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TECHNOLOGY FACILITATOR’S GUIDE Grade 7

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Technology Facilitator’s guide

1807-E-TEC-FG01

Í2’È-E-TEC-FG01ÇÎ

Grade 7

CAPS aligned

L Faurie J Lubbinge A Schwartz


Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

Contents PREFACE............................................................................................................................ 7 TIMETABLE AND TIME MANAGEMENT............................................................................ 7 ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS....................................................................................... 8 STUDY TIPS........................................................................................................................ 9 SUBJECT CONTENT AND PLANNING............................................................................ 10 TERM 1: UNIT 1: Design process skills.......................................................................... 11 LESSON 1: What is technology?........................................................................... 13 Activity 1 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 13 LESSON 2: The design process............................................................................ 14 Activity 2 MEMORANDUM................................................................................... 16 LESSON 3: Design considerations........................................................................ 16 Activity 3 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 16 TERM 1: UNIT 2: Communication skills......................................................................... 19 LESSON 4: Graphical communication................................................................... 20 Activity 4.1 – 4.3 ................................................................................................... 26 Activity 4.1 – 4.3 MEMORANDUM......................................................................... 30 LESSON 5: Graphic techniques............................................................................ 31 Activity 5.1 ............................................................................................................ 32 Activity 5.1 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 34 Activity 5.2............................................................................................................. 35 Activity 5.2 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 41 Activity 5.3............................................................................................................. 41 Activity 5.3 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 48 Activity 5.4............................................................................................................. 50 Activity 5.4 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 52 TERM 1: UNIT 3: Mechanical systems and control....................................................... 53 LESSON 6: Simple machines................................................................................ 54 Activity 6................................................................................................................. 54 LESSON 7: Simple machines (continued)............................................................. 57 Activity 7................................................................................................................. 57 LESSON 8: Levers and linkages........................................................................... 58 Activity 8................................................................................................................. 58 LESSON 9: Pneumatics and hydraulics................................................................ 61 Activity 9.1............................................................................................................. 61 Activity 9.2............................................................................................................. 62 Activity 9.3............................................................................................................. 64 Activity 9.4............................................................................................................. 65 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK....................................................................... 67

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TERM 2: UNIT 4: Structures............................................................................................. 74 LESSON 10: Structures......................................................................................... 76 LESSON 11: Reinforcing of structures................................................................... 76 Activity 11.1............................................................................................................ 76 Activity 11.2............................................................................................................ 80 Activity 11.3............................................................................................................ 81 LESSON 12: Case study: cellphone towers.......................................................... 83 Activity 12.............................................................................................................. 83 LESSON 13: Case study: existing products.......................................................... 87 Activity 13 MEMORANDUM................................................................................... 87 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK....................................................................... 88 TERM 3: UNIT 5: Investigation skills.............................................................................. 97 LESSON 14: Magnetism........................................................................................ 99 Activity 14.1........................................................................................................... 99 Activity 14.2 MEMORANDUM.............................................................................. 101 LESSON 15: Investigate magnetism................................................................... 103 Activity 15 MEMORANDUM................................................................................. 103 LESSON 16: Recycling........................................................................................ 104 Activity 16............................................................................................................ 104 TERM 3: UNIT 6: Electrical systems and control........................................................ 106 LESSON 17: Simple electrical circuits................................................................. 108 Activity 17.1......................................................................................................... 108 Activity 17.2 ........................................................................................................ 110 TERM 3: UNIT 7: Mechanical systems and control......................................................111 LESSON 18: Complex machines..........................................................................111 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK..................................................................... 112 TERM 4: UNIT 8: Investigation and design skills........................................................ 117 LESSON 19: Refugees........................................................................................ 119 Activity 19............................................................................................................ 119 TERM 4: UNIT 9: Investigation and design skills........................................................ 120 LESSON 20: Processing of food......................................................................... 121 Activity 20............................................................................................................ 121 LESSON 21: Cooking food.................................................................................. 122 Activity 21............................................................................................................ 122 TERM 4: UNIT 10: Investigation.................................................................................... 123 LESSON 22: Textiles........................................................................................... 124 Activity 22............................................................................................................ 124 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK..................................................................... 125 © Impaq

