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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vklŒtcGifhta&;

ar;cGef;ESifhtajzrsm;

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

HREIB Author:

Layout & Design By:

Aung Myo Min Director, HREIB

Lwin Moe

Published By:

Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)

Address:

P.O.Box 37, Chiang Mai University Post Office, Chiang Mai, 50202, Thailand.

E-Mail: Web Site:

hreburma@loxinfo.co.th http://www.hreib.org

First Edition:

2000 copies, August 2002. ツゥ Aung Myo Min

All rights reserved. This work may be reproduced, provided that no commercial use is made of it and the author is acknowledged.

Funded by the Open Society Institute (OSI)

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

trSmpm vl@tcGit hf a&;twGuf v_y&f mS ;awmif;qdak eolrsm;onf rdryd ikd q f ikd af om tcGit hf a&;rsm;ta=umif;udk em;vnfoabmaygu, f rkH #ru rdryd wf0ef;usiw f iG f vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_ wpHkwckjzpfyGm;ygu rnfonfhvkyfief;pOfrsdK;jzifh ta&;,l aqmif&Gufwdkif=um;Edkifa=umif;udkyg od&Sdtaumiftxnfazmf vkyaf qmifwwf&ef vdyk gonf? od@k ro S m csKd ;azmufc&H aomolrsm;tm; tultnD ay;Edik rf nfjzpfovdk csKd ;azmuforl sm;udv k nf; oufqikd o f vkd ta&;,laqmif&u G f Edkifrnfjzpfonf? vl@tcGifhta&;twGuf v_yf&Sm;awmif;qdk=uolwdkif;onf w&m;a&;qdik &f mtxl;u|r;f usio f rl sm;rjzpfEikd af omfvnf; odoifo h x d u kd o f nfh vkyif ef;pOfrsm;ESihf umuG,rf r_ sm;udk od&x dS m;&efvt kd yfonf? vl@tcGit hf a&; ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdik if )H u usi;f yテーyvkycf ahJ om vl@ tcGit hf a&; oifwef;wkid ;f wGif oifwef;wufa&muforl sm;u Edik if w H um vl@ tcGifhta&; umuG,fr_ vkyfief;pOfrsm; ta=umif;udk ydkrdkavhvmvdka=umif; xkwaf zmfajymqd=k uygonf? us,jf yef@vaS om Edik if w H umtqifh vl@tcGit hf a&; umuG,fr_vkyfief;pOfrsm;ESifh ,E W,m;rsm;ta=umif;udk vG,fvG,fulul em;vnfEikd af prnfph mtkyrf sKd ; a&;om;&eftwGuf t}uOH m%frsm; ay;cJ=h uygonf? xd@k twGuaf =umifh vl@tcGit hf a&;oifwef;rsm;twGi;f vl@tcGit hf a&; umuG,rf v _ yk if ef;pOfEiS yhf wfoufI trsm;qH;k ar;avhar;x&Sad om ar;cGe;f rsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifpkaqmif;um ,ckpmtkyftwGif;wGif xnfhoGif;xm;ygonf? xdkar;cGef;rsm;ESifhtwl tudkufnDtoifhawmfqHk; tajzrsm;udkvnf; ajz=um; xm;ygonf? tcsdK@tajzrsm;udk ,leq D ufu xkwaf 0cJah om Human Rights Questions and Answers pmtkyfrS rSDjiif;xm;ygonf? vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh ywfoufI txl;odrSwfavhvmvdkolrsm;twGuf vl@tcGifhta&; umuG,fr_

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; vkyfief;pOf ta=umif;udk Tpmtkyfzwfjcif;jzifh taxmuftulðyEdkifrnf[k ar#mfvifhygonf? TpmtkyfatmifjrifpGma&;om;Edkifa&;twGuf tzufzufu 0dkif;0ef; ulnaD y;cJo h nfh vl@tcGit hf a&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdik if )H rS ±H;k 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf vl@tcGit hf a&;oifwef;rsm;udv k ufwyGJ @kd csaeaom oifwef;yd@k csaeolrsm;tm;vH;k tjyif aiGa=u;axmufyu Hh n l cD ahJ om Burma Project - Open Society InstidS gonf? txl;ojzifh ar;cGe;f rsm;udk ar;jref;pkaqmif; tute tm; aus;Zl;txl;wif&y ay;cJo h nfh vl@tcGit hf a&; tqifjh rifeh nf;jyoifwef; (2002) ckEpS rf S oifwef;ol/ oifwef;om;rsm;. ulnrD u _ kd rSww f rf;wif*% k ðf ytyfygonf?

atmifrsKd ;rif; 'g±dkufwm vl@tcGit hf a&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdik if )H =o*kwv f / 2002 ckEpS f

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

rmwdum vlŒtcGifhta&; vl@tcGifhta&;umuG,fr_ vl@tcGifhta&;Oya' Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&; pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_tcGit hf a&; vlom;rsdK;EG,fpkwckvHk;tjrpfðywfowfjzwfr_ vlrsKd ;a&;tajccHI cJGjcm;qufqHr_ trsdK;orD;tcGifhta&; uav;oli,fqdkif&mtcGifhta&; vlenf;pkrsm; rl&if;XmaevlrsdK;rsm; vufeufudkifyÉdyuQrsm;umv wOD;csif;wdkif=um;r_rsm; txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sdrsm; vl@tcGifhta&;r[mrif;}uD;±Hk; tjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzJG@csKyf tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzJG@tpnf;rsm; vl@tcGifhta&;ynmay; vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;

6 9 14 21 27 32 33 36 41 43 47 50 55 58 63 65 70 72 75

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlŒtcGifhta&; Ô

vl@tcGifhta&;qdkonfrSmtb,fenf;?

vlom;wdk@onf arG;zGm;vmuwnf;u wlnDaom*k%foduQmESifh tcGifhta&;wdk@jzifh arG;zGm;vmcJh=uonf? vlom;jzpfaoma=umifh wlnDaom *k%o f u d mQ rsm;&S=d u+yD; xd*k % k o f u d mQ &S&d dS aeEdik &f eftwGuf vdt k yfaom t&mrsm; onf vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;yifjzpfonf? vlom;wa,muf touf&Sifaexdkif Edik af &;ESihf *k%o f u d mQ &S&d dS aexdik Ef ikd af &;twGuf r&Srd jzpf vdt k yfaom t&mrsm;udk vl@tcGit hf a&;[lI a,bl,stm;jzifh t"dym` ,fziG q hf Ekd ikd o f nf? vlom;wd@k onf vlom;jzpfaeaom tcsuaf =umifh xdt k &mrsm;udk vl wOD;csi;f wa,mufcsi;f wdik ;f ydik q f ikd af eonf? rnfow l @kd jzifo h m oufqikd o f nf/ rnfow l @kd uawmhjzifh cHpm;cGirhf &S[ d I l cJjG cm;r&Edik af y? xdt k csurf sm;onf vlom; tm;vHk;ESifh oufqdkifaeonf? xdkt&mrsm;udk tjcm;rnfolurS ,laqmif odr;f ydu k I f r&acs? Edik if aH wmftpd;k &w&yfu xdt k &mrsm;udk Edik if o H m;wOD;OD;tm; cHpm;cGirhf ay;onfw h ikd af tmif vlom;wa,muf jzpfaoma=umifh xdt k &mrsm;udk xdEk ikd if o H m;u cHpm;ydik cf iG &hf o dS nf? xdt k ,ltqrsm;udk ,ae@wiG f vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;jzpfonf[I l wGiw f iG f us,fus,f ajymqdkaejcif;jzpfonf? EdkifiHwumESifh EdkifiHawmfw&m;Oya'rsm; a&;qJ&G mwGif xdt k ,ltqrsm;udk aqG;aEG;I xnfo h iG ;f a&;qJG jyXmef;vmcJ=h u onf? w&m;Oya't& tumtuG,af y;&rnfh t&mrsm;tjzpf todtrSwf ðyvmcJh=uonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

vlt @ cGit hf a&;t,ltqrsm;onf wuBmvH;k ESihf tñuH;0ifygovm;?

,cktcsed w f iG f vl@tcGit hf a&;[lI rdrw d @kd wGiw f iG u f s,u f s,f ajymqdk aeaom vlom;wd@k . *k%o f u d mQ ESihf wef;wlnrD #rw _ @kd tay: wefz;kd xm;onfh t,l tqrsm;udk a&S;,cif uwnf;u wnf&cdS ahJ om bmoma&;t,ltqrsm;/ tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_ xH;k pHrsm;twGi;f wGif awG@jrifEikd o f nf? vl@tcGit hf a&;[laom pum;vH;k udk 'kw, d urBmppf aemufyikd ;f rSom wGiw f iG f us,u f s,f ajymqdo k ;kH pJv G mjcif;jzpfaomfvnf; vltcGit hf a&;ESihf oufqikd o f nfh t,ltqoabmw&m;wdk@udk a&S;ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmuyif toGiftrsdK;rsdK;jzifh vufcHusifhoHk;vmcJh=uonf? xdkt,ltqESifh qifwlaom t,ltqrsm;udk vlom;wd@k . ,Ofaus;r_aygi;f pH/k xH;k wrf;"avhrsKd ;pHw k @kd wiG f awG@Eikd o f nf? a&S;a[mif; vlrt _ zJ@G tpnf;rsm;t=um;wGif “rdrt d ay:qufqv H o kd nfh yHpk t H wdik ;f tjcm;vlrsm;udk rdru d pwifqufqyH g” [laom xH;k xrf;pOfvmrsm;udk vufuikd pf GJ usio hf ;kH cJ=h uonf? [dELN a0'usr;f pmrsm;/ Ak'b < mom a[m=um; csurf sm;/ bmbDv;kd eD;,rf;wd@k . [mrl&mbD ud"k Oya'usr;f rsm;/ c&pf,mef orRm usr;f pmrsm;/ tpPvmrf ud&k rfusr;f pmrsm;ESihf uGejf zL;&Syf tqdt k rde@f rsm;wGif yg0if aom vlom;wd@k apmifx h rd ;f &rnfh ud, k u f siw hf &m;rsm;rSm ,ckajymqdak eonfh vl@tcGit hf a&; t,ltqwefz;kd rsm;. tESpo f m&rsm;yif jzpfonf? Ô

xdw k efz;kd rsm;onf vufawGw @ iG f b,fvt kd ajctaersdK; &SdaeygovJ?

vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh vl@*k%foduQmrsm;tm; todtrSwfrðyr_rsm;udk ,ae@wikd f &ifqikd f awG@jrif&vsu&f adS omfvnf; vlom;wdik ;f onf wlnrD &_ o dS nf [laom t,ltqudk vGefcJhaom &mpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGmuyif vufcHusifhoHk;

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; vmcJo h nf? 18 &mpkEiS hf 19 &mpkumvtwGi;f rsm;u Oa&mywdu k w f iG f “vlonf vlom;jzpfaom obm0w&m;a=umifh tcGifhta&;ydkifqdkifcGifh &Sdonf? EdkifiH wEdkifiH. EdkifiHom;jzpfaoma=umifh/ vlrsdK;ESifh bmoma&;tkyfpk0ifjzpfaom ta=umif;tcsurf sm;a=umifh rnforl S tcGit hf a&; ydrk ykd ikd q f ikd cf iG rhf &S”d [laom h nf? vlom;wdik ;f obm0tcGit hf a&; (Natural Rights) t,ltqay:xGe;f cJo wef;wljzpfonf [laom t,ltqudk a&S;ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmxJu xdkobm0 tcGifhta&;Oya'xJwGif vufcHcJh+yD;om; jzpfonf? odk@aomf vpfvsL&_r_rsm;/ tpJrG sm;ESihf wef;wlnrD #ru _ kd vufrcHonfh rSm;,Gi;f aom t,l0g'rsm;a=umifh cJjG cm;zdEydS rf r_ sm;onf ,ae@wikd w f nf&adS eqJjzpfonf? xdt k ,l0g' rsm;u aeI a&S;,cifESifh,ckrsufarSmuftcsdeftxd vdifuJGjym;r_/ tom;ta&mifvlrsdK;/ rsK;d &d;k ESihf bmoma&;t,ltq uJjG ym;r_ukd tajccHonfh u|eðf yjcif;rsm;/ zdEydS f cJ G j cm;r_ r sm; jzpf a y:ap&ef v_ H @ aqmf a y;aevsuf & S d o nf u d k 0rf ; enf ; zG , f awG@jrifae&vsuf&Sdonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlŒtcGifhta&;umuG,fr+ Ô

vlt @ cGit hf a&; umuG,rf q _ akd om t,ltq rnfuo hJ @kd wdk;wufjzpfay:vmoenf;?

vl@tcGifhta&;udk umuG,fay;a&;[laom t,ltqonf tawG; tac:w&yftjzpfrS pmxuftuQ&mwif a&;om;I todtrSwfjyKaom tqifo h @kd wajz;ajz;csi;f ajymif;vJvmcJo h nf? 1215 ckEpS w f iG f ay:xGe;f vmcJh f iG f aom t*FvefEikd if rH S r*~emumwmpmwrf; (Magna Carta)/ 1689 ckEpS w ay:ayguv f mcJah om tcGit hf a&;Oya'o (Bill of Rights) wd@k onf vl@tcGihf ta&; umuG,fay;a&;ESifh oufqdkifonfh yxrOD;qHk; pmxuftuQ&m rSww f rf;wifcahJ om rSww f rf;rsm;yifjzpfonf? ,cifu ay:ayguv f ufccH ahJ om obm0 tcGifhta&;rsm;udk w&m;Oya'qdkif&m Oya'rsm;tjzpf vufcHaom t,ltqonf 18 &mpktwGi;f Y ay:xGe;f vmcJ+h yD; xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk Edik if . H zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'rsm;xJwiG f xnfo h iG ;f azmfjyvmcJo h nf? Edik if aH wmftpd;k &. wm0efonf EdkifiHol EdkifiHom;rsm;. vGwfvyfcGifhudk umuG,fay;&rnf[lI tpd;k &ESihf jynfow l @kd . qufpyfrw _ @kd ukd twdtvif; azmfjyvmcJo h nf? xdt k ,l tqrsm;yg0ifonfh a=unmpmwrf;rsm;rSm 1789 ckESpfwGif ay:aygufcJhonfh jyifopfEikd if o H m;ESiv hf @l tcGit hf a&;a=unmpmwrf; (Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizens) ESihf 1781 ckEp S w f iG af y:aygucf ahJ om tar&duef tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf; (American Bill of Rights) wdk@yifjzpfonf? 19 &mpktwGi;f a&mufaomtcg xdt k ,ltqudk vGwv f yfvmaom Edik if H tawmf rsm;rsm;u vufcu H sio hf ;kH vmcJo h vdk vlra_ &;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;qdik &f m tcGit hf a&;rsm; udv k nf; wd;k wufvufcv H mcJo h nf? xdv k rl a_ &;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;qdik &f m tcGit hf a&; rsm;udk Edik if t H awmfrsm;rsm;. Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'rsm;wGif jyXmef;

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; xm;aomfvnf; wcgw&HwiG f tcsKd @Eikd if rH sm;wGif Oya'rsm;jzifh ydwyf ifuef@owf xm;onfuv kd nf; awG@&wwfonf? Oya'jzifo h mrubJ vlra_ &;pepfrsm;jzifh vnf; xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk uef@owfcaH e&onfukd ,ae@wikd f &ifqikd af e&vsuf &Sdaeao;onf? Ô

Edik if w H umu owfrw S jf yXmef;xm;onfh vlt @ cGit hf a&; umuG,af &;wck vdt k yfonf qdak om t,ltq b,fvdkay:aygufvmcJhovJ?

vl@tcGit hf a&;ESiyhf wfoufI Edik if w H umu yxrOD;qH;k owfrw S jf yXmef; xm;aom pmcsKyfrsm;rSm vGwv f yfpmG ud;k uG,, f =kH unfciG &hf o dS nfukd vufcaH om f rd ;f aom pmcsKyfrsm; (Oyrm - 1648 ck Westphalia pmcsKyfrsm;) ESihf u|eðf yr_zsuo pmcsKyfrsm;jzpfonf? u|eðf yjcif;udk AD,ifemuGe*f &ufwiG f 1815 ckEpS u f wnf;u pwif a 0zef j ypf w if c J h + yD ; 19 &mpk a ES m if ; yd k i f ; umvwG i f u|ef ð yjcif ; tm; zsuo f rd ;f a&;qdik &f m Edik if w H umpmcsKyfrsm; (Oyrm - 1862 ck 0g&iS w f ef oabmwl pmcsKyf/ 1885ck bmvifpmcsKyf) ay:ayguv f mcJo h nf? Edik if w H umtqifh yl;aygi;f aqmif&Gufa&;toGifjzifh aemufxyfay:aygufvmcJhaom pmcsKyfrsm;rSm ppfyq GJ ikd &f m Oya'rsm; jzpfonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh 1856ck yJ&pfa=unmpmwrf;/ 1864 ck *seD AD m yxrpmcsKyf/ 1906 ck *seD AD m'kw, d pmcsKyf/ 1899 ckEiS hf 1907 ck (onf[mcfph mcsKyf) wd@k jzpfonf? 1864 ckEpS w f iG f tjynfjynfqikd &f m =uufajceD aumfrwDukd zJ@G pnf;Edik cf jhJ cif;onf ppfyq GJ ikd &f m Oya'rsm; ayguaf yguv f mjcif;. tusdK;qufa=umifhyifjzpfonf? yxrurBmppf+yD; aemufyikd ;f wGif vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk Edik if aH wmftpd;k & tqifh oufoufjzifhom umuG,fIr&EdkifbJ EdkifiHwumtaejzifh yl;aygif; aqmif&Guf&ef vdktyfvm+yD[laom t,ltqrsm; wdk;yGm;vmcJhonf? xdkokd@ yl;aygiaf qmif&u G Ef ikd &f ef vrf;prsm;udk pwif&mS azGvmcJ=h uonf? yxr urBmppf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; t+yD; Edik if t H pd;k &rsm;jzifh yxrOD;qH;k zJ@G pnf;cJah om Edik if aH ygi;f csKyftoif;}uD; (The League of Nations) . vkyfudkifcGifhwm0efrsm;xJwGif vl@tcGifhta&;[lI a&;om;azmfjyxm;cJhjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; xdktoif;}uD;onf EdkifiHwumtqifh wGif vl@tcGit hf a&;umuG,Ef ikd af &; vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf? od@k aomf Edik if t H m;vH;k udk v$r;f ðcHvyk af qmifEikd cf jhJ cif;r&Sb d J Edik if t H csKd @wiG &f adS om vlenf;pk rsm;tm; tajctae taetxm;wckckt& umuG,fay;a&;twGufudkom uef@owfvyk af qmifEikd cf o hJ nfukd awG@&onf? 20 &mpktpydik ;f wGif Edik if w H umtqifh vl@tcGit hf a&; umuG,af &; pHcsed pf n H e$ ;f rsm; owfrw S &f ef ñud;yrf;tm;xkwrf r_ sm; ydrk t kd m;aumif;vmcJo h nf? 1919 ckEpS w f iG f zJ@G pnf;cJah om tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyf (International Labor Organization - ILO) u pufrv _ yk if ef;rsm;wGif vkyu f ikd af eaom tvkyo f rm;rsm;ESihf oufqikd o f nfh pHcsed pf ! H e$ ;f rsm;udk Edik if w H umtqift h jzpf owfrSwfvmEdkifcJhonf? 1926 pufwifbmv 25 &ufae@wGif *sDeDAmðrd@Y vufrSwfa&;xdk;cJhaom EdkifiHwum u|efðyr_qdkif&m oabmwlpmcsKyfuvnf; EdkifiHtoD;oD;wGif u|efðyjcif;zsufodrf;Edkif&eftwGuf pGrf;aqmifcsufwck jzpfvmcJo h nf? 'kuo Q nfrsm; umuG,af &;qdik &f m pmcsKyfrsm;udv k nf; 1933 ckEiS hf 1938 ckESpfwdk@wGif jyXmef;vmEdkifcJhonf? xdkokd@wdk;wufvmr_rsm; &SdvmcJh aomfvnf; Edik if rH sm;t=um; ppfyrGJ sm; jzpfymG ;aecsed t f wGi;f vl@tcGit hf a&; Oya' rsm; ay:ayguv f mcJjh cif; r&Sad y? 1920 rS 1930 ckESpfrsm;twGif; ay:aygufvmcJhaom tm%m&Sif tpd;k &rsm;onf rdrw d @kd Edik if eH ,ferdwt f wGi;f &Sd jynforl sm;. vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk qd;k qd;k 0g;0g; csKd ;azmufusL;vGev f mcJ=h uonf? 'kw, d urBmppftwGi;f wGiv f nf; vlrsKd ;/ bmoma&;ESihf Edik if o H m;jzpfrw _ @kd a=umifh rsKd ;ðywfowfjzwf&ef óu;yrf;r_rsm;/ owfjzwfcrhJ r_ sm; jzpfymG ;cJ+h yD; vl@tcGit hf a&;ESihf vl@*% k o f u d mQ wd@k tay: usL;vGef apmfum;r_rsm; ay:xGe;f cJo h nf? xd@k twGuaf =umifh 'kw, d urBmppf=uD; aemufyikd ;f

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; wGif wurBmvH;k +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf wd;k wufz@GH òz;a&; wd@k twGuf r&Srd jzpf av;pm;&ef vdt k yfaom vl@tcGit hf a&;udk umuG,af pmifah &Smuf&ef Edik if w H um vl@tcGihf ta&; pmcsKyf,E , W m;rsm; vdt k yfonfqo kd nhf tcsuu f kd ydrk o kd wdðy vufcv H mcJh =uonf? Ô

vlt @ cGit hf a&;umuG,af &;udk Edik if w H umuav;pm;&ef vdt k yfonfqakd om t,ltqudk vufawGr@ nfuo hJ @kd usifhoHk;vmygovJ?

vl@tcGit hf a&; umuG,af &;udk Edik if w H umu av;pm;&ef vdt k yfonf qdak om t,ltqudk 1945 ck ZGev f (26) &ufwiG f urBmu h v k or*~u vufrw S f a&;xd;k cJah om ukvor*~ csmwmxJwiG f twdtvif;zGiq hf x kd m;onf? xdck smwm wGif ukvor*~uo hJ @kd aom Edik if w H um tzJ@G tpnf;}uD;. tajccH&nfreS ;f csuf onf “vlom;rsKd ;qufw@kd tm; ppfyGJ ab;'%frS umuG,af y;&efEiS hf usm;/r ra&G; wef;wltcGit hf a&;ESihf vl@wefz;kd &S&d dS *k%o f u d mQ twdik ;f aexdik Ef ikd o f nfh tajccH vl@tcGifhta&;tay: ,Hk=unfouf0ifr_rsm; jyefvnf cdkifrmvmap&ef” [lI azmfjyxm;onf? csmwm.tyd'k f (1) wGiv f nf; “ukvor*~. &nf&, G cf suf rsm;onf vlrsdK;EG,f/ vdif/ bmompum;ESifh bmoma&; udk;uG,fr_wdk@tay: cJjG cm;jcif;r&Sad pbJ vlwikd ;f . tcGit hf a&;ESihf tajccHvw G v f yfciG w hf @kd tm; av;pm; a&;twGuf tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðy&efESifh xGef;um;atmif vkyfaqmif&ef” jzpfa=umif; qdx k m;onf? cJjG cm; qufqjH cif; r&Sad p& [laomoabmw&m;udk xdktydk'fwGifomru tydk'f (55) wGifvnf; aemufxyfwzef wdwdusus &Si;f jyxm;onfukd awG@&onf? wzef tyd'k f (56) wGiv f nf; “ukvor*~tzJ@G 0if Edik if w H ikd ;f onf csmwm. tyd'k f (55) wGif azmfjyxm;aom &nf&, G cf suf rsm;udk atmifjrifap&eftwGuf Edik if t H vdu k jf zpfap/ Edik if rH sm;tcsi;f csi;f yl;aygi;f vufwI GJ jzpfap ukvor*~tzJ@G EiS hf twlwuGvyk af qmif&ef” [lI a&;om;xm;onf?

12 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; xdu k v k or*~csmwmonf pmcsKyfpmwrf;wck jzpfaoma=umifh Oya' t& pnf;aESmiftm;&Sdaomt&mjzpf+yD; EdkifiHwumOya'twGufvnf; aumif;rGef aom tiftm;w&yfjzpfonf? vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk xGe;f um;atmif vkyaf qmif &ef/ vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk apmifah &Smufay;&ef/ xd&k nf&, G cf surf sm; atmifjrif ap&eftwGuf tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;ESifh vnf;aumif;/ ukvor*~ESifhvnf;aumif; yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G &f ef ukvor*~ tzJ@G 0if Edik if w H ikd ;f onf ukvor*~csmwmt& wm0eftjynfht0&Sdonf? odk@aomf xdkcsmwmxJwGif vl@tcGihfta&;rsm;udk tao;pdwf zGifhqdk&Sif;jyxm;jcif; r&Sdovdk tzJG@0ifEdkifiHrsm;. vkyfaqmifr_udk wm0ef,al pmif=h unfEh ikd o f nfh ,E , W m; ryg0ifcahJ cs?

13 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlŒtcGifhta&;Oya' Ô

vlt @ cGit hf a&;Oya' rnfuo hJ a@kd y:xGe;f vmcJo h enf;?

EdkifiHwum vl@tcGifhta&; Oya'rsm;wGif tajccHtusqHk;jzpfaom tjynfjynfqikd &f m vl@tcGit hf a&;a=unmpmwrf; (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) udk 1948 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (10) &ufae@wGif jyXmef;EdkifcjhJ cif; onf EdkifiHwum vl@tcGifhta&;Oya' ay:aygufvmjcif;. ordkif;0if tjzpf tysuyf ifjzpfonf? xdak =unmpmwrf;onf vlwikd ;f / Edik if w H ikd ;f ESihf oufqikd af om vl@tcGit hf a&; pHcsed pf ! H e$ ;f rsm;tjzpf ay:ayguv f mcJjh cif;jzpfonf? ukvor*~csmwmwGif azmfjyxm;aom vl@tcGit hf a&;ESihf vGwv f yfciG hf rsm;udk t"dym` ,fziG q hf jkd cif;/ Edik if w H um vl@tcGit hf a&;pmcsKyf}uD; (International h m0efrsm;udk vl@tcGit hf a&; Bill of Human Rights) wd@k ukd a&;om;jcif; ponfw aumfr&Sif (Commission on Human Rights) u wm0ef,&l onf? xdak umfr&Sif udk 1945 ckEpS w f iG f zJ@G pnf;xlaxmifc+hJ y;D ukvor*~atmuf&dS Xme}u;D wckjzpfaom pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra_ &;aumifpD (Economic and Social Council- ECOSOC) . vufatmufwiG f wnf&o dS nf? Ô

vlt @ cGit hf a&; a=unmpmwrf;wGif rnfonft h cGit hf a&;rsm; azmfjyxm;ygoenf;?

a=unmpmwrf;wGif yg0ifaom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk t"dutm;jzifh Edik if aH &;ESihf Edik if o H m;tcGit hf a&;rsm;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qikd &f m tcGifhta&;rsm;[lI ESpfrsdK; owfrSwfcJGjcm;xm;onf? EdkifiHa&;ESifh EdkifiHom;

14 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tcGit hf a&;rsm;wGif touf&iS cf iG /hf vGwv f yfciG /hf vHðk cHciG /hf u|eðf yjcif;ESihf ESyd pf ufjcif;rS uif;vGwcf iG /hf Oya'a&S@wiG f wef;wlncD iG /hf rw&m;zrf;qD;r_/ csKyfaESmifr/_ jynfEiS rf r_ S umuG,jf cif;/ r#waom w&m;pD&ifr&_ &Scd iG /hf uk, d yf ikd yf pPn;f ydik q f ikd cf iG /hf Edik if aH &;wGif yg0ifvyk af qmifciG /hf vufxyfxdrf;jrm;cGifh/ vGwv f yfpmG awG;ac:cGi/hf ,H=k unf/ud;k uG,cf iG /hf vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf z:ajymqdck iG /hf +idrf;csrf;pGmpka0;cGifh/ tzJG@zG@J pnf;cGifh/ rdrw d ikd ;f jynf&dS tpd;k &wGiyf g0ifciG hf wd@k jzpfonf? pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qikd &f mtcGit hf a&;rsm;wGif tvkyfvkyfcGifh/ tvkyw f /l vpmwef;wlcpH m;cGi/hf tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G rsm; zJ@G pnf;yg0ifciG /hf vlaer_tqifhvHkavmufpGm&&SdcGifh/ ynmoif=um;cGifh/ ,Ofaus;r_b0wGif yg0ifciG hf wd@k jzpfonf? pmwrf;wckv;kH . tESpo f m& tcsurf sm;jzpfonfh “vl@tcGit hf a&;onf arG;&myg tcGit hf a&; jzpfonf? vlwikd ;f twGuf wef;wlnrD #jzpfonf? rnfou l rS wm;jrpfyw d yf ifjcif; rvkyEf ikd ”f [laom tcsurf sm;udk a=unmpmwrf;. tzGihf ed'ge;f wGif a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf?

