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SOCIAL SCIENCES FACILITATOR’S GUIDE: GEOGRAPHY Grade 7

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Social Sciences Facilitator’s guide: Geography

1807-E-SOS-FG02

Í2’È-E-SOS-FG025Î

Grade 7

CAPS aligned

T Greyling S Jordaan T van Vollenhoven


Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

CONTENTS LESSON ELEMENTS.......................................................................................................... 3 PREFACE ............................................................................................................................ 4 MARKING GRID .................................................................................................................. 6 YEAR PLAN ........................................................................................................................ 7 UNIT 1: Map skills ............................................................................................................. 8 Lesson 1: Local maps and street maps (2 hours)........................................... 9 Exercise 1: Memorandum ................................................................ 10 Activity 1: Memorandum................................................................... 14 Activity 2: Memorandum................................................................... 14 Exercise 2 ........................................................................................ 16 Activity 3: Memorandum................................................................... 16 Activity 4: Memorandum................................................................... 17 Lesson 2: Sketch maps and explaining routes (3 hours) ............................. 18 Activity 5: Memorandum................................................................... 21 Activity 6: Memorandum................................................................... 21 Activity 7: Memorandum................................................................... 22 Lesson 3: Distance and scale (4 hours) ........................................................ 23 Activity 8: Memorandum................................................................... 24 Activity 9: Memorandum................................................................... 25 Activity 10: Memorandum................................................................. 25 Activity 11: Memorandum................................................................. 25 Lesson 4: Current events (2 hours) ............................................................... 26 Exercise 3: Memorandum ................................................................ 27 UNIT 2: Volcanoes, earthquakes and floods ................................................................. 30 Lesson 5: The structure of the earth (3 hours) ............................................. 31 Activity 12: Memorandum................................................................. 33 Activity 13: Memorandum................................................................. 34 Lesson 6: Earthquakes (4 hours) .................................................................. 35 Activity 14: Memorandum................................................................. 38 Activity 15: Memorandum................................................................. 39 Lesson 7: Volcanoes (1 hour) ........................................................................ 40 Activity 16: Memorandum................................................................. 42 Lesson 8: Floods (4 hours) ............................................................................. 43 Activity 17: Memorandum................................................................. 43 Activity 18: Memorandum................................................................. 44 Exercise 4: Memorandum ................................................................ 45 UNIT 3: Population growth and change ......................................................................... 47 Lesson 9: Population concepts (3 hours) ....................................................... 48 Activity 19: Memorandum................................................................. 49 Activity 20: Memorandum................................................................. 49

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Lesson 10: Factors affecting birth and death rates (4 hours) ....................... 51 Activity 21: Memorandum................................................................. 52 Lesson 11: World population growth (6 hours) .............................................. 53 Activity 22: Memorandum................................................................. 53 Activity 23: Memorandum................................................................. 54 Exercise 5: Memorandum ................................................................ 55 UNIT 4: Natural resources and conservation in South Africa ...................................... 56 Lesson 12: Natural resources (3 hours).......................................................... 57 Activity 24: Memorandum................................................................. 58 Lesson 13: Management of resources (5 hours) ............................................ 59 Activity 25: Memorandum................................................................. 60 Lesson 14: Water in South Africa (4 hours).................................................... 61 Activity 26: Memorandum................................................................. 62 Activity 27: Memorandum................................................................. 63 Exercise 6: Memorandum ................................................................ 65

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

LESSON ELEMENTS LEARNING AIMS What learners should know at the end of the lesson according to CAPS requirements.

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY New terminology to assist with the understanding of the subject as part of the lesson.

DEFINE Definitions of concepts to understand the content.

IMPORTANT Explains misunderstandings to avoid possible confusion with existing knowledge.

TIPS Any information other than the content, to guide learners through the learning process.

FOR THE CURIOUS Encouragement to do in-depth research about the content. Expand the activity and exercise to such an extent that learners are encouraged to explore. For gifted learners: expanded exercises. For Learners with Special Educational Needs (LSEN): explain the need to complete the basic questions to achieve a pass mark.

ACTIVITY Questions to complete to test learners’ knowledge of the completed lesson.

EXERCISE To conclude the specific unit. Formative assessment.

CORE CONTENT Emphasise the core of the content; in-depth explanation of a specific section of the lesson; learners must understand this content.

STUDY/REVISION/REVISION Time spent studying the content at the end of the unit and to prepare for a test or examination.

All lesson elements are not necessarily used in this guide.

