: Revise and edit the first draft................................................................................ 108 Activity 59: Proofread and present your report.................................................................... 109 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 109 Activity 60: Regular and irregular verbs................................................................................... 109 Activity 61: Synonyms and antonyms........................................................................................ 110

UNIT 2: Weeks 1 – 2 .......................................................................................................................... 112 LESSON 6: Where to from here?.................................................................................................... 112 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 113 Activity 62: Do a listening comprehension.............................................................................. 113 Activity 63: Give directions............................................................................................................. 114 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 114 Activity 64: Read a story.................................................................................................................. 114 Activity 65: Complete the cause and effect flow chart........................................................ 118 Activity 66: Study a visual text...................................................................................................... 119 Activity 67: Study a poem: ‘Caged Bird’..................................................................................... 120 Activity 68: Focus on literature..................................................................................................... 122 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 124 Activity 69: Brainstorm and plan a set of instructions....................................................... 124 Activity 70: Write the first draft.................................................................................................... 125 Activity 71: Revise and edit your first draft............................................................................. 125 Activity 72: Proofread and present your instructions........................................................ 125 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 125 Activity 73: Sentence types............................................................................................................. 125 Activity 74: Present progressive tense....................................................................................... 126 UNIT 2: Weeks 3 – 4 .......................................................................................................................... 129 LESSON 7: What are we watching?............................................................................................... 129 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 130 Activity 75: Listen to a panel discussion................................................................................... 130 Activity 76: Listen to a debate....................................................................................................... 131 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 135 Activity 77: Study the advertisement......................................................................................... 135 Activity 78: Read a cartoon strip.................................................................................................. 136 Activity 79: Study a poem: ‘The Song of Sunrise’.................................................................. 139 Activity 80: Focus on literature..................................................................................................... 140 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 141 Activity 81: Brainstorm and plan a dialogue........................................................................... 141 Activity 82: Write the first draft.................................................................................................... 142 Activity 83: Revise and edit your first draft............................................................................. 142 Activity 84: Proofread and present your dialogue................................................................ 143 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 143 Activity 85: Use the negative form............................................................................................... 143 Activity 86: Recognise homonyms and homophones.......................................................... 144

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UNIT 2: Weeks 5 – 6 ......................................................................................................................... 147 LESSON 8: How far can we go? ...................................................................................................... 147 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 148 Activity 87: Listen to an interview............................................................................................... 148 Activity 88: Do an interview........................................................................................................... 149 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 150 Activity 89: Read an extract from a play.................................................................................. 150 Activity 90: Read an interview...................................................................................................... 156 Activity 91: Study a poem: ‘Leisure’............................................................................................ 160 Activity 92: Focus on literature..................................................................................................... 161 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 162 Activity 93: Write an interview..................................................................................................... 162 Activity 94: Write the first draft.................................................................................................... 164 Activity 95: Revise and edit your first draft............................................................................. 164 Activity 96: Proofread and present your interview.............................................................. 164 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 165 Activity 97: Use commas.................................................................................................................. 165 Activity 98: Adverbs of frequency and place .......................................................................... 166 UNIT 2: Weeks 7 – 8 .......................................................................................................................... 169 LESSON 9: What’s so funny?........................................................................................................... 169 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 170 Activity 99: Listen to an article..................................................................................................... 170 Activity 100: Have a discussion ................................................................................................... 170 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 171 Activity 101: Read an extract from a novel............................................................................. 171 Activity 102: Answer comprehension and language questions ..................................... 174 Activity 103: Read and enjoy a poem ........................................................................................ 176 Activity 104: Focus on literature.................................................................................................. 178 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 178 Activity 105: Brainstorm and plan a book review................................................................ 178 Activity 106: Write the first draft ................................................................................................ 180 Activity 107: Revise and edit your book review ................................................................... 180 Activity 108: Proofread and present your book review .................................................... 180 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 181 Activity 109: Present continuous and present perfect tense........................................... 181 Activity 110: Proverbs ..................................................................................................................... 183 UNIT 3: Weeks 1 – 2 .......................................................................................................................... 185 LESSON 10: Let’s talk about it........................................................................................................ 185 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 186 Activity 111: Listen to a dialogue................................................................................................. 186 Activity 112: Prepare and present a dialogue ........................................................................ 186 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 187 Activity 113: Read a play.................................................................................................................. 187 Activity 114: Answer comprehension and language questions ..................................... 191 Activity 115: Study a poem: ‘Have you earned your tomorrow?’.................................. 192 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SECTION 3: Present continuous and present perfect tense.............................................. 195 Activity 117: Brainstorm and plan a dialogue........................................................................ 195 Activity 118: Write the first draft................................................................................................. 196 Activity 119: Revise and edit your dialogue............................................................................ 196 Activity 120: Proofread and present your dialogue............................................................. 196 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 197 Activity 121: Direct and reported speech ................................................................................ 197 Activity 122: Present continuous and present perfect tense .......................................... 198