15 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tydk'faygif; (30) &Sdonfhteuf a=unmpmwrf;. tydk'f (1) wGif vlom;wdik ;f onf wlnaD om *k%o f u d mQ ESihf tcGit hf a&;&Sad =umif; azmfjyxm; onf? tyd'k f (2) wGif rnfow l OD; wa,mufurkd S rnfonft h a=umif;tcsuf rsm;a=umifh xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;tm; cJjG cm;cHpm;apcGihf r&S&d [k azmfjyxm;onf? tyd'k f (3) rS (27) twGi;f wGif oufqikd &f mvl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk azmfjyxm;+yD; tyd'k f (28) rS (30) txdwiG f xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk vlwikd ;f av;pm;vdu k ef m&ef wm0efrsm;udkazmfjyxm;onf? Ô

a=unmpmwrf;udk jyXmef;pOfu ukvor*~tzJ0@G if r[kwaf o;aom Edik if rH sm;ua&m xdpk mwrf;udk vufcH=uygvm;?

vl@tcGit hf a&; a=unmpmwrf;onf Oya't& pnf;aESmiftm;&So d nfh pmcsKyf pmwrf;r[kwfaomfvnf; EdkifiHwdkif;taejzifh xdkpmcsKyfyg tcGifhta&; rsm;udk av;pm;vdu k ef m&ef vdt k yfonf[al om Edik if w H umu ,lqowfrw S f csurf sm; wd;k yGm;cJo h nf? xdpk mwrf;udk twnfðypOfu ukvor*~tzJ@G 0if 56 Edik if o H m &Scd ahJ omfvnf; ,cktcg tzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;rSm xdt k csed u f xuf oH;k qausmf wd;k yGm;vmcJ+h yDjzpfonf? pmwrf;wGif yg0ifaom tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk Edik if w H ikd ;f u av;pm;vufcHvmr_rsm; wdk;yGm;vmovdk xdkpmwrf;onf vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh ywfoufI rSjD irf;ud;k um;p&mtjzpf vufcrH r_ sm;vnf; rsm;jym;vmcJo h nf? xdpk mwrf;ESihf ukvor*~csmwmwd@k . v$r;f rd;k oufa&mufrw _ @kd a=umifh 1950 ESihf 1960 ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f wGif udv k ekd eD ,fcs@J vufatmufrS jynforl sm; onf vGwfvyfcGifhudk awmif;qdkwdkufyJG0if atmifjrifcJh=uonf? xdkpmwrf;. tESpo f m&rsm;udk Edik if rH sm;. tajccH zJ@G pnf;yHOk ya'rsm;xJwiG f xnfo h iG ;f jyXmef; vmcJhonf?

16 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Edik if w H umu xdpk mwrf;tay: wefz;kd xm;r_ukd 1968 ckEpS f wD[&D ef òr@wiG f usi;f ycJah om Edik if w H um vl@tcGit hf a&; nDvmcHwiG f twdtvif; awG@jrifEikd f onf? xdn k v D mcHwiG f wufa&mufaom Edik if t H oD;oD;u “Ta=unmpmwrf; onf ukvor*~tzJG@0if EdkifiHrsm;ESifh EdkifiHwum todkif;t0dkif;wdk@taejzifh urBm@vlom;wdk@. tcGifhta&;rsm;udk csdK;azmufapmfum;jcif;rðy&ef wm0ef&Sd a=umif; txift&Sm; azmfjyxm;onf” [k wcJeuf oabmwlvufccH o hJ nf? aemifEpS af ygi;f (25) ESpt f =umwGif xyfru H si;f ycJah om AD,ifem Edik if w H um v@l tcGit hf a&; nDvmcHwiG v f nf; wufa&mufvmaom Edik if aH ygi;f 171 Edik if w H @kd u “Edi k if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;pepfrsm;ra&G; Edik if w H ikd ;f onf Tpmwrf;yg tcGihf ta&;rsm;ESifh tajccHvGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk xGef;um;atmif vkyfaqmif&ef/ umuG,af y;&ef wm0ef&o dS nf” [k a=unmcJo h nf? Ô

tjynfjynfqikd &f m vlt @ cGit hf a&;Oya'o (International Bill of Human Rights) wGif rnfonfp h mcsKyfrsm;yg0ifygvJ?

tjynfjynfqikd &f m vl@tcGit hf a&; a=unmpmwrf;onf tjynfjynf qdik &f m vl@tcGit hf a&;Oya'. yxrydik ;f jzpf+yD; 'kw, d tydik ;f wGif xdpk mwrf;wGif yg0ifaom tcsufrsm;udkyif tus,fw0ifh azmfjyxm;onfh vl@tcGifhta&; oabmwlpmcsKyfESpfck yg0ifonf? a=unmpmwrf;yg vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; tus,fw0ifh azmfjyxm;onhf pmcsKyfESpfck ay:aygufvmap&ef tcsdefrsm;pGm =umjrifch o hJ nf? 1966 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (16) &ufae@wiG f ukvor*~ taxGaxG nDvmcHrS xdpk mcsKyfEpS cf u k kd twnfðyjyXmef;cJo h nf? xdpk mcsKyfEpS cf rk mS - Edik if H wum Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf (The Interk if w H um national Convenant on Civil and Political Rights- ICCPR) ESihf Edi pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_ tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf (The International Economic, Social and Cultural Rights- ICESCR) wd@k jzpf onf? xdyk ifrpmcsKyfEpS cf t k jyif aemufxyfyg0ifaom pmcsKyfrsm;rSm Edik if o H m;ESihf

17 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qdkif&m oabmwlpmcsKyf. aemufqufwJGpmcsKyf ESpfck wd@k jzpfonf? aemufqufwpGJ mcsKyf teuf yxraemufqufwpGJ mcsKyfrmS Edik if H om;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qdkif&m pmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;tm; csdK;azmuf usL;vGecf &H onfh vly*k Kd~ vf wOD;wa,mufcsi;f u xdu k sL;vGecf &H r_ukd oufqikd &f m aumfrwDxo H @kd wdik =f um;Edik cf iG ðhf yaom pmcsKyf jzpfonf? aemufqufwGJ 'kw, d pmcsKyfrmS pmcsKyftzJ@G 0if Edik if rH sm;taejzifh ao'%f tjypfay;r_ukd zsuo f rd ;f &efEiS hf oufqikd o f nfh pmcsKyfjzpfonf? Edik if w H um tpd;k &wd@k onf tjynfjynfqikd &f m vl@tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;wGif yg0ifaom vl@tcGifhta&;wckcsif;udk oabmwlygonf[k qdkae,Hkr# rvHkavmufawmhbJ xdktcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI rdrdwdk@ tpdk;&taejzifh rnfodk@vkyfaqmif taumiftxnf azmfaeonfukd xdyk ifrpmcsKyfrsm;wGif yg0ifaom vl@tcGit hf a&; tcsurf sm;jzifh wdkif;wmoufaojy&awmhonf? xdo k @kd yifrpmcsKyfEpS cf u k kd jyXmef;Edik cf jhJ cif;u 1950 ckEpS w f iG f ukvor*~ wGif qH;k jzwfco hJ nfh Edik if o H m;/ Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;onf wckESifhwck qufpyfr_&Sdae+yD; tjyef tvSef rSw D , G v f su&f o dS nf [laomqH;k jzwfcsuu f kd wenf;tm;jzifh oufao jyaeonf? Ô

Edik if w H um vlt @ cGit hf a&; oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;ESihf tjynfjynfqikd &f m vlt @ cGit hf a&; a=unmpmwrf;wd@k rnfuo hJ @kd uGmjcm;ygoenf;?

Ekid if w H um vl@tcGit hf a&; pmcsKyfrsm;ESihf a=unmpmwrf; uGmjcm;csuf rSm pmcsKyfrsm;wGif xdpk mcsKyfukd vufrw S x f ;kd xm;aom Edik if rH sm;tay: pnf;aESmif tm; &Sjd cif;jzpfonf? pmcsKyftzJ@G 0if Edik if rH sm;taejzifh pmcsKyfwiG f azmfjyxm;onfh tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI rdrdwdk@ aqmif&Guftaumiftxnfazmfaer_

18 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; rsm;udk owfrw S x f m;aom tcsed u f mv tydik ;f tjcm;t& tpD&ifcpH m wifjy &onf? pmcsKyfyg vkyfxHk;vkyfenf; tqifhqifhudk av;pm;vdkufem&onf? tjynfjynfqikd &f m a=unmpmwrf;wGif xdo k @kd tpD&ifcjH cif;/ taumiftxnf azmf&jcif; vkyaf qmif&onfh pnf;aESmiftm; r&Sad y? od@k aomf vufrw S af &;xd;k p&mrvdak omfvJ ukvor*~ tzJ@G 0ifwikd ;f onf ukvor*~ csmwmudk vufrw S f a&;xd k ; vd k u f u wnf ; u pmwrf ; yg tcsuf r sm;ud k av;pm;vd k u f e m&ef tvdt k avsmuf wm0ef&o dS mG ;+yDjzpfonf? Ô

Edik if w H um vlt @ cGit hf a&; oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;udk ajymif;vJjyifqifI &ygovm;?

pmcsKyfwiG f yg0ifaom tcsurf sm;udk jyifqifvykd gu od@k r[kwf jznfph u G f vdyk gu xdpk mcsKyf. aemufqufwpGJ mcsKyftjzpf a&;om;&ygonf? rlva&;om; pOf yg0ifaom tcsurf sm;ESihf rvHak vmufawmhonfh tcgrsKd ;ESihf aemufxyf ydrk kd jynfhpHkaumif;rGefaom tcsuftvufrsm; xyfrHjznfhpGufEdkif&eftwGuf tcsdK@ pmcsKyfrsm;wGif aemufqufwJGpmcsKyfrsm;udk xyfrHa&;om;vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? Oyrm - Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&; pmcsKyfwiG f wOD;csi;f wdik =f um;r_ukd cGirhf ðy cJah omfvnf; wOD;csi;f wdik =f um;r_ukd cGiðhf yonfh vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;wckukd topf a&;qJv G u kd o f nfh aemufqufwpGJ mcsKyfwiG f awG@&onf? yifrpmcsKyfukd vufrw S x f ;kd xm;ojzifh tvdt k avsmuf aemufqufwGJ pmcsKyfudk oabmwl&m ra&mufyg? xdkodk@ aemufqufwJGpmcsKyfrsm;tjzpf ay:aygufvmaom pmcsKyfrsm;udk yifrpmcsKyfudk vufrSwfxdk;xm;onfh EdkifiH rsm;u vufcv H u kd ef mrnfjzpfa=umif; oD;jcm; jyefvnfvufrw S x f ;kd &ef vdt k yf onf?

19 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

jciG ;f csufxm; vufrw S af &;xd;k jcif; qdo k nfrmS tb,fenf;?

Edik if w H Edik if u H oabmwlpmcsKyfwiG f yg0ifaom tcsut f vuf tyd'k f rsm;udk ESpo f ufaomfvnf; yg0ifonfh tcsKd @tyd'k rf sm;udk vuf&w dS iG f taumif txnfazmfaqmif&ef cufcaJ eygu od@k r[kwf xdt k yd'k yf gtcsuu f kd rvdv k m;ygu xdt k yd'k u f kd csev f yS I f pmcsKyfukd vufrw S x f ;kd jcif;udk jciG ;f csux f m; vufrw S x f ;kd jcif; (Reservation) [k ac:onf? od@k aomf xdo k @kd jciG ;f csux f m; vufrw S af &;xd;k jcif;udk tuef@towfjzifo h m vkyaf qmif&ef/ rnfonft h wGuaf =umifh xdo k @kd jcGi;f csuf xm;I vufrSwfa&;xdk;&jcif;udk aocsmpGm &Sif;vif;azmfjy&ef ukvor*~u Edik if rH sm;tm; yef=um;xm;onf?

20 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&; Ô

Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyfwiG f rnfonfh tcGit hf a&; rsm;udk tumtuG,af y;xm;ygovJ?

TpmcsKyfwiG f Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;qdik &f mtcGit hf a&;rsm;udk tus,f w0ifah zmfjyxm;onf? Oyrm - touf&iS cf iG /hf yk*v ~ u d vGwv f yfciG /hf vGwv f yfpmG wifjyajymqdck iG /hf ,H=k unf ud;k uG,cf iG /hf ESyd pf ufjcif;rS uif;vGwcf iG /hf Oya'a&S@wiG f wef;wlnw D &l cdS iG hf ponfw@kd yg0ifonf? TpmcsKyft& pmcsKyfygtcsdK@tcGifhta&;rsm;udk EdkifiH. ta&;ay: tajctaeESihf jynfov l x l . k ta&;ay:umvtwGi;f rsKd ;wGif qdik ;f ihEH ikd o f nf[k qdkxm;onf? odk@aomf xdkodk@ qdkif;ihHr_onf vlrsdK;a&;/ vdif/ bmompum;/ udk;uG,fonfhbmomESifh vlr_&if;jrpfwdk@udk tajccHaom cJGjcm;r_rjzpfap&[k jyefvnfowfrSwfxm;onf? qdkif;ihHr_onf tjcm;olrsm;. tcGifhta&;ESifh vGwfvyfcGifhudk av;pm;wefzdk;xm;+yD; 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;usaom vl@abmif b0. pdwyf ikd ;f qdik &f m zG@H òz;wd;k wufr/_ Oya'wnfrE_ iS hf jynfow l @dk . vlrz_ v l akH &; wdk@twGuf vdktyfonf[k Oya't& qHk;jzwfcsufay;onfh tcgrsdK;wGifom vkyaf qmifEikd o f nf? tu,fI Edik if w H pfEikd if u H xdo k @kd ta&;ay:tajctaersKd ;wGif xdt k cGit hf a&;tcsKd @ukd qdik ;f ihx H m;vdyk gu ukvor*~ taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; csKyfxH tvsit f jref ta=umif;=um;&rnfjzpfonf? ta&;ay:tajctae jyXmef;&onfh tcgrsKd ;wGif qd;k 0g;aom vl@tcGihf ta&; csKd ;azmufrr_ sm;udk r=umc% awG@ñuH&avh&o dS nf? xdak =umifh ta&;ay: umvwGijf zpfap/ ppfyu GJ mvtwGi;f jzpfap/ +idr;f csr;f aeaom umvwGijf zpfap

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; rnfonfhumvwGifrqdk tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;udk qdkif;iHhjcif;/ usL;vGefjcif; rðy&ef[k xdkpmcsKyfxJrSmyif owfrSwfxm;jyefygonf? xdktcGifhta&;rsm;rSm touf&iS v f ðkH ccH iG /hf w&m;Oya'a&S@wiG f wef;wlnrD #ciG /hf ESyd pf ufjcif;ESihf u|eðf yjcif;rS uif;vGwcf iG /hf vGwv f yfpmG awG;ac:cGi/hf vGwv f yfpmG ,H=k unf ud;k uG,cf iG /hf au|;jrD‡ ray;Edik af om tcsuaf =umifh axmifcsjcif;ESihf aemufa=umif;jyef tjypfay; ta&; ,lrw _ @kd rS uif;vGwcf iG w hf @kd jzpf+yD; xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk rnfonfu h mv rnfonfh ta=umif;a=umifrh S qdik ;f iHjh cif;/ usL;vGejf cif;wd@k vkyaf qmifciG rhf &Sad y? Ô

Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m Edik if w H um oabmwl pmcsKyfyg tcsufrsm;tm; taumiftxnfazmfru _ kd rnfuo hJ @kd vkyfaqmifygovJ?

xdpk mcsKyf. tyd'k f (28)t& tzJ@G 0if (18) OD;yg0ifaom vl@tcGit hf a&; aumfrwD (Human Rights Committee) udk zJ@G pnf;xm;ygonf? xdak umfrwD0if (18) OD;udk pmcsKyftzJ@G 0if Edik if rH sm;u a&G;cs,w f ifajr‡muf&+yD; vGwv f yf u|r;f usiaf om olrsm;jzpf&ygrnf? oufqikd &f mEdik if u H kd ud, k pf m;ðyaomolrsm; rjzpf &yg? xdkaumfrwDuae+yD; pmcsKyftzJG@0if EdkifiHrsm;. pmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Gufr_ESifh ywfoufI apmifh=uyfavhvmygonf? oufqikd &f mpmcsKyftzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;u wifoiG ;f vmaom yHrk eS t f pD&ifcpH m rsm;udk aumfrwDu vufcI H Edik if t H pd;k &rsm;. taumiftxnfazmf vkyaf qmifru _ kd avhvmygonf? xdo k @kd tvSnu hf sEikd if u H wifoiG ;f vmaom yHrk eS t f pD&ifcpH m rsm;udk aumfrwD0ifrsm;u vltrsm;a&S@wGif avhvmygonf? xdkodk@avhvm &mwGif vdt k yfygu ar;jref;Edik &f eftwGuf oufqikd &f mEdik if u H , kd pf m;vS,u f v kd nf; zdwfac:xm;ygonf? tpD&ifcHpmudk avhvm+yD;qHk;ygu aumfrwDuaeI rdrdwdk@awG@jrif,lqonfht"dutcsufrsm;/ t}uHay;csufrsm;/ oufqdkif&m Edik if t H aejzifh ,ckxuf ydrk akd umif;rGeaf tmif taumiftxnfazmf vkyaf qmif oifo h nf[k aumfrwDu ,lqaom tcsurf sm;udk xkwjf yefa=unmonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; aumfrwDtaejzifh pmcsKyfygtyd'k f (41) t& Edik if w H cku tjcm;Edik if H wck. pmcsKyfygtcGifhta&;rsm;tm; csdK;azmufr_tay: wdkif=um;onfh wdkif=um;r_ rsm;udkvnf; vufcHpOf;pm;Edkifonf? odk@aomf ,cktcsdeftxd EdkifiHwEdkifiHu tjcm;Edik if w H Edik if t H ay: wdik =f um;aomtr_ ray:ayguaf o;yg? aumfrwDonf aumfrwD.vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;udk pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra_ &; aumifprD w S qifh taxGaxGnv D mcHo@kd ESppf OfEpS w f ikd ;f owif;ay;yd@k wifjyygonf? Ô

xdo k o @kd wif;ay;ydt @k pD&ifcrH o _ nf rnfr#oufa&mufr&_ ydS govJ?

vltcGit hf a&;udk tpD&ifcI H umuG,rf o _ nf oufqikd &f mEdik if rH sm;. yl;aygi;f vufwyGJ g0if vufcrH t _ ay: rsm;pGmwnfraDS eonf? oufqikd &f mEdik if H ud, k w f ikd u f vufcv H u kd ef mr_r&Sv d #if aumfrwDtaejzifh t}uHay;csu/f ,lqcsuf rsm;ay;jcif; oufoufxuf ydkrdkIvkyfaqmifIr&ay? odk@aomf EdkifiHtpdk;& tawmfrsm;rsm;onf rdrw d @kd Eikd if . H vl@tcGit hf a&;ta=umif;tm; vltrsm;od&dS rnfukd pd;k &draf vh&adS oma=umifh Edik if . H tpD&ifcpH mtm; vlo&d iS =f um; wifoiG ;f apjcif;jzifh pmcsKyfyg tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk av;pm;vdu k ef mvmap&ef tpd;k &wd@k tay: =oZmoufa&mufr_ wpfenf;tm;jzifh jzpfaponf? xdk@jyif aumfrwD. t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm tpD&ifcHwifoGif;aom EdkifiHESifh aumif;rGeftusdK;&Sdaom qufqHr_rsm; wdk;wufapa&;jzpfojzifh pmcsKyfygtcsurf sm;tm; Edik if t H pd;k &taejzifh av;pm;vdu k ef mr_ ydrk w kd ;kd wufap&ef aqmif&GufEdkifonf? tpD&ifcHwifoGif;aom EdkifiHtaejzifhvnf; pmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;udk jynforl sm; od&edS m;vnfatmif vkyaf qmif&ef/ a'ooH;k bmompum;rsm;jzifh bmomjyef&efEiS hf w&m; pD&ifa&;ESihf tkycf sKyfa&;u¾rsm;uvnf; xdpk mcsKyfyg

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk ta&;w,l avhvmEdkifapa&;twGuf vdktyfovdk vkyaf qmifay;ap&ef aumfrwDu wdu k w f eG ;f xm;onf? Ô

vltcGit hf a&;aumfrwDxH vlwOD;wa,mufcsif; wdik =f um;Edik f ygovm;?

tu,fI xdkwdkif=um;cH&onfhEdkifiHonf EkdifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifh ta&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf. aemufqufwpGJ mcsKyf (1) udk vufrw S af &;xd;k xm;ygu aumfrwDonf xdw k ikd =f um;r_ukd vufccH iG &hf o dS nf? xdo k @kd wikd =f um;r_onf aumfrwDxH pmjzifq h ufo, G I f a&;om;wdik =f um;r_jzpf&rnf? tu,fI ud, k x f d vufa&muf csdK;azmufcH&olonf aumfrwDxH rwdkif=um;Edkifonfh tjzpfrsdK; jzpfygu tjcm;olrsm;u ud, k pf m;ðy wdik =f um;r_uv kd nf; vufcEH ikd o f nf? aumfrwDonf wdik =f um;vmaom tr_EiS yfh wfoufI tr_ukd vufcEH ikd f rcHEikd f qdo k nfh qH;k jzwfcsuu f kd yxrOD;qH;k qH;k jzwfonf? xd@k aemuf xdt k r_tay: aumfrwD0ifrsm;om yg0ifaom wHcg;ydwpf pfaq;=um;emr_rsm; qufvufvyk f aqmifygonf? xdktr_tm;vufcH/ rcHudkqHk;jzwfEdkif&eftwGuf xdktr_onf trnfrazmfbJ wdkif=um;r_rjzpf&yg? vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;udk tvJGoHk;pm;vkyfI wdkif=um;aom tr_rsdK;rjzpf&yg? xdk@jyif tjcm;aom EdkifiHwum wdkif=um;r_ vkyif ef;pOf wckcw k iG f wdik =f um;xm;aom tr_rjzpf&yg? xdt k r_EiS hf ywfoufI oufqikd &f m Edik if aH wmfw&m;Oya't& wdik =f um;&rnfh ta&;,laqmif&u G rf r_ sm; udk tm;vH;k vkyaf qmifc+hJ yD; jzpfaomfvnf; vHak vmufonfh pD&ifr&_ &Sad &;twGuf auseyfr_ r&aom tr_rsKd ;jzpf&ygrnf? aumfrwDu txl;vd_@0SufpOf;pm;xm;+yD; vufcHavmufonf[k qHk;jzwfxm;aom wOD;wa,mufcsif;. wdkif=um;r_rsm;udk wdkif=um;cH&aom oufqidk &f mEdik if q H o D @kd aumfrwD rSwqifh ay;yd@k today;&ygonf? xdo k @kd ay;yd@k &

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; jcif;rSm oufqdkif&m EdkifiHtaejzifh xdktr_ESifh ywfoufaom ajz&Sif;r_rsm;/ ta&;,laqmif&u G af eqJ&ydS gu rnfuo hJ @kd aqmif&u G af eqJ jzpfonf [laom tcsufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI ar;cGef;xkwf&efjzpfygonf? xdkodk@ay;ydk@t+yD; (6) vtwGi;f xdo k ufqikd &f mEdik if u H xdt k jzpftysuEf iS hf ywfoufI &Si;f vif;ajymqdk aom tcsurf sm;/ tu,fI xdt k jzpftysuEf iS hf ywfoufI wpHw k &m ta&;,l aqmif&u G f xm;+yD;jzpfygu rnfuo hJ @kd aqmif&u G x f m;a=umif; azmfjya&;om; onfh pmudk aumfrwDxH jyefvnfay;yd@k tpD&ifc&H ygonf? xdo k @kd Edik if t H pd;k &u wifjyaom tpD&ifcpH mrsm;/ wdik =f um; aomol od@k r[kwf ud, k x f v d ufa&muf usL;vGecf &H olw@kd u wdik =f um;aom tcsurf sm; tm;vH;k udk aumfrwDu avhvm& ygonf? xd@k aemuf aumfrwDtaejzifh xdt k r_upd EP iS hf ywfoufI rnfo@kd awG@jrif ,lqa=umif;/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh EkdifiHawmftpdk;&taejzifh rnfodk@ ta&;,l aqmif&u G af y;oifah =umif; azmfjyxm;onfh tcsurf sm;udk oufqikd &f mEdik if EH iS hf wdik =f um;olw@kd xH jyefvnfay;yd@k ygonf? xdo k @kd aumfrwD. awG@jrif,q l csuf rsm;ESihf qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk trsm;od&EdS ikd af tmif a=unmygonf? Ô

aumfrwD. awGj@ rif,q l csufrsm;udk Edik if rH sm;u av;pm; ygovm;?

vl@tcGit hf a&;aumfrwD. awG@jrif,q l csurf sm;onf w&m;Oya't& oHk;oyfcsuf rsm;yifjzpfonf? odk@aomf w&m;Oya't& ta&;,laqmif&Guf Edik jf cif; r&Syd g? xdak =umifh xdo k @kd q;kH jzwfcsurf sm;/ awG@jrif,q l csurf sm;tm; vdu k ef m aqmif&Gufjcif;&Sdr&Sd [laom tcsufrSm oufqkdif&mEdkifiHay:wGif rlwnfae ygonf? vdu k ef maqmif&u G af om Edik if rH sm;rSmvnf; &nf&, G cf sut f rsKd ;rsKd ; &Sw d wf onfukd awG@&onf? tcsKd @u pmcsKyfwiG f wm0ef&rdS t _ m; trSew f u,f jynfjynfh 00 vufcHaoma=umifh jzpfwwfovdk tcsdK@EdkifiHrsm;uvnf; EdkifiHwum tvnfwiG f rsuEf mS aumif;&&Sv d akd oma=umifh jzpfavh&o dS nf?

