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SOCIAL SCIENCES STUDY GUIDE: GEOGRAPHY

Grade 6

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Social Sciences Study guide: Geography

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Grade 6

CAPS aligned

E van Emmenes


Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

CONTENTS LESSON ELEMENTS PREFACE YEAR PLAN

3 5 6

UNIT 1: Map skills Lesson 1: Hemispheres on a globe ACTIVITY 1 Lesson 2: Longitudes and latitudes on a globe ACTIVITY 2 Lesson 3: Find countries and cities according to longitudes and latitudes ACTIVITY 3 UNIT 2: Scales Lesson 4: What is a scale? Lesson 5: Different types of scales Lesson 6: Measure straight line distances between cities ACTIVITY 4 UNIT 3: Atlases, global statistics and current affairs Lesson 7: How an atlas works ACTIVITY 5 Lesson 8: Own province in an atlas Lesson 9: The world’s most important characteristics ACTIVITY 6 REVISION EXERCISE UNITS 1 – 3 UNIT 4: Why people trade Lesson 10: Trade as exchange of goods Lesson 11: Exports and imports between South Africa and the world Lesson 12: What people trade in: Goods and skills UNIT 5: Resources and their values Lesson 13: Values of selected raw materials and manufactured goods Lesson 14: Case study ACTIVITY 7 UNIT 6: Fair trade Lesson 15: What is fair and unfair trade? REVISION EXERCISE: UNITS 4 – 6 UNIT 7: Climate across the world Lesson 16: The difference between weather and climate, and climates around the world UNIT 8: Tropical rain forests Lesson 17: Where do we get tropical rain forests on Earth? UNIT 9: Deserts Lesson 18: Where do we find deserts on Earth? UNIT 10: Coniferous forests 1

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Lesson 19: Where do we get coniferous forests on Earth? REVISION EXERCISE: UNITS 7 – 10 UNIT 11: People and provinces in South Africa Lesson 20: Population distribution and population density ACTIVITY 8 ACTIVITY 9 UNIT 12: Why people live in specific places Lesson 21: Reasons for the location of settlements UNIT 13: People across the world Lesson 22: Population distribution across the world

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GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

YEAR PLAN WEEK

LESSON

DATE

DATE

STARTED

COMPLETED

Unit 1: Map skills Lesson 1 Hemispheres on the globe Lesson 2 Longitudes and latitudes on a globe Lesson 3 Find countries and cities in longitudes and latitudes

TERM 1

Unit 2: Scales Lesson 4 What is a scale? Lesson 5 Different types of scales Lesson 6 Measure straight line distances between cities Unit 3: Atlases, global statistics and current affairs Lesson 7 How an atlas works Lesson 8 Own province in an atlas Lesson 9 The world’s most important characteristics Revision exercise Unit 4: Why people trade Lesson 10 Trade as exchange of goods Lesson 11 Exports and imports between South Africa and the world

TERM 2

Lesson 12 What people trade in: Goods and skills Unit 5: Resources and their values Lesson 13 Values of selected raw materials and manufactured goods Lesson 14 Case studies Unit 6: Fair trade Lesson 15 What is fair trade and unfair trade? Revision exercise 6

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit 7: Climate across the world Lesson 16 Difference between weather and climate and the climate of the world

TERM 3

Unit 8: Tropical rain forests Lesson 17 Where do we get the rain forests on Earth? Unit 9: Deserts Lesson 18 Where do we get deserts on Earth? Unit 10: Coniferous forests Lesson 19 Where do we get coniferous forests on Earth? Unit 11: People and provinces in South Africa

TERM 4

Lesson 20 Population distribution and population density Unit 12: Why people live in specific places Lesson 21 Reasons for the location of settlements Unit 13: People across the world Lesson 22 Population distribution across the world

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

UNIT 1: Map skills LEARNING AIMS: After you have completed this unit, you must be able to do the following:

 Understand and work with a variety of resources – including maps, data and pictures.  Use and draw maps.  Identify and extract information from texts, atlases and other resources, including visual resources like pictures.  Work with data and statistics in the form of graphs, tables and diagrams.  Check information by using the various resources. .

INTRODUCTION Geography teaches us about the world we live in. During this term, we will look at different maps and learn about countries around the world. You will also learn more on how to find places. If possible, keep an atlas handy. IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY • • • • •

Equator Greenwich Meridian Latitude Longitude Location

TIPS Make very sure that you know all the new words in each lesson and that you can apply the content. After each lesson, there is an activity that asks questions about the most important aspects of that lesson. The activities are good preparations for your term tests and examinations. Lesson 1: Hemispheres on a globe DEFINE Equator: an imaginary line which divides the Earth into two equal parts (north and south) Greenwich Meridian: a line on a map or globe which stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole and divides the Earth into two equal parts

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

CORE CONTENT The Earth can be described as a round sphere, therefore we get the globe. The Equator is a line in the middle which divides the Earth into two equal parts. We call it the northern and southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, we get the North Pole and in the southern hemisphere, we get the South Pole. Northern hemisphere

Southern hemisphere

The Greenwich Meridian is a line which stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole and divides the earth into two equal parts. The two hemispheres are called the Eastern hemisphere and the Western hemisphere.

Western hemisphere

Eastern hemisphere

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

FOR THE CURIOUS Make your own globe: Use a balloon and blow it up. Draw the various lines on it to indicate clearly the Equator and Greenwich Meridian. Now write in each quarter where which hemisphere is. Keep your balloon for the next lesson.

ACTIVITY 1

This is a schematic representation of the Earth. Fill in the hemispheres, as well as the most important longitude and latitude.