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

PREFACE ADDITIONAL READING All the information the learner needs to successfully complete the year’s Geography is contained in the study guide. The following are recommended for enrichment: • Ranby, P, Johannesson, B, Monteith, (2013). Platinum Social Sciences Grade 7 Learner’s Book. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman. • Any printed atlas. INTRODUCTION The facilitator’s guide is only for the facilitator and not for the learner. This guide is used with the study guide for Grade 7. The answers to the activities are given in the facilitator’s guide. You as facilitator must, where possible, first have a discussion with the learner about the lesson that will be discussed. Discuss in general the topics to test the learner’s knowledge beforehand. Social Sciences is one subject, although each section (Geography and History) has its own study guide and facilitator’s guide. The two sections have a combined portfolio book. The learner can have one workbook (script with ruled paper) for Social Sciences in which the learner must do the activities and take notes. What is geography? Geography is more than a mere study of the earth, as was believed in the past. In fact, it is the study of both our human and physical environment. Geographers are interested in the natural processes that take place in various environments, human settlement and activities, our interdependence on our immediate environment and the impact that we have on that environment. But most importantly, geographers are fascinated with change. We live in an ever-changing world and therefore, the phenomena which we study are in an ever-changing environment. The study guide will focus specifically on spatial literacy, patterns and trends, as well as on the reading and drawing of basic maps, using statement and linear scale. It will also cover a section on natural disasters caused by earth movement, population growth and change, and sustainable conservation of resources in South Africa. This is in accordance with the guidelines set out in the CAPS curriculum. In order to get the most from the study guide, the learner should not merely learn the content that is provided. As geography is constantly changing, the learner is encouraged to study the world around them, broaden his/her knowledge with the use of the internet, libraries and magazines. Most importantly, they should keep abreast with current affairs by reading or listening to the news a minimum of three times a week. The learner is encouraged to keep

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

an ‘articles book’, in which he/she can keep and analyse geographically pertinent events which are covered in the news. They may indicate the locations of these events on a map. By the end of the study guide the learner should be curious about the world we live in, have a decent general knowledge of the places and natural forces at work on earth and understand the interaction between society and the natural environment. He/she should care about the planet and well-being of all who live on it. The learner should have the ability to think independently and support his/her ideas with sound knowledge, understand and work with a number of sources and observe and engage in phenomena in his/her own environment. The learner will have discovered a wealth of knowledge about people, places, events and issues using a wealth of various sources. Thereby, enabling the learner to make informed decisions, communicate ideas and information and most importantly, take appropriate action. 1 CAREER LINKS AND SUBJECT INTEGRATION Career links include, among others, the following: Aviation Cartography Earth sciences Ecotourism Education and teaching Environmental management Water and land affairs Geology Land surveying Meteorology Nature conservation Remote sensing Rural and regional planning Urban planning Journalism Farming Geographical Information Systems These careers span the administration, planning and development, transport, commerce, industrial, mining and tourism sectors. Subjects that support Geography include Mathematics, Business Studies, Economy, Physical Science, Life Sciences, Tourism and Computer Studies (IT/CAT).

1National

Protocol for Assessment Grades R – 12, CAPS-SS-Senior phase, p. 14 5

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

MARKING GRID POSSIBLE MARK

ACTIVITY/EXERCISE EXERCISE 1 Activity 1 Activity 2 EXERCISE 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6 Activity 7 Activity 8 Activity 9 Activity 10 Activity 11 EXERCISE 3 Activity 12 Activity 13 Activity 14 Activity 15 Activity 16 Activity 17 Activity 18 EXERCISE 4 Activity 19 Activity 20 Activity 21 Activity 22 Activity 23 EXERCISE 5 Activity 24 Activity 25 Activity 26 Activity 27 EXERCISE 6

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ACTUAL MARK


Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

YEAR PLAN UNIT

DATE STARTED

LESSON

DATE FINISHED

Lesson 1: Local maps and street maps

1

Lesson 2: Sketch maps and explaining routes Lesson 3: Distance and scale Lesson 4: Current events Lesson 5: The structure of the earth Lesson 6: Earthquakes

2 Lesson 7: Volcanoes Lesson 8: Floods Lesson 9: Population concepts 3

Lesson 10: Factors affecting birth and death rates Lesson 11: World population growth Lesson 12: Natural resources