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tcsd K @Ed k i f i H r sm;u vd k u f e maqmif & G u f & mwG i f v nf ; trS e f w u,f =unf=unfomomjzifh vdkufemjcif;rsdK;r[kwfbJ rjiif;omI vdkufemonfh oabmrsKd ;rsm;vnf; &Sw d wf onf? Oyrm - e,fomvefEikd if t H ay: aumfrwDu qHk;jzwfcsuf/ awG@jrif,lqcsuf csrSwfonfhtcg e,fomvefEdkifiHu xdkodk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufonfudk tomw=unf vufcHonfr[kwfbJ aumfrwDtay: av;pm;aomtm;a=umifhom xdkodk@vdkufavsmaqmif&GufcJhjcif; jzpfonf[k xkwjf yefajymqdck +hJ yD; qH;k jzwfonft h wdik ;f vdu k ef mcJo h nf? od@k &mwGif aumfrwDu qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;/ awG@jrif,q l csuu f kd jynfjh ynfh 00 vdkufemaom om"ursm;vnf; &Sdygonf? Oyrm - zifvefEdkifiHonf aumfrwDu av;pm;vdkufemoifhonf[k xkwfazmfajymqdkonfhtwdkif; rdrd Edik if o H m;r[kwo f rl sm;tm; xdr;f odr;f xm;jcif; qdik &f mOya'udk テーyjyifajymif;vJ cJ, h rkH u xdo k @kd xrd ;f odr;f cHc&hJ olrsm;udyk if avsmaf =u;ay;cJo h nf? arm&pfo#Eikd if H onfvnf; arm&do#trsKd ;orD;rsm;u wdik =f um;cJo h nfh vdiu f jGJ ym;r_ukd tajccHI rdom;pkb0twGif; tpdk;&u 0ifa&mufpGufzufonf[kqdkaom tpdk;&. Oya'wckudk aumfrwDu vufcHoHk;oyfcJhonfhtwdkif; arm&do#tpdk;&u ajymif;vJay;cJhonf? aumfrwD. qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk av;pm;vdu k ef m aqmif&u G rf _ t&Sed f t[kef ydkrdkwdk;wufaumif;rGefvmap&eftwGuf aumfrwD. qHk;jzwfcsufudk Edik if rH sm;u rnfo@kd av;pm;taumiftxnfazmfaea=umif; a&;om;tpD&ifcH csurf sm;udk awmif;qdEk ikd cf iG t hf m%m tjynft h 0ay;xm;onfh txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq; a&;t&m&Sd (Special Rapporteur) wOD;udk aumfrwDu cef@tyfxm;onf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr+a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r+tcGifhta&; Ô

pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwl pmcsKyfwiG f rnfonfh tcGit hf a&;rsm; yg0ifygovJ?

xdpk mcsKyfwiG yf g0ifaom pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qikd &f m tcGihf ta&;rsm;rSm - tvkyfvkyfydkifcGifh/ oifwifhavsmufywfaom vkyfief;cGifESifh wef;wltvkyftwGuf vkyfc wlnDpGmcHpm;cGifh/ tvkyform;or*~rsm;odk@ 0ifa&mufcGifh/ vlr_zlvHka&; cHpm;ydkifcGifh/ vHkavmufaom pm;0wfaea&;ESifh vlaer_tqifhtwef;cHpm;cGifh/ usef;rma&;/ ynma&;wdk@wGif tjrifhrm;qHk; cHpm;ydik cf iG /hf ,Ofaus;r_b0wGif yg0ifciG w hf @kd jzpfonf? pmcsKyftzJ@G 0ifEidk if rH sm;onf rdrEd ikd if &H dS t&if;tjrpfrsm;tm; tpGr;f uket f oH;k ðyI Edik if o H m;rsm;taejzifh xdk tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk wjznf;jznf;csi;f ESihf tjynft h 0cHpm;&&S&d ef vkyaf qmifay;zd@k wm0ef&o dS nf? ,ckpmcsKyfwiG f azmfjyxm;aom rnfonft h cGit hf a&;udrk S jiif; y,fjcif;rðyEdkifyg? Ô

pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyfukd rnfonfh enf;jzifh apmif=h uyfygovJ?

pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf wGif yg0ifaom tcsurf sm;tm; apmif=h uyfaom aumfrwDrmS pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlr_ a&; aumifpu D 1985 ckEpS w f iG f zJ@G pnf;cJah om pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_ tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m aumfrwD (Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) jzpfonf? xda k umfrwDwiG f aumfrwD0if (18) OD; yg0ifygonf? xdkaumfrwD0ifrsm;udk pmcsKyftzJG@0ifEdkifiHrsm;u a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf&+yD;

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; vGwv f yfu|r;f usiaf omolrsm; jzpf&ygrnf? oufqikd &f mEdik if u H kd ud, k pf m;テーyaom olrsm;rjzpf&yg? xdak umfrwDuaeI pmcsKyftzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;u pmcsKyfygtcsurf sm; tm; rnfuo hJ @kd taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u G af eonfukd apmif=h uyfavhvm ygonf? xdkaumfrwD0ifrsm;onf pmcsKyftzJG@0ifEdkifiHrsm;u wm0efusonfh twdkif; tvSnfhus tcsdefrSefrSefwifoGif;vmaom pmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI rnfuJhodk@ wdk;wufatmif vkyfaqmifaea=umif;udk azmfjyonfh tpD & if c H p mrsm;tm; avh v moH k ; oyf y gonf ? xd k o d k @ avh v mpOf t wG i f ; oufqikd &f mtpd;k &. ud, k pf m;vS,v f nf; &Sad e&+y;D aumfrwDtaejzifh aemufxyf xyfrHod&Sdvdkaom tcsufrsm;&Sdygu xdkudk,fpm;vS,ftm; ar;jref;&ygonf? xdk@tjyif aumfrwDonf xkdoufqdkif&mEdkifiH. ta=umif;t&m wpHkwckESifh ywfoufI txl;u|r;f usirf &_ adS om ukvor*~ txl;jyKat*sipf rD sm;xH vdt k yf aom tcsut f vufrsm; ar;jref;pHpk rf;Edik o f vdk tjcm;tpd;k &r[kwaf om tzJ@G rsm; udkvnf; aumfrwDuodvdkaom pmcsKyfygta=umif;t&mESifh ywfoufI tpD&ifcHpmwifoGif;&ef odk@r[kwf E_wfjzifhtpD&ifcH&ef zdwf=um;Edkifygonf? tu,fI oufqidk &f mEdik if u H vdt k yfaom aemufqufwGJ tcsut f vufrsm; wifjyEdik jf cif;r&Syd gu aumfrwDtaejzifh vdt k yfaom qef;ppfrr_ sm;/ twwfynm ydkif;qdkif&m tultnDrsm;/ t}uHay;csufrsm; yhHydk;Edkif&eftwGuf tzJG@0ifwOD; od@k r[kwf ESpOf ;D yg0ifaom ud, k pf m;vS,t f zJ@G tm; xdEk ikd if t H wGi;f od@k avhvm&ef twGuf apv$wjf cif;udk vufc&H eftwGuf xdt k pd;k &tm; yef=um;Edik o f nf? aumfrwDonf Edik if t H oD;oD;. tpD&ifcpH mrsm;tay: rdrw d @kd oH;k oyf awG@jrifcsurf sm;ESihf aemufq;kH tqifh qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra_ &; aumifpx D o H @kd ESppf OftpD&ifcH wifjy&onf? xdt k pD&ifcpH mwGif pmcsKyfyg tcGihf ta&;rsm;ukd vufawG@taumiftxnf azmf&mwGif テアuHawG@&onft h csurf sm;/ tcuftcJrsm;ESihf a&S@quft}uHテーycsurf sm;vnf; yg0ifavh&ydS gonf? xdt k csuf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; rsm;onf trsm;jynfolwdk@tm; today;onfh ta&;}uD;aom tcsufrsm; jzpfygonf? TaumfrwDonf vlwOD;wa,mufcsif;u rdrdEdkifiHtpdk;&tay: pmcsKyfyg tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; csdK;azmufaea=umif; wdkif=um;r_ESifh pmcsKyf tzJ@G 0ifEikd if H wEdik if t H ay: tjcm;tzJ@G 0ifEikd if u H wdik =f um;r_ukd vufrcHyg? Ô

vlt @ cGit hf a&;ESifh ywfoufI Edik if t H pd;k &wd@k av;pm;vdu k ef m&ef wm0ef&o dS nf[I l Edik if w H umu owfrw S jf yXmef;jcif;onf xdEk idk if aH &;. jynfwiG ;f a&;udk 0ifa&muf pGuzf uf&m ra&mufbl;vm;?

Ekid if w H umqufqaH &;ESihf ywfoufaom "avhx;kH pH Oya'rsm;wGif Edik if H wEdik if . H jynfwiG ;f a&;udk tjcm;Edik if w H Edik if u H 0ifa&mufpu G zf ufciG hf vH;k 0r&S[ d k twdtvif; azmf!e$ ;f xm;onf? vl@tcGit hf a&;qdo k nfrmS xdEk ikd if . H jynfwiG ;f a&;&mrsm;jzpfonf[k vGefcJhaom umvaygif;rsm;pGmu oabmaygufcH,l xm;cJ=h uonf? od@k &mwGif vl@tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufusL;vGerf r_ sm;onf urBmh +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf vH+k cHKa&;udk xdyg;aESmuf,u S af ponf[I l ,lqvmonfh tcsed rf S pI ,cifu,lqxm;cJhaom vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_qdkonfrSm EdkifiH wEdik if . H jynfwiG ;f a&;jzpfonf[al om ,lqcsurf mS tvdt k avsmuf aysmuf uG,foGm;cJhonf? 1993 ckESpf AD,ifem vl@tcGifhta&;nDvmcHwGif xkwfjyef cJhaom a=unmcsufESifh a&S@vkyfief;pOfwGif “vl@tcGifhta&;rsm; xGef;um;ap &efEiS hf ‚wd@k ukd umuG,&f efrmS Edik if w H umtodik ;f t0dik ;f u w&m;0iftodtrSwf ðyxm;aom tcsufrsm;jzpfonf” [k azmfjyxm;onf? xdk@jyif 1993 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 20 &ufae@u taxGaxGnv D mcHuaeI xkwjf yefa=unmcJah om ukvor*~ qH;k jzwfcsut f rSwf 48§125 . tyd'k f (3) ESihf (5) wGiv f nf; “urBmh ukvor*~EiS hf tzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;tm;vH;k . wm0efEiS hf 0wW&m;rSm vl@tcGit hf a&;ESihf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tajccHvw G v f yfciG w hf @kd xGe;f um;apa&;ESihf av;pm;apa&;udk tm;ay;tm;ajrm‡ uf ðy&efEiS hf vl@tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufrr_ sm; jzpfymG ;ygu 0dik ;f 0ef;owdcsyf apmif=h uyf k ;kH jzwfcsurf mS yif “vl@tcGit hf a&; ay;&ef” jzpfonf[k azmfjyxm;ygonf? xdq rsm;ESihf tajccHvw G v f yfciG w hf @kd ukd umuG,af &;/ xGe;f um;apa&;ESihf tjrifq h ;kH em;vnfoabmayguaf pa&;onf Edik if w H um todik ;f t0dik ;f u w&m;0iftod trSwfðyxm;aom tcsufrsm;jzpfonfhtwGuf xdkvkyfief;rsm;udk aqmif&Guf &mwGif rsuEf mS vdu k jf cif;/ yk*v ~ u d tpJjG zifh vkyaf qmifjcif;rsm;uif;onfh rl0g'rsm; xm;&SdI aqmif&Guf&rnf” [k azmfjyxm;jyefygonf? xdk@a=umifh vl@tcGifh ta&;ESifh ywfoufI Edik if t H pd;k &wd@k av;pm;vdu k ef m&ef wm0ef&o dS nf[I l Edik if H wumu owfrSwf jyXmef;jcif;onf EdkifiHwumu wm0ef&Sdonfhtwdkif; vkyfaqmifjcif;omjzpfonf? vl@tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufrE_ iS yhf wfoufI Edik if w H umu 0dik ;f 0ef;jypfwif ta&;,ljcif;cH&aom Edik if rH sm;onf ukvor*~csmwm. tyd'k f 2 (7) wGif azmfjy xm;onfh “EkdifiHwEdkifiH&Sd jynfwGif;Oya'rsm;. w&m;pD&ifxHk;rsm; atmuf wGi&f adS om ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk ukvor*~taejzifh 0ifa&mufpu G zf ufjcif; rðy&” [laomtcsufudk axmufjyI EdkifiHwum. ta&;,lapmifh=uyfr_udk umuG,af jymqdw k wf=uonf? od@k aomf xdo k @kd ajymqdck surf sm;onf Edik if w H um Oya'rsm;atmufwiG &f adS om xdEk ikd if t H pd;k &. wm0ef0wW&m;rsm; ysuu f u G jf cif;udk umuG,&f eftwGuf qifajcay;av#mufvjJ cif;omjzpfonf[I l Edik if w H umu vufcHvmcJh=uonf? xdq k ifajcrsKd ;jzifh xdEk ikd if . H vl@tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufrt _ ay: Ekid if w H um u ta&;,lrt _ m; &yfwo hH mG ;atmif vkyaf qmifI r&Edik af wmhyg? xd@k jyif Edik if rH sm; tcsi;f csi;f t=um; +ird ;f csr;f a&;ESihf wnf+ird af t;csr;f a&;udk &&S&d efrmS Edik if t H oD;oD; wGif vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;udk &&Sdapaom tajctaersdK; zefwD; wnfaqmufEikd rf o S m jzpfEikd rf nf[k ukvor*~rS todtrSwðf yvmcJo h nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

Edik if w H um vlt @ cGit hf a&;Oya'otjyif aemufxyf ta&;}u;D aom vlt @ cGit hf a&; oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm; &Sdygao;vm;?

Edik if w H um vl@tcGit hf a&;Oya'owGif yg0ifaom tjynfjynfqikd &f m vl@tcGit hf a&; a=unmpmwrf;ESihf yifrpmcsKyfw@kd tjyif ‚wd@k xw J iG f ryg0ifao; aom tjcm;tao;pdwf tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI ukvor*~ taxGaxG nDvmcHESifh ukvor*~&Sd tjcm;Oya'ðyEdkifaomXmersm;u jyXmef;xm;onfh vl@tcGifhta&; oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm; (Conventions)/ vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m a=unmcsurf sm; (Declarations)ESihf t}uHay;csurf sm; (Recommendations) ajrmufrsm;pGm&Sdygao;onf? oabmwl pmcsKyfrsm;onf vufrw S x f ;kd xm;aom Edik if rH sm;tay:om Oya't& pnf;aESmiftm; &Sd=uonf? odk@aomf vufrSwfa&;xdk;jcif;r&Sdaom Edik if t H ay: pnf;aESmiftm;r&SEd ikd yf g? a=unmcsurf sm;/ t}uHay;csurf sm;onf oabmwl pmcsKyfrsm;uJo h @kd Oya't& pnf;aESmiftm; r&Sad omfvnf; ukvor*~ tzJ@G 0if Edik if w H ikd ;f av;pm;&ef vdt k yfygonf? EdkifiHwum vl@tcGifhta&; Oya'otjyif tjcm;ta&;}uD;aom vl@tcGit hf a&; oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;rSm• touf&iS rf q _ ikd &f m tcGit hf a&;ESihf oufqikd af ompmcsKyfrsm; Oyrm - ESyd pf uf !‡O;f yrf;r_qikd &f m/ u|eðf yr_qikd &f mpmcsKyfrsm;/ • tkyfpktcGifhta&;rsm;ESifhoufqdkifaompmcsKyfrsm;/ Oyrm trsKd ;orD;/ uav;oli,f/ vlenf;pk/ 'kuo Q nf/ rl&if;Xmae vlrsKd ;rsm;qdik &f m pmcsKyfrsm;jzpfonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlom;rsKd ;EG,pf w k ckv;kH tjrpfðywfowfjzwfr+ Ô

vlom;rsdK;EG,pf w k ckv;kH tjrpfðywfowfjzwfr_ (Genocide) ESifh ywfoufI rnfo@kd wm;qD;vkyaf qmifrr_ sm; &Syd govJ?

1948 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHuaeI vlom;rsKd ;EG,pf k wckv;kH tjrpfðywfowfjzwfaom &mZ0wfrt _ m; umuG,af &; ESihf tjypfay;a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide) udk jyXmef;cJhonf? 1951 ckEpS w f iG f xdpk mcsKyftouf0ifvmcJ+h yD; ,cktcg Edik if aH ygi;f 120 cef@ twnfðy vufrw S f xd;k xm;vsu&f o dS nf? vlom;rsKd ;EG,pf w k ckv;kH tjrpfðywf owfjzwfr. _ t"dym` ,f udk xdpk mcsKyfwiG f “vlrsKd ;pk/ wkid ;f &if;om;rsKd ;EG,pf /k tom;ta&miftyk pf k odk@r[kwf bmoma&;tkyfpk0ifwdk@tm; wpftkyfpkvHk;udkjzpfap tkyfpkwpdwf wa'oudjk zpfap zsupf ;D apvdak om &nf&, G cf sujf zifh usL;vGeaf omvky&f yf” [lI t"dym` ,f zGiq hf kd xm;onf? vlom;rsKd ;EG,pf w k ckv;kH tjrpfðywfowfjzwfru _ kd ppf y J G u mvtwG i f ; usL;vG e f o nf j zpf a p/ +id r f ; csrf ; aom umvtwG i f ; usL;vGeo f nfjzpfap Edik if w H umOya't& xdt k r_onf &mZ0wfr_ ajrmufonf? xd&k mZ0wfru _ kd vlom;rsKd ;EG,w f ckv;kH tay: usL;vGeaf om &mZ0wfr_ (Crime against humanity) [kvnf;ac:onf? xdkpmcsKyfyg tydk'f (6) t& xdk vlom;rsdK;EG,fpk wckvHk; tjrpfðywf owfjzwfaom &mZ0wfrr_ sKd ; usL;vGecf ahJ omoltm; xdo k u l sL;vGecf o hJ nfEh ikd if &H dS pGr;f aqmifEikd rf _ tjynft h 0&Sad om w&m;±H;k wGijf zpfap pmcsKyftzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;u pGr;f aqmifEikd rf _ tjynf&h o dS nf[k vufcx H m;aom Edik if w H um cH±k ;kH rsm;wGijf zpfap ppfaq;tjypfay;Edkifonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlrsdK;a&;tajccHI cJGjcm;qufqHr+ Ô

vlrsdK;a&;tajccHI cJjG cm;qufqrH _ (Racial Discrimination) ESihf ywfoufI umuG,w f m;qD;aom Edik if w H umOya'&Syd govm;? vlrsdK;a&;cJGjcm;qufqHr_ yHkpHtm;vHk; yaysmufa&; oabmwlpmcsKyf

(Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination)

onf 1969 ckEpS w f iG f touf0ifvmcJ+h yD; ,cktcg xdpk mcsKyfukd Edik if aH ygi;f 140 ausmfu twnfðyvufrSwf a&;xdk;xm;vsuf&Sdonf? ukvor*~pmcsKyfrsm; teuf TpmcsKyfonf “vlrsKd ;/ tom;ta&mif/ rsKd ;EG,q f if;oufr/_ vlrsKd ;ESihf wdkif;&if;om;rsdK;EG,fjzpfr_” wdk@tay:tajccHonfh cJGjcm;qufqHr_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@ azmfjyxm;aom pmcsKyfjzpfonf? TpmcsKyfukd vufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;aom pmcsKyftzJG@0if EkdifiHrsm;taejzifh vlrsdK;a&; cJGjcm; xm;r_tm;vHk; yaysmufapa&;twGuf ay:vpDrl0g'rsm;udk csrSwf taumif txnfazmf aqmif&u G &f efEiS hf rdrEd ikd if o H m;rsm; tm;vH;k tay: cJjG cm;jcif;r&Sb d J vl@tcGit hf a&;ESihf tajccHvw G v f yfciG w hf @kd ukd tjynft h 0 wef;wlnw D cl pH m;Edik af &; twGuf tmrcHay;&ef wm0ef&o dS nf? Ô

vlrsdK;a&;cJjG cm;qufqrH _ yHpk t H m;vH;k yaysmufa&; oabmwlpmcsKyf. vkyaf qmifr_ tqifq h ifo h nf b,fvdk&SdygovJ?

pmcsKyf. tyd'k f (8) t& vlrsKd ;a&;cJjG cm;qufqrH y_ pkH t H m;vH;k yaysmuf a&; qdik &f m aumfrwD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination- CERD) udk vGwv f yfI u|r;f usiaf omaumfrwD0if (18) OD;jzifh zJ@G pnf;

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; xm;onf? xdak umfrwDuaeI pmcsKyftzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;. pmcsKyftay: av;pm; vdkufemr_udk avhvmapmifh=uyfonf? aumfrwD. wm0efrSm oufqdkif&m Edik if rH sm;u tvSnu fh swifoiG ;f aom tpD&ifcpH mudk avhvmI Edik if t H pd;k &rsm;u pmcsKyftcsurf sm;ESihf ywfoufI rnfuo hJ @kd av;pm;vdu k ef mr_ &So d nfukd avhvm oHk;oyfonf? xdkodk@avhvmaepOftwGif; oufqdkif&m tpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,f &Sad e&+yD; tpd;k &taejzifh av;pm;vdu k ef m&ef wm0ef&rdS u _ kd vkyu f ikd af qmif&u G f ap&ef aumfrwDu xdu k , kd pf m;vS,rf w S qifh wdu k w f eG ;f ajymqd&k onf? aemufq;kH tqifw h iG f aumfrwDu xdo k ufqikd &f mEdik if t H aejzifh pmcsKyfygtcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI xdk@xuf ydkrdkaumif;rGefatmif taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Guf oifah om tcsurf sm;/ aumfrwD. t}uaH y;wifjycsurf sm;ESihf awG@jrifo;kH oyfcsuf rsm;udk xkwjf yef&onf? oufqikd &f mEdik if t H vdu k f xkwjf yefonfh aumfrwD. xkwjf yefcsurf sm;udk ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHodk@ aumfrwDu ESpfpOf wifjytpD&ifcH&onf? aumfrwDu wifjyaom t}uHay;csufrsm;/ taxGaxG t}uHテーycsufrsm;udk taxGaxGnv D mcHuwqifh jyefvnfxw k jf yefay;onf? aumfrwDxo H @kd pmcsKyf tzJG@0ifEdkifiHtcsif;csif; wdkif=um;cGifh&Sdaomfvnf; ,cktcsdeftxd rnfonfh Ekid if u H rS wdik =f um;jcif;r&Sad o;acs? tcsdK@EdkifiHrsm;onf aumfrwDu taxGaxGt}uHay;csuftwdkif; rdrd Edik if &H dS zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'ESihf jynfwiG ;f Oya'rsm;udjk yifqifI vlrsKd ;a&; cJjG cm; r_udk &mZ0wfr_tjzpf tjypfay;ta&;,ljcif;/ xdkodk@ vlrsdK;a&;cJGjcm;qufqHr_ yaysmufapa&;twGuf ynmay; vkyif ef;tpDtpOfopfrsm;/ Xmeopfrsm; zGiv hf pS f vkyu f ikd af qmif&u G rf r_ sm; vkyaf qmifco hJ nfh om"ursm;&So d nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

vlrsdK;a&; cJjG cm;qufqrH _ yHpk t H m;vH;k yaysmufa&;qdik &f m aumfrwDxo H @kd vlwOD;wa,mufcsif; wdik =f um;Edik yf govm;?

pmcsKyftydk'f (14) t& cJGjcm;qufqHonfh EdkifiHtpkd;&ta=umif;udk aumfrwDxo H @kd wOD;csi;f jzpfap/ tkypf v k u kd jf zpfap wdik =f um;cGi&hf o dS nf? aumfrwD u xdw k ikd =f um;csuu f dk v#Kd @0u S w f cH g;ydwaf vhvmoH;k oyfonf? xdo k @kd wdik =f um;r_ukd pwiftaumiftxnfazmfEikd cf ahJ om 1982 ckEpS f 'DZifbmvupwifI wdik =f um; vmcJah om tcsKd @tr_rsm;udk aumfrwD taejzifh vufcpH Of;pm;cJ+h yD; xdt k r_rsm;ESihf ywfoufI ,lqcsurf sm;udk trsm;odap&ef xkwjf yefa=unmcJo h nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

trsdK;orD;tcGifhta&; Ô

vdiu f jGJ ym;r_tay: tajccHI cJjG cm;zdEydS rf _ yaysmufa&;ESihf oufqikd af om Edik if w H um oabmwlpmcsKyf&ydS govm;?

vdiu f jGJ ym;r_ut kd ajccHI enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifh cJjG cm;zdEydS rf t _ m;vH;k yaysmufa&; qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf (Convention on the Eliminiation of All Forms of Discrimination Agianst Women- CEDAW) &Sy d gonf? xdpk mcsKyfukd 1979 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (18) &ufae@wiG f ukvor*~ taxGaxGnv D mcHu jyXmef;cJ+h yD; 1981 ckESpf pufwifbmv (2) &ufae@wGif touf0ifvmcJhonf? ,cktcg Edik if aH ygi;f (150) ausmu f oabmwlvufrw S f a&;xd;k xm;vsu&f o dS nf? TpmcsKyfwGif trsKd;orD;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;tjyif tdrfaxmif rdom;pkb0ESifh ywfoufI trsKd ;orD;rsm;tay: tpd;k &u wm0ef,l umuG,f ay;&rnfh tcsurf sm; azmfjyxm;onf? rdom;pkb0ESifh ywfoufI trsKd ;orD;rsm; cHpm;cGi&hf adS om tcGit hf a&;rsm;rSm rdro d abmt& vGwv f yfpmG tdraf xmifzuf a&G;cs,cf iG Ehf iS hf vGwv f yfpmG vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;ydik cf iG /hf vufxyf&mESihf uGm&Si;f &mwGif wlnDaom tcGifhta&;ESifh wm0ef &Sdr_&SdcGifh/ om;orD;ta&twGuf uef@owfjcif;ESifh &ifaoG;,lr_ =um;umvrsm; owfrSwf&mwGif wlnDaom qH;k jzwfcsucf syikd cf iG /hf toufarG;0rf;a=umif;ESihf tvkyv f yk u f ikd &f mwGif vifEiS hf r,m;t=um; wlnaD om yk*Kd~ vfa&; tcGit hf a&;rsm;&&Scd iG hf ponfw@kd jzpfonf? pmcsKyf. tyd'k f (17) t& vGwv f yfu|r;f usiaf om trsKd ;orD; (23) OD;udk pmcsKyfaumfrwD0iftjzpf cef@tyfxm;onf? xdak umfrwD0ifrsm;onf Edik if H rsm;u tvSnu hf s yHrk eS w f ifoiG ;f aom tpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk avhvmI xdEk ikd if t H pd;k &

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; u trsKd ;orD;qdik &f m tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI rnfuo hJ @kd taumiftxnf azmf aqmif&u G af eonfukd avhvmoH;k oyfonf? tpd;k &r[kwaf om tzJ@G rsm; f nf? uvnf; aumfrwDxH ,SOòf yiftpD&ifcpH m (Shadow Report) ay;yd@k Eikd o xdt k pD&ifcpH mrsm;udk avhvmI aumfrwDonf pmcsKyfyg tyd'k t f vdu k f od@k r[kwf pmcsKyfygta=umif;t&mrsm;tvdu k f taxGaxGt}uHay;csurf sm; xkwjf yefonf? 1999 ckESpfwGif twnfðycJhonfh aemufqufwJGcsKyft& pmcsKyftzJG@0if EdkifiH rsm;udk csdK;azmufcH&onfh vlwOD;csif;u wdkif=um;EdkifcGifh&Sdonf? odk@aomf tzJ@G 0ifEikd if H tcsi;f csi;f wdik =f um;Edik jf cif; r&Sad o;yg? 1992 ckESpfwGif pmcsKyfxJwGif tao;pdwfazmfjyyg0ifcJhjcif;r&Sdonfh trsdK;orD; rsm;tm; t=urf;zufr_ (Violence against Women-VAW) ESifh ywfoufaoma=unmcsuf trSwf (19) udk aumfrwDu xkwjf yefco hJ nf? xdk a=unmcsufwGif aumfrwDonf trsdK;orD; rsm;tm; t=urf;zufr_tm; trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: cJGjcm;qufqHr_tjzpf owfrSwf+yD; xdkodk@ t=urf;zuf jcif;onf trsKd ;orD;pmcsKyf. pmcsKyftyd'k f (1) rS (4) txdyg0ifaom tcsurf sm; udk csKd ;azmuf&ma&mufa=umif; azmfjyxm;onf? xd@k twGuaf =umifh trsKd ;orD; rsm;tm; t=urf;zufjcif;rS umuG,fonfh tao;pdwfvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk tpd;k &rsm;uaeI vkyaf qmif&ef t}uHðyxm;onf? aumfrwDonf Edik if t H oD;oD;. tpD&ifcpH mrsm;/ Edik if rH sm;ESihf ywfoufI rdrw d @kd . awG@jrifo;kH oyfcsurf sm;ESihf taxGaxGt}uðH yr_rsm;udk taxGaxGnv D mcH od@k ESppf OftpD&ifcH wifoiG ;f avh&o dS nf? Ô

bma=umifh trsdK;orD;tcGit hf a&;twGuf oD;oefp@ mcsKyfwck vdktyfwmvJ? trsdK;orD;rsm;tm; enf;rsdK;pHkjzifh cJGjcm;zdEdSyfr_tm;vHk; yaysmufa&;

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; oabmwlpmcsKyf. &nf&, G cf surf mS trsKd ;orD;ESihf trsKd ;om;wd@k t=um; wef;wl nDr_ &&Sad p&efEiS hf twif;t=uyf vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;jcif;/ tdrw f iG ;f t=urf;zuf jcif;ESihf use;f rma&;/ ynma&; cHpm;cGirhf sm; wqifeh rd chf pH m;ae&jcif;ponfh trsKd ; orD;rsm;tay: cJjG cm;zdEydS cf &H r_rsm;udk wm;qD;umuG,&f efjzpfonf? vl@tcGit hf a&;qdo k nfrmS usm;r ra&G; cHpm;ydik cf iG &hf adS omfvnf; vdif uJjG ym;r_tay: tajccHI trsKd ;orD;rsm;rSm trsKd ;om;avmuf zH@G +zdK;wd;k wufrw _ iG f cHpm;ydik cf iG rhf sm; r&Sad o;onfuakd wG@&onf? trsKd ;orD;. yg0ifciG Ehf iS hf qH;k jzwfcsuf toHrsm; wifjy&mwGif tqifeh rd v hf su&f o dS nf? vdiu f jGJ ym;r_a=umifh vdiyf ikd ;f qdik &f m apmfum;r_ro S nf tdrw f iG ;f t=urf;zufrt _ xd t=urf;zufrt _ rsKd ;rsKd ;udk trsKd ; orD;rsm; cHpm;ae&vsu&f o dS nf? vlom;csi;f twlwjl zpfaomfvnf; trsKd ;orD; jzpfaoma=umifh tjcm;vlom;rsm; cHpm;av;pm;cHae&aom tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk &&Scd pH m;ydik cf iG rhf &Sad oma=umifh trsKd ;orD;tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk umuG,f awmif;qdk onfh oabmwlpmcsKyf oD;oef@ay:ayguv f mcJ&h jcif; jzpfonf? Ô

trsdK;orD;rsm; wef;wlnrD #a&;twGuf rnfuo hJ @kd aqmif&GufaeygovJ?

ukvor*~. vkyfief;rsm;tm;vHk;wGif trsdK;orD; wef;wlnDr#a&;ESifh ywfoufonfh vkyif ef;rsm;udk us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@ vkyaf qmifvsu&f o dS vdk trsKd ; orD;rsm;. tcGit hf a&;rsm;tm; csKd ;azmufrE_ iS hf ywfoufI wdik =f um;ta&;,l Edkifonfh txl;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;/ ,E W,m;rsm;udkvnf; zJG@pnf;xm;onfudk awG@&onf? trsKd ;orD;rsm;. tcGit hf a&; wd;k wufjrifrh m;a&;twGuf &nf&, G u f m ukvor*~onf urBmt h rsKd ;orD; nDvmcHrsm;udk (4) }udrw f ikd w f ikd f usi;f ycJo h nf? yxrnDvmcHukd 1975 ckEpS w f iG f ruUpu D Ekd ikd if H ruUpu D pkd w D ;D òr@wiG f vnf;aumif;/