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

ADDENDUM A: Important terminology......................................................................... 131 BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................. 138 ADDENDUM B: Squared paper...................................................................................... 139 ADDENDUM C: Isometric paper.................................................................................... 144 ADDENDUM D: Drawing sheets.................................................................................... 149 ADDENDUM E: Colour images...................................................................................... 152

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

SUBJECT CONTENT AND PLANNING UNIT

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5 6 7 8 9 10

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LESSON TERM 1 LESSON 1: What is technology? LESSON 2: The design process LESSON 3: Design considerations LESSON 4: Graphical communication LESSON 5: Graphic techniques LESSON 6: Simple machines – First-class levers LESSON 7: Simple machines – Second-class and third-class levers LESSON 8: Levers and linkages LESSON 9: Pneumatics and hydraulics PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK TERM 2 LESSON 10: Structures LESSON 11: Reinforcing of structures LESSON 12: Case study: Cellphone towers LESSON 13: Case study: Existing products PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK TERM 3 LESSON 14: Magnetism LESSON 15: Investigate magnetism LESSON 16: Recycling LESSON 17: Simple electrical circuits LESSON 18: Complex machines PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK TERM 4 LESSON 19: Refugees LESSON 20: Processing of food LESSON 21: Cooking food LESSON 22: Textiles PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK

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HOURS

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

TERM 1

Unit

1

UNIT 1: Design process skills

Learning objectives After learners have completed this unit, they must be able to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of: What is technology? The design process • Investigate • Design • Make/Manufacture • Evaluate • Communicate Design considerations

Introduction

Technology is the use of knowledge, skills and resources to provide practical solutions (objects) to solve people’s problems or meet their needs. Technology contributes to human support and comfort, while taking social and environmental factors into consideration.

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY

Aesthetics Characteristics of a product that make it look beautiful. Architect

A person who designs buildings.

Design brief A short statement of a product or need. For example, a plastic container for packaging.

Design specifications

The criteria of the final solution, e.g. shape, size. 11

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Drawing A 2-D or 3-D picture drawn in pencil and with drawing instruments. Engineer A person who designs or builds bridges (civil engineer), engines (mechanical engineer) or electrical systems (electrical engineer). Ergonomics Design features of a product or system that make it user friendly. Evaluate To judge the quality or effectiveness of a product or idea. Flow chart A diagram that allows you to identify every step in the manufacturing process.

Graphic designer A skilled person who designs artistic drawings of products. Mechanical system A system that consists of mechanisms and machines to perform tasks. Product An item that is manufactured or processed and marketed to be sold. Project report A report that contains all the elements of the design process. Restriction

An aspect that limits the possibilities of a solution.

Scientist A person who has gained expert knowledge of biological or physical sciences through study and research. Sketch

An initial freehand drawing of a design, which points out the essential features of the design.

Surveyor A skilled person who examines the condition of land or carries out surveys. Š Impaq

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

Unit

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LESSON 1: What is technology?

Activity 1 MEMORANDUM Instructions Learners must answer the following questions about technology: 1.

Give the definition of technology using your own words. Learners should explain their understanding of technology. While this answer will be in their own words, it does need to cover the idea of technology as a range of processes and methods used to create goods and services that solve problems in our daily lives. In the study guide, technology is described as: Technology comprises all the ways in which people produce goods and services to solve the problems of daily living (to meet the basic needs of food, shelter, communication, clothing and transport) and to investigate our physical world. The earliest forms of technology included the use of tools to cut materials and build shelter, as well as the ability to control fire. Today’s technology includes computers, cars and convenience food, as well as the development of artificial intelligence and space exploration. Technology is advancing every day and is a continuous process.

2.