UNIT 3: Weeks 3 – 4 .......................................................................................................................... 201 LESSON 11: Attitude makes all the difference.......................................................................... 201 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 202 Activity 123: Listen to a letter to the press ............................................................................. 202 Activity 124: Discuss the letter to the press............................................................................ 202 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 203 Activity 125: Read a newspaper article..................................................................................... 203 Activity 126: Answer comprehension and language questions...................................... 205 Activity 127: Study a poem: ‘April Rain Song’......................................................................... 206 Activity 128: Focus on literature ................................................................................................. 206 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 207 Activity 129: Write a letter to the press.................................................................................... 207 Activity 130: Write the first draft ................................................................................................ 209 Activity 131: Revise and edit your first draft ......................................................................... 210 Activity 132: Proofread and present your letter.................................................................... 210 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 210 Activity 133: Use prepositions...................................................................................................... 210 Activity 134: Adverbs of manner, place and degree ............................................................ 212 UNIT 3: Weeks 5 – 6 .......................................................................................................................... 214 LESSON 12: Mystery or miracle?................................................................................................... 214 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 215 Activity 135: Give an unprepared speech................................................................................. 215 Activity 136: Give a prepared speech......................................................................................... 215 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 217 Activity 137: Read a short story and do a prepared reading............................................ 217 Activity 138: Answer comprehension and language questions...................................... 221 Activity 139: Study a poem: ‘A newly-born calf...................................................................... 222 Activity 140: Focus on literature.................................................................................................. 223 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 224 Activity 141: Brainstorm and plan a formal letter................................................................ 224 Activity 142: Write the first draft................................................................................................. 226 Activity 143: Revise and edit your letter................................................................................... 227 Activity 144: Proofread and present your letter.................................................................... 227 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 227 Activity 145: Prefixes, suffixes and roots.................................................................................. 227 Activity 146: Present, past and future continuous tense................................................... 228

