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SOCIAL SCIENCES STUDY GUIDE: GEOGRAPHY Grade 7

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Social Sciences Study guide: Geography

1807-E-SOS-SG02

Í2’È-E-SOS-SG02]Î

Grade 7

CAPS aligned

T Greyling S Jordaan T van Vollenhoven


Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

CONTENTS LESSON ELEMENTS.......................................................................................................... 3 PREFACE ............................................................................................................................ 4 YEAR PLAN ........................................................................................................................ 6 UNIT 1: Map skills ............................................................................................................. 7 Lesson 1: Local maps and street maps ........................................................... 9 Exercise 1 ........................................................................................ 13 Activity 1 ........................................................................................... 18 Activity 2 ........................................................................................... 19 Exercise 2 ........................................................................................ 22 Activity 3 ........................................................................................... 23 Activity 4 ........................................................................................... 29 Lesson 2: Sketch maps and explaining routes ............................................. 30 Activity 5 ........................................................................................... 31 Activity 6 ........................................................................................... 32 Activity 7 ........................................................................................... 33 Lesson 3: Distance and scale ......................................................................... 34 Activity 8 ........................................................................................... 38 Activity 9 ........................................................................................... 41 Activity 10 ......................................................................................... 44 Activity 11 ......................................................................................... 44 Lesson 4: Current events ................................................................................ 46 Exercise 3 ........................................................................................ 51 UNIT 2: Volcanoes, earthquakes and floods ................................................................ 56 Lesson 5: The structure of the earth .............................................................. 58 Activity 12 ......................................................................................... 66 Activity 13 ......................................................................................... 70 Lesson 6: Earthquakes ................................................................................... 71 Activity 14 ......................................................................................... 85 Activity 15 ......................................................................................... 86 Lesson 7: Volcanoes ....................................................................................... 87 Activity 16 ......................................................................................... 93 Lesson 8: Floods ............................................................................................. 94 Activity 17 ....................................................................................... 103 Activity 18 ....................................................................................... 106 Exercise 4 ...................................................................................... 109 UNIT 3: Population growth and change ...................................................................... 112 Lesson 9: Population boncepts.................................................................... 114 Activity 19 ....................................................................................... 120 Activity 20 ....................................................................................... 121 Lesson 10: Factors affecting birth and death rates ..................................... 124 Activity 21 ....................................................................................... 134 Lesson 11: World population growth............................................................. 136 1

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Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Activity 22 ....................................................................................... 137 Activity 23 ....................................................................................... 144 Exercise 5 ...................................................................................... 145 UNIT 4: Natural resources and conservation in South Africa................................... 150 Lesson 12: Natural resources ........................................................................ 151 Activity 24 ...................................................................................... 156 Lesson 13: Management of resources .......................................................... 157 Activity 25 ...................................................................................... 168 Lesson 14: Water in South Africa.................................................................. 168 Activity 26 ...................................................................................... 173 Activity 27 ...................................................................................... 176 Exercise 6 ..................................................................................... 179 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 182 ADDENDUM ................................................................................................................... 186

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Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

LESSON ELEMENTS LEARNING AIMS What learners should know at the end of the lesson according to CAPS requirements.

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY New terminology to assist with the understanding of the subject as part of the lesson.

DEFINE Definitions of concepts to understand the content.

IMPORTANT Explains misunderstandings to avoid possible confusion with existing knowledge.

TIPS Any information other than the content, to guide learners through the learning process.

FOR THE CURIOUS Encouragement to do in-depth research about the content. Expand the activity and exercise to such an extent that learners are encouraged to explore. For gifted learners: expanded exercises. For Learners with Special Educational Needs (LSEN): explain the need to complete the basic questions to achieve a pass mark.

ACTIVITY Questions to complete to test learners’ knowledge of the completed lesson.

EXERCISE To conclude the specific unit. Formative assessment.

CORE CONTENT Emphasise the core of the content; in-depth explanation of a specific section of the lesson; learners must understand this content.

STUDY/REVISION/REVISION Time spent studying the content at the end of the unit and to prepare for a test or examination.

