ISSN (ONLINE) : 2045 -8711 ISSN (PRINT) : 2045 -869X
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING
AUGUST 2018 VOL- 8 NO - 8
NOVEMBER 2015 VOL- 5 NO - 11
@IJITCE Publication @IJITCE Publication
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.8 NO.8 AUGUST 2018
UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: email@example.com Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 66/2 East mada st, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai -600041 Mobile: 91-7598208700
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.8 NO.8 AUGUST 2018
International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Vol.8 No.8 August 2018
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.8 NO.8 AUGUST 2018
From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about motivational factor analysis. Let us review research around the world this month. The global network of seafloor cables may be good for more than ferrying digital communication between continents. These fiber-optic cables could also serve as underwater earthquake detectors. Almost all seismic stations around the world are based on land, leaving many oceanic earthquakes undetected. Harnessing the million-plus kilometers of underwater fiber-optic cables to monitor seafloor earthquakes would be a great step forward for studying Earth’s interior. More on the quake-detecting cables could bolster tsunami alert systems. The more stations feeding into a tsunami warning system, the faster it can give a warning. To use a telecommunication cable as a seismic sensor, researchers inject light from a laser into one end of the optical fiber and monitor the light that exits the other end. When a seismic wave rattles the cable, it distorts the laser light travelling through it. By comparing the original laser signal with the light that exits the cable, researchers determine how much the beam was distorted along the way and therefore the strength of the seismic wave that strummed the cable.Combining measurements from multiple fiber-optic cables can triangulate the earthquake’s point of origin. Once researchers know the strength of a seismic wave when it passed the cable and where the wave started, they can determine the original earthquake’s magnitude. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technologies related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.
Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE
Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering,Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPMSerdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at ShangaiJiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin,Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture,Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin,Germany Dr. Marco L. BianchiniPh.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR,Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 MonterotondoScalo (RM),Italy Dr. NijadKabbaraPh.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh,Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University,No. 303, University Road,Puli Town, Nantou County 54561,Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources,Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Dr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP. Ph.D. Project Manager - Software,Applied Materials,1a park lane,cranford,UK Dr. Bulent AcmaPh.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics,Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP),26470 Eskisehir,TURKEY Dr. SelvanathanArumugamPh.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602,USA.
Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY.
Dr. MutamedTurkiNayefKhatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), TulKarm, PALESTINE. Dr.P.UmaMaheswari Prof &Head,Depaartment of CSE/IT, INFO Institute of Engineering,Coimbatore. Dr. T. Christopher, Ph.D., Assistant Professor &Head,Department of Computer Science,Government Arts College(Autonomous),Udumalpet, India. Dr. T. DEVI Ph.D. Engg. (Warwick, UK), Head,Department of Computer Applications,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, India. Dr. Renato J. orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,RuaItapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Visiting Scholar at INSEAD,INSEAD Social Innovation Centre,Boulevard de Constance,77305 Fontainebleau - France Y. BenalYurtlu Assist. Prof. OndokuzMayis University Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business SchoolRuaItapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 JavadRobati Crop Production Departement,University of Maragheh,Golshahr,Maragheh,Iran VineshSukumar (PhD, MBA) Product Engineering Segment Manager, Imaging Products, Aptina Imaging Inc. Dr. Binod Kumar PhD(CS), M.Phil.(CS), MIAENG,MIEEE HOD & Associate Professor, IT Dept, Medi-Caps Inst. of Science & Tech.(MIST),Indore, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, India Dr. doc. Ing. RostislavChoteborský, Ph.D. Katedramateriálu a strojírenskétechnologieTechnickáfakulta,Ceskázemedelskáuniverzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168 DR.ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg.,HamptonUniversity,Hampton, VA 23688 Mr. Abhishek Taneja B.sc(Electronics),M.B.E,M.C.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Applications, at Dronacharya Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra. (India).