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; 'kw, d nDvmcHukd 1980 ckEpS w f iG f 'de;f rwfEikd if H udyk if[rfòr@wiG v f nf;aumif;/ wwd,nDvmcHudk 1985 ckESpfwGif urfnmEdkifiH em±dkbDòr@wGifvnf;aumif;/ pwkwW nDvmcHudk 1995 ckESpfwGif w±kwfEdkifiH bD*sif;òr@wGifvnf;aumif; toD;oD; usi;f yEdik cf o hJ nf? xdn k v D mcHtoD;oD;wGif urBm@trsKd ;orD;rsm; &ifqikd f ñuHawG@&aomtajctaersm;udk avhvmaqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD; trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: cJjG cm;zdEydS cf &H r_rsm; yaysmufa&;twGuf vkyaf qmif&rnfh vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk csrw S f Edik cf o hJ nf? pwkwt W }udrn f v D mcHwiG f zH@G òz;wd;k wufa&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;wGif trsKd ; orD;rsm; tifwu kd t f m;wdu k yf g0ifvmapa&;/ vlry_ wf0ef;usiw f iG f trsKd ;orD;rsm; tqift h wef; wd;k wufvmapa&;ESihf ydrk akd umif;rGeaf om ynma&;tcGit hf vrf; rsm; &&Sad &;rsm;tygt0if trsKd ;orD;rsm;b0 wd;k wufjrifrh m;vmapa&;twGuf ta&;}uD;aom aqmif&u G cf surf sm; vkyaf qmifomG ;rnf[k qH;k jzwfc=hJ uonf? 1993 ckEpS w f iG u f si;f ycJah om AD,ifem urBm@v@l tcGit fh a&; nDvmcH}uD; u csrw S cf ahJ om AD,ifem a=unmpmwrf;ESihf vkyif ef;tpDtpOf (Vienna Declaration and Program of Action) wGifvnf; ukvor*~. vkyfief;pOfrsm; twGi;f trsKd ;orD;tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk ydrk ykd g0ifxnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;&ef vdt k yfa=umif; awmif;qdkcJhonf? xdkr#ru tzJG@0ifEkdifiHrsm;tm; trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: enf; rsdK;pHkjzifh cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm;tm;vHk; yaysmufa&; oabmwlpmcsKyfudk ydkrdktm; aumif;vmatmif 0dkif;0ef;vkyfaqmifap&eftygt0if trsdK;orD;tcGifhta&; rsm;udk txl;todtrSwfðy av;pm;&eftwGuf ñud;yrf;aqmif&Guf=uap vdak =umif; xdpk mwrf;wGif wdu k w f eG ;f xm;onf? xdkAD,ifema=unmpmwrf;ESifh vkyfief;tpDtpOf. aemufqufwJG tusKd ;quftjzpf vl@tcGit hf a&;aumfr&Si. f t}udrf (50) ajrmufnv D mcHwiG f vnf; tzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;udk “trsKd ;orD;rsm;. wef;wltqift h wef;ESihf wef;wl tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk ukvor*~. tpDtpOf/ vkyif ef;aqmifwmrsm; tm;vH;k wGif yg0ifvmatmif xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm; taumiftxnfazmf&eftwGuf Edik if w H um

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; taejzifh ydrk pkd rG ;f tm;xkwf óu;pm;vkyaf qmif=u&ef” aqmf=ocJo h nf? xdk@jyif trsdK;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_rsm;yaysmufa&; a=unm pmwrf; (The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women) udk ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHu 1993 ckESpfwGif jyXmef;EdkifcJhonf? xdk pmwrf;wGif ukvor*~tzJG@0if EdkifiHtm;vHk;taejzifh trsdK;orD;rsm;tm; t=urf;zufru _ kd tjypfay;ta&;,l&efEiS hf umuG,w f m;qD;&eftwGuf vdt k yf aom aqmif&u G rf r_ sm;udk vkyaf qmif&ef wdu k w f eG ;f cJo h nf? 1994 ckEpS f rwfvwGif vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&SifuaeI trsdK;orD;rsm;tm; t=urf;zufr_jzpf&jcif;/ ta=umif;&if;rsm;ESihf tusKd ;qufrsm;udk avhvmppfaq;Edik &f eftwGuf trsKd ;orD; rsm; t=urf;zufrq _ ikd &f m txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sd (Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women) udk cef@tyfwm0efay;cJo h nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

uav;oli,fqdkif&mtcGifhta&; Ô

Edik if w H umOya'rsm;wGif uav;tcGit hf a&;rsm;udak &m rnfo@kd umuG,af y;xm; ygovJ?

uav;tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyfukd 1989 ckEpS w f iG f jyXmef; Edik cf +hJ yD; wESpt f =um 1990 ckEpS f pufwifbmv (2) &ufae@wiG f xdpk mcsKyf touf0ifco hJ nf? ,cktcsed t f xd TpmcsKyfonf ukvor*~ Edik if w H um vl@ tcGit hf a&; pmcsKyfrsm;xJwiG f vufrw S f xd;k xm;aom Edik if t H a&twGuf trsm; qH;k pmcsKyfjzpfonf? pmcsKyftzJG@0ifEdkifiHrsm;onf TpmcsKyfwGif yg0ifaom uav;tcGifh ta&;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI oifah vsmo f nfh taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u G rf r_ sm; udk vkyaf qmif&rnfh wm0ef&+dS yD; xdo k @kd vyk af qmif&mwGif uav;oli,f. tusKd ; pD;yGm;udk txl;tav;xm;I xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;vkyu f ikd &f ef vdt k yfonf? xdk pmcsKyfwiG f yg0ifaom tcsurf sm;rSm trsKd ;tpm;pHv k ifv+S yD; uav;b0twGuf rdom;pk. ta&;yg0ifyu kH v kd nf; todtrSwðf yxm;onf? pmcsKyf t & zJ G @ pnf ; xm;aom uav;ol i ,f t cG i f h t a&;qd k i f & m aumfrwDukd tzJ@G 0if (10) OD;jzifh zJ@G pnf;xm;+yD; tvSnu hf sEikd if rH sm;u wifoiG ;f onfh yHrk eS t f pD&ifpmrsm; avhvmI pmcsKyfygtcsurf sm;tay: tpd;k &. taumif txnfazmfr_tm; avhvmoHk;oyfonf? xdkodk@ EdkifiHwEdkifiH. tpD&ifcHpmudk avhvmaepOftwGi;f aumfrwDonf xdEk ikd if &H dS ta=umif;t&m wckEiS hf ywfouf I u|r;f usi+f yD; A[kow k jynfph akH om ukvor*~. txl;at*sipf rD sm;udk zdwaf c: I xdt k a=umif;t&mESihf ywfoufaom owif;/ t}uHay;csurf sm;udk a&;om;

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tpD&ifccH ikd ;f jcif;udk vkyaf qmifEikd o f nf? xd@k jyif Ekid if . H tpD&ifcpH mt& awG@jrif oH;k oyf&onfh twwfynmydik ;f qdik &f m tultnDrsm;/ t}uHay;csurf sm;udk xdk txl;at*sifpDrsm;xHodk@ today; tultnDawmif;cHEdkifonf? txl;ojzifh ukvor*~ uav;rsm; &HyakH iGtzJ@G (UNICEF) onf uav;oli,frsm;qdik &f m pmcsKyfygtcsufrsm; wdk;wufjrifhrm;atmifjrifa&;twGuf ta&;ygaom tcef;rSaeI rdrw d @kd . awG@jrifo;kH oyfcsurf sm;/ t}uHay;csurf sm;/ taxGaxG t}uH テー yr_ r sm;ud k xk w f j yef o nf ? uk v or*~ taxG a xG t wG i f ; a&;rS L ; vufatmufwGif uav;tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh txl;ta=umif; t&mrsm;tm; okawoeテーy avhvmaeaom taxGaxGnv D mcHo@kd vnf; t}uH Om%frsm;ay;Edkifonf? uav;tcGit hf a&;rsm;teuf uav;rsm;tm; a&mif;0,fjcif;/ uav; jynfw h efqmESihf uav;rsm;tm; npfnrf;pmayrsm;wGif toH;k テーyjcif;ESihf ywfouf I pHkprf;avhvm&eftwGuf txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; t&m&Sdudkvnf; vl@tcGifh ta&; aumfr&Siu f cef@tyfxm;vsu&f o dS nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlenf;pkrsm; Ô

vlenf;pkrsm;.tcGit hf a&;rsm;udak &m ukvor~rSm rnfodk@umuG,fay;xm;ygovJ?

vlenf;pkrsm; ta&;udpu P kd ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGmuyif xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;vm cJo h nf? tusKd ;quftaejzifh 1947 ckEpS w f iG f vlenf;pkrsm;tm; umuG,af &;ESihf ‚wdk@tay: cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm; umuG,fwm;qD;a&; qyfaumfr&Sif (Subcommisssion on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities) udk ukvor*~wi G f zJ@G pnf;Edik cf o hJ nf? xdq k yfaumfr&Sio f nf vl@tcGihf

ta&;aumfr&Si. f vufatmufwiG &f +dS yD; aumfr&Si. f wm0efrsm;udk cJaG 0,laom qyfaumfr&Sifjzpfonf? xdkqyfaumfr&Sifonf vlrsdK;pka=umifh/ udk;uG,fonfh bmoma&;a=umifh/ ajymqdkonfh bmompum;a=umifh vlenf;pkjzpfaeonfh vlrsm;. tcGit hf a&;ESiyhf wfoufI tapmydik ;f uyif avhvmcJ=h uonf? ,ckwikd f vlenf;pkrsm;. tcGit hf a&;ESihf ywfoufI Edik if w H umu xda&mufpmG umuG,f ay;Edik rf nfh enf;vrf;opfrsm;udk &SmazGwifjyaeqJjzpfonf? Ô

Edik if w H umOya'rsm;wGif vlenf;pktcGit hf a&;rsm;udak &m rnfou @kd muG,af y; xm;ygovJ?

vlenf;pkrsm;tcGit hf a&;ESiyhf wfoufI ukvor*~wiG f txl;ðy azmfjy xm;aom pmcsKyfrmS Edik if o H m;/ vlrsKd ;pk/ bmoma&;ESihf bmompum;qdik &f m vlenf;pk0ifrsm;. tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m a=unmpmwrf; (Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities) jzpfonf?

xdak =unm pmwrf;udk 1992 ckEpS t f axGaxG nDvmcH}uD;wGif qENc, H I l twnfjyKcJo h nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; xdak =unmpmwrf;. tzGiehf 'd ge;f wGif xdv k el nf;pkrsm;. tcGit hf a&;rsm; tm; wdk;wufjrifhrm;apa&;ESifh em;vnfoabmaygufa&;onf “vlr_todkif; t0dkif; zHG@òz;wdk;wufa&;. tpdwftydkif;wckjzpfovdk w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;udk tajccHonhf 'Drdkua&pD usifhpOfwckjzpfonf” [k azmfjya&;om;xm;onf? a=unmpmwrf;. tydk'f (1) wGifvnf; EdkifiHrsm;taejzifh xdkvlenf;pkrsm;. 0daoovuQ%mrsm;udk todtrSwðf y&ef wd;k wufxeG ;f um;atmif vkyaf qmif &ef vdt k yfa=umif; a&;om;xm;onf? ukvor*~ taxGaxG nDvmcHuvnf; EdkifiHrsm;taejzifh “a=unmpmwrf;. rl0g'rsm; oufa&mufr_&Sdap&efESifh xGe;f um;wd;k wuf&eftwGuf oifah vsmo f vdk w&m;a&;qdik &f mESihf tjcm;enf; vrf;rsm; vkyu f ikd af qmif&u G =f u&ef” yef=um;xm;onf? Ô

vlenf;pktcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf oufqikd af om tjcm; vlt @ cGit hf a&;qdik &f m pmcsKyfrsm; &Syd gao;vm;/

EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;qdkif&m oabmwlpmcsKyf. tydk'f (27) ESihf uav;tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf (30) wd@k wiG f vlenf;pk 0ifrsm;. ud, k yf idk , f Ofaus;r_wiG f yg0ifciG /hf bmomud;k uG,cf iG /hf ud, k yf ikd b f mom pum; ajymqdkcGifhudk jiif;y,fjcif;rðy&[k twdtvif;azmfjyxm;onf? EdkifiH om;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf. aemufqufwpGJ mcsKyft& xdt k yd'k f (27) tm; csKd ;azmufaom wdik =f um;r_rsm;tm; vl@ tcGit hf a&; aumfrwD od@k ay;yd@k widk =f um;Edik o f nf? aumfrwDuvnf; xdo k @kd wikd =f um;r_rsm;udk vufcH &&Sdvsuf&Sdonf? ,leufpudk taxGaxGnDvmcHuvnf; 1960 ckESpfwGif ynma&;Y cJjG cm;jcif;tm; qef@usijf cif; oabmwlpmcsKyf (Convention against Discrimination in Education) udk jyXmef;EdkifcJhonf? xdkpmcsKyft& EdkifiHrsm;onf vlenf;pkrsm;. ynma&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; vkyfaqmifcGifhudk av;pm;&ef vdktyf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; onf[k pmcsKyf. tyd'k f (5) wGif azmfjyxm;onf? xd@k jyif tyd'k f (1) wGif rnfonfh vltyk pf u k rkd S cJjG cm;jcif;r&Sad p&[k ydwyf ifxm;jrpfxm;onf? Ô

bma=umifh vlenf;pkrsm;ta&;udpPonf ta&;w,l vkyfaqmifp&mudPjzpfae&ovJ?

1980 ESprf sm;ESihf 1990 ck ESpOf ;D ydik ;f umvrsm;wGif jynfwiG ;f t=urf;zuf yÉdyuQrsm;a=umifh vlom;aygi;f ajrmufrsm;pGm ysupf ;D qH;k ±_;H &r_rsm;/ ae&yfrS pGe@f cmG &r_rsm;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra_ &;tqufjywfrr_ sm; &ifqikd ñf uHawG@c=hJ u&onf? xdo k @kd cHpm;&ol trsm;pkonf xdEk idk if w H iG &f adS om vlenf;pkrsm; trsm;qH;k jzpfavh&o dS jzifh vlenf;pk ta&;udpEP iS hf ywfoufI wurBmvH;k u txl;pd;k &dryf yl efc=hJ uonf? tmz&du/ tm&SEiS hf vufwiftar&du Edik if rH sm;wGif jynfwiG ;f a&; yÉdyuQrsm; qufvufwnf&SdaeqJjzpfovdk qkdAD,uf,leD,HESifh ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m;EdkifiHwdk@ òyuJt G +y;D wGif vlrsKd ;pkvu kd f okwo f ifaom vky&f yfrsm;vnf; ay:ayguv f mcJo h nf? xdo k @kd yÉdyuQrsm; jzpfymG ;&jcif;. ta=umif;&if;trsm;pkrmS ESpaf ygi;f rsm; pGmuwnf;u tjrpfw, G cf ahJ om vlenf;pkrsm;tay: Edik if aH &; t,ltqrsm; tygt0if tjcm;enf;rsKd ;pHjk zifh zdEydS cf jGJ cm;r_rsm;ESihf xdv k yk &f yftay: rauseyfrr_ sm; aygufuJGvmcJhjcif;a=umifh jzpfonfudk avhvmawG@&Sd&onf? vlenf;pkrsm;. ud, k yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&; awmif;qkcd surf sm;udk jiif;y,fc, hJ rkH #ru xdjk y\emrsm;udk ukpm;Edik rf nfh ,E , W m;rsm; r&Scd jhJ cif;wd@k . tusKd ;qufa=umifh tcsKd @Eikd if rH sm;wGif t=urf;zufyÉdyuQrsm;omru jynfwiG ;f ppfrsm; jzpfymG ;cJo h nfh tajctaeod@k a&mufcJhonf? ukvor*~ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyfjzpfol bl;x&wfbl;x&wf *gvu D “,ck tcsed w f iG f a'oqdik &f m Edik if t H zJ@G tpnf;rsm; tcsi;f csi;f t=um; yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf r_ sm; wd;k wufvmonfrmS trSeyf ifjzpfaomfvnf; Edik if rH sm;

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; twGi;f trsKd ;om;a&;0g'ED iS hf tcsKyftjcmtm%mydik cf iG t hf wGuf awmif;qdrk r_ sm; wdk;yGm;vmcJhonf? wdkif;jynftwGif; pkpnf;nD!GwfpGm aexdkifa&; qdkonfh tcsufudk vlrsdK;pka&;/ bmoma&;/ vlrsdK;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ bmompum;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_qikd &f m qENjyawmif;qdrk r_ sm;u +cdr;f ajcmufvmvsu&f o dS nf” [k ol. +idr;f csr;f a&; vkyif ef;pOf rde@f ceG ;f xJwiG f xnfo h iG ;f ajymqdck o hJ nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

rl&if;XmaevlrsdK;rsm; Ô

rl&if;XmaevlrsdK;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI b,fvu kd muG,f apmifha&Smufr_rsm;&SdygovJ?

wurBmvH;k &Sd Edik if aH ygi;f (70) ausmw f iG f aexdik af e=uaom rl&if;Xmae vlrsKd ;rsm; tenf;qH;k oef;aygi;f oH;k &mcef@&ydS gonf? xdrk &l if;XmaevlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI t"du wdu k ±f u kd u f muG,af y;aom Edik if w H umoabmwlpmcsKyfrmS f yf tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyf (ILO) u jyXmef;xm;aom vGwv aom EdkifiHrsm;&Sd rl&if;XmaeESifh ±dk;&mvlrsdK;pkrsm;ESifh oufqdkifonfh oabm wlncD sut f rSwf (169) (ILO Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries) jzpfygonf? xdkoabmwlnDcsufudk 1989 ZGefvwGif jyXmef;cJh+yD; 1991ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif touf0ifvmcJh ygonf? xdkpmcsKyft& tpdk;&ujzpfap/ vlr_a&;tkyfpkwpkujzpfap rnfonfh rl&if;Xmae vlrsKd ;rsm;. 0daoovuQ%mrsm;udk jiif;y,fjcif;rðy&efEiS hf xdv k rl sKd ; rsm;. yg0ifaqmif&u G rf /_ tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf tjcm;olrsm;ESihf a&maESmyl;aygi;f r_w@kd ukd Edik if aH wmfu tmrcHcsuaf y;&ef wm0ef&ydS gonf? ukvor*~. vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;t&vnf; vlrsKd ;a&;cJjG cm;r_ yaysmuf a&; aumfr&Sio f nf rl&if;XmaevlrsK;d rsm;ta&;udk avhvmapmif=h uyf&ef wm0ef &Sdygonf? xdk@jyif EdkifiHom;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&; pmcsKyf. vl@tcGifhta&; aumfrwDuvnf; pmcsKyf. tyd'k f (27) wGif azmfjyxm;onft h wdik ;f vlrsKd ;pk/ bmoma&;ESifh bmompum; tqifhtwef;a=umifh cJGjcm;jcif;udk wm;jrpf&ef wm0ef&o dS nft h wdik ;f rl&if;XmaevlrsKd ;rsm;tm; umuG,rf _ ay;Edik yf gonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; 1982 ckEpS w f iG f rl&if;XmaevlO;D a&rsm;ESihf ywfoufaom tvkyt f zJ@G (UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations) udk ukvor*~wi G f zJ@G pnf; vdu k yf gonf? xdt k vkyt f zJ@G onf rl&if;XmaevlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI ukvor*~ ,E , W m;twGi;f vuf&dS t"dutusq;kH vkyaf qmifaeaom tvkyt f zJ@G jzpfvm ygonf? xdt k vkyt f zJ@G onf vl@tcGit hf a&; aumfr&Siaf tmuf&dS qyfaumfr&Six f H tpd;k &rsm;. ay:vpDrsm;ESihf ywfoufI oH;k oyfcsurf sm;/ t}uHKðycsurf sm;udk wifoGif;tpD&ifcHvsuf&Sdygonf? xdk@jyif rl&if;XmaevlrsdK; udk,fpm;vS,faygif; 500 rS 600 txd wufa&mufI tjcm;ukvor*~ at*sipf rD sm;/ tpd;k &ESihf tpdk;&r[kwfaom tzJG@rsm;tm; ‚wdk@. tjrifrsm;udk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf 'Dru kd a&pD enf;vrf;wus wifjycGi&hf o dS nfh tpnf;ta0;rsm; usi;f yay;vsuf &Sdygonf? 1994 ckESpfwGif udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh/ rdrdajr,mrsm;ESifh &if;jrpfrsm;udk rdrw d @kd u, kd w f ikd f xdr;f csKyfprD yH ikd cf iG /hf rdrb d mompum; ajymqdck iG rhf sm;ESihf tjcm;tcGihf ta&;rsm; yg0ifaom rl&if;XmaevlrsdK;rsm; tcGifhta&;rsm;qdkif&m a=unm pmwrf; (rl=urf;) (Draft UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples) udk qyfaumfrwDu jyXmef;Edi k cf yhJ gonf? twnfðytqifo h @kd a&muf&dS Edkif&efESifh oabmwlpmcsKyftjzpfodk@ qufvSrf;Edkif&eftwGuf qufvufóu; yrf;vsuf&Sdao;onf? xdk@jyif rl&if;XmaevlrsdK;rsm;. ,Ofaus;r_ESifh twwf ynmydkif; qdkif&mwdk@ESifh ywfoufonfh rl0g'vrf;!Gefcsufrsm; ay:aygufvm Edik &f eftwGuv f nf; vkyaf qmifvsu&f ydS gonf? rl&if; XmaevlrsKd ;rsm;onf Edik if t H awmfrsm;rsm;wGif cJjG cm;zdEydS cf &H aom vlwef;pm;rsm;twGi;f wGif yg0ifvsu&f adS eygonf? tdr, f m&&Scd iG /hf use;f rma&; apmifah &SmufccH iG /hf ynma&;tcGit hf a&;ESihf tvkyv f yk u f ikd yf ikd cf iG w hf @kd wiG f qd;k qd;k 0g;0g; jiif;y,fcaH e&vsu&f o dS nf? xd@k jyif xdo k w l @kd . ajr,mESihf &if;jrpfrsm;rSm vnf; +cdrf;ajcmufcHae&vsuf&Sdygonf? xdkr#ru tcsdK@EdkifiHrsm;wGif rl&if;

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; XmaevlrsKd ;rsm;tm; vufvw G pf y,fowfjzwfjcif;/ Oya'rJh zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif; rsm;udk usL;vGev f su&f o dS nf? xd@k twGuaf =umifh 1994 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (10) &ufae@rS aemifq,fEpS t f wGi;f umvtm; urBm@r&l if;XmaevlrsKd ;rsm;. q,fpk S x f m;yg ESpf (Decade of the World’s Indigenous People) tjzpf owfrw onf? xdq k ,fpEk pS f owfrw S jf cif;. &nf&, G cf surf mS rl&if;XmaevlrsKd ;rsm; awG@ñuH ae&aom jy\em tcuftcJrsm;udk EdkifiHwum. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_jzifh tajz&SmEdik &f efjzpfygonf? ESppf Of =o*kwv f (9) &ufae@uv kd nf; tjynfjynf qdik &f m rl&if;XmaevlrsKd ;rsm;ae@ (International Day of Indigenous People) tjzpf owfrw S x f m;ygonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vufeufudkifyÉdyuQrsm;umv Ô

vufeufuikd f yÉdyuQtcsdeu f mvtwGi;f vlt @ cGit hf a&; umuG,af &;ESiyhf wfoufI rnfo@kd umuG,rf r_ sm;&Syd govJ?

vufeufudkif yÉdyuQumvrsm;twGif; vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_ rsm;pGm ñuHawG@&onfrSm b,folrSrjiif;Edkifaom tcsufjzpfonf? xdkodk@ vufeufudkif yÉdyuQrsm;twGif; tajccHvl@tcGifhta&;rsm;udk umuG,fr_ESifh toufqikd q f ;kH rSm Edik if w H um vlom;csi;f pmemaxmufxm;aom Oya' (International Humanitarian Law) yifjzpfonf? Edik if w H um vlom;csi;f pmemaxmufxm;aom Oya'rsm; ay:ayguf vmonfh ordik ;f a=umif;onf =uufajceDtoif; ay:ayguv f myHEk iS hf ordik ;f a=umif; twlwyl ifjzpfonf? vuf&dS tjynfjynfqikd &f m =uufajceDvy_ &f mS ;r_ (International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement) onf 1959 ckEp S f qdzk m&DEkd wdkufyJGtwGif; '%f&m&ppfonfrsm;tm; aq;0g;ukoay;cJhaom qGpfvlrsdK; [ife&D'l;eef@. vkyfaqmifcsufrS tpwnfaygufzGm;vmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? xdk =uufajceDvy_ &f mS ;r_rS tpðyI ppfyt GJ wGi;f ESihf vufeufuikd f yÉdyuQrsm;twGi;f &Sd ppfonfrsm;/ oH@k yrf;rsm;/ '%f&m&olrsm;/ t&yfom;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI rnfuo hJ @kd umuG,f apmifha&Smufoifha=umif;ESifh oufqdkifaom rl0g'rsm;csrSwf&ef vdt k yfa=umif; tawG;tac:rsm; ay:ayguv f mcJjh cif;jzpfonf? EdkifiHwum vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;aom Oya'. yxrOD;qHk; ajcvSrf;jzpfonfh *sDeDAmoabmwlpmcsKyfudk 1864 ckESpfwGif jyXmef;cJhonf? xdkpmcsKyft& EdkifiHwdkif;onf ppfyJGtwGif; '%f&m&aomolrsm;udk udk,hfvl

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; &efzufrcJjG cm;bJ ðypkapmifah &Smufay;&ef wm0ef&o dS nf? xdpk mcsKyftjyif aemuf qufwGJ pmcsKyfrsm;tjzpf 1906 ckEpS f *seD AD moabmwlpmcsKyf/ 1899 ESihf 1907 ckEpS f (onf[mcfo h abmwlpmcsKyf) rsm;ESihf 1929 ckEpS f *seD AD m oabmwlpmcsKyf rsm; ay:ayguv f mcJo h nf? 'kw, d urBmppfyt GJ wGi;f vlom;csi;f pmemr_ Oya'orsm;tm; }uD;rm; pGm csdK;azmufr_rsm;udk rsufjrifudk,fawG@ñuHvm&aomtcgwGif xdkvlom;csif; pmemaxmufxm;onfh Oya'rsm;udk aemufxyfrGef;rHI tydk'ftopfrsm; wdk;csJ@jznfhpGufvmcJh&onf? ppfyJGumvrsm;twGif; ppfyJGwGifyg0ifolrsm;ESifh ryg0ifolrsm;tm; Oya't& umuG,af y;&rnfh ppfyq GJ ikd &f m Oya'rsm;udk onf[mcfOh ya'[k vlod rsm;onf? ppfyaGJ =umifh 'kuaQ &muforl sm;tm; umuG,af y;&rnfh Oya'rsm;udk *sDeDAmoabmwlpmcsKyf (4) ckpvHk;wGif awG@Edkifonf? xdkvlom;csif; pmem axmufxm;onfh pmcsKyfrsm;udk urBmay:&Sd Edik if w H ikd ;f eD;yg; oabmwlvufrw S f a&;xdk;xm;onf? 1977 ckEpS w f iG f *seD AD mpmcsKyf. aemufqufwGJ pmcsKyfEpS cf u k kd twnfðy cJhonf? aemufqufwJG pmcsKyfESpfckteuf yxr aemufqufwJG pmcsKyfwGif Edik if w H um vufeufuikd f ppfyrGJ sm;a=umifh 'kuaQ &muf&olrsm; umuG,af y;jcif;ESihf oufqikd +f yD; 'kw, d aemufqufwGJ pmcsKyfonf jynfwiG ;f vufeufuikd pf pfyrGJ sm; a=umifh 'kuaQ &muforl sm;tm; umuG,af y;jcif;ESihf oufqikd o f nf? Ô

ppfyu GJ mvtwGi;f vlwOD;wa,mufcsif;udk b,fvkd umuG,fay;xm;ygovJ? *sDeDAm oabmwlnDcsufrsm;wGif '%f&m&olrsm;/ oabFmysufI

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; u,fq,fxm;aom ppfonfrsm;/ oH@k yrf;rsm;udk cJjG cm;jcif;vH;k 0r&Sad pbJ wef;wl ulnDapmifha&Smufr_rsm; vkyfaqmif&ef !$ef=um;xm;onf? pmcsKyf. pwkwW pmcsKyfwGif ppfyJGtwGif; t&yfom;rsm;udk umuG,fay;&ef azmfjyxm;onf? aemufqufwpGJ mcsKyfrsm;wGif ppfyaGJ =umifh 'kuaQ &muf&aom olrsm;tm;vH;k udk umuG,af pmifah &Smufay;&efEiS hf t&yfom;rsm;tm; ppfyt GJ wGi;f yg0ifwu kd cf u kd f aom olrsm;u wdu k cf u kd jf cif;/ xdcu kd af pjcif;rðy&ef wm;jrpfxm;onf? 1993 ckESpfwGifusif;ycJhaom urBmhvl@tcGifhta&;nDvmcHwGifvnf; *seD AD m oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;tm; vufrw S rf a&;xd;k &ao;aom Edik if rH sm;taejzifh tvsit f jref vufrw S af &;xd;k =u&efEiS hf pmcsKyfygtcsurf sm;twdik ;f Edik if aH wmf tqifw h iG f Oya'ðyr_tygt0if tjcm;vdt k yfoifah vsmaf om taumiftxnf azmf aqmif&Gufr_rsm;udk vkyfaqmif=u&ef EdkifiHwumtpdk;&rsm;xH yef=um; xm;onf? vufeufudkifyÉdyuQrsm;twGif; bufvdkufjcif;r&SdbJ vdktyfaom tultnDrsm; ay;&eftwGuf tjynfjynfqikd &f m =uufajceDaumfrwD (International Committee of the Red Cross- ICRC) u umuG,r f r_ sm;/ ulnrD r_ sm; vkyfudkifaqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf? Ô

'kQonfrsm;udak &m Edik if w H umOya'rsm;t& tumtuG,fay;Edkifygovm;?