All lesson elements are not necessarily used in this guide.

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Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

PREFACE ADDITIONAL READING All the information you need to successfully complete the year’s Geography is contained in this study guide. The following are recommended for enrichment: • Ranby, P, Johannesson, B, Monteith, (2013). Platinum Social Sciences Grade 7 Learner’s Book. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman. • Any printed atlas. INTRODUCTION Social Sciences is one subject, although each section (Geography and History) has its own study guide and facilitator’s guide. Geography is more than a mere study of the earth, as was believed in the past. In fact, it is the study of both our human and physical environment. Geographers are interested in the natural processes that take place in various environments, human settlement and activities, our interdependence on our immediate environment and the impact that we have on that environment. But most importantly, geographers are fascinated with change. We live in an ever-changing world and therefore, the phenomena which we study are in an ever-changing environment. This study guide will focus specifically on spatial literacy, patterns and trends, as well as on the reading and drawing of basic maps, using statement and linear scale. It will also cover a section on natural disasters caused by earth movement, population growth and change, and sustainable conservation of resources in South Africa. This is in accordance with the guidelines set out in the CAPS curriculum. In order to get the most from this study guide, you should not merely learn the content that is provided. As geography is constantly changing, you are encouraged to study the world around you, broaden your knowledge with the use of the internet, libraries and magazines. Most importantly, keep abreast of current affairs by reading or listening to the news at least three times a week. Keep an ‘articles book’ in which you can keep and analyse geographically pertinent events that are covered in the news. You may indicate the locations of these events on a map. By the end of this study guide you should be curious about the world we live in, have a decent general knowledge of the places and natural forces at work on earth and understand the interaction between society and the natural environment. You should care about the planet and well-being of all who live on it. You should have the ability to think independently and support your ideas with sound knowledge, understand and work with a number of sources and observe and engage in phenomena in your own environment. You will have discovered a wealth of knowledge about people, places, events and issues using

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Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

a wealth of various sources. Thereby, enabling you to make informed decisions, communicate ideas and information and most importantly, take appropriate action. 1

1National

Protocol for Assessment Grades R – 12, CAPS-SS-Senior phase, p14 5

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Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

YEAR PLAN UNIT

DATE STARTED

LESSON Lesson 1: Local maps and street maps

1

Lesson 2: Sketch maps and explaining routes Lesson 3: Distance and scale Lesson 4: Current events Lesson 5: The structure of the earth Lesson 6: Earthquakes

2 Lesson 7: Volcanoes Lesson 8: Floods Lesson 9: Population concepts 3

Lesson 10: Factors affecting birth and death rates Lesson 11: World population growth Lesson 12: Natural resources

4

Lesson 13: Management of resources Lesson 14: Water in South Africa

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DATE FINISHED


Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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UNIT 1: Map skills LEARNING AIMS After you have completed this unit, you must be able to do the following: • Use grid references to locate places on a street map. • Use a street map and compass directions to describe a specific route. • Sketch a map of a local area. • Use and define scale, differentiate between linear and statement scale, compare different types of scales and use those scales to calculate distance. • Know the main lines of latitude and longitude and use them to locate where events happened on a world map. • Stay abreast of current affairs and analyse certain events to ascertain certain information about those events, such as where, when, why and how an event occurred and what the effects of the event in question were.

INTRODUCTION The focus of this unit is to develop your ability to read and work with maps. You will investigate different types of maps including physical, political, sketch and road maps. You will also learn of the different elements of each of these maps and how to apply this knowledge in a practical sense. This unit will also teach you how to use different geographical skills and elements which will help you apply your knowledge, including a compass, linear and statement scale, grid references and lines of latitude and longitude. The following definitions will help you to better understand the maps discussed in lesson 1. Ensure that you now the definitions before starting with lesson 1.

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DEFINE Map

A picture or representation of the earth's surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction, and size.

Maps can also be defined by type, e.g., political, physical, topographic, climate, economic or resource, or road and street maps. Altitude

The height of a place above sea level, usually measured in meters.