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UNIT 3: Weeks 7 – 8 .......................................................................................................................... 231 LESSON 13: It’s all in the words..................................................................................................... 231 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 232 Activity 147: Listen to an information text.............................................................................. 232 Activity 148: Choose and retell a story...................................................................................... 232 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 233 Activity 149: Reading comprehension and language questions..................................... 233 Activity 150: Study a poem: ‘The rose that grew from concrete’................................... 233 Activity 151: Focus on literature.................................................................................................. 234 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 235 Activity 152: Brainstorm a story.................................................................................................. 235 Activity 153: Plan your story.......................................................................................................... 236 Activity 154: Write the first draft................................................................................................. 237 Activity 155: Revise and edit your story................................................................................... 237 Activity 156: Proofread and write the final version of your story................................. 238 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 238 Activity 157: Write sentences with a variety of phrasal verbs........................................ 238 Activity 158: Use adjectival and adverbial clauses............................................................... 239 UNIT 3: Weeks 9 – 10 ....................................................................................................................... 241 LESSON 14: Family matters............................................................................................................ 241 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 242 Activity 159: Listen to a recorded story.................................................................................... 242 Activity 160: Present a prepared reading aloud.................................................................... 243 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 244 Activity 161: Read a short story................................................................................................... 244 Activity 162: Read and understand a cartoon strip............................................................. 248 Activity 163: Study a poem: ‘Sisters’........................................................................................... 250 Activity 164: Focus on literature.................................................................................................. 251 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 252 Activity 165: Brainstorm and plan a descriptive essay...................................................... 252 Activity 166: Write the first draft................................................................................................. 253 Activity 167: Revise and edit your first draft.......................................................................... 254 Activity 168: Proofread and present your essay.................................................................... 254 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 254 Activity 169: Use punctuation correctly.................................................................................... 254 Activity 170: Complete a crossword puzzle............................................................................. 256 UNIT 4: Weeks 1 – 2 .......................................................................................................................... 258 LESSON 15: To space and back...................................................................................................... 258 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 259 Activity 171: Listen to a newspaper article............................................................................. 259 Activity 172: Discuss the newspaper article........................................................................... 260 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 262 Activity 173: Read a newspaper article..................................................................................... 262 Activity 174: Study a visual text.................................................................................................... 265 Activity 175: Study a poem: ‘The Day the Saucers Came’.................................................. 266 Activity 176: Focus on 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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 268 Activity 177: Brainstorm and plan a newspaper article.................................................... 268 Activity 178: Write the first draft................................................................................................. 270 Activity 179: Revise and edit your article................................................................................. 270 Activity 180: Proofread and present your article.................................................................. 270 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 271 Activity 181: Singular and plural.................................................................................................. 271 Activity 182: Gender and diminutives........................................................................................ 271

UNIT 4: Weeks 3 – 4 .......................................................................................................................... 273 LESSON 16: Peace in our time........................................................................................................ 273 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 274 Activity 183: Argue one side of a debate................................................................................... 274 Activity 184: Have a discussion..................................................................................................... 274 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 276 Activity 185: Read an extract from a play................................................................................. 276 Activity 186: Read diary entries................................................................................................... 279 Activity 187: Study the lyrics of a song...................................................................................... 281 Activity 188: Focus on literature.................................................................................................. 282 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 282 Activity 189: Brainstorm and plan diary entries................................................................... 282 Activity 190: Write the first draft................................................................................................. 284 Activity 191: Revise and edit your diary entries................................................................... 284 Activity 192: Proofread and present your diary.................................................................... 284 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 284 Activity 193: Ambiguous sentences............................................................................................ 284 Activity 194: Learn more about mood....................................................................................... 285 UNIT 4: Weeks 5 – 6 .......................................................................................................................... 288 LESSON 17: Get on track.................................................................................................................. 288 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 289 Activity 195: Listen to a recorded version of a story........................................................... 289 Activity 196: Write and present a dialogue based on the text read aloud.................. 289 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 290 Activity 197: Read an extract from a play................................................................................. 290 Activity 198: Read act one, scene two of the extract............................................................ 293 Activity 199: Study a poem: ‘Corner’.......................................................................................... 295 Activity 200: Focus on literature.................................................................................................. 297 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 297 Activity 201: Write and present a journalistic report......................................................... 297 Activity 202: Write the first draft ................................................................................................ 298 Activity 203: Revise and edit your report................................................................................. 299 Activity 204: Proofread and present your report ................................................................. 299 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 299 Activity 205: Write sentences in direct and reported speech.......................................... 299 Activity 206: Synonyms and antonyms..................................................................................... 300

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UNIT 4: Weeks 7 – 8........................................................................................................................... 302 LESSON 18: Stay on track................................................................................................................ 302 SECTION 1: Listening and speaking............................................................................................ 303 Activity 207: Give a prepared speech......................................................................................... 303 Activity 208: Present a prepared reading................................................................................. 304 SECTION 2: Reading and viewing................................................................................................ 304 Activity 209: Read a story................................................................................................................ 304 Activity 210: Answer comprehension questions ................................................................ 306 Activity 211: Answer language questions................................................................................ 307 Activity 212: Revise notes on poetry and literature............................................................ 307 Activity 213: Focus on literature.................................................................................................. 308 SECTION 3: Writing and presenting............................................................................................ 308 Activity 214: Write a film review.................................................................................................. 308 Activity 215: Write the first draft................................................................................................. 309 Activity 216: Revise and edit your review................................................................................ 310 Activity 217: Proofread and present your review................................................................. 310 SECTION 4: Language structures and conventions.............................................................. 310 Activity 218: Revise clauses and sentences............................................................................. 310 Activity 219: Revise tenses............................................................................................................. 311