Ekid if w H umyÉdyuQjzpfap/ jynfwiG ;f yÉdyuQyifjzpfap vufeufuidk f ppfyGJ wck jzpf+yDqv kd #if jynfow l @kd onf rdrw d @kd touf&iS af &;ESihf vl@tcGit hf a&; tjyif; txef csKd ;azmufrr_ S vGwaf jrmuf&mod@k xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smif&p+rJjzpfonf? xdo k @kd ae&yfudk pGef@cGmwdrf;a&Smif&mwGif tjcm;EdkifiH e,ferdwfodk@ a&muf&Sdcdkv_Hygu xdo k rl sm;udk 'kuo Q nf (Refugee) [kac:a0:I rdrEd ikd if eH ,ferdwt f wGi;f Yom

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; vSnfhvnfwdrf;a&Smifaeygu xdkolrsm;udk ae&yftwGif; twnfwusr&SdbJ vSnv hf nfwrd ;f a&Smifaeolrsm; (Internally Displaced Persons) [k ac:a0: owfrSwfavh&Sdygonf? vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_rsm;ESifh vufeufudkif yÉdyuQrsm;a=umifh 'kuo Q nf tjzpfo@kd a&muf&v dS m&onfh 'kuo Q nfvOl ;D a&rsm; wd;k yGm;vmovdk tjcm;wzufwGifvnf; rdk;acgif/ &duQmjywfI 'kuQonfb0 a&muf&aom olrsm;vnf; trsm;tjym;&So d nf? 1951 ckEpS f 'kuo Q nftqift h wef;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyfEiS hf 1966 ckEpS f aemufqufwpGJ mcsKyfw@kd wiG f 'kuo Q nfqo kd nfrmS “vlrsKd ;a&;/ bmoma&;/ Edik if o H m;jzpfr/_ vlra_ &;ESihf Edik if aH &;tzJ@G 0ifjzpfr_ wckcak =umifh tjypfay; ta&;,l cH&rnfh }uD;rm;aom pd;k &drrf _ cdik cf ikd rf mrm&So d jzifh rdrEd ikd if rH S xGucf mG vm&olrsm;” [k t"dym` ,fziG q hf x kd m;onf? xdo k @kd owfrw S cf suEf iS hf udu k n f aD om olrsm;udk cdv k cH_ iG ahf wmif;cHciG ðhf y&ef ESifh xdkolwdk@ touftE W&m,f&SdEdkifrnfh ae&yfodk@ qENrygbJ twif;t=uyf jyefvnfy@kd aqmifjcif;rðy&ef xdpk mcsKyfrsm;wGif umuG,x f m;onf? Ô

xdo k '@kd Q k onfrsm;tay: umuG,rf t _ m; b,fvkd vufawGt @ aumiftxnf azmfxm;ygovJ?

ukvor*~ 'kuo Q nfrsm;qdik &f m r[mrif;}uD;±H;k (UN High Commissioner for Refugees- UNHCR) onf 'kuQonfrsm;tm; umuG,fr_ESifh ywfoufI EdkifiHwum. vkyfaqmifr_rsm;udkapmifh=uyf&efESifh 'kuQonf jy\emudk ajz&Si;f onft h aejzifh qENtavsmuf ae&yfo@kd jyefapjcif;/ cdv k &H_ m ae&mopfwGif tom;uspGmaeEdkifa&;twGuf oufqdkif&m tpdk;&rsm;ESifh

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; taumif;qHk;ajz&Sif;csufrsm;&Sm}uHjcif;ESifh ywfoufaomvkyfief;rsm;twGuf wm0eft&Sq d ;kH jzpfonf? 1951 ckEpS f 'kuo Q nfrsm;qdik &f m r[mrif;}uD;ツアH;k udk pwifz@GJ pnf;pOfu 'kuo Q nfaygi;f woef;cef@om&Scd o hJ nf? ,cktcgurBmay:wGif 'kuo Q nf[al om t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkcsufESifh udkufnDonfh 'kuQonfaygif; 22 oef; &Sdonfhtjyif jynfwiG ;f Yom vSnv hf nfaexdik af eaom olaygi;f 25 oef;cef@ &Sad eao;onf? 'kuQonfrsm;qdkif&m r[mrif;}uD;ツアHk;taejzifh xdkolrsm;tm; ulnDaqmif&Guf Edik &f eftwGuf txl;vkyaf qmifテウu;yrf;vsu&f o dS nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

wOD;csi;f wdik -f um;r+rsm; Ô

tu,fI vlwOD;wa,muf. tcGit hf a&;rsm; csdK;azmuf cH&onf[k ,lq&v#if xdo k o l nf ukvor*~wGif wOD;csif; wdkif=um;Edkifygovm;?

ukvor*~xo H @kd vl@tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufc&H r_EiS hf ywfoufI vlwOD; csif;jzpfap/ tzJG@tpnf;vdkufjzpfap wdkif=um;r_rsm; axmifyHk&myHk a&muf&Sd vsu&f o dS nf? wOD;csi;f wdik =f um;r_ udk cGiðhf yonfh pepf,E , W m;udk cGiðhf yvdu k o f nfh aemufydkif;wGif wOD;csif; wdkif=um;r_rsm; ydkrdk rsm;jym;vmcJhonf? 1993 ckESpf wESpfxrJ Smyif ukvor*~xHodk@ wOD;csif; wdkif=um;r_aygif; ESpfodef;&Spfaomif; ausmf vufc&H &Scd o hJ nf? ,cifu wOD;csi;f wdik =f um;r_ukd vufrcHaom ukvor*~ vkyfief;tcsdK@onfyif ,cktcg wOD;csif;wdkif=um;r_udk vufcHvm+yDjzpfonf? vuf&t dS ajctaetxd vl@tcGit hf a&;ESiyhf wfoufI ukvor*~o@kd wOD;csi;f wdik f =um;Edkifaom vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;,E W,m;rsm;rSm vl@tcGifhta&;aumfrwD/ vlrsKd ;a&;cJjG cm;r_ yaysmufa&; aumfrwD/ ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_ qef@usiaf &;aumfrwD/ trsdK;orD;rsm;tm; enf;rsdK;pHkjzifh cJGjcm;r_rsm; yaysmufa&;aumfrwDESifh rw&m;zrf;qD;jcif;qdik &f m tvkyt f zJ@G w@kd jzpfonf? Ô

xdo k w @kd OD;csif;wdik =f um;r_rsm;udk b,fvq kd ufvyk yf govJ?

xdo k @kd wOD;csi;f wdik =f um;r_rsm; tygt0if vl@tcGit hf a&;ta&; udprP sm; ESihf ywfoufI ukvor*~wiG f wm0eft&Sq d ;kH tpdwt f ydik ;f rSm vl@tcGit hf a&; aumfr&Siyf if jzpfonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; aumfrwDudk pwifwnfaxmifpOfu xdkodk@ wOD;csif;jzpfap/ tzJG@vkduf jzpfap wdkif=um;r_rsm;udk vufcHta&;,l aqmif&Gufaom vkyfxHk;vkyfenf; ,E , W m; r&Scd ahJ cs? od@k &mwGif 1959 ckEpS rf pS wifI xdo k @kd widk =f um;r_ukd enf;ESprf sKd ; jzifh pwifvufcHcJhonf? yxr enf;vrf;rSm vl@tcGifhta&; wdk;jr‡ifha&;ESifh umuG,fa&;qdkif&m rl0g'rsm;ESifh ywfoufI EdkifiHrsm;. vkyfaqmifcsuf/ csKd ;azmufcsurf sm;udk v_@d 0u S jf cif;r&Sb d J tjcm;tzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm; od&adS p&ef vlod &Si=f um; xkwaf zmfajymqdak om enf;vrf;jzpf+y;D aemufwenf;rSm vl@ tcGit hf a&; csdK;azmufaom tpdk;&tay: pGyfpJGonfh wdkif=um;csufrsm;udk vlod&Sif=um; rxkwaf zmfbJ vSsKd @0u S pf mG udik w f , G af jz&Si;f aom enf;vrf;jzpfonf? tpd;k &tay: pGypf o GJ nfh wdik =f um;csurf sm;udk vlo&d iS =f um; rxkwaf zmfbJ vSsdK@0SufpGm udkifwG,fajz&Sif;aom enf;vrf;udk 1970 ckESpfwGif pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlra_ &;aumifpD qH;k jzwfcsut f rSwf (1503) jzifh twnfðy usio hf ;kH vmcJo h nf? xd@k a=umifh xdv k yk x f ;kH vkyef nf;udk (1503) vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;[kvnf; todrsm; onf? xdv k yk x f ;kH vkyef nf;t& Edik if t H pd;k &w&yfonf vl@tcGit hf a&;ESihf tajccH vGwv f yfrr_ sm;udk jyif;xefpmG csKd ;azmufaeonf[k wduscikd v f pkH mG wdik =f um;vm ygu xdktr_udk vSsdK@0SufvHkðcHaom enf;vrf;tqifhqifhjzifh ukvor*~u pHkprf;ppfaq;Edkifonf? xdv k yk x f ;kH vkyef nf;twdik ;f wdik =f um;rnfqykd gu yxrOD;qH;k ud, k w f ikd f ud, k u f s cHpm;&ol od@k r[kwf xdo k @kd usL;vGerf t _ a=umif;udk wdu k ±f u kd Ef iS hf cdik cf ikd f rmrm od&Sdxm;aom tjcm;ol/ tjcm;tkyfpk/ odk@r[kwf tpdk;&r[kwfaom tzJ@G tpnf;wckcu k oufaotaxmuftxm; rsm;udk wifoiG ;f &rnfjzpfonf? xdo k @kd yxrtqifh wdik =f um;r_ukd qyfaumfr&Si. f vlenf;pkrsm;tm; umuG,f a&;ESihf zdEydS cf jGJ cm;r_rsm; wm;qD;a&; tvkyt f zJ@G u ppfaq;avhvmrnf jzpfonf? omreftm;jzif wdkif=um;pmay;ydk@aomolxH wdkif=um;r_udk vufcH&&Sda=umif; todtrSwðf y jyefpmay;yd@k onf? xdw k ikd =f um;pmrdwLW udk oufqikd &f mtpd;k &od@k

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; ay;yd@k +yD; ar;cGe;f rsm; xkw&f onf? xd@k aemuf xdw k ikd =f um;r_EiS hf ywfoufaom tESpcf sKyfwifjycsuu f kd txl;vSLd @0u S pf mG qyfaumfr&Siw f iG f xdt k r_tm; qufvuf udik w f , G rf nfo h x l H vpOfvwdik ;f tpD&ifco H nf? xd@k aemuf tvkyt f zJ@G 0if (5) OD;onf wESpv f #iw f }udrf awG@q+kH yD; xdw k ikd =f um;csuu f kd avhvmppfaq;onf? wdik =f um;csurf sm;ESihf tpd;k &xHrS wke@f jyefcsurf sm;udk rlwnfI tvkyt f zG@J onf xdw k ikd =f um;r_onf trSew f u,f}uD;}uD;rm;rm; vl@tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufr_ [kwf r[kwu f kd rJcq GJ ;kH jzwfonf? trSew f u,f vl@tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufr_ jzpfonf[k ,lqygu xdkwdkif=um;csufudk qyfaumfrwDxHodk@ wifoGif;+yD; xdkrSwqifh rJqENjzifh aumfr&Six f o H @kd qufvufwifoif/h rwifoifu h q kd ;kH jzwfonf? aumfr&Sif taejzifh xdo k @kd wifoiG ;f vmaom wdik =f um;r_rsm;ESihf ywfoufI xdw k ikd =f um;csuf udk y,fcsjcif;/ aemufEpS u f srS pOf;pm;aqmif&u G &f ef qdik ;f ihH vdu k jf cif;/ jzpfysuo f nfh tr_upd w P ckv;kH udk avhvmjcif;/ oufqikd &f m tpd;k &u oabmwlygu aumfr&Sif f nf? onf txl;aumfrwD (Ad hoc) zJ@G pnf;I pHpk rf;ppfaq;jcif;rsm; vkyEf ikd o xdkwdkif=um;r_udk vufcHppfaq;aepOf umvwckvHk; xdktr_rsm;ta=umif;udk vlo&d iS =f um; xkwaf zmfa=unmjcif;r&S&d ef txl;pnf;urf; owfrw S x f m;onf? wdik =f um;oluv kd nf; wdik =f um;r_onf rnfonft h qifu h kd a&muf&adS ea=umif;udk vnf; today;jcif;r&S?d oufqikd &f mtpd;k &udk today;jcif;/ xdu k pd EP iS hf ywfouf onft h csurf sm;udk ajz=um;&ef zdw=f um;jcif;wd@k uo kd m vkyaf qmifonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sdrsm; Ô

vltcGit hf a&;aumfr&Siu f vlt @ cGit hf a&;ESiyhf wfoufI tjcm;bmawGvyk af qmif ygao;vJ?

EdkifiHwum vl@tcGifhta&; oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;ESifh oufqdkif&m aumfrwDw@kd . vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;tjyif aumfr&Si. f qH;k jzwfcsut f &qH;k jzwfI pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra_ &; aumifpu D twnfjyKcef@tyfaom vl@tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&; t&m&Srd sm; od@k r[kwf tvkyt f zJ@G rsm; cef@tyfwm0efay;I pHpk rf;ppfaq;aom vkyif ef;&Syd gao;onf? ukvor*~tzJ@G 0if Ekid if rH sm;taejzifh av;pm;vdu k ef m&ef wm0ef&adS om vlŒtcGifhta&; pHcsdefpH!Gef;rsm;udk EdkifiHrsm;u av;pm;vdkufemapa&;twGuf xdkodk@ txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; t&m&Sdrsm;/ tvkyftzJG@rsm;cef@tyfI pHkprf; ppfaq;&ef wm0efay;jcif;jzpfonf? xdktvkyftzJG@wGif yg0ifolrsm;jzpfap txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&; t&m&St d jzpf cef@tyforl sm;jzpfap tpd;k &ud, k pf m;vS,f rsm; r[kwf&bJ vGwfvyfaom/ tcsKyftaESmifuif;vGwfaomolrsm; jzpf& ygrnf? pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Su d kd ESprf sKd ;ESppf m;cJjG cm;Edik o f nf? yxrwrsKd ;rSm vl@tcGit hf a&; ta=umif;t&mu¾wckukd wurBmvH;k taejzifh pHpk rf;ppfaq; aom t&m&Sd (Theme Special Rapporteur) jzpfonf? Oyrm - trsKd ;orD;rsm; tm; t=urf;zufrE_ iS yhf wfoufI Edik if rH sm;wGif jzpfymG ;aeaom trsKd ;orD;rsm; tm; t=urf;zufrt _ a=umif; pHpk rf;ppfaq;jcif;rsKd ; jzpfonf? 'kw, d trsKd ;tpm; rSm Edik if w H Edik if t H wGi;f &Sd vl@tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufrr_ sKd ;pHu k kd pHpk rf;ppfaq;aom txl;t&m&Sd (Country Special Rapporteur) jzpfonf? Oyrm - jrefrmEdik if H

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; wGif jzpfyGm;aeaom edkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ta=umif;/ t"rRvkyftm;ay; ta=umif;/ 'kuQonfrsm;ta=umif; ponfjzifh jrefrmEdkifiHESifh oufqdkifonfh vltcGit hf a&; tjzpftysut f m;vH;k aygi;f pHpk mG udk avhvmpHpk rf;jcif;rsKd ;jzpfonf? Ô

u¾ k pf pkH rf;ppfaq;r_ukd b,fvv kd yk x f ;kH vkyef nf;jzifh ¾tvdu vkyfudkifygovJ?

yxrOD;qHk; u¾tvdkufpHkprf;ppfaq;r_twGuf zJG@pnf;aom tvkyf tzJG@rSm 1980 ckESpfwGif zJG@pnf;wm0efay;cJhaom twif;t=uyf qENrygbJ aysmufq;kH r_ qdik &f mtvkyt f zJ@G (Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances) jzpfonf? xdk tvkyt f zJ@G . wm0efrmS aysmufq;kH oGm;ol rsm;tm; jyefvnfazmfxw k Ef ikd rf nfh ae&mrsm;udk od&v dS m&ef &nf&, G cf sujf zifh aysmufqHk;oGm;aom olrsm;. rdom;pkESifh tpdk;&wdk@t=um; =um;cHv_yf&Sm; aqmif&Gufay;jcif;jzpfonf? xdk&nf&G,fcsuftwdkif; taumiftxnfazmf &mwGif aumfrwDonf tpdk;&ESifh tpdk;&r[kwfaom tzJG@rsm;u ay;ydk@aom owif; tcsut f vufrsm;ud&k ,lI aysmufq;kH oGm;olrsm;. ta=umif;t&m wckcsif;udk oHk;oyfygonf? xdkaemuf oufqdkif&mtpdk;&tm; xdktr_rsm;udk ay;yd@k ygonf? xdo k ufqikd &f m tpd;k &zufu jyefvnfjyef=um;aom ta=umif; t&m tcsut f vufrsm;udk oufqikd &f m rdom;pkrsm;xH ta=umif;=um;ay;yd@k ygonf? xd@k aemuf aemufqufwGJ pHpk rf;jcif;rsm;udk vkyaf qmifygonf? xdu k pd EP iS hf ywfoufaom pGyfpGJcsufrsm;udk EdkifiHwckcsif;tvdkuf pHkprf;ygonf? tu,fI aysmufq;kH oGm;aom olrsm;. rdom;pk0ifrsm; od@k r[kwf tvkyt f zJ@G tm; yl;aygi;f ulnaD eolrsm;udk tpd;k &u taESmift h ,Sujf yKygu tvkyt f zJ@G u =um;0ifjzefajz/ umuG,fay;ygonf? aemufqHk;wGif rdrdwdk@awG@&Sdonfh ed*Hk;csKyftcsufrsm;ESifh t}uHay;csurf sm;udk vl@tcGit hf a&; aumfr&Six f o H @kd wifjytpD&ifcyH gonf? aemufxyf tvkyt f zJ@G wckjzpfonfh rw&m;zrf;qD;jcif;qdik &f m tvkyf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tzJG@ (Working Group on Arbitrary Detention) udk 1991 ckESpfwGifzG@J pnf;cJh+yD; EdkifiHwumu owfrSwfxm;aom pHcsdefpH!Gef;rsm;ESifh tnDr[kwfbJ xdk oufqdkif&mEdkifiHrsm; usL;vGefxm;aom rw&m;zrf;qD;jcif; tr_udpPrsm;udk pHpk rf;ppfaq;ygonf? xdek nf;wl tusO;f ðc;H od@k r[kwf rw&m;tjypfay;jcif;qkid &f m txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sd (Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions) udk 1982 ckEp S w f iG f cef@tyfco hJ vdk ESyd pf uf !‡Of;yrf;jcif;qdkif&m txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sd (Special Rapporteur on S w f iG f cef@tyfcyhJ gonf? xdt k &m&Srd sm;/ tvkyt f zJ@G rsm; Torture) udk 1985 ckEp yl;aygif;I xdktr_rsm; jzpfyGm;ygu ta&;ay:umuG,fwm;qD;Edkif&ef 0dkif;0ef; óu;yrf;avh&Sdygonf? u¾tvdu k f tjcm;pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&; t&m&Srd sm;rSm - jynfwiG ;f wGif twnfwus r&SdbJ a&$@ajymif;aexdkif&aom olrsm;qdkif&m/ uav;rsm;tm; a&mif;csjcif;/ jynhw f efqmESihf npfnrf;pmayrsm;wGif toH;k csjcif;qdik &f m/ w&m; qdik &f m vGwv f yfciG Ehf iS hf vGwv f yfaom w&m;ol}uD;rsm;qdik &f m/ trsKd ;orD;rsm; tm; t=urf;zufjcif;qdik &f m/ acwfòyifvrl sKd ;a&; cJjG cm;jcif;/ vlrsKd ;a&;zdEydS jf cif;ESihf vlrsdK;a&; rkef;wD;r_qdkif&m/ bmoma&;t& onf;rcHr_qdkif&m/ vGwfvyfpGm xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG q hf ikd &f m/ a=u;pm;ppfom;rsm; toH;k ðyjcif;qdik &f m/ ud, k yf ikd f tkycf sKyfciG t hf ay: ðyrlqufqrH q _ ikd &f m wd@k jzpfygonf? Ô

Edik if rH sm;tvdu k af &m txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;jcif;r&Sb d ;l vm;/

vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&SifESifh ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHodk@ EdkifiH tvku d f vl@ tcGit hf a&; csKd ;azmufrr_ sm;tm; wifjytpD&ifc&H ef cef@tyfxm;aom txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&; t&m&Srd sm;vnf;&Syd gonf? vuf&w dS iG f tmz*efepPwef/ ygyl;/ e,l;*DeD/ jrefrm/ usL;bm;/ uarBm'D;,m;/ t,fvfqmaA;'dk;/ tDauG'dk;/ a[wD/ *Gmwmrmvm/ tD&wf/ tD&ef/ ,l*dkpvm; AD;,m;/ ydkvef/ b&Grf'D/

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; qdkrm;vD;,m;/ Adkav;AD;,m;/ ±dkar;eD;,m;/ ygvufpwdkif;/ oD&dvuFm/ wdk*dk/ ql'efESifh Zkdif,mEdkifiHwdk@twGuf cef@tyfxm;aom EdkifiHtvdkuf txl;pHkprf; ppfaq;a&; t&m&Srd sm; &Syd gonf? Ô

xdo k t @kd xl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;jcif; vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;onf bmud&k nf&, G I f vkyu f ikd jf cif; jzpfygovJ?

xdo k @kd txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;jcif; vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;. &nf&, G cf surf mS vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_tajctaersm;udk avhvm&ef/ ppfaq;&efjzpf+yD; oufqdkif&m tpdk;&rsm;taeESifh EdkifiHwumu owfrSwfxm;aom vl@tcGifh ta&; pHcsdefpH!Gef;rsm;ESifhtnD taumiftxnf azmf aqmif&Gufvmap&ef jzpfonf? xdkodk@pHkprf;ppfaq;&ef cef@tyfwm0efay;cH&aom t&m&Sdrsm;/ tvkyt f zJ@G rsm;onf csKd ;azmufc&H olrsm; tygt0if tpd;k &ESihf tpd;k &r[kwaf om tzJG@rsm;qDrS owif;rsm;udk trSeftwdkif;&SmazG vufcHEdkifonf? oufqdkif&m tpdk;&rsm;xH xdkowif;tcsufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI ajz&Sif;csufrsm; awmif;cH Edik o f nf? oufqikd &f mtpd;k &u cGiðhf yygu xdEk ikd if w H iG ;f od@k oGm;a&mufI pHpk rf; Edik o f nf? rdrw d @kd ukd avhvm&ef wm0efay;xm; aom vl@tcGit hf a&;/ Edik if rH sm; tajctaeESihf ywfoufI rdrw d @kd . awG@&cdS surf sm;/ taxGaxG t}uHðycsurf sm;udk vl@tcGifhta&; aumfr&SifESifh taxGaxGnDvmcHwGif tpD&ifcHonf? xdkodk@ vkyaf qmifjcif;tqifq h if. h &nf&, G cf sut f ESpcf sKyfrmS oufqikd &f m tpd;k &rsm;ESihf tusdK;&Sdaom qufqHajymqdkr_rsm; jzpfxGef;ap+yD; xdktpdk;&rsm;tm; vl@ tcGit hf a&; umuG,rf q _ ikd &f m wd;k wufvmatmifvyk af qmifEikd rf nfh enf;vrf; rsm;udk t}uHðywifjyay;a&;om jzpfonf? txl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Srd sm;. oufwrf;udk topfw;kd jri‡ Ehf ikd o f nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

xdo k t @kd xl;pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&; vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;. xl;jcm;csufrmS bmvJ?

xdkodk@ txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;. xl;jcm;csufrSm vlΠtcGit hf a&; pHcsed pf ! H eG ;f rsm;udk owfrw S , f rkH #ruawmhbJ xdo k wfrw S x f m;aom pHcsed pf ! H eG ;f rsm;tm; taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u G rf /_ av;pm;vdu k ef mr_rsm;udk apmifh=uyfvmEdkifonfh vl@ tcGifhta&; vkyfief;pOf}uD; wjznf;jznf;wdk;wuf ajymif;vJvmjcif;yif jzpfonf? EdkifiHwumu vdkufem&efowfrSwfxm;aom vl@tcGit hf a&; umuG,af &; vkyif ef;udk Edik if w H Edik if . H tpd;k &wcku rav;pm; ygu EdkifiHwumtqifhtjzpf rnfuJhodk@ vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;jzifh vkyfaqmif Edik o f nf [laom ,E , W m;wck ay:ayguv f mjcif;jzpfonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlŒtcGifhta&;r[mrif;}uD;±Hk; Ô

vlt @ cGit hf a&;r[mrif;}u;D ±H;k (UN High Commissioner for Human Rights) qdw k m bmvJ?

1993 ck E S p f w G i f xk w f j yef c J h o nf h AD , if e m a=unmpmwrf ; ES i f h a&S@vkyfief;pOf tpDtpOfwGif vuf&SdESifh tem*wfwGif}uHKawG@&rnfh vl@tcGifh ta&; a&;&mudprP sm;udk udik w f , G af jz&Si;f wm0ef,&l eftwGuf ukvor*~wiG f ,E , W m;topfwck vdt k yfa=umif; todtrSwjf yKxm;onf? xdo k @kd vkyaf qmif Edkif&eftwGuf vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m r[m rif;}uD;±Hk;udk zJG@pnf;xlaxmif oifah =umif;udv k nf; xdak =unmpmwrf;wGif t}uaH y;cJo h nf? xdt k }uaH y;csuu f kd 1993 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (20) &ufae@wGif taumiftxnfazmfEdkifcJhonf? xdak e@wiG f vltcGit hf a&;rsm; tm;vH;k ESiyhf wfoufI umuG,af &;/ xGe;f um; apa&;rsm;udk vkyaf qmif&eftwGuf vl@tcGit hf a&; r[mrif;}u;D &mxl;topfukd cef@tyf&ef ukvor*~ taxGaxGnv D mcHu uef@uu G rf rJ &Sd oabmwlq;kH jzwf cJo h nf? 1994 ck {+yDv (5) &ufae@wiG f yxrOD;qH;k vl@tcGit hf a&; r[mrif;}uD; u wm0efpwif,cl o hJ nf? vl@tcGifhta&; r[mrif;}uD;tm; (4) ESpfw}udrf ajymif;vJEdkifonf? Oya't& aemufoufwrf;w}udro f m xyfro H ufwrf;wd;k cGi&hf o dS nf? vl@tcGihf ta&; r[mrif;}uD;±H;k . wm0efrsm;rSm ukvor*~csmwm/ tjynfjynfqikd &f m vl@tcGit hf a&; a=unmpmwrf;ESihf tjcm;vl@tcGit hf a&; pmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm;wGif yg0ifaom tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh avsmfnDpGm vl@tcGifhta&; umuG,fa&;/ xGe;f um;a&;wd@k ukd vkyaf qmif&ef wm0ef&o dS nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

vlt @ cGit hf a&;r[mrif;}u;D . wm0efEiS v hf yk yf ikd cf iG rhf sm;u bmvJ?

vl@tcGit hf a&; r[mrif;}uD;onf vltcGit hf a&;qdik &f m vkyaf qmifr_ rsm;ESihf ywfoufI ukvor*~wiG f t"duwm0eft&Sq d ;kH yk*Kd~ vfjzpfonf? zG@H òz; wd;k wufciG hf tygt0if tjcm;tcGit hf a&;rsm;tm;vH;k udk vlom;wdik ;f aysm&f i$ pf mG cHpm;Edik af &;twGuf vl@tcGit hf a&; umuG,af y;a&;/ wk;d wufatmif vkyaf qmif ay;a&;wd@k ukd vkyaf qmif&ef wm0eftjynft h 0 &So d nf? vl@tcGit hf a&; r[mrif;}uD;. wm0efrsm;rSm ukvor*~ vkyif ef;pOf twGuf vl@tcGifhta&; umuG,fa&;ESifh xGef;um;atmif vkyfaqmifa&;rsm; vkyu f ikd af qmif&u G &f ef jzpfonft h avsmuf vkyif ef;aqmifwmtrsKd ;rsKd ;&So d nf? tultnDvt kd yfaom Edik if rH sm;od@k t}uHOm%f/ twwfynmESihf aiGa=u;tul tnDrsm; yhyH ;kd jcif;/ ukvor*~. vl@tcGit hf a&; ,E , W m;rsm; ydrk o kd ufa&muf aumif;rGefvmatmif vdktyfaom jyifqifr_rsm;ESifh tm;aumif;atmif vkyfaqmifay;r_rsm; vkyfaqmifjcif;/ vl@tcGifhta&;udk av;pm;vdkufem ap&eftwGuf tpdk;&rsm;ESifh qufqHajymqdkjcif;wdk@tjyif wurBmvHk;wGif vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_rsm; qufvufjzpfyGm;aer_rsm; &yfwHhoGm;atmif wuf=uGaom tcef;rSaeI vkyaf qmifjcif;wd@k ukd vl@tcGit hf a&; r[mrif;}uD;u wm0efcHvkyfaqmif&ygonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

tjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzJG@csKyf Ô

vl@tcGifhta&;xGef;um;atmifvkyfaqmif&mwGif tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm; tzJc@G sKyfu rnfonft h cef;u yg0ifygovJ?