Dr. Ing. RostislavChotěborský,ph.d, Katedramateriálu a strojírenskétechnologie, Technickáfakulta,Českázemědělskáuniverzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21
Dr. AmalaVijayaSelvi Rajan, B.sc,Ph.d, Faculty – Information Technology Dubai Women’s College – Higher Colleges of Technology,P.O. Box – 16062, Dubai, UAE Naik Nitin AshokraoB.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in YeshwantMahavidyalayaNanded University Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-BangloreWesternly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech& PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,MechanicalEngineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY SeraphinChallyAbou Professor,Mechanical& Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 OrdeanCourt,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. BenalYurtlu Assist. Prof. OndokuzMayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic& Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.8 NO.8 AUGUST 2018 Dr. ChutimaBoonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science& Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688
Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,RuaItapeva, 474 (8° andar)01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Wael M. G. Ibrahim Department Head-Electronics Engineering Technology Dept.School of Engineering Technology ECPI College of Technology 5501 Greenwich Road Suite 100,Virginia Beach, VA 23462 Dr. Messaoud Jake Bahoura Associate Professor-Engineering Department and Center for Materials Research Norfolk State University,700 Park avenue,Norfolk, VA 23504 Dr. V. P. Eswaramurthy M.C.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. P. Kamakkannan,M.C.A., Ph.D ., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. V. Karthikeyani Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 008, India. Dr. K. Thangadurai Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College ( Autonomous ), Karur - 639 005,India. Dr. N. Maheswari Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of MCA, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipiram Dt - 603 203, India. Mr. Md. Musfique Anwar B.Sc(Engg.) Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mrs. Smitha Ramachandran M.Sc(CS)., SAP Analyst, Akzonobel, Slough, United Kingdom. Dr. V. Vallimayil Ph.D., Director, Department of MCA, Vivekanandha Business School For Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode - 637 205, India. Mr. M. Moorthi M.C.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Department of computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, India PremaSelvarajBsc,M.C.A,M.Phil Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Science,KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode Mr. G. Rajendran M.C.A., M.Phil., N.E.T., PGDBM., PGDBF., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, India. Dr. Pradeep H Pendse B.E.,M.M.S.,Ph.d Dean - IT,Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai, India Muhammad Javed Centre for Next Generation Localisation, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dr. G. GOBI Assistant Professor-Department of Physics,Government Arts College,Salem - 636 007 Dr.S.Senthilkumar Post Doctoral Research Fellow, (Mathematics and Computer Science & Applications),UniversitiSainsMalaysia,School of Mathematical Sciences, Pulau Pinang-11800,[PENANG],MALAYSIA. Manoj Sharma Associate Professor Deptt. of ECE, PrannathParnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hissar, Haryana, India
RAMKUMAR JAGANATHAN Asst-Professor,Dept of Computer Science, V.L.B Janakiammal college of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Assoc. Professor, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India Dr. Saurabh Pal Associate Professor, UNS Institute of Engg. & Tech., VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India Manimala Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation, St Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry Post, Kottayam Dt. Kerala -686579 Dr. Qazi S. M. Zia-ul-Haque Control Engineer Synchrotron-light for Experimental Sciences and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME),P. O. Box 7, Allan 19252, Jordan Dr. A. Subramani, M.C.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D. Professor,Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode - 637215 Dr. SeraphinChallyAbou Professor, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart. MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall, 1305 Ordean Court Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. K. Kousalya Professor, Department of CSE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638 052 Dr. (Mrs.) R. Uma Rani Asso.Prof., Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College For Women, Salem-16, Tamil Nadu, India. MOHAMMAD YAZDANI-ASRAMI Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Babol"Noshirvani" University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Kulasekharan, N, Ph.D Technical Lead - CFD,GE Appliances and Lighting, GE India,John F Welch Technology Center,Plot # 122, EPIP, Phase 2,Whitefield Road,Bangalore – 560066, India. Dr. Manjeet Bansal Dean (Post Graduate),Department of Civil Engineering,Punjab Technical University,GianiZail Singh Campus,Bathinda -151001 (Punjab),INDIA Dr. Oliver Jukić Vice Dean for education,Virovitica College,MatijeGupca 78,33000 Virovitica, Croatia Dr. Lori A. Wolff, Ph.D., J.D. Professor of Leadership and Counselor Education,The University of Mississippi,Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, 139 Guyton University, MS 38677
Contents Analysis of Multi-Storey Building (G+7) due to Siesmic Loading Using ETABS Mohd. Zain, Shubham Srivastava, Vineet Pathak ………………………….  Performance on Domestic Refrigerator by Using Eco-Friendly Refrigerent- A Review Prakash Chaturvedi , Dr. Ajay Singh,Dr.Parag Mishra …………………………. 