RUBRICS.................................................................................................................................................313 REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................................320 IMAGE REFERENCES...........................................................................................................................324

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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

INTRODUCTION

This study guide is organised into 4 units and 18 lessons. Each lesson is taught over 2 weeks. • • • • •

Unit 1 has five themed lessons. Unit 2 has four themed lessons and a mid-year examination. Unit 3 has five themed lessons. Unit 4 has four themed lessons and a year-end examination. At the end of units 2 and 4, learners write exams.

Each lesson has 4 sections: • Listening and speaking • Reading and viewing • Writing and presenting • Language structures and conventions

Each of these sections contains activities. At the beginning of each lesson is a list of the topics covered in that lesson. At the end of each lesson are remedial and extension activities, which you may complete if time allows.

YEAR PLAN

UNIT

1

2

3

4

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LESSON LESSON 1: The sound of the ocean LESSON 2: Listen to the ocean

LESSON 3: Is winning everything? LESSON 4: Pressure to perform?

LLESSON 5: Where do we get our news? LESSON 6: Where to from here?

LESSON 7: What are we watching? LESSON 8: How far can we go? LESSON 9: What’s so funny?

LESSON 10: Let’s talk about it

LESSON 11: Attitude makes all the difference LESSON 12: Mystery or miracle? LESSON 13: It’s all in the words LESSON 14: Family matters

LESSON 15: To space and back LESSON 16: Peace in our time LESSON 17: Get on track

LESSON 18: Stay on track

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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

Unit

UNIT 1: Weeks 1 – 2

1

LESSON 1: The sound of the ocean

In this lesson you will: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

complete a listening comprehension have a discussion revise the parts of a book read a short story discuss characterisation in a story write a summary focus on a short story for literature study write a reflective essay revise punctuation revise adverbs revise the eight parts of speech learn about prepositional phrases identify independent and dependent clauses

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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

SECTION 1

Listening and speaking

Activity 1: Complete a listening comprehension Look at the illustration on the opening page. What does it tell you? Remember to use your senses when you interpret an image. What can you hear? What would you be able to smell? Have you ever been in this setting? There are eight parts of speech. Revise the first four below.

Quick revision of parts of speech and a few examples. 1.

Nouns name people, places and things. There are different types of nouns: • Proper nouns are names used for specific people, places, things or ideas. Days, months and holidays begin with a capital letter: Busisiswe, Cape Town • Common nouns refer to regular people, places or things – not capitalised: computer, textbook • Abstract nouns identify concepts, experiences, ideas, qualities and feelings you cannot touch, see, hear, smell or taste: happiness, joy, pride • Collective nouns indicate a group of people objects, ideas or animals as a single concept: a litter of puppies, the flight of stairs • Compound nouns are words for people, animals, places, things or ideas, made up of two or more words. Compound nouns often have a meaning different to, or more specific than, the two separate words. They can be ‘closed’ (all one word), e.g., grasshopper, or ‘open’ (two words to make the noun), e.g., bus stop, take-off. Other examples: watermelon, daughter-in-law, swimming pool Give THREE of your own examples for each type of noun.

2.

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Pronouns replace nouns in a sentence • Personal pronouns refer to people and things and are used in the place of a person or thing: he, she, it, they • Possessive pronouns indicate ownership and are used to avoid repeating information already given: yours, mine, ours, theirs • Reflexive pronouns indicate that the object and subject of the sentence are the same: himself, herself, themselves, ourselves

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• •

Unit

1

Indefinite pronouns refer to people, places or things that are unknown or not stated. Indefinite pronouns use the singular form of verbs: one, anyone, someone, no one, everyone Relative pronouns refer to nouns mentioned previously and can be used to join two sentences: who, whose, that, which Write THREE sentences using each of these pronouns.