1919 ckEpS u f wnf;uzJ@G pnf;cJo h nfh tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm; tzJ@G csKyf (International Labor Organization) onf 1946 ckEpS w f iG f ukvor*~ . yxrOD;qH;k aom txl;ðyat*sipf D jzpfvmcJo h nf? xdt k zJ@G csKyfukd vlra_ &;ESihf tvkyo f rm;a&;&m tcef;u¾rsm;wGif vlrw _ &m;r#wr_rsm; xGe;f um;apa&; twGuf &nf&G,fzJG@pnf;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform; tzJG@csKyf. vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh ywfoufaom vkyfaqmifcsufrSm EdkifiHwum tvkyo f rm; tqift h wef;qdik &f m pHcsed pf ! H e$ ;f rsm; csrw S I f xdpk cH sed pf ! H e$ ;f rsm; twdik ;f tzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;taeESihf vdu k ef maqmif&u G rf &_ rdS &Su d kd apmif=h uyfaom vkyaf qmifcsuyf if jzpfonf? tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyfonf tvky&f iS /f tvkyo f rm;/ tpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ponfh oHk;yGifhqdkif udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifaom tzJ@G jzpf+yD; qH;k jzwfcsurf sm; csrw S &f mwGiv f nf;aumif;/ vkyif ef;rsm; aqmif&u G f &mwGiv f nf;aumif; xdo k ;kH yGiq hf ikd f ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; tm;vH;k yg0ifciG &hf o dS nf? EdkifiHwum tvkyform; tqifhtwef;qdkif&m pHcsdefpH!$ef;rsm;udk tvkyo f rm; tzJ@G csKyf. t"dutpdwt f ydik ;f jzpfaom tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyf orm;uGezf &ifh (International Labor Conference) u oabmwlncD surf sm; od@k r[kwf t}uðH ycsurf sm;tjzpf csrw S jf yXmef;avh&o dS nf? xdo k @kd jyXmef;vku d af om

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; oabmwlnDcsufrsm;udk EdkifiHrsm;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;vdkufygu xdkEdkifiHtay: pnf;aESmiftm;&SdoGm;+yDjzpfonf? xdkoabmwlnDcsufrsm;onf tvkyform; tzJ@G csKyf. tajccHtcGit hf a&;rsm;ESio hf ufqikd o f nfh vGwv f yfpmG tzJ@G tpnf; zJG@pnf;a&;/ t"rRvkyftm;ay; zsufodrf;a&;/ tvkyfvkyf&mwGif cJGjcm;r_rS uif;vGwaf &;/ uav;tvkyo f rm; apcdik ;f jcif; yaysmufa&;ponfjzifh ta=umif; t&m trsKd ;rsKd ;&So d nf? xd@k jyif tvkyo f rm;wd@k . vkyif ef;cGiq f ikd &f m pHcsed pf ! H eG ;f rsm;tjzpf vkyif ef;cGit f ajctae/ vkyif ef;cGif vHðk caH &;ESihf use;f rma&;/ vlrz_ v l akH &;/ tvkyfcef@tyfr_ ay:vpDwdk@ tygt0if tjcm;ta=umif;t&m rsm;pGmwdk@ESifh ywfoufIvnf; Edik if w H um tqift h wef;rsm; owfrw S x f m; ygonf? xd@k r#ru trsKd ;orD;/ a&$@ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm;ESihf rl&if;XmaevlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI vnf; umuG,af pmifah &Smufrr_ sm; vkyaf qmifxm;vsu&f o dS nf? Ô

oufqikd &f mtpd;k &rsm;av;pm;vdu k ef mr_&rdS &Su d kd tvkyo f rm;tzJc@G sKyfu rnfuo hJ @kd apmif=h uyfygovJ?

tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyfu csrw S x f m;aom Edik if w H um pHcsed pf ! H eG ;f rsm;tm; Edik if t H oD;oD;. taumiftxnfazmfru _ kd apmih=f uyfonfh enf;vrf;rsm;pGm&Sdygonf? tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyf. oabmwlncD suu f kd Edik if w H Edik if u H vufrw S f a&;xdk; vdkufonfESifhw+ydKifeuf xdkEdkifiHonf oabmwlpmcsKyfwGif yg&Sdonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk rnfodk@ taumiftxnfazmfaea=umif; owfrSwf xm;onfh tcsdefumvtwdkif; yHkrSef tpD&ifcH&ef wm0ef&SdoGm;+yDjzpfonf? xdkwm0ef&Sdonfhtwdkif; tpdk;&rsm;u wifoGif;vmonfh vkyfief;taumif txnfazmf aqmif&Gufr_ tpD&ifcHcsufrsm;udk EdkifiHwdkif;&Sd tvkyform;ESifh tvkyf&SiftzJG@rsm;toD;oD;odk@ ay;ydk@I xdkolwdk@. xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udk jyefvnf&,l&onf? tvkyform;tzJG@csKyfwGif zJG@pnf;xm;onfh u|rf;usif

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; vGwfvyfaom aumfrwD0if (20) OD;wdk@u xdkodk@wifoGif;vmaom EdkifiH tpD&ifcpH mrsm;/ tvky&f iS Ef iS hf tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G rsm;u jyefvnfay;yd@k vmaom xifjrif,q l csurf sm;udk avhvmI tpd;k &. taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u G rf _ tay: 0dik ;f 0ef;avhvm tuJcwfygonf? xdo k @kd avhvm&mwGif xdEk ikd if . H Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlr_a&;pepfwdk@ESifhywfoufI xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;jcif; r[kwfbJ tajccH vl@tcGit hf a&; ta=umif;tcsuf wckwnf;ay:wGio f m =unf&h a_ vhvm jcif; jzpfygonf? xd@k aemuf ESppf Of usi;f yonfh tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm; uGezf &ifo h @kd xdak umfrwDu olw@kd . tpD&ifccH surf sm;udk wifoiG ;f tpD&ifcyH gonf? xdt k pD&ifccH suu f kd uGezf &ifah umfrwDu aemufxyfwcg jyefvnfppfaq; ygonf? tvkyform;tzJG@csKyf. pHcsdefpH!$ef;rsm; csrSwfr_ESifh EdkifiHtpdk;&rsm;. apmifh=uyfr_ vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;. =oZmoufa&mufr_a=umifh vGefcJhaom umvrsm;twGi;f wGif tzJ@G 0if Edik if rH sm;wGif vlra_ &;ESihf tvkyo f rm;a&;qdik &f m w&m;Oya'rsm; ajymif;vJvmonfukd awG@&ygonf? xdEk ikd if rH sm;&Sd tvkyo f rm; rsm;. tajctaeESihf b0wd@k vnf; wd;k wufvmcJo h nf? tu,fI oabmwlnDcsufyg tcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u G f &mwGif tcuftcJrsm;&Sad eygu xdo k @kd tcuftcJテアuHawG@aeaom EdkifiHtm; tvkyform; tzJG@csKyfu ulnDaxmufyhHr_rsm; yhHydk;ay;ygonf? wurBmvHk;&Sd u|rf;usifol ynm&Sifrsm;/ t}uHay;rsm;. tultnDjzifh xdv k t kd yfaom twwfynmydik ;f qdik &f m ulnyD yHh ;kd r_rsm;udk tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyfu aqmif&Gufay;vsuf&Sdygonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

xdo k y@kd rkH eS t f pD&ifcjH cif;r[kwb f J tjcm;aom ta&;,laqmif&u G rf r_ sdK;a&m &Syd gao;vm;?

tpdk;&rsm;xHrSwifoGif;aom yHkrSeftpD&ifcHpmrsm;tm; avhvmaom vkyfxHk; vkyfenf;tjyif tvkyform;tzJG@csKyf. zJG@pnf;yHkOya't& csrSwf xm;aom EdkifiHwum tvkyform;pHcsdefpH!$ef;rsm;tm; taumiftxnf azmfrE_ iS hf ywfoufI wdik =f um;Edik af om tjcm;enf;vrf;ESprf sKd ; &Syd gao;onf? yxrwenf;rSm EdkifiHwEdkifiHu vufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;aom oabm wlnDcsuf twGif;wGif yg0ifonfh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf vdkufem&ef xdkEdkifiHu ysufuGufaeygu xdkokd@ysufuGufaea=umif;tm; tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G ujzpfap/ tvky&f iS t f zJ@G u jzpfap tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyfwiG f ud, k pf m;ðy wifjyjcif;yifjzpfonf? tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyf. tkycf sKyfra_ umfrwDwiG f yg0ifaom oHk;yGifhqdkif udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u xdkwdkif=um;r_onf oufqdkif&m oabmwlnDcsufwGif azmfjyxm;aom tcsufrsm;ESifh tñuH;0ifjcif;&Sdr&Sdudk qHk;jzwfcsufcs&ygonf? aemufwenf;rSm EdkifiHESpfEdkifiHpvHk;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;aom oabmwlnDcsuf pmcsKyfudk EdkifiHwEdkifiHu vdkufemtaumiftxnfazmf&ef ysufuGufaeygu tjcm;tzJG@0if EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHu xdkEdkifiHudk wdkif=um;Edkifjcif; jzpfonf? xdo k @kd widk =f um;onfh Edik if o H nf rdrd wdik =f um;aomEdik if u H vdu k ef m&ef ysuu f u G af eaom oabmwlpmcsKyfukd ud, k w f ikd v f ufrw S f xd;k xm;aom Edik if H jzpf&efvdktyfonf? xdkodk@EdkifiHwEdkifiHu tcGifhta&;rsm;udk vdkufem&ef ysuu f u G I f wdik =f um;aomtpd;k &/ od@k r[kwf Edik if t H ay: xdcu kd ef pfepfapaom a=umifh wdkif=um;jcif; jzpf&efrvdkyg? vltcGifhta&;&_axmifhuaeI xdkodk@ av;pm;&efysufuGufr_udk axmufjywkdif=um;jcif;om jzpfonf? xdkodk@ ESpf ywfvnf tvkyo f rm; uGezf &ifw h iG f ud, k pf m;ðy wdik =f um;aom wdik =f um;r_rsm;udk

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; udkifqJGI tkyfcsKyfr_aumfrwDonf oufqdkif&mEdkifiHudk ar;cGef;xkwf avhvm ppfaq;&onf? vdktyfygu pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sifudk zJG@pnf;wm0efay; Edkifonf? tu,fI ar;cGef;xkwf wdkif=um;cH&onfhEdkifiHu aumfr&Sif. awG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk vufrcHv#if EkdifiHwumw&m;ツアHk; (International Court of Justice) odk@ xdktr_udk vJGajymif; ay;Edkifonf? odk@aomf xdkodk@ EdkifiHwum w&m;ツアH;k od@k vJaG jymif;ay;vdu k &f onfh tqift h xd wcgrS ra&muf&adS o;yg?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

tpd;k &r[kwaf omtzJŒG tpnf;rsm; Ô

tpd;k &r[kwaf om tzJt @G pnf;rsm;ua&m vltcGit hf a&; xGe;f um;atmif aqmif&u G &f mwGif rnfonft h cef;u yg0ifaeygovJ?

vltcGifhta&;xGef;um;atmif wdkufyJG0if&mwGif tpdk;&r[kwfaom tzJ@G tpnf;rsm; (Non-Governemtnal Organizations) rsm;. tcef;rSmvnf; ta&;ygvSonf? vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh ywfoufaom EdkifiHawmftqifh/ a'o tqifEh iS hf Edik if w H umtqifh trsKd ;rsK;d wd@k wiG f xdt k pd;k &r[kwaf om tzJ@G rsm;onf us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@ yg0ifvyk af qmifaevsu&f ydS gonf? ukvor*~. tpDtpOfrsm; wGiv f nf; xdt k zJ@G rsm;u xda&mufpmG yg0ifaeygonf? owif;rsm; yhyH ;kd ulnaD y; jcif;/ Edik if w H umOya'topfrsm;tm; owfrw S jf cif;/a&;qJjG cif;wd@k wiG f yg0ifun l D jcif;/ vl@tcGit fh a&; csKd ;azmufc&H olrsm;. tjzpfukd wifjyjcif;/ vl@ tcGit hf a&; ynmay;vkyif ef;rsm; wd;k wufatmif vkyaf qmif&mwGif txl;ojzifh pmoifcef; oif=um;enf; r[kwfaom enf;vrf;rsm;wGif ta&;ygaomtcef;rS yg0if aqmif&u G jf cif;wd@k ukd xdt k zJ@G rsm;uyif vkyaf qmifaevsu&f ydS gonf? vl@tcGifhta&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI EdkifiHwumESifh EdkifiHawmf tqifw h @kd wiG f vkyu f ikd af eaom tpd;k &r[kwo f nfh tzJ@G tajrmuftrsm;&Syd gonf? ‚wd@k txJwiG f 1961 ckEpS u f xnf;u wnfaxmifz@GJ pnf;xm;aom tjynfjynf qdik &f m vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGit hf zJ@G (Amnesty International) onf txif&mS ;qH;k jzpfygonf? vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfwifjy ajymqdck iG /hf vGwv f yfpmG ud;k uG,cf iG Ehf iS hf ,H=k unfciG w hf @kd tjyif !‡O;f yrf;ESyd pf ufr_ qef@usiaf &;ESihf ,H=k unfcsuf t,ltq a=umifh tusO;f uscaH e&aom Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;tm; vGwaf jrmufapa&;

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrHaqmif&Gufaeaom xdktzJG@udk 1977 ckESpfwGif urBm‹ +idrf;csrf;a&; EdkA,fqk csD;jr‡ifh*k%fðycJhygonf? 1993 ckESpf AD,ifem vl@tcGifhta&;nDvmcHu vl@tcGifhta&;rsm; xGe;f um;atmif vkyaf qmifjcif;ESihf Edik if aH wmf/ a'oESihf Edik if w H umwGif vlom; csif;pmemaom ulnDr_rsm; vkyfaqmifjcif;wdk@wGif tpdk;&r[kwfonfh tzJG@ tpnf;rsm;. tcef;u¾onf tvGet f a&;}uD; a=umif; todtrSwðf ycJo h nf? xdktzJG@tpnf;rsm; vkyfaqmifcJhonfh jynfolrsm;t=um; vl@tcGifhta&; ta=umif; todtjrifjyef@ymG ;atmif vkyaf qmifay;onfh vkyif ef;rsm;/ vl@tcGihf ta&;qdkif&m oifwef;rsm;/ okawoevkyfief;rsm;ESifh ynmay;r_vkyfief;rsm;/ vl@tcGit hf a&; umuG,af &; vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI xdn k v D mcHwiG f cs;D usL; xkwaf zmf ajymqdck o hJ nf? xdrk #ru xdt k pd;k &r[kwaf om tzJ@G rsm;ESihf tpd;k &wd@k t=um; yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G f wd;k yGm;vmatmif vkyaf qmif&efEiS hf vl@tcGit hf a&; vkyif ef;udk pGr;f pGr;f wrH vkyu f ikd af eaom xdt k zJ@G rsm;ESihf ‚wd@k . tzJ@G 0ifrsm;. tcGifhta&;ESifh vGwfvyfcGifhwdk@udk EdkifiHtpdk;&rsm;u av;pm;I EdkifiHawmf Oya'rsm;jzifh umuG,rf r_ sm;vkyaf qmifay;&ef xdn k v D mcHu wdu k w f eG ;f xm;onf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlŒtcGifhta&;ynmay; Ô

Edik if w H umtodik ;f t0dik ;f taejzifh vlt @ cGit hf a&; ynmay;r_ xGe;f um;atmif b,fvv kd yk af qmifaeygovJ?

1993 ck AD,ifem vl@tcGifhta&; nDvmcH a=unmpmwrf;ESifh a&S@ vkyif ef; tpDtpOfwiG f wurBmvH;k Y vl@tcGit hf a&;ESihf 'Dru kd a&pD xGe;f um;a&; ynma&; tpDtpOfukd xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;cJo h nf? Edik if w H ikd ;f taejzifh pmrwwf olrsm; yaysmufatmif vkyfaqmif&ef/ pmoifcef;ynma&;ESifh jyifyynma&; ESprf sKd ;vH;k wGif vl@tcGit hf a&;/ vlom;csi;f pmem axmufxm;onfh Oya'rsm;/ 'Dru kd a&pDEiS hf w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k a&; ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk xnfo h iG ;f oif=um;&ef/ vlxkxHodk@ vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh ywfoufonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm; a&mufEikd o f r#a&mufatmif yd@k aqmif&ef xdn k v D mcHu wdu k w f eG ;f Ed;k aqmfco hJ nf? t,fqmaA;'dk;EdkifiHESifh uarBm'D;,m;EdkifiHwdk@wGif ukvor*~u wm0ef,l aqmif&u G cf ahJ om +idr;f csr;f a&;wnfaqmufr_ vkyif ef;rsm;wGiv f nf; vl@tcGifhta&; ynmay; vkyfief;rsm;udk vkyfief;pOfwcktaejzifh xnfhoGif; aqmif&GufcJhonf? vl@tcGifhta&; ynmay;vkyfief;rsm;udk ydkrdk}udK;yrf;aqmif&GufEdkif&ef &nf&G,fonfh taejzifh 1994 'DZifbmv (21) &ufae@wGif ukvor*~ taxGaxGnv D mcH}uD;rSaeI 1995 ckEpS f ZEN0g&v D (1) &ufae@rpS I aemufxyf (10) ESpu f mvudk ukvor*~. vl@tcGit hf a&; ynmay;q,fpEk pS f (UN DeS cf o hJ nf? xdv k @l tcGit hf a&; cade for Human Rights Education) tjzpf owfrw ynmay;q,fpkESpf (1995 -2004) . &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk xdkq,fpkESpf.

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; a&S@vyk if ef;pOfEiS t hf pDtpOfwiG f atmufygtwdik ;f a&;om;xm;onf? xdk&nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm(1)

(2) (3) (4) (5)

pmoifcef; oif=um;r_ pHepfrsm;/ jyify ynmoif=um;a&; pHepfrsm;/ oufarG;0rf;a=umif; oif=um;r_rsm;tygt0if pmoif=um;r_tqifh wd k i f ; wG i f vl @ tcG i f h t a&; ynmay;r_ wd k ; jrif h a p&ef t wG u f yd k r d k xda&mufaumif;rGeaf om enf;vrf;rsm;udk oH;k oyf&efEiS hf a&;qJ&G ef/ vl@tcGit hf a&; ynmay;r_ tpDtpOfrsm;ESihf vkyaf qmifEikd rf _ pGr;f &nf rsm;udk Edik if w H um/ a'oESihf Edik if aH wmftqifw h @kd wiG f wnfaqmuf&efEiS hf ydkrdktm;aumif;atmifvkyfaqmif&ef/ vl @ tcG i f h t a&; ynmay;r_ q d k i f & m taxmuf t ul テー yypP n f ; rsm; wd;k wufaumif;rGef vmatmif yl;aygi;f vkyaf qmif&ef/ vl@tcGit hf a&;ynma&;vkyif ef;rsm;twGi;f vlxq k ufo, G rf _ twwf ynmrsm;. tcef;uツセESihf vkyaf qmifEikd rf p_ rG ;f &nfukd wd;k wufatmif vkyfaqmif&ef/ tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;udk wwfEdkifor# bmompum; aygif;pHkESifh xkwfa0jzef@csD&efESifh pmrwwfolrsm;ESifh udk,ft*F gcsdK@wJholrsm;yg avhvmEdkifatmif enf;vrf;trsdK;rsdK;jzifh vkyaf qmif&ef wd@k jzpfonf?

ukvor*~ taxGaxGnv D mcHuvnf; tzJ@G 0ifEikd if t H pd;k &ESihf tpd;k & r[kwaf om tzJ@G rsm;taejzifh vl@tcGit hf a&;ynmay;vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI ynmay;vkyif ef; tpDtpOfrsm;udk csrw S af qmif&u G =f uap&ef wdu k w f eG ;f Ed;k aqmf xm;onf? txl;ojzifh EdkifiHawmf tqifhwGif pDrHudef;rsm; csrSwftaumif txnfazmf aqmif&u G &f ef wdu k w f eG ;f xm;cJo h nf?

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; AD,ifem nDvmcHu csrSwfcJhaom vl@tcGifhta&; ynmay;a&; a&S@ vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk t"du wm0ef,l }uD;=uyf&eftwGuf ukvor*~ vl@tcGifh ta&;qdik &f m r[mrif;}uD;udk wm0efay;cJo h nf? xdo k @kd wm0ef,}l uD;=uyfru _ kd tjcm;Xmersm;jzpfaom vl@tcGit hf a&; aumfr&SiEf iS hf tzJ@G 0ifEikd if rH sm;/ vl@tcGihf ta&; pmcsKyftzJ@G 0ifrsm;/ tjcm;oufqikd o f nfh at*sipf rD sm;/ tpd;k &r[kwaf om tzJ@G rsm;u 0dik ;f 0ef;vufwv GJ yk af qmif=u&ef Ed;_ aqmfxm;onf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

vlŒtcGifhta&;a-unmpmwrf; tyd'k f (1) vlom;wdkif;onf vGwfvyfI wef;wlnDaom *k%foduQmESifh tcGifh ta&;rsm;jzifh arG;zGm;vmolrsm;jzpfonf? xdv k o l m;wd@k onf qifjcifww kH &m;ESihf usifh0wfudk wm0efodwwfaom pdwfwdk@±Sd=uI wOD;ESifhwOD;nD&if;tudk/ armif&if;ESrpdwjf zifh qufqo H ifo h nf? wef;wlnDr#r_ Ô

tyd'k f (1) wGif vlwikd ;f wef;wljzpfonf[k qdv k jkd cif; jzpfygovm;?

vlwdkif;wef;wljzpfonf[kqdkjcif;rSm vlwdkif;vlwdkif;onf arG;zGm;vm uwnf;u wef;wlnrD #aom vGwv f yfr&_ o dS nf[k qdv k jkd cif;jzpfonf? wef;wlnDr#jzpfonf[k qdkjcif;rSm vlwkdif;wa,mufESifhwa,muf oGijf yifvuQ%m/ Om%fynm/ u|r;f usirf /_ rsKd ;&d;k ADZ/ pdw"f mwfw@kd wln&D rnf[k qdv k jkd cif;r[kwyf g? vlrt _ odik ;f t0dik ;f ESihf ,Ofaus;r_rwlonfh tkypf w k pfcx k rJ mS yif wOD;ESifhwOD; rwluJGjym;r_rsm; &Sdaeygonf? xdka=umifhvlr_todkif;t0dkif;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_rwlaom todik ;f t0dik ;f rsm;t=um; qdv k #if ydrk I kd uJjG ym;ayvdrrhf nf? od@k aomf uJjG ym;jcm;em;aom vltrsKd ;rsKd ;twGi;f ,Ofaus;r_ tqift h wef;jrifI h aomfvnf;aumif;/ wd;k wufrj_ rifrh m;I aomfvnf;aumif; vltyk pf w k ckukd tjcm; tkypf w k pku txufp;D jzifh qufqjH cif;r&So d ifyh g? vlrt _ yk pf k od@k r[kwf vlrsKd ;a&;

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tkypf k uJjG ym;r_a=umifh xdo k rl sm;onf uset f yk pf rk sm;xuf edru hf saom t&nf taoG;&Sdonf[l+yD; xdkvltkyfpkudk cJGjcm;jcif;onf rrSefuefEdkifyg? rnfhonfh tkypf 0k ifujkd zpfap xdo k w l a,muf. wOD;wa,mufcsi;f tpGr;f ukef zH@G òz;wd;k wuf r_udk jiif;y,fjcif; odk@r[kwf ydwfyifjcif;onf xdkol. wef;wltcGifhta&;ESifh *k%o f u d mQ wd@k ukd txl;apmfum; rw&m;azmufzsujf cif;yif jzpfonf? vlwikd ;f tm; wef;wlnrD # qufqv H mEdik &f eftwGuf vlom;wdik ;f tcsi;f csi;f nDtudk armifEpS rf ozG,f qufq=H u&ef wm0ef&adS =umif; Ttyd'k f (1) u wdu k w f eG ;f xm; jcif;jzpfonf? xdkodk@ wOD;ESifhwOD; nD&if;tudk armif&if;ESpfrozG,f twlwuG yl;wJaG exdik Ef ikd &f eftwGuf pdw&f n S o f nf;cHrw _ &m;onf ta&;t}uD;qH;k jzpfonf? xdktwGufa=umifh ukvor*~onf 1995 ckESpftm; urBmhukvor*~. S cf jhJ cif;jzpfonf? pdw&f n S o f nf;cHrE_ pS f (UN Year of Tolerance) tjzpf owfrw tyd'k f (2) vlom;wdik ;f Tvl@tcGit hf a&; a=unmpmwrf;wGif azmfjyxm;o!fh tcGit hf a&; rsm;tm;vH;k . vGwv f yfciG rhf sm; tm;vH;k udk ydik q f ikd cf pH m;cGi±hf o dS nf? vlrsdK;/ tom;ta&mif/ vdif/ bmompum;/ udk;uG,fonfhbmom/ EdkifiHa&; t,ltq od@k r[kwf tjcm;,lqcsu/f Edik if aH &; od@k [w k f vlra_ &;Zpfjrpf/ ypPn;f OpPm/ rsKd ;±d;k Zmwd/ tjcm;tqift h wef;tm;jzifh cJjG cm;jcif;r±Sad p&? xd@k jyif vlom;wOD; rSw D if;aexdik &f m Ekid if H od@k r[kwf e,fajra'oonf vGwfvyfaomwdkif;jynf/ tcsKyftcsmtm%mydkifaom vGwfvyfaomEdkifiH od@k r[kwf a'ojzpfap/ tapmift h a±SmufceH ,fajr od@k r[kwaf 'ojzpfap/ ud, k yf ikd f tkycf sKyfa&;r±Sad omEdik if H od@k r[kwf a'ojzpfap od@k r[kwf tcsKyftjcmtm%mESihf ywfoufI tjcm;aomabmifoiG ;f uef@owfcsurf sm;±Sad eaomEdik if H od@k r[kwf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; a'ojzpfap ,ckv@l tcGit hf a&;rsm;ywfoufI cJjG cm;r_ vH;k 0r±Sad p&? cJGjcm;zdESdyfjcif;r&Sdr_ Ô

vlwidk ;f tcGit hf a&;cHpm;cGiq hf o kd nfrmS bmudq k v kd ykd govJ?

