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SOCIAL SCIENCES STUDY GUIDE: GEOGRAPHY

Grade 5

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Social Sciences Study guide: Geography

1805-E-SOS-SG02

Í2%È-E-SOS-SG02YÎ

Grade 5

CAPS aligned

M Lübcker E van Emmenes


Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

CONTENTS LESSON ELEMENTS.......................................................................................................... 4 PREFACE............................................................................................................................ 6 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 6 YEAR PLAN ........................................................................................................................ 7 UNIT 1: World map and compass directions ................................................................. 11 Lesson 1: Position of the equator, North and South Poles on a globe ...................... 12 ACTIVITY 1 ....................................................................................................... 13 Lesson 2: The seven continents ................................................................................ 14 ACTIVITY 2 ....................................................................................................... 15 Lesson 3: Eight points on a compass ........................................................................ 15 Lesson 4: eight directions from a fixed point on a world map .................................... 17 ACTIVITY 3 ....................................................................................................... 18 REVISION EXERCISE: UNIT 1 ........................................................................ 19 UNIT 2: Africa, our continent .......................................................................................... 20 Lesson 5: Position of Africa on a world map and globe ............................................. 21 Lesson 6: Oceans around Africa ............................................................................... 22 Lesson 7: Concepts of countries and borders ........................................................... 23 ACTIVITY 4 ....................................................................................................... 23 Lesson 8: Location of the countries in Africa ............................................................. 24 ACTIVITY 5 ....................................................................................................... 26 Lesson 9: Countries with a coastline ......................................................................... 26 Lesson 10: Madagascar and Zanzibar ...................................................................... 27 Lesson 11: South Africa’s neighbouring countries..................................................... 29 REVISION EXERCISE: UNIT 2 ........................................................................ 32 UNIT 3: A physical map of Africa ................................................................................... 33 Lesson 12: Reading a physical map.......................................................................... 34 Lesson 13: Africa’s highest peaks ............................................................................. 37 Lesson 14: Africa’s three largest lakes ...................................................................... 38 Lesson 15: Africa’s great rivers ................................................................................. 39 Lesson 16: Southern Africa’s famous waterfalls ........................................................ 41 Lesson 17: Africa’s great deserts .............................................................................. 42 REVISION EXERCISE: UNIT 3 ........................................................................ 43 UNIT 4: Images of Africa ................................................................................................. 44 Lesson 18: Photographs of a range of scenes and landscapes in Africa .................. 45 Lesson 19: Use grid references on a map to determine position............................... 46 REVISION EXERCISE: UNIT 4 ........................................................................ 48

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

UNIT 5: Physical features of South Africa. .................................................................... 50 Lesson 20: A physical map of South Africa ............................................................... 51 Lesson 21: Indicating altitude .................................................................................... 53 ACTIVITY 6 ....................................................................................................... 55 Lesson 22: Physical features..................................................................................... 56 Lesson 23: Naming important places ........................................................................ 57 Lesson 24: Where rivers start and end ...................................................................... 59 Lesson 25: Concept of river systems ........................................................................ 61 Lesson 26: Main rivers of South Africa ...................................................................... 62 ACTIVITY 7 ....................................................................................................... 64 UNIT 6: Physical features and human activities ........................................................... 65 Lesson 27: Human activities in different physical environments................................ 66 Lesson 28: Influence of human activities on the physical environment ..................... 67 REVISION EXERCISE: UNIT 5 – 6 .................................................................. 69 UNIT 7: Water, climate and vegetation of South Africa ................................................ 73 Lesson 29: Elements of the weather and precipitation .............................................. 74 Lesson 30: Measuring temperature and rainfall and the instruments used ............... 76 ACTIVITY 8 ....................................................................................................... 78 Lesson 31: Determination and description of wind direction ..................................... 79 Lesson 32: Weather charts and weather conditions .................................................. 80 ACTIVITY 9 ....................................................................................................... 81 UNIT 8: Climate, rainfall and natural vegetation ........................................................... 83 Lesson 33: Rainfall in South Africa............................................................................ 84 Lesson 34: Rainfall patterns ...................................................................................... 86 Lesson 35: Difference between weather and climate ................................................ 87 Lesson 36: Different types of climate in South Africa ................................................ 88 Lesson 37: Climate of own environment ................................................................... 89 ACTIVITY 10 ..................................................................................................... 89 Lesson 38: What is natural vegetation? .................................................................... 89 Lesson 39: What is the relationship between climate, natural vegetation and wildlife? ..................................................................................................................... 90 Lesson 40: The Savannah grasslands .............................................................. 92 ACTIVITY 11 ..................................................................................................... 93 REVISION EXERCISE: UNIT 7 – 8 .................................................................. 94 UNIT 9: Mineral and coal resources in South Africa ..................................................... 96 Lesson 41: Minerals as a non-renewable resource ................................................... 97 Lesson 42: The most important minerals mined in South Africa and their uses ........ 98 Lesson 43: How coal is formed ................................................................................. 99 Lesson 44: Uses of coal .......................................................................................... 101 Lesson 45: Location of mineral and coal mines....................................................... 103 ACTIVITY 12 ................................................................................................... 104 2