4

Lesson 13: Management of resources Lesson 14: Water in South Africa

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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UNIT 1: Map skills LEARNING AIMS After learners have completed this unit, they must be able to do the following: • Use grid references to locate places on a street map. • Use a street map and compass directions to describe a specific route. • Sketch a map of a local area. • Use and define scale, differentiate between linear and statement scale, compare different types of scales and use those scales to calculate distance. • Know the main lines of latitude and longitude and use them to locate where events happened on a world map. • Stay abreast of current affairs and analyse certain events to ascertain certain information about those events, such as where, when, why and how an event occurred and what the effects of the event in question were. INTRODUCTION This unit is a very practical one. You are advised to use a number of different resources, including maps of your local area, GPS or even download maps from the Map Studio website (www.mapstudio.co.za) if you have these resources available to you. This unit is very important as it lays the foundation for all mapwork which the learner will do in the rest of the phase as well as the mapwork done in the FET Phase. Spend a minimum of 15 hours on this unit. Each lesson will have the estimated time required to complete it. Mapwork skills will also be necessary when completing the units later on in the study guide, so they will constantly need to be revised.

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

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LESSON 1: LOCAL MAPS AND STREET MAPS (2 hours) This lesson will take an in-depth look at different maps and the elements of those maps. The focus will be on using a grid reference and index to find certain places on a map, which are in alphabetical order. The learner will recap information learnt in previous grades such as political and physical maps and the cardinal points of a compass. He/she will also need to be able to use a key and identify the different elements the key explains. Lastly, the learner will describe a route using a starting point and a destination, utilising a local street map. IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY Here are a few links you can show the class to explain the following concepts to learners. •

Altitude: Sea level is regarded as 0 metres. Altitude is then measured in metres, from sea level. https://goo.gl/hi16lJ

Contour lines: A line drawn on a map that connects places that are at the same altitude. https://goo.gl/GPOJH2

Wind directions: There are 16 directions learners must know. https://goo.gl/E7T5Bf https://goo.gl/Vph8GF

Grid system: https://goo.gl/3PELvL

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

1

Types of maps

Ensure that the learner knows and understand the different types of maps. Colour versions of the different maps can be found at the back of the study guide. It may help learners to better understand the differences.

EXERCISE 1: Memorandum 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.2

D E B F A C

Characteristics of maps

Below are some methods to explain the characteristics of maps to learners: •

A bird’s eye view: Because maps are flat, they should give you a bird’s eye view of a location, in other words, a view as seen as if you are looking down on the map.

Bird’s eye view of Paris, Arc de Triomphe Source: https://goo.gl/x9zQBa

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Unit

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Direction: All maps should have an arrow marked ‘north’. This helps you work out the other compass directions and ascertain the orientation of the map, i.e., north, south, east and west. Here are the steps to draw a wind rose:

Direction is very important and helps learners to determine where they find themselves on the map at a specific point. The four cardinal directions must be determined first. Then learners can complete the rest until all 16 directions can be determined and indicated.

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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The 16 Cardinal Points of a Compass

Place/location: Street maps may be used as an example.

Shows highways and roads, e.g., indicates different street names.

Street map of Pretoria city centre Source: https://goo.gl/Q9Sq49

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Symbols: Test the learner’s knowledge regularly by asking him/her about this. For example, let him/her identify the key/legend, ask him/her to provide cross references, let him/her indicate north on maps, etc. Show the learner topographical maps where keys/legends are used.

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

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Example Area

Designation Erosion; Sand Perennial water Swamp and marsh

Key/Legend: Show the learner topographical maps where keys/legends are used.

Scale: Example of scale on a topographical map:

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ACTIVITY 1: Memorandum 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

E SSW  SE  NNW  ENE  W NNE 

2.1 2.2 2.3

N NW  SW 

(7 x 1) = (7)

(3 x 1) = (3) [10]

ACTIVITY 2: Memorandum  

1.1 1.2 1.3 

(3 x 1) = (3)

3. 4. 5.

2. 9 Pond  1 In the sandboxes. 

1.3

Indexing maps

(4 x 1) = (4) [7]

Make sure that the learner always writes latitude before longitude. Let them think about it like this – latitude comes before longitude in the dictionary. Example:

South Africa’s latitude and longitude is as follows: 20° S, 20° E

Latitude runs from left to right across the map, while longitude runs from top to bottom.

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The learner must realise the importance of accuracy, as this is the first time that he/she is working with maps containing so much detail. Grid system: Most maps are divided using a grid system to make it easier to find a point of interest. These maps use variables on two sides of the map so that each point has two variables. The variables are arranged from north to south, and from east to west. Here is an example of how to determine grid references.