ANALYSIS of MULTI-STOREY BUILDING (G+7) due to SIESMIC LOADING USING ETABS 1
Mohd. Zain Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, India E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Shubham Srivastava Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, India E-mail: email@example.com 3 Vineet Pathak Post Graduate, Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, India E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract- E-Tabs is the present day leading design
software in the market. Many design companies use this software for their project design purposes. So, this project mainly deals with the comparative analysis of the results obtained from the design of a regular and a plan irregular (as per IS 1893) multi storey building structure when designed using ETabs software. The principle objective of this project is the comparative study on design and analysis of multi-storeyed building (G+7) by E-Tabs software. ETabs is one of the leading software for the design of structures. E-tabs are mostly used to analyze concrete& steel structure, low& high rise buildings, skyscrapers& portal frames structure. In this project we had studied structural behavior of multi-story building (G+7) on E-tabs. Keywords- Regular, Irregular, Multi-story Building,
Steel structure and E-Tabs. 1. INTRODUCTION ETABS is the Acronym of EXTENDED 3D ANALYSIS OF BUILDING SYSTEMS, is software developed by Computers and Structures, Inc. (CSI); a Berkeley, California based engineering software company founded in 1975. ETABS is an engineering software product that can be used to analyze and design multi-story buildings using grid-like geometry, various methods of analysis and solution techniques, considering various load combinations. E-TABS issue for analysis and design for building systems. ETABS features are contain powerful graphical interface coupled with unmatched modeling, analytical, and design procedures, all integrated using a common database. It is quick and very easy for simple structures. It can handle the largest and most complex building models. ETABS can also handle the largest and most complex building models, including a wide range of nonlinear behaviors, making it the tool of choice for structural engineers
in the building industry. ETABS can be effectively used in the analysis and design of building structures which might consists of structural members like beams, columns, slabs, shear walls etc, With ETABS you can easily apply various construction materials to your structural members like concrete, structural steel, Reinforced Concrete etc. ETABS automatically generates the Self weights and the resultant gravity and lateral loads. ETABS provides an unequaled suite of tools for structural engineers designing buildings, whether they are working on one-story industrial structures or the tallest commercial high-rises. Immensely capable, yet easy-to-use has been the hallmark of ETABS since its introduction decades ago, and this latest release continues that tradition by providing engineers with the technologically-advanced, yet intuitive, software they require to be their most productive. 2. METHODOLOGY A research presents the main features and organization of ETABS, a computer programs that has been developed for the static and seismic stability evaluations of different civil engineering structures and concrete gravity dams. Our project involves analysis and design of multistoried building using a very popular designing software ETABs against all possible loading conditions. In this paper a multistory building has been modeled and analyze with considering all loads like Dead load, Live load, Wind load, Seismic loads as per as IS standard Calculation of loads as per Indian Standards. Step by Step process of Methodology. Analysis using E-TABS on multi-storied framed structure. Design using E-TABS on multi-storied framed structure. PRELIMINARY DATA: Type of frame: RC frame building. Seismic zone: III Number of storeys: 8 Floor height: 3m