Briefly describe the impact of technology in the event of a complete absence of mechanical systems in our lives. If there were no machines (cars, pumps, computers, toasters, etc.), what would our lives be like?

3.

How does recycling impact the environment? Explain in your own words.

4.

Copy and complete the table below by indicating which industries are involved in the production processes and use of iron. Choose from the options provided below the table. (Iron ore is the raw material used to make iron and steel.)

Action Iron ore is extracted from the earth. Iron ore is distributed via road transport. Iron ore is smelted. The processed iron is sold. A person makes and sells palisade fences.

Mining Transport Production Wholesale Retail/Service

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Industry

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

LESSON 2: The design process We use the design process for identifying and resolving real-life problems. The design process consists of the following five steps: 1. Investigate 2. Design 3. Make/Manufacture 4. Evaluate 5. Communicate Below is an example of the steps involved in the design process. STEP 1: Investigate 1.1 Identify the problem (need/want) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1.2

Analyse EXISTING products on: Safety

1.3

Suitability of materials

Fitness for purpose

Cost

Manufacturing method

Investigation strategy Use a variety of available technologies and methods to: • locate (library referencing systems, internet searches, indexes, magazines, shops) • collect (questionnaires, data collection forms, literature surveys) • test and compare the properties of a product • sort and verify the information Circle or underline the method you used.

• • • •

Investigation is the basis for any technological process. Identify all aspects of the problem. Use as many sources as possible when doing research. Process all gathered information so that only the most appropriate information is included. Acknowledge all the sources. Adjust the investigation process to match your style.

STEP 2: Design 2.1

2.2

2.3

Design brief (Short written idea including outline of the problem, who is affected, how the product will be used, reliability and the impact on the environment.) ..………………………………………………………………….…..……………………………………… ………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………… Design ideas (Use the design brief and freehand drawings to find several solutions. Choose the best solution.) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Design specifications (More detailed than the design brief.)

List of features of product/ Materials Safety description (Details of size, (What will the product be made from?) shape, colour, etc.) Cost Quality standards (Does the product meet a certain standard?)

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

• • • • •

Unit

1

Start with the design brief, which is a summary of the problem. The design brief states the criteria for the final product. Think of every possible solution and describe each one with notes and freehand drawings. This step is not about neatness, but about the thinking process. Notes do not have to be written in print on freehand drawings, but it may help to ask someone else’s opinion to determine whether the notes are legible. Only use a pencil for freehand drawings – no ruler is necessary.

STEP 3: Make/manufacture 3.1 Planning

3.2

Manufacturing process (how it is made)

Formal drawings showing dimensions and quantities (on separate folio paper) Resource lists: (tools/equipment)

Formal drawings showing dimensions and quantities (on separate folio paper) • Resource lists: (tools/ equipment) ....................................................... ....................................................... .......................................................

• • • • •

....................................................................................... Manufacturing skills (Skills needed to manufacture, e.g. measuring.)

....................................................................................... Safe working practices (Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of safe working practices.) ......................................................................................

Freehand drawings made in the design phase are used to draw neat scale drawings of the different views of the product by using conventions (lines used in drawings). Formal drawings include orthographic drawings (2-D), isometric drawings (3-D) and perspective drawings. The formal drawings indicate the measurements and dimensions as well as all other information needed to make the product. Formal drawings have the final notes printed neatly on the drawing sheet so that they can be easily read. During the manufacturing process, apply caution when working with tools and equipment, to ensure a safe working environment. The product must always be aesthetic (attractive).

• • • • •

STEP 4: Evaluate 4.1 Who is doing the evaluation? ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4.2 How are you going to evaluate? ………………………………………………………………………..............................................................……… 4.2.1

Evaluate the final product by 4.2.2 comparing it with: • design brief •

• •

specifications

Evaluate the manufacturing process with regard to efficient: • work procedures • skills • time management

Ensure that the design is in line with the design brief before continuing with the manufacturing and evaluation process. Conduct continuous evaluation at every step of the design process. The client does the final evaluation.