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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EXERCISE 2 Draw your own grid system using the following instructions: INSTRUCTIONS 1. Your grid system must include rows A – F and columns 1 – 6. 2. Your blocks must be 2 x 2 cm in size. 3. Colour C5, F1 and A3.

1

2

A

3

4

5

6

A3

A

B

B

C

C5

C

D

D

E

E

F

F1 1

F 2

3

4

5

6

ACTIVITY 3: Memorandum 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

D13  E3  C3  E6  B11, B12, B13 and B14 

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Windmill  Chicken  Flower  Tree  Sheep 

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(5 x 1) = (5)

(5 x 1) = (5) [10]

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1.4

Unit

1

How to find places and explain routes using a street map

ACTIVITY 4: Memorandum 1.

Historical building 

2.

a) b) c) d) e)

(1)

D1 and E1  C3  F1  F4  B2 

(5)

3.

3 

(2)

4.

The altitude at that specific place. 

(2)

5.

A tramway is used in a city and is an old mode of transportation, while a railway is used by trains to transport people or goods.  (1)

6.

a) b) c)

Arrows are drawn on all these streets.  (2) It indicates that it is a one-way street.  (2) You must remember that you can only move in one direction.  You will have to use an alternative street if your destination is at the end of a one-way street.  (2)

7. Departure point: Kimberley station 1.

2.

3. 4.

Once you leave the station, drive straight. At the T-junction,  turn right in De Beers Street, left in Quinn Street, right in Lennox Street.  Follow the road until you reach the corner of Lennox and Chapel Street.  After breakfast, turn down Chapel Street and follow it until you reach Woodley Street, where you turn left. Follow the road until you reach the information centre.  When you leave the centre,  turn left in Main Road, follow the road until you reach the mine.  Use the Reitz Street exit, turn left in New Main Road, right in Jones Street and left in York Street. The clubhouse will be on your left.  To reach the minigolf, you must stay on York Street and turn right at the end of the road. Then turn left in Lennox Street  and follow the road until the minigolf is on your left. 

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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5.

6.

To get to the clinic, travel back in the direction you came on Lennox Street, turn left in Du Toitspan Street  and then left again in the third street. The Medi Clinic is on the corner.  To return to the station, turn right on Du Toitspan Street and follow the road to De Beers Street.  Turn right in De Beers Street, it will take you to the station. 

Destination: Kimberley station (13) [30]

LESSON 2: SKETCH MAPS AND EXPLAINING ROUTES (3 hours) 2.1

Sketching a map

Now that the learner has some skill explaining routes, this lesson will focus on his/her ability to indicate a route from one place to another, using the different elements he/she learnt about in the previous lesson. The learner will need to use compass directions, landmarks and different map symbols to explain a route verbally, estimate distances and draw a sketch of the desired route, in enough detail that someone else will understand it. Here is an example of a map you can use to allow learners to practise sketching routes:

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Unit

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Provide learners with different scenarios, e.g.: 1. Sketch the route from the school to the filling station. 2. Sketch the route from building 2 to the hospital. Other scenarios may also be given. Scenario 1

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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Scenario 2

TIPS • •

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Emphasise the importance of knowing where north is and how important the compass or direction is when following a specific route. Accuracy and neatness are just as important and the learner must use a ruler for any straight lines and print and draw the elements of the key as neatly as possible. This is so the person reading the map can understand it correctly.

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ACTIVITY 5: Memorandum 1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

There is not enough detail in the first sketch.  (2) When you leave the school, carry on straight until you find the tennis courts on your left-hand side,  then turn right. Carry on straight  until you reach the Shell garage,  then turn left.  At the hospital, turn left  and when the comic shop is on your left,  turn right.  At the circle, turn right.  Carry on straight until you reach the next circle.  My house will be on your right-hand side.  (10) Compass  and a key.  (4) Answers will vary.  Compass must have N, S, E and W.  (4) When you leave the school, carry on straight until you see the tennis courts on your left-hand side, then turn south.  Carry on straight until you reach the Shell garage, then turn east.  At the hospital, turn north  and when the comic shop is on your left, turn east.  At the circle, turn south.  Carry on straight until you reach the next circle. My house will be on your right-hand side. (5) [25]

ACTIVITY 6: Memorandum

(12) [12] 21

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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ACTIVITY 7: Memorandum 1.