Plinth height: 1.5 m Spacing between frames: 3m along both Directions Live load on floor level: 3 KN/m2 Live load on roof level: 1.5 KN/m2 Floor finish: 1.0 KN/m2 Terrace water proofing: 1.5 KN/m2 Thickness of infill wall: 230mm (Exterior walls) Thickness of infill wall: 150mm (Interior walls) Density of concrete: 25 KN/m2 Density of infill: 20 KN/m2 Type of soil: Medium Soil Response spectra: As per IS 1893(Part1):2002 Damping of structure: 5% Live load on floor level and roof level are taken from IS-875 (Part-) considered RC framed buildings as residential usage. a. MEMBER AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES: We are using material for concrete with M-25 grade concrete and FE-415 grade reinforcing steel for construction. Basic properties of material are as follows. Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es =205000Mpa Modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ec =21718Mpa Characteristic strength of concrete, fck =25Mpa Yield stress for steel fy = 415 Mpa
Fig 1: PLAN OF G+7 STRUCTURES
Table No. I: Detail of Materials MAT
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
POISSIONS Density RATIO (kg/m3 )
7.83 E +3 12 E -6
7.83 E +3 18 E -6
2.71 E +3 23 E -6
2.55 E +3 10 E -6
Fig.2: 3-D Rendered View of whole structure
Table No. II: Section Properties Prop 1 2
Section Rect 0.25*0.23 Rect 0.26*0.25
Iyy 4 (cm )
Izz 4 (cm )
J (cm )
Table No. III: Maximum Bending moment value on each floor
Graphs and Tables from ETABs
Maximum value in EQ-X (K-Nm)
Maximum value in EQ-Y (K-Nm)
Graph no 2 shows maximum displacement values n each floor due to seismic load
Figure3: Shows Bending Moment On Each Floor In Both X And Y direction
Figure 4: Showing Lateral Load on Stories
5. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION After Discussion of results and observation some of results are summarized. Based on the behaviour of RC building on STAAD-PRO some important conclusions are drawn:1. Results of max bending moment due to seismic loading at top floor in X-direction are 8.0226 KN-m and 4rth floor in Y-direction is 4.3993 KN-m. 2. Results of minimum bending moment due to seismic loading at top floor in X-direction are 2.4803 KN-m and top floor in Y-direction is 0.1181 KN-m. 3. Results of max displacement due to seismic loading at 7th and top floor in X-direction are 12.6 mm and top floor in Y-direction is 12.6 mm. 4. Results of minimum displacement due to seismic loading at 1nd floor in X-direction are 2.60 mm and 1th floor in Y-direction is 1.30 mm.
Graph no 1 shows bending moment on each floor due to seismic load Table No. IV: Maximum Displacement with Maximum Values on each Floor Maximum value Maximum value in EQ-X
REFERENCES  Abhay Guleria (2014): Structural Analysis of a Multi-Storeyed BuildingUsing ETABS for different Plan Configurations”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 3 Issue 5, May – 2014  Sanghani bharat k. and Paresh Girishbhai Patel, 2011, “Behaviour of Building Component in Various Zones,” International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences, Vol. 1, Issue 1(Jan. 2011)  Poonam, Kumar Anil and Gupta Ashok K, 2012, “Study of Response of Structural Irregular Building Frames to Seismic Excitations,” International Journal of Civil, Structural, Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering Research and Development (IJCSEIERD), ISSN 2249-6866 Vol.2, Issue 2 (2012) 25-31  Prashanth.P, Anshuman. S, Pandey. R.K, Arpan Herbert (2012), “Comparison of design results of a Structure designed using STAAD and ETABS Software, ” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, ISSN 0976 – 4399, Volume 2, No 3, 2012.  Civil Engineering International Journals (CEIJ),www.civilengjournals.com  Bureau of Indian Standards: IS-1893, part 1 (2002), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures: Part 1 General provisions and Buildings, New Delhi, India.  D.Ramya, A.V.S.Sai Kumar “Comparative Study on Design and Analysis of Multistoreyed” 4(10), 125– 130, IJESRT, Oct 2015.  Isha Bedi, Girish Sharma, Abhishek Gupta “Comparative study of RCC Frame Structures using Staad Pro, Etabs and Sap” 167–175, ICITSEM, Sep 2017.  Prashanth P, Anshuman S, Pandey R K, Arpan Herbert “Comparison of design results of a Structure designed using STAAD and ETABS Software” 2(3), 869–875. ICJSE, 2012.  Manikanta K V, Venkateswarlu D “Comparative Study On Design Results Of A Multi-Storied Building Using Staad Pro And Etabs For Regular And Irregular Plan Configuration” 2(15), 204–215, IJRSAE, Sep 2016.  Peera D G “Comparison Design Result of RCC Building Using Staad and Etabs Software” 2(8), 92– 97, IJIRAE, Aug 2015.