3.

Verbs show actions or states of being • Action verbs show motion, i.e. something you can ‘do’: sail, walk, dance • Auxiliary verbs help the main verb show the action: is, am are, has, have, was, were • Linking verbs show a state of being or a condition. They also connect a subject with a noun or adjective that is the subject: is, am, are, was, were. It seems like it is a nice day. Trevor is a good driver.

Give TWO sentences using each of these verbs. 4.

Adjectives describe, identify, quantify or modify nouns or pronouns. The order of adjectives in a series should be: Quantity or number  quality or opinion  size  age  shape  colour  origin  purpose. For example: I love those two big, yellow German trucks. • Descriptive adjectives tell us the size, colour or shape of a person, place or thing: the rough seas, the high tides, the enormous ocean liner • Proper adjectives are modifiers formed from a proper noun, they typically look like their original proper nouns but have an alternative ending to make them adjectives: the South African public, the Icelandic project, I love Italian food • Numerical adjectives say something about the number or quantity): several, some, most, one, twelve, every • Adjectives of order: first, second, last • Demonstrative adjectives point out which specific pronouns and nouns are mentioned and always come before the word they are referring to: this, that, these, those • Possessive adjectives show possession or ownership and always come before the noun: his savings account, our cruise ship • Interrogative adjectives ask questions and always come before the noun they refer to: Whose book is that? What did Mr Botibol want to do? 17

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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

Compound adjectives are single adjectives made up of more than one word e.g., two-seater aircraft, free-range eggs. The words in a compound adjective are often linked together with a hyphen (or hyphens) to show they are part of the same adjective. Write ONE sentence for each of the different adjectives.

This year, you will read a set book by Roald Dahl: The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar & Six More. Listen as your facilitator reads to you about the life of Roald Dahl. You will have to answer questions on what you have heard. The first time your facilitator reads the synopsis, just listen. On the second reading have a pen and paper ready and write down important points as you listen. Write 1 – 15 in the margin of your exercise book. As your facilitator reads the questions, write only the letter of the correct answer.

Activity 2: Have a discussion 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Listen to the passage your facilitator reads to you. How does the story make you feel? Which of these words would you use to describe the boy’s actions? a) thoughtful b) selfless c) generous d) considerate From the context, can you determine the meaning of ‘brusquely’? Do you know any heart-warming stories you could share? Briefly revise the next four parts of speech using the information and activities below.

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Unit

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Adverbs describe or intensify the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. There are adverbs of: •

• • • • • • •

Time (when, how long or how often the action happened): today, yesterday, now, later Place (where the action happened): here, there, behind, inside Manner (how something is done): greedily, happily, solemnly Frequency (how often something happens): often, seldom, never, frequently Degree (the intensity or degree of an action): so, very, quite, rather, almost, absolutely Affirmation (to say yes): certainly, probably, definitely Negation (to say no): not, never Interrogative adverbs: The interrogative adverbs why, where, how, and when are placed at the beginning of a question. These questions can be answered with a sentence or a prepositional phrase. After an interrogative adverb in a question, you must invert the subject and verb so the verb comes first. Use one of each adverb in a sentence.

Prepositions show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence: towards, across, in, on, with, under, behind, against, beneath, above. For example: He walked along the beach. Write THREE sentences using one preposition in each sentence. Conjunctions join two or more phrases. • Co-ordinating conjunctions join two or more sentences or main clauses. They always connect words, phrases or clauses of equal importance: for, and, but, or, yet, so. For example: She loves dancing and modelling. • Subordinating conjunctions join the main clause to a subordinate (dependent) clause of the same idea: after, although, since, before, because, until, so as, if, when, whenever • Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance in a sentence: either/or, neither/nor, rather/than, no sooner/than, not/ but. For example: Neither Dahl nor the producer liked the film version. Write one sentence with each conjunction.