,cktydk'f (2) onf vlom;wdk@tm; cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_r&Sdap&ef t"du qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf? rnfol@udkrS cJGjcm;qufqHjcif;/ zdESdyfapmfum;jcif;rðy&efrSm Ta=unmpmwrf;. t"du tESpo f m&wckyifjzpfonf? ,cktyd'k u f a=unm pmwrf;. uset f yd'k rf sm;wGif wef;wlnrD #pmG qufq&H ef/ rnfo@l urkd # rnfonfh ta=umif;a=umif;a=umifh cJjG cm;jcif;r&S&d ef qdv k x kd m;jcif; jzpfonf? cJjG cm;qufqjH cif;qdo k nfh t,ltq. t&if;cHrmS rnfonfh vdi/f vlrsKd ;/ tkypf u k tjcm;vdi/f vlrsKd ;/ tkypf w k @kd xuf jrifjh rwfonf/ }uD;jrifo h nfqakd om t,ltqa=umifh ay:ayguv f mjcif; jzpfonf? xdo k @kd tyk pf w k pku tjcm;wpkxuf ydrk jkd rifjh rwfonf[al om t,ltqonf odye`H nf;usr[kwb f J vlom;pdw"f mwf . tusiphf m&dwyW ikd ;f qdik &f mESihf usi0hf wfqikd &f m oabmxm;rsm;ESihf rudu k n f yD g[k ,leufpudku xkwfjyefaom a=unmcsufwGif a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf? xd@k a=umifh rnfonfv h id /f rnfonfv h rl sKd ;/ rnfonft h yk pf 0k ifjzpfap xdo k w l @kd . vl@*% k o f u d mQ ESihf tcGit hf a&;rsm;tay: av;pm;r_ay;&efEiS hf rnfonfh ta=umif; a=umif;wd@k a=umifrh S xdo k rl sm;udk cJjG cm;zdEydS jf cif;rðy&efw@kd onf vlwikd ;f . tcGihf ta&; cHpm;cGiu hf kd av;pm;wefz;kd xm;jcif;yif jzpfonf? tyd'k f (3) vlwikd ;f wGif touf±iS &f yfwnfciG /hf vGwv f yfciG Ehf iS hf vHðk cHciG ±hf o dS nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; touf&SifcGifh Ô

vlwa,muf. touf&iS cf iG /fh vGwv f yfciG Ehf iS hf vHðk ccH iG w hf u @kd kd tmrcHay;jcif;onf tpd;k &. wm0efjzpfygovm;?

xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk umuG,af y;&efrmS tpd;k &. wm0efjzpfygonf? vlom;wa,muftaejzift h ouf&iS af exdik &f efvt kd yfaomt&mrsm;omrubJ vGwv f yfvðkH ccH iG u hf v kd nf; umuG,af y;&ef tpd;k &wGiw f m0ef&ydS gonf? touf&iS f aeaomfvnf; vGwv f yfrr_ sm;ydwyf ifxm;cH&+yD; vHðk cHpw d cf s&aom b0 ywf0ef; usifwGif aexdkifae&ygu xdkvltwGuf touf&SifcGifh t"dy`m,fajrmufrnf r[kwyf g? xd@k a=umifh tpd;k &rsm;onf rdrEd ikd if o H l Ekid if o H m;rsm;. vGwv f yfciG hf ESihf vHðk cHciG u hf kd tmrcHcsuaf y;+yD; vlom;wd@k . touf&iS &f yfwnfciG u hf kd av;pm; aom tpd;k &rsm;jzpf&ef vdt k yfygonf? od@k aomf ,cktcsed t f xd xdk tcGit hf a&; rsm; umuG,&f efwm0ef&adS omtpd;k &tcsKd @u xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk ud, k w f ikd f csKd ;azmufaeonfukd pdwrf aumif;p&m awG@jrifae&onf? tusO;f axmiftwGi;f aoqHk;jcif;/ qENrygbJ aysmufqHk;oGm;jcif;wdk@onf xdktcGifhta&;rsm;udk csKd ;azmufaeaom tpd;k &rsm;. vky&f yfoufaorsm;jzpfonf? tcsK@d tr_rsm;wGif owfjzwfonftxd usL;vGecf &H onfuakd wG@&onf? wOD;wa,mufcsi;f omrubJ wdik ;f &if;om;/ bmoma&;/ bmompum;qdik &f m tkypf w k pkv;kH od@k r[kwf tpdwt f ydik ;f wckv;kH udk rsKd ;ðzwfowfjzwfjcif;rsKd ;vnf; &Sdonf? xdkodk@usL;vGefjcif;rsdK;udk tpkvdkuftðyHvdkuf rsdK;ðzwfowfjzwfjcif;[k ac:a0:I Edik if w H um&mZ0wfrt _ jzpf owfrw S t f a&;,lavh&o dS nf? Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m oabmwlpmcsKyf. tyd'k f (6) wGif Edik if aH wmftpd;k &onf Edik if o H m;wOD;OD; usL;vGeaf om tr_twGuf ao'%f pD&ifru _ kd uef@owf&efEiS hf }uD;av;aom &mZ0wfusL;vGerf r_ sKd ;rSty tjcm;tr_

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; rsm;twGuf ao'%fay;jcif;rsKd ;udk zsuo f rd ;f &ef azmfjyxm;onf? }uD;av;aom &mZ0wfusL;vGefr_rsdK;qdkonfrSm xdktr_udk usL;vGef&mwGif pdwfa&mudk,fyg aocsmpGm aoavmufatmif ðyrlvyk af qmifr_ udq k v kd o kd nf? ao'%ftjypfrcsrD bufrvdu k af om w&m;±H;k wGif jynfot l rsm; =um;emcGi&hf jdS cif;/ tjypfr&So d rl sm; tay: ouf!m‡ jcif;/ xdt k r_twGuf w&m;jyefvnf ppfaq;jcif;/ w&m;cHtjzpf pGyfpJGcH&aomol. tcGifhta&;twGuf tedrfhqHk; tmrcHcsufay;jcif;wdk@udk ao'%fay;jcif;ESifhqdkifaom vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;tjzpf owfrSwfxm;onf? &Sif;vif;jywfom;+yD; oabmaygufEdkifaom oufaojzifh rjiif;qdkEdkifaom ta=umif;rsm;jzifh jynfph akH om tcgrsKd ;rSom ao'%fay; Ekid o f nf? xd@k jyif touf (18) ESpt f &G,&f adS om olrsm;ESihf ud, k 0f efaqmif rdcifrsm;tm; ao'%fay;cGihf vH;k 0r&Sad y? &ifaoG;i,f&adS om rdcifrsm;ESihf pdwrf ES@H olrsm;udv k nf; ao'%fray; oif[ h k qdx k m;onf? Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&;qdik &f moabmwlpmcsKyf. aemufquf wJG pmcsKyftrSwf (2) udk twnfðy oabmwlvufrw S af &;xd;k xm;aom tzJ@G 0if Edik if o H nf rdrEd ikd if . H w&m;pD&ifa&;wGif ao'%ftjypfay;pD&ifcsuu f kd y,fzsu&f onf? tyd'k f (4) rnfo@l urkd u S |eðf yjcif;/ taptyg;tjzpf Edik x f ufp;D eif;apcdik ;f jcif; r±Sd ap&? vlukd aus;u|eo f zG,af pcdik ;f jcif;/ a&mif;0,fjcif;ESihf xdo k abm oufa&muf apaom yHpk rH eS o f r# ydwyf ifwm;jrpf&rnf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; u|efðyjcif; Ô

,cktcgwGif u|efjyKjcif;udk b,fvt kd "d`m,fziG q hf rkd vJ? u|eðf yjcif;qdik &f m oabmwlncD suf aemufqufww GJ iG f u|eaf &mif;0,f

r_ukd •

vlwOD;wa,muftm; u|eftjzpfodk@ b0edrfhusapaom &nf&G,fcsufjzifh zrf;qD;jcif;/ odrf;,ljcif;/ &,ljcif;wkd@ESifh ywfoufaom vky&f yftm;vH;k / vlwOD;wa,muftm; u|eftjzpfodrf;,l&ef a&mif;0,fI aomfvnf;aumif;/ vJv, S I f aomfvn;faumif; ðyvkyo f nfh vkyf&yftm;vHk;/ vlwOD;wa,muftm;a&mif;jcif; od@k r[kwf vJv, S v f akd om qENjzifh ‚tm;a&mif;&ef od@k r[kwf zvS,&f efEiS hf oufqikd f aom vky&f yfrsm;/ rnfonfeh nf;ESijhf zpfap u|erf sm;tm; a&mif;0,fa&;/ o,f,l yd@k aqmifa&;ponfjzifh a&$@ajymif;aom ðyrlcsurf sm;tm;vH;k udk qdkvdkonf?

rsuaf rSmufumvu|eðf yjcif;onf a&S;umvrsm;uJo h @kd vlrsm;udzk rf;qD;/ oHóu;rsm;jzifhcsnfaESmifum aps;tvnfwGifa&mif;csjcif;rsdK;r[kwfawmhyg? xdt k ðytrlrsKd ;udk zsuo f rd ;f Edik cf o hJ nfrmS tcsed =f umjrifv h +S yDjzpfygonf? od@k aomf xdek nf;twdik ;f r[kwaf wmhonfh u|eðf yjcif;yHpk rH sm;udk Edik if t H awmfrsm;rsm;wGif vuf&t dS csed t f xd awG@jrifae&qJjzpfonf? rsuaf rSmufumvwGiw f nf&adS eaom pD;yGm;a&;vlra_ &;pepfrsm;/ qif;&Jiwfrw G rf r_ sm;/ cJjG cm;zdEydS rf r_ sm;/ vpfvsL&_rr_ sm;/ "avhxHk;pHESifht,ltpJGrsm;/ avmbrsm;a=umifh vlwOD;udk tjcm;wOD;u tjrwfxw k af om acwfopfu|eðf yr_rsm; qufvufwnf&adS e&jcif;jzpfonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; xdkokd@ wOD;tay:wOD; tjrwfxkwfaom yHkpHrsm;onf u|efðyjcif;. oabmobm0twdkif;yif jzpfaomfvnf; xdkt&mrsm;udk u|efðyjcif;[k rac:awmhbJ tjcm;trnftrsdK;rsdK;jzifh ac:a0:aevsuf&Sdygonf? u|efðyjcif;/ uHa=uG;csjcif;ESihf xd"k avhw@kd ukd zsuo f rd ;f a&;qdik &f m aemufqufwpGJ mcsKyfwiG f xdktðytrlrsm;udk - ta=uG;jzifhodrf;I tvkyfapcdkif;jcif;/ uav;rsm;tm; tjrwf x k w f j cif ; ES i f h ud k , f y d k i f y pP n f ; ozG , f twif ; t=uyf v uf x yf j cif ; vJa$ jymif;jcif;[k owfrw S af c:a0:xm;ygonf? ta=uG;jzifhodrf;I tvkyfapcdkif;jcif;qdkonfrSm ay;qyf&ef&Sdonfh ta=uG;rsm;tpm; vl.vkyt f m;udk tavsmt f jzpf ay;qyfapcdik ;f jcif;jzpfonf? xdkodk@apcdkif;&mwGif urBmtESH@tjym;wGif yHkpHtrsdK;rsdK;&Sdwwfonf? tcsdK@yHkpH rsm;wGif xdo k @kd vkyt f m;jzifh tavsmaf y;qyfaomfvnf; wif&x dS m;onfh ta=uG; rausbJ woufv;kH u|et f jzpf a&muf&o dS mG ;aom tjzpfrsKd ;vnf;&Sw d wfonf? uHa=uG;csjcif;qdo k nfrmS vlwa,muftm; Oya'tm;jzihv f nf;aumif;/ xH;k pH od@k r[kwf oabmwlcsut f m;jzifv h nf;aumif;/ tjcm;olxw H iG af exdik v f yk u f ikd f &+yD; tca=u;aiG&&So d nfjzpfap/ r&onfjzpfap rdrb d 0tajctaeudk ajymif;vJI r&aom tjzpfrsKd ;udk qdv k o kd nf? uav;rsm;tm; tjrwfxw k jf cif;qdo k nfrmS vuf&rdS suaf rSmufumvY txl;qd;k 0g;pGmawG@&adS e&aom tjzpftysuyf ifjzpfonf? uav;rsm;. Eke,f ±dk;om;r_udk tcGifhaumif;,lI uav;rsm;tay: vkyftm;ESifh vdifydkif;qdkif&m tjrwfxw k rf r_ sm; ae&mtES@H tjym;wGif jzpfymG ;aevsu&f o dS nf? uav;tvkyf orm;rsm;tjzpf apcdkif;jcif;omru uav;rsm;tm; ul;oef;a&mif;0,fjcif; vkyif ef;rsm;yg xGe;f um;aeonfukd awG@&onf? uav;vkyo f m; ta&twGuf aygif; rnfr#&Sdonfudk wGufq&cufaomfvnf; tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyf orm;tzJG@csKyf. tqdkt& urBmay:&Sd uav;tawmfrsm;rsm;onf touf t&G,f i,fpOfuwnf;u tvkyfapcdkif;jcif;cHae&onf[k qdkxm;onf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tcsKd @uav;vkyo f m;rsm;onf twif;t=uyf tvkyaf pcdik ;f cH&onfh yHpk t H oGif rsKd ;jzifh vkyu f ikd af e=u&onf? vpmESihf vkyt f m;acgi;f yHjk zwfc&H ,Hrk #ru ±kyyf ikd ;f ESihf vdifydkif;qdkif&m t=urf;zufapmfum;jcif;tE W&m,fudk &ifqdkifae=uonf? tvkyfvkyfudkif&aom vkyfief;cGifrSmvnf; qdk;0g;vS+yD; vpmaiGenf;yg;vSpGm tcsKd @tjzpftysurf sm;wGif vcvH;k 0r&&Sad om tjzpfrsKd ;vnf;&So d nf? xdu k av; tvkyo f rm;wd@k onf ynmoif=um;cGiq hf ;kH ±_;H ,Hrk #ru use;f rma&;ESihf vlrz_ v l akH &; tcGit hf a&;rsm;udyk g qH;k ±_;H ae&&Smonf? udk,fydkifypPnf;ozG,f twif;t=uyfvufxyfjcif; vJ$ajymif;jcif;udk trsKd ;orD;rsm; trsm;qH;k &ifqikd ñf uHawG@&onf? trsKd ;orD;wOD;onf rdrt d aeESihf jiif;ydik cf iG rhf &Sb d J rdr. d rdb/ rdom;pk/ apmifx h ed ;f ol/ vlwpktm;ay;xm;aomaiG od@k r[kwf OpPmypPn;f twGuf vufxyfay;cH&jcif;/ od@k r[kwf trsKd ;orD;wOD;onf rdrd.cifyGef; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;onfrsdK;EG,fu vufcH&&Sdaom odk@r[kwf tvm;wlOpPmypPnf;a=umifh rdrdtm;tjcm;vlwOD;xH vJ$ajymif;ay;tyfjcif;/ od@k r[kwf trsKd ;orD;wOD;tm; aoqH;k oGm;aomcifyeG ;f tpm; tjcm;olwOD;ESihf tarGqufcHvufxyfapjcif;wdk@onf trsdK;orD;rsm;ñuHawG@ae&aom u|efðyr_ yHkpHrsm; jzpfonf? trsdK;orD;rsm;onf rdrdtm;tdrfaxmifcsay;jcif;tm; jiif;qefyikd cf iG rhf &S, d rkH #ru rdr. d cifyeG ;f aoqH;k oGm;ygu tjcm;olwa,mufxo H @kd ukefypPnf;ozG,f vufv$Jajymif;jcif;cH&onf? xdktr_rsdK;omru trsdK;orD; rsm;ESifh uav;rsm; trsm;qHk;&ifqdkif&onfh aemufxyfyHkpHwrsdK;rSm ul;oef; a&mif;0,fcH&jcif;yifjzpfonf? pD;yGm;a&;tcuftcJawG@ae&aom/ A[kokw/ ynmenf;yg;aom trsKd ;orD;rsm;ESihf uav;rsm;udk uwdtrsKd ;rsKd ;ESihf rufv;kH rsm; ay;I ul;oef;a&mif;0,fum a&mif;csaom vkyif ef;rSmvnf; ,cktcsed t f xd xGef;um;aeqJjzpfonf? xdktrsdK;orD;rsm;ESifhuav;rsm;tm; twif;t=uyf jynfw h efqmtjzpfapcdik ;f jcif;/ a&mif;csc&H aom aiGa=u;udk jyefavsmEf ikd &f eftwGuf rw&m;tvkyrf sm; apcdik ;f jcif;wd@k ukd awG@jrifEikd o f nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

,ckuo hJ u @kd |efðycH&jcif;yHpk t H rsdK;rsdK;udk b,fvykd aysmufatmif vkyfEdkifrvJ?

u|eðf yjcif;ESihf u|et f jzpf qufqcH jH cif; jzpfymG ;&jcif;rSm ta=umif;t&m rsKd ;pHw k @kd ukd tajccHI ay:ayguv f mjcif; jzpfaoma=umifh xdjk y\emudk ajz&Si;f &ef tajzudk vG,fvG,fululESifh ajymIr&Edkifyg? jzpfyGm;&onfh ta=umif;&if; aygif;pHkudk 0dkif;0ef;ajz&Sif;rSom xdktjzpfrsdK;wdk@ yaysmufoGm;Edkifrnfjzpfonf? u|efðyjcif;udk tm;ay;tm;ajrmufr_aeaom ordkif;tcsufrsm;/ u|efðyjcif;udk vufcx H m;aom tpOftvm"avhrsm;/ bmoma&;t,ltqrsm;udk azsmuf ypf,HkESifhrvHkavmufbJ u|efðyjcif;vkyfief; xGef;um;atmif yhHydk;ay;aeaom EdkifiHa&;/ pDyGm;a&;jy\emrsm;udk tajz&Smausmfv$m;Edkifzdk@ vdktyfonf? ynma&;u¾udk wdk;jr‡ifhvkyfaqmifjcif;jzifhvnf; u|efðycH&jcif;/ tjrwf xkwv f n S phf m;cH&jcif;udk wm;qD;Edik o f vdk vl@tcGit hf a&; ynmay; vkyif ef;rsm; wd;k jr‡iv fh yk af qmifjcif;jzifv h nf; wenf;wvrf;tm;jzifh xdt k jzpfrsm;udk wm;qD; Edkifayrnf? ukvor*~taejzifh xdku|efðyjcif;ESifhoufqdkifonfh ta=umif;t&m/ oufaocHtcsurf sm;udk u|eðf yjcif;qdik &f mtvkyt f zJ@G (Working Group on Slavery) rSwqifh vufcHavh&Sdygonf? xdktvkyftzJG@udk vl@tcGifhta&; qyf aumfr&SifrS udk,fpm;vS,f (5) OD;jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? u|efðyjcif;qdkif&m aemufqufwjGJ znfph u G af om oabmwlcsKyfuv kd nf; Edik if aH ygi;f (110) ausmu f oabmwlvufrw S f xd;k xm;+yD;jzpfygonf? od@k aomf xdu k |eðf yjcif;tjzpf wckv;kH yaysmufap&eftwGurf mS oufqikd &f mEdik if aH wmftqif. h taumiftxnfazmf vkyfaqmifóu;yrf;r_rsm;ay:wGif txl;rSDwnfaeygonf? pmcsKyfudk vufrSwf a&;xdk;,Hk oufoufomrubJ pmcsKyfygtcsuftvufrsm;/ wm0efrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfEdkif&ef EdkifiHawmftqifhwGif Oya'topfrsm;a&;qJGjcif;/ xdu k |eðf yjcif;udk xdxad &mufa&mufumuG,Ef ikd rf nfh ,E , W m;rsm; jyifqifjcif;/

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; xdo k @kd vyk af qmifoifah =umif; tpd;k &ud, k w f ikd u f pdwq f ENjyif;xefjcif;/ ynma&;ESihf vlr_ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm; vkyfaqmifjcif;/ pD;yGm;a&; zHG@òz;wdk;wufatmif vkyaf qmifjcif;wd@k ukd bufaygi;f pHu k trSew f u,fvyk af qmif&ef vdt k yfygonf? tyd'k f (5) rnfo@l urkd S ESyd pf uf!i‡ ;f yrf;jcif;/ od@k r[kwf &ufpuf=urf;ñuwf vlrqef pGm *k%if ,fapaomqufqrH j_ zifh rqufq&H ? od@k r[kwf tjypfay;jcif; rðy&? ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;jcif; Ô

ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;jcif;udk b,fvt kd "d`m,fziG yhf govJ?

1984 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (10) &ufae@ujyXmef;cJah om EdyS pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf; jcif;ESihf tjcm; &ufpufpmG vlrqefpmG edru hf spmG qufqrH _ od@k r[kwf tjypfay;r_ tm; qef@usiaf &; oabmwlpmcsKyf (Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment) t& ESy d pf uf !‡O;f yrf;r_ukd ,ckvkd t"dym` ,fziG q hf x kd m;ygonf? ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;jcif; qdo k nfrmS “• vlwa,muf odk@r[kwf tjcm;vlwa,mufta=umif; owif; tcsut f vuf&atmif od@k r[kwf 0efccH su&f ap&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifhvnf;aumif;/ • xdv k w l a,muf od@k r[kwf tjcm;vlwa,mufu usL;vGef aom od@k r[kwf usL;vGeo f nf[k xifjrif,q l &aom vkyf aqmifcsuw f cktay: jzpfap od@k r[kwf ta=umif;w&mwckck tay: tajccHI cJGjcm;zdESdyfum xdkol odk@r[kwf tjcm;vl wa,mufwa,muftm; tjypfay;jcif;/ taESmifht,Suf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; • •

ðyjcif;/ odr;f oGi;f jcif;wd@k a=umifv h nf;aumif;/ ±kyfydkif;pdwfydkif;qdkif&m jyif;xefpGm emusifcHpm;apaom tðytrl jzpf&rnfhtjyif xdkodk@ emusifcHpm;apr_ jzpfay:apaom vkyfaqmifcsufudk wm0ef&o dS l od@k r[kwf wm0ef&o dS t l qifEh iS hf tvm;wlaom olu &nf&, G cf su&f &dS jdS zifh cGiðhf yjcif;/ od&jdS cif; jzpf&ef vdt k yf onf” [k zGiq hf x kd m;ygonf?

odk@aomf w&m;Oya'twdkif; vkyfaqmifaom tðytrla=umifh emusicf pH m;&r_qv kd #if ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_rajrmufEikd yf g? Ô

xdpk mcsKyfwiG yf gaom tjcm; &ufpufpmG vlrqefpmG edru hf spGm qufqjH cif; qdo k nfrmS tb,fenf;?

xdpk um;pkEiS yhf wfoufI ,cktcsed t f xd Edik if w H umu owfrw S v f ufcH xm;aom t"dy`m,fwdwdususr&Sdao;yg? odk@aomf wdkufydwfjcif;/ ajcusif;/ xdyw f ;kH ponfh emusiaf paom t&mrsm;jzifh csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;/ em;csed rf &Sb d J ae@nrjywfppfa=umjcif;/ tusO;f om;rsm;tm; "mwkaq;0g;rsm;jzifh okawoe vkyf prf;oyfjcif;/ rl;,pfaq;0g;rsm;oHk;I ppfa=umjcif;/ tpm;tpmjzwf awmufjcif; wdk@udk tjcm;&ufpufpGm vlrqefpGm edrfhuspGm qufqHjcif;[lI EdkifiHwumu a,bl,svufcHxm;onf? omrmefar;cGef;xkwfI ppfaq; ar;jref;jcif;xuf ausmv f eG I f vlwa,muftm; zdtm;ay;jcif;onf vlrqef aom tðytrl[rk qdEk ikd af omfvnf; ±kyyf ikd ;f qdik &f mESihf pdwyf ikd ;f qdik &f m pGr;f tm;rsm; avsmeh nf;oGm;atmif wdu k yf w d jf cif;/ tdyaf &;00vifvifr&Sad tmif ESyd pf ufjcif; wd@k onf vlrqefaom ðyrlcsuaf jrmufonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_ukd ta=umif;wckcak =umifq h I kd cGifhjyKEdkifygovm;/

rjyKEdkifyg/ trltusifhydkif;qdkif&m &_axmifht&a&m Oya'ydkif;qdkif&m &_axmift h &a&m ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_ukd cGijhf yK/cGiv hf w $ I f r&Edik yf g? Edik if H tawmf rsm;rsm;. Oya'rsm;xJEiS hf Edik if w H um Oya',E , W m;rsm;xJwiG f ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf; r_ukd txl;ydwyf ifwm;qD;xm;ygonf? vl@tcGit hf a&; a=unmpmwrf;. tyd'k f (5) wGiv f nf; rnfo@l ukd ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;jcif;rðy&[lI twdtvif;azmfjyxm; ygonf? tcsdK@u ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;jcif;udk wcgw&HwGif cGifhðyem;vnfay; oifah =umif; apm'uwuf=uygonf? Oyrm - t=urf;zuf0g'rD sm;u tjypfrhJ jynforl sm;tm; owfjzwf&ef }uHpnfonfh tr_rsKd ;wGif xdt k r_ay:ayguaf p&ef twGuf ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;I ppfaq;jcif;onf w&m;r#wygonf[k tcsdK@u qifajcwufavh&o dS nf? trltusiyhf ikd ;f qdik &f m ±_axmift h &ESihf Oya'ydik ;f qdik &f m ±_axmifht&rajymao;bJ omreft&bJ ajymrnfqdkygu yxrOD;qHk;tcsuf taeESifh ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_a=umifh &&Sdaom 0efcHcsufrsm;onf rrSefaom xGufqdkcsufrsm;/ rSm;,Gif;aom tcsufrsm;yg0ifonfh xGufqdkcsufrsm;jzpfEdkif onf? 'kw, d tcsut f aejzifh xdo k @kd EydS pf ufjcif;a=umifh Oya'vrf;a=umif;twdik ;f tjypfay;ta&;,lru _ kd xdcu kd yf supf ;D apEdik o f nf? wwd,tcsut f aeESihf xdo k @kd ESyd pf ufppfaq;vdu k af om tr_wckukd cGiðhf yvdu k jf cif;tm;jzifh aemufxyf ESyd pf uf ppfaq;r_rsm; wd;k yGm;vmaom vrf;udk zGiahf y;vdu k o f vdjk zpfomG ;Ekid o f nf? Ô

ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_ukd b,fvw kd m;qD;Edik rf vJ?

ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_ukd umuG,w f m;qD;Edik &f efrmS tusO;f uscaH e&aom olrsm; cHpm;cGi&hf o dS nfh tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk tjynft h 0av;pm;&ef txl;vdt k yf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; onf? tusOf;uscH&aomolrsm; cHpm;cGifh&Sdonfh w&m;Oya'ESifh usef;rma&; apmifah &Smuf t}uaH y;r_rsm;udk tusO;f om;rsm; vHv k akH vmufavmuf/ vGwv f w G f vyffvyf&&SdrSom xdkodk@ ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;cH&r_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI vdktyfaom umuG,fr_rsm;udk ay;Edkifrnfjzpfonf? tpkd;&r[kwfaom tzJG@rsm;taejzifh ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_ukd usL;vGeaf om tpd;k &ta=umif;udk Edik if w H umtqifw h iG f vlo&d iS =f um; xkwaf zmfajymqdjk cif;jzifh vnf;aumif;/ ud, k w f ikd u f , kd u f s 0ifa&muf wm;qD; umuG,af y;jcif;jzifh vnf;aumif;/ xdo k @kd ESyd pf ufc&H rnfh tE &W m,fukd &ifqikd af e&aom olrsm;ud, k pf m; xdo k w l @kd tm; Edik if aH wmfOya'rsm;jzifh rnfo@kd umuG,af y;&rnfukd enf;vrf;&Sm umuG,af y;jcif;jzifv h nf;aumif; trsKd ;rsKd ; wm;qD;umuG,fay;Edkifonf? xdk@jyif w&m;a&;qdkif&m0efxrf;rsm;/ Oya' 0efxrf;rsm;tjyif ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;cH&aom olrsm;ESihf &ifqikd af wG@ñuH&avh&dS aom use;f rma&;0efxrf;rsm;udk ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_EiS hf ywfoufI rnfonfh apmifx h ed ;f p&m usi0hf wfrsm;&So d nfukd todynmay;jcif;/ vrf;!$ecf surf sm; csrw S af pjcif;/ xdkodk@}uHKawG@vm&ygu xdktr_udk vdktyfovdk today; wdkif=um;vmap&ef tm;ay;r_rsm;ðyvkyfjcif;wdk@udk vkyfaqmifjcif;jzifh ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_rsm; wjznf;jznf;yaysmufvmapEdkifonf? ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_udk azmfxkwfwifjy&mwGif tcuftcJtrsdK;rsdK; &Sw d wfonf? xdt k r_rsm; usL;vGe&f mwGif rsm;aomtm;jzifh rsujf rifoufaorsm; r&Sdjcif;/ usL;vGefcH&aom um,uH&Sifu rdrd odk@r[kwf rdrd rdom;pktwGuf tE W&m,fusa&mufrnfudk pdk;&drfaejcif;/ wm0ef&Sdolrsm;vnf; rdrdwdk@. vkyfydkifcGifhudk tvJGoHk;pm;vkyfa=umif; 0efcH&rnfudk vdyfjymroef@jzpfaejcif; wd@k a=umifh ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_rsm;udk azmfxw k &f mwGif tcuftcJ&o dS nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

ukvor*~pmcsKyfrsm;xJwiG f rnfonfph mcsKyfonf ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_EiS hf toufqikd q f ;kH jzpfygovJ?