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

UNIT 10: Mining and mining environments ................................................................. 105 Lesson 46: What mining is and the ways of mining ................................................. 106 Lesson 47: Open cast/surface mining and shaft/deep level mining ......................... 107 Lesson 48: Pollution, waste and sewage ................................................................ 110 Lesson 49: Health and safety risks for mineworkers ............................................... 111 REVISION EXERCISE: UNIT 9 – 10 .............................................................. 114 GLOSSARY..................................................................................................................... 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 122

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

YEAR PLAN

WEEK

UNIT AND LESSON

DATE

DATE

STARTED

COMPLETED

TERM 1 Unit 1: World map and compass directions Week 1

Lesson 1: Position of the equator, North and South Poles on a globe

Week 1

Lesson 2: The seven continents

Week 2

Lesson 3: Eight points on a compass

Week 2

Lesson 4: Eight directions from a fixed point on a world map

Week 3

Revision exercise: Unit 1

Unit 2: Africa, our continent Week 4

Lesson 5: Position of Africa on a world map and globe

Week 5

Lesson 6: Oceans around Africa

Week 6

Lesson 7: Concepts of countries and borders

Week 7

Lesson 8: Locations of countries in Africa

Week 8

Lesson 9: Countries with a coastline

Week 9

Lesson 10: Madagascar and Zanzibar

Week 10

Lesson 11: South Africa’s neighbouring countries

Week 10

Revision exercise: Unit 2

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit 3: A physical map of Africa Week 11

Lesson 12: Reading a physical map

Week 12

Lesson 13: Africa’s highest peaks

Week 13

Lesson 14: Africa’s three largest lakes

Week 14

Lesson 15: Africa’s great rivers

Week 15

Lesson 16: Southern Africa’s famous waterfalls

Week 16

Lesson 17: Africa’s great deserts

Week 17

Revision exercise: Unit 3

Unit 4: Images of Africa Week 18

Lesson 18: Photographs of a range of scenes and landscapes in Africa

Week 19

Lesson 19: Use grid references on a map to determine position

Week 20

Revision exercise: Unit 4

TERM 2 Unit 5: Physical features of South Africa Week 20

Lesson 20: A physical map of South Africa

Week 21

Lesson 21: Indicating altitude

Week 22

Lesson 22: Physical features

Week 23

Lesson 23: Naming of important places

Week 24

Lesson 24: Where rivers start and end

Week 25

Lesson 25: Concept of river systems

Week 26

Lesson 26: Main rivers of South Africa

Unit 6: Physical features and human activity Week 27

Lesson 27: Human activities in different physical environments

Week 28

Lesson 28: Influence of human activities on the physical environment

Week 29

Revision exercise: Unit 5 – 6

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

TERM 3 Unit 7: Water, climate and vegetation of South Africa Week 30

Lesson 29: Elements of weather and precipitation

Week 31

Lesson 30: Measuring temperature and rainfall and the instruments used

Week 32

Lesson 31: Determination and description of wind direction

Week 33

Lesson 32: Weather charts and weather conditions

Unit 8: Climate, rainfall and natural vegetation Week 34

Lesson 33: Rainfall in South Africa

Week 34

Lesson 34: Rainfall patterns

Week 35

Lesson 35: Difference between weather and climate

Week 36

Lesson 36: Different types of climate in South Africa

Week 36

Lesson 37: Climate of own environment

Week 37

Lesson 38: What is natural vegetation?