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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

Interjections show emotion, facial expressions and body language. They are the emojis of the sentence: Yay! Yipee! Ouch! Wow! Gosh! Really! Write two sentences using interjections.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. • •

Have you ever tried to persuade someone to do something? Provide examples and explain what type of words you used. You have one minute to persuade someone (your facilitator or another learner) to vote for you in the upcoming Junior Council elections. He/she must then evaluate how persuasive you were. Swap roles. Write a list of all the persuasive words and techniques you both used. Can you determine the difference between persuasion and manipulation? Share some of your favourite television or radio advertisements and explain what they are trying to persuade you to do, and why you think they are successful or not. Look at the list of persuasive words and techniques. Do you have similar words and techniques on your list? Can persuasion be both good and bad? Give reasons for your answer. Discuss the notes on persuasive and manipulative language below. Connotation: words have a positive, neutral or negative feeling that goes beyond the literal meaning. Persuasive language: We all use persuasive language when we want to convince others to accept our ideas and opinions, or to convince them to take a course of action. It is generally regarded as positive. For example, a persuasive speech can be used to inspire people to change for the better or to do something good and worthwhile. Manipulative language: Persuasion can become negative if it is used to convince someone to do something that is harmful or if it employs trickery or cunning. This negative effect is called manipulation – when we try to manipulate (control or influence) someone for our own good. For example, in advertising, we are often ‘manipulated’ into wanting or buying things we do not really need or cannot afford.

Persuasive and manipulative techniques • Use facts and figures or give expert evidence. Three thousand people have already benefitted. Professor Bhengu states … • Say why something is a good idea. • Tell an anecdote that shows why it is a good idea. My uncle Jim was … • Use emotive words that evoke strong emotions in the listener. Your family relies on you … © Impaq

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Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

• • • • • •

Unit

1

Use hyperbole (exaggeration). I’ll be the best in the world! Use inclusive language. Say us and we, not you. Together we can do it. Use flattery. You are all thinking people … Repetition. Never, never and never again! Use rhetorical questions. We all want to benefit from the programme, don’t we? Use figures of speech, for example, alliteration. Never, never and never again! Give your own examples of some of these techniques.

SECTION 2

Reading and viewing

Activity 3: Know the parts of a book It is important to familiarise yourself with the various parts of a book. Use this study guide and find these text features and parts of the book. title page, contents page, introduction, year plan, unit headings, lesson titles, illustrations, headings, appendix with list of references and rubrics Look at the book your facilitator gives you and find these parts of the book. title page, contents page, chapters, glossary, index, appendix, footnote, bibliography Look at some of your other textbooks and identify the different parts.

Match the part of the book in column A, with the definition in column B and write the illustration number in column C.

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Unit

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Name of part of the book Title page Contents page Chapters Glossary Index Appendix Footnote Bibliography

Study Guide G08 ~ English Home Language

a) a list of books and references used in an academic book b) the page at the beginning of the book giving its title, author and publisher c) a section at the end of a book that provides additional information d) a list of the chapters or titles in the order in which they appear e) the parts into which a book is divided f) a note at the bottom of a page that provides more information about something mentioned in the text g) an alphabetical list of new words at the end of a book h) an alphabetical list at the end of a book giving the subjects covered in the book and the page number(s) on which they appear

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Activity 4: Read part one of the short story and discuss the questions Read the story aloud.

‘A dip in the pool’ (Roald Dahl)

On the morning of the third day, the sea calmed. Even the most delicate passengers – those who had not been seen around the ship since sailing time – came out of their rooms and made their way slowly onto the sundeck and sat there, with their faces turned to the pale January sun. It had been rough for the first two days, and this sudden calm, and the sense of comfort that came with it made the whole ship seem much friendlier. By the time evening came, the passengers, with twelve hours of good weather behind them, were beginning to feel more courageous. At eight o’clock that night, the main dining room was filled with people eating and drinking with the confident appearance of experienced sailors.