(13) 2. Departure point: Pat’s Ice Cream Shop • Leave the shop and turn west in First Street.  (5 km) • At the T-junction, turn south in Fifth Avenue  and carry on straight past the clinic on your right.  (10 km) • Turn west in Main Street.  (5 km) • When you pass Dream Nails on your right,  turn south in Mandela Road.  (2 km) • After a short distance, the entrance to the police station will be on your right.  Destination: Police station (Total estimated distance is approximately 22 km). (7) [20]

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

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LESSON 3: DISTANCE AND SCALE (4 hours) 3.1

Types of scales

There are three different types of scale, namely, statement (WORDS), linear (LINE) and ratio (FRACTION). These scales are used to show how much smaller the map or picture is than it is in reality. Emphasise to the learner how important it is to analyse the question and statements for each scale being used, as accuracy and using the correct units are of the utmost importance.

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY Here are a few links you can use to explain the following concepts to learners. •

Linear scale: https://goo.gl/GURYnh

Ratio scale: https://goo.gl/bQnxhx

Scale: Shows the relationship between distance on a map and distance in reality. https://goo.gl/kVjALm https://goo.gl/HvQr6V https://goo.gl/DOoE4z

Using a ratio scale: Formula:

Distance measured on map Number 1 cm in 1 km

×

Scale 1

Example (Scale = 1:50 000) 5 cm 50 000 × 100 000 1 = 2,5 km

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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Example: Calculate the distance between A and B in kilometres. 12 cm B A Scale 1:50 000

Distance =

12 cm 50 000 × 100 000 1

There is 100 000 cm in 1 km = 6 km

ACTIVITY 8: Memorandum The ratio scale being used is 1:50 000. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

3.2

Please note that calibration of rulers is not always as accurate as we would like. Allow a margin of error when doing linear scales. You can also explain this to the learner. Usually there will be between 1 – 2 mm of difference in measurements. There should be a margin of error in the answers of tests and examinations.

15 km  4 km  5 m  10 km  150 m  10 x 0,5  = 5 km  10 cm x 50 000 100 000 1 = 5 km 8,5 x 0,5 = 4,25 km  (round up) 8,5 cm x 50 000 100 000 1 = 4,25 km

(2) (2) (2) (2) (2)

(2)

(3) [15]

Comparing scales

Calculating distance on a map using linear scale The aim of the linear scale exercise is for learners to complete it step by step. It is important, especially the use of a piece of string or sheet of paper. Guessing the distance won’t work, © Impaq

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as there will be a significant difference between the estimated answer and the correct answer.

ACTIVITY 9: Memorandum 1.

2.

3.3

Map of the world.  Map of Africa.  Map of South Africa.  Map of Pretoria. 

(2 x 4) = (8)

8 x 0,5 = 4 km  8 cm x 50 000 100 000 1 = 4 km

(2) [10]

Calculating distances on maps

ACTIVITY 10: Memorandum 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

700 km  850 km  It does not mean the route distance.  5 m  87,5 m 

(2) (2) (1) (2) (3) [10]

ACTIVITY 11: Memorandum 1. 2. 3. 4.

800 m  450 m  870 m  550 m 

(2) (2) (2) (2) [8] 25

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

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LESSON 4: CURRENT EVENTS (2 hours) 4.1

Latitude and longitude

Reiterate that the learner must always write latitude before longitude. Let them think about it like this – latitude comes before longitude in the dictionary. Example:

South Africa’s latitude and longitude is as follows: 20° S, 20° E

Latitude runs from left to right across the map, while longitude runs from top to bottom.

4.2

Current affairs

It is extremely important for geographers to be up to date with current affairs. As such, learners need to collect magazine or newspaper articles weekly and analyse these specific articles. They must answer the basic questions of who, what, when and why for these articles and be able to say how it would influence society. You should ensure they analyse the article by asking them questions about it as well as checking their articles book to ensure they are keeping up to date with this. Learners may also access these articles via the News 24 application, available on Google Play and iStore, if they have access. This app can be downloaded on their smartphones and will give them free access to the latest news, at any time of the day. Alternatively, they can visit the News 24 website and other news agencies’ websites.

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

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Remember to point out places in the news on the world map throughout the year to encourage learners to take an interest in current events. Example

Source: https://goo.gl/LwuO0

EXERCISE 3: Memorandum 1.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.

C1  A4  A1  A6  C4  A2  D5  B1  C1/D1  B3 

(10 x 1) = (10)

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Gr 7 social sciences facilitator’s guide geography  
Gr 7 social sciences facilitator’s guide geography