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

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Lesson 2: Longitudes and latitudes on a globe DEFINE Latitude: Lines that run over the breadth of a globe, from east to west and/or west to east. Longitude: Lines that run over the length of a globe, from north to south and/or south to north. Location: the place or position of a certain country or region with respect to latitude and longitude lines Just think about it; the Earth is a sphere. If we want to represent it on paper, it is like pressing a ball flat, which is very difficult. This is the reason why there are lines on a globe as well as on a map. The lines are even; it means they are equidistant from each other. There are two types of lines: Latitudes: the lines are across the globe, like the Equator. The Equator is the most important latitude on the globe at 0°. The place or position they indicate is called latitude and they are measured in degrees north or south of the Equator. Longitude: the lines are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole like the Greenwich Meridian. The Greenwich Meridian is the most important longitude line at 0°. The place or position they indicate is called longitudes and they are measured in degrees east or west of the Greenwich-Meridian. On the next page, there is a map that indicates the latitudes and longitudes.

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North America

South America

Western hemisphere

Europe

South Africa

Eastern hemisphere

Australia

Northern hemisphere

Southern hemisphere

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1 Unit Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography


Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

FOR THE CURIOUS Use your balloon from the previous lesson and now draw longitudes and latitudes on it as well. Remember that the most important latitude is the Equator and the most important longitude is the Greenwich Meridian; these lines are already on your balloon.

Location of South Africa Every place on Earth is located in two hemispheres at the same time. It is located in either the northern or southern hemisphere and also in the eastern or western hemisphere. South Africa is located in the southern hemisphere because the country is south of the Equator, as well as in the eastern hemisphere because South Africa is east of the Greenwich Meridian.

ACTIVITY 2 Look at the map on the previous page and answer the following questions. 2.1 In which two hemispheres is South Africa located? 2.2 In which two hemispheres is Australia? 2.3 In which two hemispheres is North America? 2.4 In which two hemispheres is South America? [8] Lesson 3: Find countries and cities according to longitudes and latitudes On a map, we can see how far north or south from the Equator a place is by looking at the latitudes. It is usually marked at the sides of a map. Above 0°, it is north and beneath it is the southern hemisphere. In the same way, we can see how far east or west a place is from the Greenwich Meridian by looking at the longitudes. It is usually marked at the top and bottom of a map. Right from the 0° is the eastern hemisphere and left of the 0° is the western hemisphere. Latitudes and longitudes are like a grid reference; it just indicates one point and not a whole block. This point is the coordinates of a place, for example 20°S and 140°E (East) is a point in Australia.

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

Remember, if you write coordinates, you always write north or south first, and east or west second.

Greenland

North 0° Soutc h

ACTIVITY 3 Look at the following map and write down the coordinates of each point that is next to the name: 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

Canada Brazil Uruguay Spain South Africa Australia Russia Antarctica China Mauritania

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

North

South

ACTIVITY 3:

1

Look at the following map and write down the coordinates of the point at each name:

Canada

3.1 Canada 3.2 Brazil 3.3 Uruguay 3.4 Spain 3.5 South Africa 3.6 Australia 3.7 Russia 3.8 Antarctica 3.9 China 3.10 Mauritania

Greenland

Brazil

South Africa

Antarctica

Russia

China

Australia 15

West 0° East 20°

Spain

Mauritania

Uruguay

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

2

UNIT 2: Scales LEARNING AIMS: After you have completed this unit, you must be able to do the following:

 Understand and work with a variety of resources – including maps, data and pictures.  Use and draw maps.  Identify and extract information from texts, atlases and other resources, including visual resources like pictures.  Work with data and statistics in the form of graphs, tables and diagrams. Get information by using the various resources.

INTRODUCTION In this unit, we use and work with scales. Scales are very important for map work. One cannot possibly draw a place that is 5 km away on an A4 paper. Therefore, we use scales to make a representation. The use of scales makes the world “smaller” so that we can see it on a map. IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY •

Scale

TIPS Remember that scales are there to help us make the real world smaller. Characteristics that appear in the real world will also be made smaller; therefore, symbols and map signs are used. Usually, these symbols are indicated very clearly on a map in a small block. It is called the key of the map. Lesson 4: What is a scale? DEFINE Scale: an instrument that is used to compare actual distances on the Earth with distances on a map

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

2

Usually, there is a scale at the bottom of a map. The scale indicates how much smaller the map is compared to the real size of the location on Earth. We cannot draw the scales precisely as it is on Earth as we would have to use kilometres of paper. Look at the following map and its scale.

The scale indicates that 1 cm on the map is equal to 100km on the ground. Lesson 5: Different types of scales Different types of scales can be used: A line scale:

0

200

400

600 km

The scale uses a line, for example, a ruler and shows that 1 cm on the map is equal to 200 km on the ground. A word scale:

Scale: 1 cm represents 40 km

The scale says in words exactly what the distances are. In this example, it means that 1 cm on the map is equal to 40 km on the Earth. A ratio scale:

Scale: 1 : 5 000 m

The scale uses a ratio, therefore it is always a number (sign : ) to a number. The example is from 1 to 5 000 m; it means that 1 cm on the map is 5 000 m on the Earth.

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

2

Lesson 6: Measure straight line distances between cities

To determine distances between places, we use a ruler. The picture below shows us how to measure. Put your ruler on one black dot; make sure the 0 is on the dot and keep the ruler straight to the next dot. Measure the cm. Use the scale to determine the distance.

ACTIVITY 4 Use your ruler and the word scale to measure the straight line distance on the ground from: 4.1 Port Nolloth to Beaufort West 4.2 Pretoria to Durban 4.3 Cape Town to Port Elizabeth 4.4 Musina to Welkom 4.5 East London to Welkom (The method to measure distance is explained on the next page.)

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Study Guide G06 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

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Gr 6-Social Sciences-Study Guide Geography 2  
Gr 6-Social Sciences-Study Guide Geography 2