Week 37

Lesson 39: What is the relationship between climate, natural vegetation and wildlife?

Week 38

Lesson 40: The Savannah grasslands

Week 39

Revision exercise: Unit 7 – 8

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

TERM 4 Unit 9: Minerals and coal resources in South Africa Week 40

Lesson 41: Minerals as a nonrenewable resource

Week 40

Lesson 42: The most important minerals mined in South Africa and their uses

Week 41

Lesson 43: How coal is formed

Week 41

Lesson 44: Uses of coal

Week 41

Lesson 45: Location of mineral and coal mines

UNIT 10: Mining and mining environments Week 42

Lesson 46: What mining is and the ways of mining

Week 42

Lesson 47: Open cast/surface mining and shaft/deep level mining

Week 43

Lesson 48: Pollution, waste and sewage

Week 44

Lesson 49: Health and safety risks for mineworkers

Week 45

Revision exercise: Unit 9 – 10

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

UNIT 1: World map and compass directions LEARNING AIMS After you have completed this unit, you must be able to do the following:  Understand and work with a variety of resources – including maps, data and pictures.  Know the position of the equator as well as the North and South

Poles on a map or globe.  Identify and know the positions of the seven continents.  Identify the eight cardinal points on a compass.  Use these cardinal points and identify the eight directions from a

fixed point on a map. INTRODUCTION

This unit covers a study of the globe and your place in the wide world. You will learn about the seven continents, how our world is divided, how to use a compass and what the eight cardinal points of the compass are. IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY •

Equator

Hemisphere

Continent

Compass

World map

Make sure that you understand all new concepts. Draw up a terminology list for yourself, so that you can learn all of the important concepts taught to you throughout each unit.

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

Lesson 1: Position of the equator, North and South Poles on a globe DEFINE Equator: An imaginary line on the globe that divides the earth in half, dividing the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Hemisphere: Half of the world which has been divided by the equator. Generally the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.

People used to believe that the Earth was flat, like Image 1.1 below, and if you sailed too far, you would fall off the edge.

Image 1.1: http://www.spu.edu/depts/uc/response/autumn2k7/images/globalization-large.jpg

However, we know now that the Earth is round, like a beach ball, with no edges. The equator is an imaginary line which divides the earth into two equal parts. The top part is called the Northern Hemisphere and the bottom part is called the Southern Hemisphere. South Africa lies south of the equator and is therefore a part of the Southern Hemisphere.

Image 1.2: http://images.tutorvista.com/cms/images/67/picture-of-hemisphere.png

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

The North and South Poles are the tips of their respective hemispheres. The northernmost point of the globe is the North Pole and the southernmost tip, the South Pole.

Image 1.3: http://www.polaris.iastate.edu/NorthStar/Unit1/Graphics/Pic2-3aSphere.jpg

ACTIVITY 1

Use the words from the following list to label the diagram below: Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, South Pole, North Pole.

Image 1.4

[5 MARKS]

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

Lesson 2: The seven continents DEFINE Continent: a large land mass on the globe consisting of various countries.

CORE CONTENT The world is divided into seven land masses, which form the seven continents. They all consist of various countries, except Antarctica.

Here is a map that shows the seven continents:

Image 1.5: http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/59/89959-004-732AD68F.gif

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

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ACTIVITY 2

Study the map below. Write down the name of the continent next to the corresponding number.

Image 1.6: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/3e/65/db/3e65dbaa340f2cdf7e14d28b570c5c6f.jpg

1.

North America

2.

South America

3.

Africa

4.

Europe

5.

Asia

6.

Australia

7.