The meal was not half over when the passengers realised, by the slight movement of their bodies on the seats of their chairs that the big ship had started rolling again. It was very gentle at first, just a slow, lazy leaning to one side, then to the other, but it was enough to cause a slight but immediate loss of good humour around the room. A few of the passengers looked up from their food, waiting, almost listening for the next roll, smiling nervously, with little secret looks of fear in their eyes. Some were completely calm; others were openly pleased with themselves and made jokes about the food and the weather to annoy the few who were beginning to suffer. The movement of the ship then became rapidly more and more violent and only five or six minutes after the first roll had been noticed, the ship was swinging heavily from side to side. At last, a bad roll came, and Mr William Botibol, sitting at the purser’s table, saw his plate of fish sliding suddenly away from under his fork. Everybody, now, was reaching for plates and wine glasses. Mrs Renshaw, seated at the purser’s right, gave a little scream and held onto that gentleman’s arm.

‘It’s going to be a rough night,’ the purser said, looking at Mrs Renshaw. ‘I think there’s a storm coming that will give us a very rough night.’ There was just the faintest suggestion of pleasure in the way he said it. Most of the passengers continued with their meal. A small number, including Mrs Renshaw, got carefully to their feet and made their way between the tables and through the doorway, trying to hide the urgency they felt. ‘Well,’ the purser said, ‘There she goes.’ He looked round with approval at the remaining passengers who were sitting quietly, with their faces showing openly that pride that © Impaq

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travellers seem to take in being recognised as ‘good sailors’. When the eating was finished, and the coffee had been served, Mr Botibol, who had been unusually serious and thoughtful since the rolling started, suddenly stood up and carried his cup of coffee around to Mrs Renshaw’s empty place, next to the purser. He seated himself in her chair, then immediately leaned over and began to whisper urgently in the purser’s ear.

‘Excuse me,’ he said, ‘but could you tell me something, please?’ The purser, small and fat and red, bent forward to listen. ‘What’s the trouble, Mr Botibol?’ ‘What I want to know is this.’ The man’s face was anxious, and the purser was watching it. ‘What I want to know is: will the captain already have made his guess at the day’s run – you know, for the competition? I mean, will he have done so before it began to get rough like this?’ The purser lowered his voice, as one does when answering a whisperer. ‘I should think so – yes.’ ‘About how long ago do you think he did it?’ ‘Some time this afternoon. He usually does it in the afternoon.’ ‘About what time?’ ‘Oh, I don’t know. Around four o’clock I should think.’ ‘Now tell me another thing. How does the captain decide which number it will be? Does he take a lot of trouble over that?’ The purser looked at the anxious face of Mr Botibol and smiled, knowing quite well what the man was trying to find out. ‘Well, you see, the captain has a little meeting with the second officer, and they study the weather and a lot of other things, and then they make their guess.’

Mr Botibol thought about this answer for a moment. Then he said, ‘Do you think the captain knew there was bad weather coming today?’ ‘I couldn’t tell you,’ the purser replied. He was looking into the small black eyes of the other man, seeing two single little spots of excitement dancing in their centres. ‘I really couldn’t tell you, Mr Botibol. I wouldn’t know.’ ‘If this gets any worse, it might be worth buying some of the low numbers. What do you think?’ The whispering was more urgent, more anxious now. ‘Perhaps it will,’ the purser said. ‘I doubt whether the captain allowed for a really rough night. It was quite calm this afternoon when he made his guess.’ The others at the table had become silent and were trying to hear what the purser was saying. ‘Now suppose you could buy a number, which one would you choose today?’ Mr Botibol asked. ‘I don’t know what the range is yet,’ the purser patiently answered. ‘They don’t announce the range until the auction starts after dinner. And I’m not very good at it in any case. I’m only the purser, you know.’ At that point, Mr Botibol stood up. ‘Excuse me, everyone,’ he said, and he walked carefully away between the other tables. Twice he had to catch hold of the back of a chair to steady himself against the ship’s roll. As he stepped out onto the sundeck, he felt the full force of the wind. He took hold of the rail and held on tight with both hands, and he stood there looking out over the darkening sea where the great waves were rising high. ‘Quite bad out there, isn’t it sir?’ said a waiter, as he went back inside again. Mr Botibol was combing his hair back into place with a small red comb.

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Gr 8-English Home Language-Study Guide  
Gr 8-English Home Language-Study Guide