The top of the peak is 840 m above sea level.

Contour lines Lines used on a map, placed at intervals to indicate altitude and slope. Contour lines

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Precipitation

Rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to or condenses on the ground.

Diagram

A sketch or picture used to explain something.

Cardinal directions

The main directions (N, E, S, W).

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LESSON 1: LOCAL MAPS AND STREET MAPS The types of maps below contain different details and are used to communicate specific information to the user. Each type of map will be discussed in detail during the lesson. The lesson will outline what each map is used for, as well as what type of information it provides to the user. 1.1

Types of maps

A map is a picture or representation of the earth’s surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction, and size. There are many different types of maps and each map is used for a specific purpose. Refer to the addendum for colour versions of the maps. •

Political maps show international, national and provincial boundaries of a place and usually include the locations of cities, depending on the detail of the map.

Border between provinces, e.g., borders between Limpopo, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, the Free State and North West. Capital cities of Gauteng are indicated: Pretoria and Johannesburg.

A political map of South Africa Source: https://goo.gl/6nH9o

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A physical map shows the physical landscape features of an area such as mountains, rivers and lakes. Changes in altitude are usually shown using different colours and shades.

Rivers are indicated using thin blue lines, and mountains using brown. Different shades of brown are used to indicate the height of the mountain range.

Physical map of South Africa Source: https://goo.gl/wnkMPU

A topographic map also shows some physical features, however it uses contour lines and shows man-made attributes too. All topographic maps use symbols to show different attributes such as roads, dams and power lines.

Legend at the bottom of the topographic map indicates which symbol is used for each attribute on the map, e.g.:

Main road

Trees

Topographic map of Cape Town Source: https://goo.gl/6PtMke

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Climate maps use colour to show information about the climate in a specific region. The climate of an area is the basic weather pattern and precipitation over a period of time. The colours give an indication of the temperature in a specific region over a specified period of time, e.g.: Red:

indicates average temperatures of 7,5 °C and less in a specific region. Blue: indicates average temperatures of between 7,5 °C and 10 °C in a specific region. Brown: indicates average temperatures of between 10 °C and 15 °C in a specific region. White: indicates average temperatures of 15 °C and higher in a specific region.

Winter temperatures in South Africa Source: https://goo.gl/FBNj9N

Road or street maps are the most commonly used. They show highways, roads, hospitals, parks and various places of interest. People generally use these types of maps to find their way to or from a specific place.

Shows highways and roads, e.g., indicates different street names.

Street map of Pretoria city centre Source: https://goo.gl/Q9Sq49

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Economic or resource maps show a specific type of economic activity or natural resource in an area, using symbols and colours depending on what is being shown on the map.

Agricultural map of South Africa Source: https://goo.gl/3KWHJt

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Resources cultivated and/or produced in a specific area, which brings about economic activities, e.g., in Cape Town, Western Cape: • Oil refinery • Engineering works • Vehicles • Textiles/clothing • Chemicals and fertilisers • Food/drink/tobacco


Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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EXERCISE 1 Match the use of the map in column B to the type of map in column A. Only write the correct letter (A – F) next to the question number (1.1 – 1.6), e.g., 1.7 G. COLUMN A Type of map

COLUMN B Use of the map Shows physical geographical characteristics of an area.

1.1

A

1.2

B

Shows highways, roads, hospitals, parks and other important places.

1.3

C

Shows physical characteristics, contour lines and man-made structures.

1.4

D

Shows the climate of an area over a specified period of time.

1.5

E

Indicates specific types of economic activity.

1.6

F

Shows international, national and provincial borders of countries and regions.

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Characteristics of maps

Each detailed map should contain the following characteristics: • A bird’s eye view: Because maps are flat, they should give you a bird’s eye view of a location, in other words, a view as seen as if you are looking down on the map.

Bird’s eye view of Paris, Arc de Triomphe Source: https://goo.gl/x9zQBa

Direction: All maps should have an arrow marked ‘north’. This helps you work out the other compass directions and ascertain the orientation of the map, i.e., north, south, east and west. On the following page is an illustration of a wind rose showing the 16 cardinal points of a compass.