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

STEP 5: Communicate 5.1

Prepare a presentation • Existing drawings • All written information (design brief, poster, PowerPoint or slides including reasoning for design)

5.2

Comments on design process

• •

Was the design/project successful/good? ……………………………………………….……………………………………

Reasons for the above ………………………………………………………….…………………………

Suggestions to improve design .………………………………………………………………………….…………

Put together a portfolio with all the work done during the design process. The portfolio must be aesthetic – it needs a neat cover page that includes an illustration (photo of the model or an artistic impression). Provide an index to quickly and easily find any part of the work done during the investigation process. Include a report on the final product at the end of the portfolio indicating whether: ○○ the goal has been reached ○○ any difficulties were experienced ○○ anything may be improved upon The more information contained in the report, the easier it will be for further manufacturing of the product.

• •

Activity 2 MEMORANDUM Instructions Learners must draw up a form to use for the design process when doing the PATs throughout the year.

LESSON 3: Design considerations

Activity 3 MEMORANDUM Instructions Learners build the model of the scissors and answer the questions that follow. Requirements • thumbtack • glue

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Unit

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Steps 1. Copy the worksheet below and paste it on hard cardboard. 2. Cut out the two halves of the scissors. (Don’t forget to cut out the finger holes in the handles.) 3. Push the thumbtack through from the back as indicated to hold the two halves together. 4. Grip the scissors as you would a real pair of scissors and move your thumb and fingers to see the cutting motion. Answer the following questions regarding the pair of scissors to determine its fitness for purpose. Learners may answer in any applicable way. The answers provided serves as a guideline only. • Who? Who will need scissors? – The learners • Why? Why do we use scissors? – To cut paper • Where? Where do we use scissors? – In the classroom • When? When do we use scissors? – When we need to cut shapes from paper • How? How do we use scissors? – With our hands

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

.ft. Insert thumbtack from the back. �-------,. Druk ’n duimspyker van agter af deur.

Cut out the two halves of the scissors. Knip die twee helftes van die skêr uit.

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Facilitator’s Guide G07 ~ Technology

TERM 1

Unit

2

UNIT 2: Communication skills

Learning objectives After learners have completed this unit, they must be able to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of: Graphical communication • Drawing instruments • Types of lines in drawings • Sketching • Working drawings Graphic techniques • 3-D oblique drawings • One-point perspective (single vanishing point) • 3-D artistic drawings • Isometric drawings

Introduction

Drawings are visual representations that can be made on surfaces such as paper, walls, canvas and stone. Different types of drawings include (but are not limited to) sketches, architectural drawings, diagrams and graphs; among many others. In technology, drawings are used to: • develop ideas in the form of an initial drawing that later leads to the final design • communicate thoughts, ideas and designs in the form of a universal and accepted language Graphical communication is an effective way of communicating designs and ideas. Working documents include different views of an object and its dimensions. The dimensions or measurements are important in the manufacturing of an object in accordance with the given distances or measurements.

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IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY

3-D artistic drawing An artistic impression of a 3-D object. Advanced techniques such as colour, texture, shading, shadows and perspective are used to create a drawing that resembles reality. 3-D oblique projection

A 3-D drawing where the side of a view is projected to one side at a 45° angle.

Conventions Lines used in drawings to depict specific parts of the drawn objects and to clearly communicate ideas. Isometric projection A 3-D drawing that uses lines drawn at 30°. Sketch Freehand drawings done in pencil – no other drawing instruments are used. Working drawings Drawings done with drawing instruments and which show a lot of detail.

LESSON 4: Graphical communication 1.1.2

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First angle orthographic projection • 2-D drawings, also called orthographic projections, are drawings that show separate views of the same object – although the drawing is done in two dimensions. • We mainly use two types of orthographic projections in drawings, namely first and third angle projections. Learners will only learn about first angle projection. • The side of an object that shows the most detail will be the front view of the object.

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Gr 7-Technology-Facilitator's Guide  
Gr 7-Technology-Facilitator's Guide