Antarctica [7 MARKS]

Lesson 3: Eight points on a compass DEFINE Compass: an instrument used to determine direction.

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

CORE CONTENT We use a compass to indicate the direction. Before the compass was invented, people used the stars as a point of reference. A compass can indicate sixteen different directions. During this year, however, we are learning the eight cardinal points.

A compass works with a magnet which is pulled towards Magnetic North. Magnetic North is the direction or area to the north toward which the needle of a compass points, situated in a specific area near the North Pole. This means that a compass will always point north and we can determine the direction in which we are travelling using this as a reference. On a compass, abbreviations are used for the different directions.

Look at the picture below. The eight directions and abbreviations being used are:

Image 1.7: http://www.signnetwork.com/images/P/4-01.jpg

N

North

NE

Northeast

E

East

SE

Southeast

S

South

SW –

Southwest

W

West

NW –

Northwest

North, east, south and west are the four main directions and the others are in-between directions.

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

TIPS An easy way to remember the main four points is with this rhyme:

“Never Eat Silk Worms!” As N and S are more important than E and W, the 4 in-between points will start with these directions followed by whichever direction is closest, e.g. NW or SE. Lesson 4: eight directions from a fixed point on a world map DEFINE World map: a flat portrayal of the world where you see the whole world in a single view.

Below is a representation of the earth. We must be able to determine direction from any given point on a map; there is, therefore, usually a small compass drawn on the map to help us. North always points towards the top of a map.

N +

Image 1.8: http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/59/89959-004-732AD68F.gif

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

ACTIVITY 3 Study the map (Image 1.8) above. Imagine you live in the small house in Africa. Answer the questions.

1.

Which continent is NORTH of your house in Africa?

(1)

2.

Which continent is SOUTH of your house?

(1)

3.

Which continent is EAST of your house?

(1)

4.

Which continent is WEST of your house?

(1)

5.

Which continent is NORTHEAST of your house?

(1)

6.

Which continent is NORTHWEST of your house?

(1) [6 MARKS]

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

1

REVISION EXERCISE: UNIT 1

1.

Name the seven continents of the world.

(7)

2.

Look at the grid below. Use the eight compass points you have learned and describe the direction from the house in the middle.

Figure 1.9

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h) (8) [15 MARKS]

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

2

UNIT 2: Africa, our continent LEARNING AIMS After you have completed this unit, you must be able to do the following:  Know the position of Africa on a world map.  Name and locate the oceans surrounding Africa. 

Understand the concept of a country with borders.

Know the different countries of Africa, in relation to each other.

Understand the concepts, and give examples, of countries which are landlocked or have a coastline.

Know which countries are north or south of, or along, the Equator.

Understand the concept of an island.

 Compare Madagascar, a country and an island, with Zanzibar, an island which is part of Tanzania.  List and indicate on a map the Big cities of Africa – including Cairo, Lagos, Johannesburg, Nairobi.  List and indicate on a map South Africa’s neighbours: Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zimbabwe. 

Understand the concept of capital cities and know the capital cities of South Africa and neighbouring countries.

INTRODUCTION

In this unit we will learn where Africa is on the world map and which countries and oceans surround Africa. We also learn about coastlines, borders and islands. All countries have a capital city which is the most important city in the country. It is not necessarily the largest city in the country, but it is generally the centre of trade or government.

Countries which share borders are known as neighbouring countries. We will investigate South Africa’s neighbouring countries and what their capital cities are. 20

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Study Guide G05 ~ Social Sciences: Geography

Unit

2

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY •

Ocean

Border

Location

Coastline

Island

Capital City

Lesson 5: Position of Africa on a world map and globe

When studying a world map, Africa appears to be right in the middle of the world. But it is important to remember that the world is round and a map is merely a flat representation of this globe. Therefore, there is no real middle. Africa is the second largest continent and Asia is the largest. However, if you study the map below, you will see where in the world Africa is situated.

Image 2.1: http://antark.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/ants-of-africa-world-map.jpg

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Gr 5-Social Sciences-Study Guide Geography 2  
Gr 5-Social Sciences-Study Guide Geography 2