Performance on Domestic Refrigerator by Using Eco-Friendly Refrigerent- A Review 1
Prakash Chaturvedi M.E. scholar, Mechanical Engineering Department Radharaman Institute of Technology and Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Email: email@example.com 2 Dr. Ajay Singh Professor and Head, of Mechanical Engineering Department Radharaman Institute of Technology and Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 3 Dr. Parag Mishra Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department Radharaman Institute of Technology and Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Email: email@example.com Abstract- The depletion of ozone layer and green house effects are worldwide problem. Refrigerants also part of these as it is source of depletion of ozone layer. For this we are going to use ecofriendly refrigerant in place of conventional CFC(chloroflorocarbon) eco-friendly refrigerant are less harmful for environment. Purpose of this experiment is to find the effect produce by different refrigerant in the domestic refrigerator system. This study deals with domestic refrigerator designed to work with three different refrigerant R-410, R-134A, R-404A along with desert cooler .here, comparative analysis is going to be done by using above three refrigerant. In this we are going to use hot water from overhead tank and this hot water is cooled in desert cooler then this water is circulated in water jacket used to subcool the refrigerant. As we know COP of domestic refrigerator in winter is higher than summer so we will use high temperature summer water and try to improve COP and reduction in power consumption. Keywords-COP,R-134A,R-410,R-404A,coolingjacket,
refrigerator, desert cooler. 1. INTRODUCTION Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a lowtemperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir. In a refrigerating system, the medium of heat transfer which picks up heat by evaporating at a low temperature and pressure, and gives up heat on condensing at a higher temperature & pressure. A fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system which absorbs heat at a low temperature and low pressure of the fluid and transfers heat at a higher temperature and higher pressure of the fluid, usually involving changes of state of the fluid called as refrigerant. Early mechanical refrigeration systems employed sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride and ammonia. Being toxic, sulfur dioxide and methyl chloride rapidly disappeared from the market with the introduction of CFCs. Occasionally, one may
encounter older machines with methyl formate, chloromethane or dichloromethane. Chlorofluorocarbons were little used for refrigeration until better synthesis methods, developed in the 1950s, reduced their cost. Their domination of the market was called into question in the 1980s by concerns about depletion of the ozone layer. now a days we are using different like CFC(ChloroFluoroCarbons),FC(fluorocarbon), HF(hydrofluorocarbon). 1.1 Properties Of Ecofriendly Refrigerent - Vapour density To enable use of smaller compressors and other equipment the refrigerant should have smaller vapour density. -Enthalpy of vaporization -Thermal Conductivity -Dielectric strength -Critical temperature -Specific heat -Leak tendency -Toxicity R-410A R-410A was invented and patented by Allied Signal in 1991. Unlike alkyl halide refrigerants that contain bromine or chlorine, R-410A (which contains only fluorine) does not contribute to ozone depletion, and is therefore becoming more widely used, as ozone-depleting refrigerants like R-22 are phased out. However, it has a high global warming potential (1700 times the effect of carbon dioxide), similar to that of R-22. Since R-410A allows for higher SEER ratings than an R-22 system, by reducing power consumption, the overall impact on global warming of R-410A systems will be substantially lower than that of R-22 systems due to reduced greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. R-134A R134a is also known as Tetrafluoroethane (CF3CH2F) from the family of HFC refrigerant. With the discovery of the damaging effect of CFCs and HCFCs refrigerants to the ozone layer, the HFC family of refrigerant has been widely used as their replacement. It is now being used as a replacement for R12 CFC refrigerant in the area of centrifugal, rotary screw, scroll and reciprocating compresssors. It is safe for normal
handling as it is non-toxic, non-flammable and non-corrosive. It exists in gas form when expose to the environment as the boiling temperature is -14.9°F or -26.1°C. R-404A R-404A is a blend refrigerant developed as a substitute for R-502 (HCFC/CFC blend refrigerant) which has been widely used for commercial-use refrigeration equipment. It is a mixture of HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-134a, and is a pseudo-azeotropic refrigerant. It requires liquid filling to prevent change in composition Refrigerant Gas R404A is a blend of CF3CHF2 (R-125, 44% by mass), CF3CH3 (R143A, 52%) and CH2FCF3 (R-134A, 4%). Non-combustible, but toxic gases can be produced by thermal decomposition in a fire. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW A study was conducted in 2017 on the 2nd annual applied science and engineering conference (AASEC) on the “Expansion Parallel Liquid Refrigerant On A Vapour Compression Systems With R-290” in which their aims to determine the performance improvement of a vapor compression systems that use expansion parallel liquid refrigerant. The experiment was conducted by replacing the single expansion device with a parallel expansion device on a vapour compression systems. The working fluid is used as a cooling medium is R-290. By this we come to know “The results indicate that expansion parallel liquid refrigerant on the vapour compression systems generates an increased 49% value of the refrigerating effect and 2,5% value of the coefficient of performance (COP) so that it implicates for save on power consumption required a vapour compression systems”. A paper was presented in International Conference on Recent Advancement in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration in November 2016 on “Empirical correlation based models for estimation of air cooled and water cooled condenser’s performance”, in this paper An experimental investigation was carried out in order to validate the predicted performance data of air cooled and water cooled condensers (using R134a as a refrigerant) from the developed correlation models. The heat rejection capacity is used as a performance indicator for mentioned condensers. By this study we come to know that The correlation based models developed in the present study can be extended to any practical applications for continuous online monitoring of the performance of the condensers and also for comparing the performance of the condensers manufactured by different industries. The performance analysis presented in this can be used as a reference tool for estimating the condenser performance of both air cooled and water cooled condensers. . A analysis in done in august 2017 on “Analysis on maximum internal heat recovery of a mass-coupled two stage ammonia water absorption refrigeration system”. Two sets of freezing conditions are assumed to carry out the analysis. The minimum system heat input and the relevant heat matching
are determined by problem table method and grid method. the feasible system configurations with optimal energy target are presented under the set conditions according to the grid diagram.. by this paper we come to know that “The key point of the maximum internal heat recovery is the heat matching of the streams in the adjacent temperature intervals of the pinch point. Compared to a conventional mass-coupled two stage NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration system, the thermal COP of the derived system could be improved by 14.5% and 34.1% under the studied two sets of conditions. The improvement is more effective when there is a temperature overlap between the generation and absorption processes. The pinch analysis is valid on maximum internal heat recovery of a mass-coupled two stage ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system, providing not only the system performance but also the system configuration”. A study was conducted in february 2017 on “novel ammonia-water combined power and refrigeration cycle with two different cooling temperature levels”. A new ammoniawater cogeneration system is proposed to produce power and refrigeration outputs simultaneously, which combines Kalina power cycle and ejector refrigeration cycle. This cycle has two evaporators that can produce refrigeration output in two different temperature levels and capacities, in which the first evaporator pressure may be selected independently. Power to cooling ratio in this novel cycle can be adjusted. The effect of key parameters on the cycle performance have been investigated. by this study we concluded “The effect of key parameters such as turbine inlet pressure, heat source temperature, condenser temperature, cooling temperature and basic working solution ammonia concentration on the cycle performance shown that these parameters have a large effect on the cycle performance.  A study was conducted in july 2015 on “Evaluation on environment-friendly refrigerants with similar normal boiling points in ejector refrigeration system” Which was Based on the “hypothetical throat area” theory and the “constantpressure mixing” theory, a thermodynamic model for ejector was set up by introducing the real properties of refrigerants. In this paper, eight environment-friendly refrigerants were divided into 4 pairs for study according to their normal boiling point. by this study we got following conclusion 1-For refrigerants which have similar normal boiling points with each other, the one whose specific enthalpy of the primary flow is bigger commonly has the higher entrainment ratio of ejector.2-The operation conditions do not influence obviously the COP orders of refrigerants which have similar nor-mal boiling points with each other, although the whole order of COP of these eight refrigerants is altered. 3-For any two refrigerants, the closer the two lines of the saturated vapour pressures are, the smaller the difference in the pump power. . A paper was presented in The 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE) in 2015 on “An experimental investigation of condensation heat transfer