The 16 Cardinal Points of a Compass

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Place/location: A direction, topographic or street map indicates exactly where a person is going. All buildings, rivers, roads, etc. should be clearly marked. However, these elements cannot be indicated on a world map. The details shown depends on the purpose of the map.

Symbols: We can show some detail by using certain pictures to show landmarks or important structures. A cross may indicate a hospital, a capital ‘P’ a police station, or a dotted line may indicate power lines. These signs can only be understood if the map includes a key or a legend. Point

Designation Windmill

Monument

Communication tower

Triangulation station

Fire tower and lighthouse Water tower, reservoir, water point Line

Designation Perennial river Pipeline (above ground) Secondary road, benchmark Conservation area Railroad, station or siding Power line Main traffic route

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Area

Designation Erosion; sand Perennial water Swamp and marsh Orchard or vineyard Wooded area Built-up area (high, low density) Cemetery; grave

Key/legend: A key or legend is a little square on the map which explains each picture, sign and symbol, e.g., bridge.

Scale: Naturally we cannot realistically represent an area kilometres wide on an A4 piece of paper. Therefore, all maps are reduced representations of what exists in the real world, e.g., 1 km of reality has been reduced to 1 cm on the map. There are different types of scales we can use, e.g., word scales, ratio scales and linear scales. Each of these are explained in detail in Lesson 3.

FOR THE CURIOUS To determine direction, you need a compass. Follow these instructions to make your own compass. MAKE YOUR OWN COMPASS There are a number of videos on YouTube that can help, e.g., https://goo.gl/oVnHa2 © Impaq

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Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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Requirements: • bucket with water • small bowl • magnet • nail

TIPS You will find the following websites helpful: • •

Types of precipitation: https://goo.gl/S82hRh How a compass works: https://goo.gl/TqbZna

First identify the four cardinal points. In order to remember the order of the four main cardinal points, think ‘never eat silk worms’ which represents north, east, south, and west.

Then fill in the halfway point between each of the main points. Make sure you always start with north and south before east and west as they are more important, e.g., if you are labelling the point which is halfway between east and south, the direction would be south-east or SE, not east-south.

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Then for the rest of the points, write the main direction which is closest followed by the halfway mark, e.g., the direction between southwest and west would be west-south-west or WSW, as west is your main direction. However, if the point you are labelling is closer to south, you would label it south-south-west or SSW, as the main direction it is closest to is south.

Watch: https://goo.gl/BsCe6T

ACTIVITY 1 Use the wind rose and tips in the lesson to complete the following activity.

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Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1.

In which direction must the butterfly fly to reach the following animals? 1.1 The lion 1.2 The tortoise 1.3 The monkey 1.4 The elephant 1.5 The pig 1.6 The sheep 1.7 The bird

2.

In which direction must the following animals move to reach the butterfly? 2.1 The shark 2.2 The monkey 2.3 The fish

1

(7)

(3)

[10]

ACTIVITY 2 Use the map of the park to answer the following questions.

1.

What symbols are used to indicate the following? 1.1 A tree 1.2 The path 1.3 A flowerbed

(3)

2.

How many flowerbeds are there in the park?

(1)

3.

Where would you feed the ducks while they are swimming?

(1)

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4.

How many see-saws are there in the park?

(1)

5.

If you like building sand castles, where would you play?

(1) [7]

1.3

Indexing maps

The following definitions relate to how and where indexes are used: DEFINE Alphabetical

In the order of the alphabet, i.e., from A to Z. Example: South Africa’s provinces in alphabetical order: Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga Northern Cape North West Western Cape

Landmark

A large building, tree, mountain or any prominent, familiar and easily recognisable structure which serves as a guide. Example: The Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria.

Source: https://goo.gl/MPZH86

The Voortrekker Monument is a famous landmark in Pretoria. Reference

Something, usually a set of letters or figures, that serves to identify somebody or something, i.e., a point on a map. Example:

Represents an orchard or vineyard on a topographic map.