coefficient using R-410A in horizontal circular tubes”, in this study Condensation heat transfer coefficient has been evaluated experimentally on the tube side of three different circular tubes with inner diameter of 6.61, 7.5 and 9.2mm, respectively. Two-phase fluid flow conditions include mass fluxes from 200 to 320kg/m2s, qualities between 0.1 to 0.9, and heat flux range from 5 to 20kW/m2 at a fixed saturation temperature of 48’C. by this we concluded “ that the average heat transfer coefficient increased with the increase of vapor quality, mass flux and heat flux, but decreased with inner diameter. The data show that the condensation heat transfer coefficient increase with increasing mass velocity and vapor quality. The effect of mass flux on the heat transfer coefficient suggests that the contribution of forced convective heat transfer is dominant”. . A study was conducted in December 2015 on “heat and cold storage using phase change material in domestic refrigeration system” in which they presented review of experimental efforts as well as modelling approach to study the application of phase change material in the domestic refrigeration. Advantage and disadvantage of each type of storage is presented and future application is discussed. In this study they given reduction of the temperature fluctuation and enhancement of the system performance is the main reason of using phase change materials in refrigeration systems. Different approaches have been used to improve the thermal performance of these systems by integration of phase change material . A number of studies have been focused on the application of phase change material at evaporator for cold storage. By this comprehensive review of phase change material on domestic refrigeration system we come to know that “result were promising but still some modifications required by changing the different phase change material and finding the most suitable phase change material in order to get better results”. A comparative study was conducted on january 2014 on “comparative study on ejector-expansion vapour compression refrigeration cycles for applications in domestic refrigerator-freezers. The present study aims to provide a deep insight into ejector-expansion vapour compression refrigeration cycles and contribute to the development of ejector expansion refrigeration technologies in domestic refrigeration. Four ejector-expansion vapour-compression refrigeration cycles (EVRs) are summarized. A novel MEVRC (modified EVRC) with a two-phase ejector is proposed. A mathematical model is developed to carry out comparative studies for mentioned EVRCs. This paper summarizes the existing EVRCs for promising applications in domestic refrigerator-freezers. Considering the limited capacity of the existing EVRCs to enhance cycle performance. By this study we knew that “The simulation results have indicated that MEVRC can perform much better in COP, volumetric refrigeration capacity and pressure lift ratio compared with other EVRCs and VRC at all given operating
conditions due to the maximum expansion work recovery potential provided by the two-phase ejector in MEVRC”. A paper was presented in February 2013 on “Ozone depletion and global warming Case for the use of natural refrigerant – a review” in this paper they presents natural refrigerants as the ideal, environmentally friendly refrigerants and the ultimate solution to the problems of ozone depletion and global warming. HFC refrigerants are currently the leading replacement for CFC and HCFC refrigerants in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. This paper also analyses potentials of various natural refrigerants and their areas of application in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Natural refrigerants especially hydrocarbons and their mixtures are miscible with both mineral oil used in R12 and polyester oils used in R134a systems. Also, with exception of ammonia, they are fully compatible with all materials traditionally used in refrigeration systems Conclusion of this study was that “It provides strong basis for the need to embrace the use of natural refrigerants as replacement for the halocarbon refrigerants. Natural refrigerants especially hydrocarbons and their mixtures are miscible with both mineral oil used in CFC and polyester oils used in HFC systems. Also, with exception of ammonia, they are fully compatible with all materials tradition-ally used in refrigeration systems. Finally, this paper has revealed that natural refrigerants are the most suitable long time alternatives in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems”. A paper was presented in 2008 on “Performance of a new refrigeration cycle using refrigerant mixture R32/R134a for residential air-conditioner applications” In this paper, a new refrigeration cycle (NRC) using the binary nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture R32/R134a is presented, which can be an alternative refrigeration cycle applied in residential air-conditioner.. By this we concluded that “In the conventional refrigeration cycle (CRC), the mixture R32/R134a has a close performance to that is obtainable with pure refrigerant R22. However, the mixture R32/R134a in the NRC will result in a better performance. The maximum COP can be improved in the range of 8–9% over that of the CRC, and the volumetric refrigerating capacity increase by approximately 9.5%. The subcooling and superheating have great effect on the cycle performance, and the effect of the subcooling is much more than the superheating”. An experimental study was conducted on march 2002 on “assessment of LPG as a possible alternative of R-12 in domestic refrigerators”. in which experimental results on the performance of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a possible substitute for refrigerant R-12 in domestic refrigerators are presented. Various mass charges of 50, 80 and 100 g of LPG were used during this study. The results show that LPG compares very well to R-12. The performance of LPG as a possible alternative to R-12 was studied experimentally. By this study we come to know that “The refrigerator worked satisfactory with LPG without making any modification to the machine. The COP values were comparable to those of R-12,