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Most maps are divided into a grid system, to make it easier to find a specific point of interest. These maps use variables down both sides of the map, so that each point has two variables, from north to south and from west to east. The world is also divided into a grid system called coordinates, which will be discussed in detail in lesson 5. However, the grid system is very similar. Look at the following map, which has been divided into a grid system. We can easily find a place by using a grid system. The columns are represented by numbers, which appear at the top and/or bottom of the page. The rows are identified by letters appearing on the left and/or right of the map. Any grid can quickly be identified using a letter and a number, e.g., D4. Go to row D, then move to column 4. Where these two (row and column) meet, you’ll find D4.

N 1

W

2

3

4

5

A

A

B

B

C

C

D

D

E

E 1

2

3

4

E

5

S

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Look at the following map, which is divided using a grid system.

The castle will be in G7 and G8, and the dam in B9.

EXERCISE 2 Draw your own grid system using the following instructions: INSTRUCTIONS 1. Your grid system must include rows A – F and columns 1 – 6. 2. Your blocks must be 2 x 2 cm in size. 3. Colour C5, F1 and A3.

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ACTIVITY 3 Use the map on the previous page to answer the following questions. 1.

Give the grid references of the following. Make sure you name ALL the blocks in which the object appears. (5) 1.1 The tractor 1.2 The cow 1.3 The horse 1.4 The pig 1.5 The bridge

2.

What will you find at the following spots on the map? 2.1 K13 2.2 E10 2.3 B6 2.4 F5 2.5 G2

(5)

[10] Reference books and guides generally have an index at the back, which sorts the contents alphabetically. This makes it far easier to find specific information. Map books are no different. There is an index of road names and important buildings which gives the grid reference and page number of each name. On the other hand, a contents page, or table of contents, is in front of the books, and provides the content in which it appears in the book, usually with page numbers. 1.4

How to find places and explain routes using a street map

The following definitions will help you to find places and explain routes using a street map.

DEFINE Departure point

The starting point of a journey.

Destination

The place where someone or something will end up.

Profusely

When something is occurs or appears in large amounts, e.g., trees or rivers. 23

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Superficial

Something which is not serious, it can also be shallow or near the surface of something.

Spot height

Exact spot on a map indicating the height of a mountain or hill.

Use the following steps to describe a route using a street map: 1. Find both the departure and destination points on the map. 2. Scan the map for the quickest route between the departure and destination points. 3. Use words to describe this route, such as ‘turn left’, ‘go straight’ or ‘cross over’. 4. Mention any important landmarks or physical elements such as buildings, parks, trees, shopping centres or other relevant information. Study the following example: Mandy wants to take her dog for a walk in the park, and she asks Lucy to come with her. Lucy doesn’t know where the park is, so Mandy must give her directions.

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Directions Departure point: Lucy’s house 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In Dassie Avenue, move east until you reach the T-junction. Turn right in Valk Avenue. Carry on straight. The library will be on your left; carry on until you reach the T-junction. Turn left in Fifth Street, then immediately left again in Orr Avenue. Go past the supermarket on your right until you reach Park Street. Turn right in Park Street. The park will be on your left. Destination: Park

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Example of what the route would look like:

Here is another example: Use map A of Kimberley on the following page and the legend provided to give your friend directions. He wants to drive from the City Clinic in G2, where he visited his sick grandmother, to the McHardy Memorial Fountain in C3. TIP Try to determine the route yourself before looking at the directions.

Directions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Departure point: City Clinic When you leave the hospital, turn north into Holland Road. At the T-junction, turn east into Lennox Street. Continue straight along this road until you reach the cross roads of Quinn Road and Lennox Street, you will see the Rhodes Statue in front of you. Turn north into Quinn Street and continue straight until you cross over Old De Beers Road. Take the first right, east into Florence Street, which is a one way. Continue to the end of the street and the D. McHardy Memorial Fountain will be on your left-hand side. Destination: D. McHardy Memorial Fountain

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Study Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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Map A

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Gr 7 social sciences study guide geography  
Gr 7 social sciences study guide geography