and in some instances, they were even higher than those of R12. No operating problems were encountered with the refrigerator compressor and no degradation of lubricating oil was detected. The cooling capacities were higher for LPG than those of R-12. The only problem that can be associated with LPG is that it is a flammable substance and must be handled with caution”. An experiment was performed in 1994 on “To find test result of hydrocarbon mixtures in domestic refrigerators/freezers” in which In the first part of the present research, an R290/R600 mixture was tested as a drop-in substitute in a 20-cubic-feet, single-evaporator, auto defrost, top mount, conventional domestic refrigerator/freezer. All the hardware remained the same, only the capillary tube was lengthened to achieve the optimum performance. The best result with an optimized R290/R600 blend was 6% savings compared to the baseline test with R12. In the second part of the research, an 18.0 cubic-feet, auto defrost, top mount, domestic refrigerator was used for experiment . by this experiment we come on conclusion that “the hydrocarbon blend R290/R600 is an attractive substitute for R12. In drop in test savings of upto6.5% could be achieved with a mixture composition 70/30 and 70 grams of charge. And this also says 14.6% and 16.7%energy savings in the refrigeration cycle. If we use ternary mixture (R190/R600/nc-5) it will give better performance than binary mixture” 3.CONCLUSION From the above literature review we knew that “expansion parallel liquid refrigerant on a vapour compression systems generates an increase in refrigerating effect and COP of 49% and 25% respectively. Modified ejector-expansion vapour compression refrigeration can perform much better in COP, volumetric refrigeration capacity and pressure lift ratio compared with other ejector-expansion vapour compression refrigeration( EVRCs) at all given operating conditions due to the maximum expansion work recovery potential provided by the two-phase ejector in modified ejector-expansion vapour compression refrigeration. The pinch analysis is valid on maximum internal heat recovery of a mass-coupled two stage ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system, providing not only the system performance but also the system configuration. The subcooling and superheating have great effect on the cycle performance, and the effect of the subcooling is much more than the superheating. on domestic refrigeration system we come to know that some modifications required by changing the different phase change material and finding the most suitable phase change material in order to get better results.” REFERENCES  D Supriawan, ET Berman, M Komar” Expansion Parallel Liquid Refrigerant On A Vapor Compression Systems With R-290”,Vol.59,Iss.7,July 2015, page 365–375.
 B. Kiran Naika, P. Muthukumara, “Empirical correlation based models for estimation of air cooled and water cooled condenser’s performance”, International Conference on Recent Advancement in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Energy Procedia 109 (2017) 293 – 305, 2016.  S.Du ,R.Z.Wang, X.Chen,” Analysis on maximum internal heat recovery of a mass-coupled two stage ammonia water absorption refrigeration system “Volume 133,issue 15 August 2017, Pages 822-831.  Orbe lBarkhordarian, Ali Behbahaninia, Rasool Bahrampoury,” A novel ammonia-water combined power and refrigeration cycle with two different cooling temperature levels” Volume 120, issue 1 February 2017, Pages 816-826.  F. Wang,S.Q.Shen, D. Y. Li,” Evaluation on environment-friendly refrigerants with similar normal boiling points in ejector refrigeration system “Vol.51, Iss.7,July 2015, page 965–972.  Pham Quang Vua, Choi Kwang-Ilb, Oh Jong-Taekb, Cho Honggic, Kim Taehum ,Kim Junghoc, Choi Jaeyoungc, “An experimental investigation of condensation heat transfer coefficient using R-410A in horizontal circ 8ular tubes”, The 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE) in 2015, Energy Procedia 75 ( 2015 ) 3113 – 311,2015.  MahmoodMastani, Joybari , aFariborzHaghighat, a JeffMoffat bpaulsra “Heat and cold storage using phase change materials in domestic refrigeration systems:The state-of-the-art review “ Vol.106, 1 November 2015, Pages 111-124.  XiaoWang , JianlinYu, MengliuZhou , Xiaolong,” Comparative studies of ejector-expansion vapor compression refrigeration cycles for applications in domestic refrigerator-freezers” Department of Refrigeration & Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China, Volume 70 issue 1 June 2014 Pages 635-642.  B.O.Bolajia Z.Huanb,” Ozone depletion and global warming: Case for the use of natural refrigerant – a review ”Vol.8, February 2013, Pages 49-54.  Jianyong, ChenJianlinYu, “Performance of a new refrigeration cycle using refrigerant mixture R32/R134a for residential air-conditioner applications” Volume 40, Issue 11, 2008, Pages 2022-2027.  Bilal AAkash,aSalem ASaidb “Assessment of LPG as a possible alternative to R-12 in domestic refrigerators “Volume 44, Issue 3, February 2003, Pages 381-388  Z Liu, I Haider, BY Liu “ Test results of hydrocarbon mixtures in domestic refrigerators/freezers” Volume 53, Issue 7 July1994, , page 912–932.
NOVEMBER 2015 VOL- 5 NO - 11
@IJITCE Publication @IJITCE Publication
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711)