1984 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (10) &ufae@wGif twnfðyjyXmef;cJhonfh EdyS pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;jcif;/ tjcm;&ufpufpmG vlrqefpmG edru hf spmG qufqjH cif;qdik &f m qufqHr_ESifh tjypfay;r_tm;qef@usifa&; oabmwlpmcsKyf (Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or

onf ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_ESifh toufqdkifqHk;jzpfygonf? xdk pmcsKyfonf 1987 ckEpS f ZGev f (26) &ufae@wiG f owfrw S x f m;onfh Edik if aH ygi;f (20) vufrw S af &;xd;k cJt h +yD; touf0ifvmonf? ,cktcg Edik if aH ygi;f (90)ausmf oabmwl vufrw S af &;xd;k xm;onfh pmcsKyfjzpfonf? Punishment)

xdkpmcsKyft& tzJG@0ifEdkifiHrsm;onf ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_tm; umuG,f wm;qD;&eftwGufvdktyfaom Oya'a&;qJGa&;qdkif&m/ tkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&m/ w&m;Oya'qdik &f mESihf tjcm;u¾rsm;qdik &f m vkyaf qmifrr_ sm;udk xda&mufpmG aqmif&Guf&ef uwdðyxm;=u&ovdk ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_udk Oya't& pD&if tjypfay;Edkifaom &mZ0wfr_tjzpf owfrSwfxm;=uonf? +idrf;csrf;aom tcsed u f mvwGijf zpfap/ ppfjzpfaeaom umvwGijf zpfap/ ppfjzpfrnft h E &W m,f usa&mufaeaom tcsdefrsdK;wGifyifjzpfap/ jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&; rwnf+idrfonfh tcgrsKd ;wGijf zpfap/ ta&;ay:tajctae jyXmef;xm;onfh tcsed w f iG yf ifjzpfap rnfonfhtcsdeftcg/ rnfonfhtajctaersdK;wGifrS ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_udk vkyfaqmifcGifhr&Sd[k xdkpmcsKyfwGif jyXmef;xm;onf? xdkodk@ jyXmef;xm;onfh =um;rS usL;vGefcsdK;azmufoludk w&m;pJGqdkI tjypfay;ta&;,l&ef pmcsKyfu qdkxm;onf? xdk@jyif ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;cH&aom olrsm;tm; xdkufwefonfh avsmfa=u;/ epfema=u;rsm;tjyif xdkol. b0jyefvnfemvHxvmEdkifa&;ESifh jyefvnfaumif;rGefvmapa&;twGuf vdktyfovdkaqmif&Gufay;&ef pmcsKyf tzJ@G 0if Edik if rH sm;tm; !$e=f um;xm;onf?

88 Q & Q.pmd

88

5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;jcif;qdik &f moabmwlpmcsKyf. vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf; b,fvdk&SdygovJ?

xdkpmcsKyft& vGwfvyfu|rf;usifaom aumfrwD0if (10) OD;jzifh zJ@G pnf;xm;aom ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;jcif;qdik &f m aumfrwDwckukd zJ@G pnf;xm;onf? xdkaumfrwD0ifrsm;udk tzJG@0ifEdkifiHrsm;u wifoGif;aom trnfrsm;rSaeI vSKd @0u S rf aJ y;pepfjzifh a&G;cs,w f ifajr‡mufjcif;jzpfonf? xdkaumfrwDonf pmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI taumif txnfazmf aqmif&Gufaer_rsm;udkwifjyxm;onfh pmcsKyftzJG@0if EdkifiHrsm;. tpD&ifcHpmudk vufcHavhvmonf? tzJG@0ifEdkifiHwEdkifiHu ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_ usL;vGeaf =umif; qufo, G w f ikd =f um;vmonfh wOD;csi;f od@k r[kwf ud, k pf m;ðy wdik =f um;r_rsm;udv k nf; vufcaH vhvmonf? aumfrwDonf oufqikd &f m Edik if EH iS hf yl;aygif;aqmif&GufI xdkEdkifiHtwGif; ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_rsm;udk pepfwus usL;vGefcsdK;azmufaer_rsm;udk vSdK@0SufpGm pHkprf;ppfaq;Edkifaom tcGifhtm%m &So d nf? xdo k @kd ppkH rf;awG@&cdS surf sm;udk oufqikd &f mtpd;k &u ppfaq;Edik &f eftwGuf xdEk ikd if t H pd;k &od@k today;wifjyonf? xd@k jyif &SmazGawG@&cdS sut f ESpcf sKyfuv kd nf; ukvor*~ taxGaxGnv D mcHo@kd wifjytpD&ifcaH om aumfrwD. ESpyf wfvnf tpD&ifcpH mxJwiG f xnfo h iG ;f tpD&ifcaH vh&o dS nf? ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_rsm;udk ,ckxufyrkd I kd ñudwifumuG,Ef ikd &f eftwGuf EdkifiHrsm;&SdtusOf;axmifrsm;/ csKyfaESmifxdrf;odrf;a&;pcef;rsm;odk@ u|rf;usif olrsm;tm; tcsdefrSefrSef oGm;a&mufppfaq;jcif;udk cGifhJðyrnfh aemufqufwJG pmcsKyfay:xGe;f vm&ef aqmif&u G q f jJ zpfonf?

89 Q & Q.pmd

89

5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Ô

ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_ukd umuG,w f m;qD;a&;ESiyhf wfoufI ukvor~wGif tjcm;vkyif ef;rsm;&Syd gao;vm;?

ukvor*~onf 1985 ckEpS u f wnf;upwifI ESyd pf uf!O‡ ;f yrf;r_qikd &f m txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sdudkcef@tyfI wurBmvHk;wGifjzpfyGm;vsuf&Sdonfh ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yrf;r_qdkif&m tcsuftvufrsm;udk pkaqmif;apjcif;/ =uef@=um aESmifah ES;r_r&Sb d J wm;qD;&ef tjrefq;kH aqmif&u G af pjcif;rsm; vkyaf qmifvsuf &Sdonf? tyd'k f (6) vlwikd ;f ae&mra±G; Oya'a±S@arSmufwiG f vlom;tjzpf todtrSwðf yjcif; cHydkifcGifh±Sdonf? Oya'a&Sw @ iG f vlom;tjzpftodtrSwðf ycHciG hf Ô

Oya'a&Sw @ iG f vlom;tjzpftodtrSwðf ycHciG q hf o kd nfrmS tb,fenf;?

Oya'a&S@wGif vlom;tjzpf todtrSwfðycHcGifhqdkonfrSm w&m;±Hk; pD&ifrw _ iG f yg0ifywfoufaomolrsm;tm; tjypf&o dS nf[k cdik v f akH om oufao jyEdkifjcif; r&Sdoa&G@ tjypfr&Sdoltjzpf owfrSwfydkifcGifh/ rdrdtr_tay: ckcH umuG,fEdkif&eftwGuf jyefqif&eftcsdefESifh taxmuftulrsm;&ydkifcGifh/ w&m;ppfaq;jcif;rwdik rf ED iS hf w&m;ppfaq;aom tcsed t f wGi;f wGif vGwv f yfaom w&m;0ifwifjycsufrsm;ay;EdkifcGifh/ rdrdtaejzifh oufaorsm;udk ar;jref;cGifhESifh rdrdtwGuf oufaoac:EdkifcGifh/ toem;cHydkifcGifhwdk@udk ESpfOD;ESpfzufpvHk; wef;wl&&Sdapjcif;jzpfonf?

90 Q & Q.pmd

90

5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tyd'k f (7) vlwikd ;f w&m;Oya'a±S@arSmufwiG f wajy;nDwn l =D u+yD; w&m;Oya'. umuG,fr_udk cJGjcm;r_r±Sd wlnDr_tjy!hf apmifha±SmufcHydkifcGifh±Sdonf? T a=unmpmwrf;yg tcsufrsm;udk zDqefqef@usifho!hf rnfo!fhcJGjcm;r_rsdK; odk@ r[kwf xdo k @kd cjGJ cm;r_rsm; ude;f atmif;apatmif v_@H aqmfrr_ sKd ;rS uif;vGwaf p&ef tumtuG,u f kd wlnpD mG cHpm;ydik cf iG ±hf o dS nf? w&m;Oya'a&Sw @ iG f wef;wlnw D jl zpfciG hf Ô

w&m;Oya'a&SŒwGif wef;wlnw D jl zpfciG q hf o kd nfrmS bmudkqdkvdkygovJ?

vlwikd ;f onf Oya'a&S@arSmufwiG f tnDtr#jzpf+yD; rnfonfeh nf;ESirhf # cJjG cm;qufqjH cif;r&Sb d J Oya'.tumtuG,u f kd nDwn l rD #cpH m;ydik cf iG hf &Sjd cif;udk qdv k o kd nf? rnfonfv h w l ef;pm;rsKd ;udrk S txl;rsuEf mS ay;jcif;/ ESrd chf sjcif; r&Sad p&? w&m;a&;pD&ifcsufrsm;udk qHk;jzwfrnfhw&m;ol}uD;rsm;udk Oya'udk jyXmef;aomOya'ðytzJ@G rsm;ESihf oD;jcm;vGwv f yfap&rnf? Oya'udk aoGzaD om tpdk;&udkvnf; w&m;&ifqdkif0hHaom olrsm;jzpf&rnf? w&m;ol}uD;onf ta=umif;t&moufaorsm;udk tajccH+yD; rdrd.awG@jrifcsufrsm;udk Oya' xH;k wrf;rsm;t& aqmif&u G af y;aomoljzpf&ef txl;ta&;}uD;ygonf? tyd'k f (8) vlwikd ;f rdrw d @kd tm; tajccHOya' od@k r[kwf Oya't&tyfEiS ;f xm;aom tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;udk csdK;azmufcH&onfhtcg EdkifiHawmfw&m;pD&ifa&;

91 Q & Q.pmd

91

5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; ±H;k rsm;wGif xda&mufaom ta&;,lupk m;r_rsm; cH,yl ikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf? Oya'tultnDukdawmif;cHcGifh Ô

Oya'tultnDuadk wmif;cHciG o hf nf bmudq k v kd ykd gvJ?

TtcGifhta&;onf r±kyfodrf;Edkifaom tcGifhta&;jzpf+yD; rnfonfh ta=umif;ESifhrS qdkif;ihHjcif;rðyEdkifay? jynfolwdk@wGif Oya'tumtuG,fudk w&m;±H;k rsm;rSwqifh &,lyikd cf iG &hf +dS yD; w&m;±H;k rsm;uvnf; xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk todtrSwðf y+yD; jynfow l @kd tm; tumtuG,af y:&ef wm0eftjynft h 0&So d nf? tu,fI Edik if aH wmf&w dS &m;±H;k rsm;u jynfow l @kd tm; w&m;a&;tultnDrsm; ray;Edik o f nfh tajctaersKd ;wGif vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk umuG,af y;xm;aom Edik if w H umOya'.tultnDukd &,lciG &hf o dS nf? rdrt d ay:usL;vGeaf om vl@tcGihf ta&;csKd ;azmufrr_ sm;udk usL;vGeo f rl mS Edik if aH wmftpd;k &yif jzpfaeaoma=umifh Edik if aH wmfw&m;±H;k rsm;u umuG,rf r_ ay;Edik I f Edik if w H um vl@tcGit fh a&; Oya' tumtuG,u f kd &,ljcif;onf Ttcsuu f kd toH;k ðyaom vky&f yfyifjzpfonf? tyd'k f (9) rnfol@udkrS w&m;vufvGwfta=umif;rJhzrf;qD;jcif;/ xdrf;odrf; csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;/ od@k r[kwf wdik ;f jynfrES iS x f w k jf cif;rðyvky&f ?

92 Q & Q.pmd

92

5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; zrf;qD;r_ Ô

zrf;qD;r_EiS yhf wfoufI Oya't& umuG,t f & umuG,af y;xm;aomt&mrsm;rSm rnfonft h csufrsm; jzpfygovJ?

vlwOD;tm; zrf;qD;rnfqykd gu zrf;qD;onfumvtwGi;f rnfonfh twGuaf =umifzh rf;qD;onfqo kd nfukd csucf si;f today;jcif;/ tr_p&D if&eftwGuf w&m;ol}uD;xHo@kd tvsit f jrefy@kd aqmifjcif;/ oifw h ifah vsmufywfaom tcsed f twGif; ppfaq;jcif; odk@r[kwf jyefv$wfjcif;/ ppfaq;aepOftwGif; tmrcH ay;Edik af om tr_rsKd ;tajctaersKd ;jzpfygu tmrcHay;jcif;/ w&m;pJq G rkd u _ kd &ifqikd f Edik &f eftwGuf a&S@ae/oufaorsm;ac:cGiðhf yjcif;/ tu,fI xdo k @kd zrf;qD;r_onf rS m ;,G i f ; zrf ; qD ; r_ j zpf y gu avsmf a =u;ay;&jcif ; wd k @ onf w&m;Oya't& umuG,af y;xm;aom w&m;a&;tcGit hf a&;rsm;jzpfygonf? tr_pD&if&eftwGuf w&m;ol}uD;xHodk@ tvsiftjref ydk@aqmifjcif; qd&k mwGif w&m;ol}uD;onf vltrsm;=um;emEdik af om w&m;±H;k wGif tr_=um;em pD&if&rnf? xdkoltm; xdrf;odrf;xm;aom ae&mtm; ol.rdom;pkrsm;/ aqGrsdK;rsm;tm; today;&rnf? rnfonfhpJGcsufjzifh pGyfpJGcsufwifonfudk vltrsm;odap&rnf? w&m;pD&ifr_tpDtpOfrsm;/ aqmif&Gufr_rsm;udk vlwdkif; od&adS p&rnf? csKyfaESmifxm;aomol. use;f rma&;/ ±kyyf ikd ;f qdik &f m tajctae rsm;udk vlwidk ;f awG@jrif&rnf ponft h csurf sm;udk qdv k jkd cif;jzpfonf? zrf;qD;cH&olonf w&m;ppfaq;&ef apmifq h ikd ;f aeaom tcsed u f mv twGif; tmrcHESifh oGm;vmcGifh&Sdaomfvnf; jcGif;csuftcsdK@&Sdonf? tu,fI xdo k o l nf w&m;±H;k od@k tr_ppfaq;cH&ef vma&mufr_ ysuu f u G Ef ikd f rnfqykd gu/ odk@r[kwf tmrcHESifhaepOftwGif; aemufxyftjypfusL;vGefOD;rnfh toGifrsdK;

93 Q & Q.pmd

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; &Sdaeygu/ odk@r[kwf w&m;pD&ifr_tpDtpOfudk ysufpD;taESmifht,Suf ðyrnfh toGif (Oyrm - oufaoudk +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;/ taxmuftxm;rsm;tm; zsuq f ;D jcif; ponf)h rsm;&Sad eygu/ od@k r[kwf xdo k . l vHðk cHa&;twGuf vHak vmuf aom pd;k &dr&f r_rsm;&Sad eygu tmrcHay;csuu f kd jcGi;f csux f m;Edik o f nf? Ô

tusOf;om;rsm;tm; rnfuo hJ @kd qufq&H rnfukd owfrw S x f m;aom Edik if w H um jyXmef;csufrsm;&Syd govm;/

ukvor*~. &mZ0wfr_ wm;qD;umuG,fa&;ESifh usL;vGefolrsm;udk qufqHa&;qdkif&m yxrqHk; nDvmcHudk 1995 ckESpfwGif usif;ycJhygonf? xdknDvmcHwGif tusOf;om;rsm;tm;qufqH&mwGif tedrfhqHk;vdkufem&rnfh tqift h wef;pnf;urf;rsm; (Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners) udk jyXmef;cJy h gonf? od@k aomf xdpk nf;urf;rsm;onf tusO;f om; rsm;tm; rnfuo hJ @kd qufq&H rnf[I l qufqeH nf;pnf;rsO;f rsm;udk tao;pdwf twdtusazmfjyxm;jcif;r[kwfbJ xdktusOf;om;rsm;tm; qufqH&mwGif av;pm;pGmxm;&S&d rnfh rl0g'rsm;ESihf a,bl,stqift h wef;rsm;om jzpfygonf? xdrk 0l g'rsm;rSm xdo k rl sm;tm; vlom;wOD;tjzpf av;pm;pGmqufq&H ef/ tjypf xif&mS ;aom &mZ0wfom;rsm;ESihf tjypfrxif&mS ;ao;olrsm;tm; cJjG cm;xm;&ef/ t&G,fra&mufao;aom uav;rsm;ESifh vl}uD;rsm;cJGjcm;xm;&ef/ tjypf'%f ay;onfh oabmrsdK;r[kwfbJ ðyjyifr_tm; tav;xm;aqmif&Guf&ef wdk@ jzpfonf? 1990wGif tcsuf (11)yg0ifonfh tusO;f om;rsm;tm; qufqrH E_ iS hf ywfoufaom tajccHrl0g'rsm;udk ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHu qHk;jzwf jyXmef;cJyh gonf? xdt k csurf sm;tm; tajccHI tusO;f om;rsm;tm; qufq&H rnfh tedrq hf ;kH tqift h wef;rsm;tm; owfrw S v f mEdik af p&ef &nf&, G I f jyXmef;cJjh cif; jzpfygonf? Oya't& rjzpfrae vdkufem&rnfqdkaom pnf;aESmiftm;r&Sd

94 Q & Q.pmd

94

5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; aomf v nf ; xd k t ed r f h q H k ; tqif h t wef ; rsm;onf tusOf ; om;rsm;tm; qufqrH E_ iS hf ywfoufI Edik if rH sm;twGuf t"duvrf;!$ecf surf sm;jzpfygonf? tyd'k f (10) vlwa,muf. tcGit hf a&;ESihf wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;ESifh ywfoufIvnf; aumif ; / pJ G c suf w if v maom jypf r _ r sm;ES i f h ywf o uf I vnf ; aumif ; tqH;k tjzwfc, H &l mwGif vlwikd ;f onf vGwv f yfI bufrvdu k af om w&m;pD&ifr_ ±Hk;awmfwGif vltrsm; wufa&muf=um;emEdkifaom ppfaq;r_rsdK;udk wlnDpGm cHpm;ydkifcGifh±Sdonf? vltrsm;=um;emEdik af om w&m;pD&ifr_ Ô

bma=umifh vltrsm;=um;emEdik af omw&m;pD&ifrv _ t kd yfygovJ?

w&m;pJq G o kd El iS hf pGypf cGJ &H olrsm;t=um; w&m;r#wr_ csed cf iG n f rD #r_ &Srd &Sd qdak om tcsuo f nf w&m;r#wonfh w&m;ppfaq;a&;twGuf ta&;ygaom tcsufyifjzpfonf? xdktcsufudk od&SdavhvmEdkif&eftwGuf vlxk=um;em Edik af om w&m;ppfaq;r_vt kd yfjcif;jzpfonf? vlxk=um;emEdkifaom w&m;ppfaq;r_qdkonfrSm w&m;ppfaq; pD&ifaom ae&monf vltrsm;a&muf&EdS ikd af om tcsed Ef iS hf ae&mrsKd ;jzpf&ygrnf? tr_p&D ifppfaq;onfah e&mod@k ydwyf ifwm;qD;jcif;/ uef@owfjcif;r&Sb d J omrmef jynfolvlxk/ EdkifiHwumavhvmolrsm;ESihf owif;axmufrsm; vGwfvyfpGm oGm;a&mufavhvmcGifh&Sd&ygrnf? odk@rSom w&m;ppfaq;pD&ifr_onf w&m; r#wr_ukd od&EdS ikd af yrnf? trde@f pmjzifh xkwjf yefp&D ifcsucf saom ppfaq;r_rsm;ESihf w&m;±Hk;. pD&ifcsufudk rxkwfjyefaom tr_rsdK;rsm;udk vltrsm; =um;emcGifh

95 Q & Q.pmd

95

5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; rðyaom tr_rsm;tjzpf owfrSwfEdkifonf? tu,fI w&m;ppfaq;&mwGif jynfot l rsm; vma&muf=um;emI roif[ h q k ykd guvnf; cdik rf maom ta=umif; jycsuu f kd xkwjf yef&rnf? jynfot l rsm;a&S@arSmuf wufa&muf=um;emcGiahf y;&ef twGuf csed q f pOf;pm;oifah om tr_rsm;rSm Edik if aH wmf vHðk cHa&;qdik &f m/ tpd;k & xdyfwef;umuG,fr_qdkif&m v#dK@0Sufcsufrsm;wdk@ESifh oufqdkifaom tr_rsm;ESifh t&G,fra&mufao;aom uav;rsm;ESifh ywfoufaeaom vdifydkif;qdkif&m tr_rsm;jzpfonf? tyd'k f (11) (u)

w&m;Oya'csdK;azmufonfhtr_jzifh w&m;pJGqdkjcif;cH&olwkdif;onf rdrdudk,frdrd umuG,fEdkif&ef vdktyfaom aqmif±Gufp&mrsm;udk aqmif±GufEdkifcGifh tjynfht0&±Sd+yD; vltrsm;a±S@wGif Oya'twdkif; ppfaq;I tjypfusL;vGefonf[k xif±Sm;+yD; pD&ifcsuftwdtus rcsrcsi;f xdv k w l iG f tjypfr±S[ d k cH,yl ikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf?

(c)

wpHw k a,muf. vkyaf qmifcahJ om tðytrlEiS phf yfvsO;f I xdt k ðytrl ðyvkycf phJ Oftcsed t f cgu xkwjf yefxm;aom Edik if aH wmf od@k r[kwf Edik if H wum qdkif&mOya't& +idpGef;aom jypfr_wcktjzpf cdkifcdkifvHkvHk rwifjyEdkifcJhv#if xdkoltm; tqdkygtðytrltwGuf tjypf±Sdonf[k r,lqEdkif? xdk@twl usL;vGefaom jypfr_twGuf jypfr_usL;vGefpOf tcgu xdkufoifhapEdkifaom tjypf'%fxuf ydkrdk}uD;av;aom tjypf'%fay;jcif; r±Sdap&?

96 Q & Q.pmd

96

5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tjypf&o dS nf[k cdik v f akH omtcsufjzifh pD&ifcsufrcsrcsif; tjypfr&Sd cH,lydkifcGihf Ô

xdt k csufonf bma=umift h a&;}u;D ygovJ?

tjypf&Sdonf[k pGyfpJGcHxm;&aomoltay: cdkifvHkaom oufao taxmuftxm;rsm;jzifh usL;vGefa=umif;xif&Sm;I tjypfrcsrcsif; xdkoludk tjypfr&Sd[kjrif&ef ta&;}uD;onf? odk@rSom oHo,tpJGrsm;/ ya,m*rsm; uif;uif;ESihf tr_ukd aocsmpGm ppfaq;pD&ifEikd af yvdrrhf nf? w&m;pGyfpJGcH&olonf tr_udk usL;vGefjcif; &Sdr&Sd avhvm&mwGif rouFm,Hrk #EiS hf rvHak vmufyg? vlwa,muftm; tjypf r ay;rD ,k w d W & S d aom om"u taxmuftxm;rsm; wifjy&efvkdtyfonf? oufqdkif&m w&m;ol}uD;rsm;. pOf;pm;qH;k jzwfcsuo f nf ,xmblwusus awG@jrifrt _ ay: rd r d . tar#mf t jrif E S i f h Oya'tnD a qmif & G u f r _ o m jzpf & rnf ? oH o ,/ xifjrifcsufjzifh rjzpfap&yg? tyd'k f (12) rnfo. l at;csr;f vGwv f yfpmG ud, k af &;ud, k w f mudprP sm;/ rdom;pkEiS hf oufqdkifaomudpPrsm;/ aetdrfESifhpmay;pm,ludpPrsm;wdk@udkrS Oya't& r[kwfaom 0ifa&mufpGwfzufr_rcHap&? xdk@tjyif xdkol. *k%foduQmudk ykwfcwfydkifcGifhr±Sd? vlwdkif;wGif xdkodk@pGwfzufjcif;rS aomfvn;faumif;/ ykwcf wfc&H jcif;udak omfvnf;aumif; Oya't& umuG,yf ikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf? raumif;aom &nf±, G cf sujf zifh wjcm;ol. tdrt f wGi;f 0ifa&mufjcif;/ pmrsm;azmufjcif;ESihf taESmift h ,Suaf y;jcif;rsm;vkycf iG rhf ±S?d

97 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; yk~vduvGwfvyfcGifh Ô

xdt k cGit hf a&;wGif jciG ;f csuf&ydS gvm;?

vlwOD;. ud, k af &;ud, k w f mudprP sm;udk tm%m&So d w l @kd u 0ifa&muf pGuzf ufygu Oya't& vkyaf qmif&ef vdt k yfaom ta=umif;&Sad oma=umifo h m jzpf&ygrnf? Oyrm - &Jwyfz@GJ 0ifrsm;u aetdrt f wGi;f 0ifa&muf &SmazGrnfqykd gu txufuay;tyfxm;aom XmerS xdo k @kd &mS azG&efciG ðhf yaom taxmuftxm; pm±Gupf mwrf; yg&rdS o S m &SmazGEikd rf nfjzpfonf? ud&, d mrsm; toH;k ðyI apmif=h uyf jcif;/ w,fvzD ek ;f / pmtquftoG,rf sm;udk =um;jzwf em;axmifjcif;wd@k onf xdo k @kd vyk u f ikd &f eftwGuf w&m;0ifwm0efay;xm;aom apcdik ;f r_rsm; jzpf&ygrnf? xdkodk@r[kwfygu taESmifht,Sufay;cH&olonf xdkvkyf&yfrsm;udk &yfwhHap&ef oufqdkif&mw&m;±Hk;rsm;wGif av#mufwifcGifh&Sdonf? xdkodk@ vkyaf qmifro _ nf Edik if &H dS wnfqOJ ya'rsm;ESihf udu k n f o D nf[k qdak omfvnf; Edik if w H um vl@tcGit hf a&; pHcsed pf ! H e$ ;f rsm;ESihf udu k n f rD r_ &Syd gu vl@tcGit hf a&; aumfrwDu Oya'ESirhf udu k n f aD om pGuzf ufr[ _ k owfrw S Ef ikd o f nf? tyd'k f (13) (u) (c)

vlwdkif; rdrdwdkif;jynf. e,ferdwftydkif;tjcm;twGif; vGwfvyfpGm oGm;vma±$@ajymif;cGi/hf aexdik cf iG ±hf o dS nf? vlwdkif; rdrdwdkif;jynftygt0if tjcm;rnfonfhwdkif;jynfudkrqdk xGucf mG cGiEhf iS hf rdrw d ikd ;f jynfo@kd jyefvmcGi±hf o dS nf?

98 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; vGwfvyfpGmoGm;vmcGifh Ô

vGwv f yfpmG oGm;vmcGio hf nf jciG ;f csuf&ydS govm;/

vGwfvyfpGmoGm;vmcGifhqdkonfrSm rdrdEdkifiHtwGif; oGm;vmcGifhudk qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif rnfonfhae&mwGifrqdk aexdkifEdkif&efESifh rdrd oaabmtavsmuf rdrdwdkif;jynfrS w&m;0if xGufcGmcGifhESifh rdrdwdkif;jynfodk@ jyefvmcGiw hf @kd onfvnf;TtcGit hf a&;wGif tñuH;0ifonf? odk@&mwGif vGwfvyfpGmoGm;vmr_udk Oya'tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ Edik if aH wmfvðkH caH &;/ jynfo@l vyk if ef;/ jynfo@l use;f rma&;/ uk, d u f siw hf &m;qdik &f mESihf tjcm;olrsm;. vGwfvyfcGifhudk umuG,f&eftm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ tjcm; vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;tm; umuG,&f eftm;jzifv h nf;aumif; uef@owfEikd o f nf? Oyrm - Edik if aH wmf. opfawmóu;0dik ;f twGi;f tdrw f vH;k aqmufI aexdik af om vlwOD; tcGit hf a&;xuf opfawmobm0ypPn;f rsm;udk umuG,&f ef[o l nfh ydkrdkta&;}uD;onfhtcsufudk umuG,f&eftwGuf xdkol. vGwfvyfpGmaexdkif cGifhudk uef@owf&rnfjzpfonf? odk@aomf tjcm;Oyrmtaejzifh vlrsdK;wpk odk@r[kwf tkyfpkEG,f0ifvlwpkudk cJGjcm;zdESdyfonfh w&m;0ifay:vpDrsm;jzifh a'owcktwGi;f oGm;vm&efyw d yf ifwm;jrpfxm;ygu xdo k w l @kd . tcGit hf a&;udk apmfum;&ma&mufayonf? tyd'k f (14) (u) (c)

vlwikd ;f rw&m;tjypfay;ESyd pf ufrr_ S vGwaf jrmuf&ef tjcm;wdik ;f jynf rsm;wGif ckv d cH_ iG ahf wmif;cHyikd cf iG hf ±So d nf? Edik if aH &;ESihf roufqikd af om jypfrr_ sKd ;/ od@k r[kwf ukvor*~. &nfreS ;f csu/f rl0g'rsm;udk zDqefqef@usiaf om jypfrr_ sKd ;udk trSew f u,f usL;vGef

99 Q & Q.pmd

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; aoma=umihf tusdK;quftjzpf ay:aygufvmaom ta&;,lr_rsdK; jzpfygu Ttyd'fk yf gtcGit hf a&;ESihf tñuH;0ifrr_ ±Sad y? ckdv_HcGifh Ô

cdv k cH_ iG ahf wmif;cHyikd cf iG q hf o kd nfrmS bmudq k v kd ykd govJ?

vlrsdK;a&;/ bmoma&;/ EdkifiHom;jzpfr_/ vlr_a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tzJG@0if jzpfr_wckcka=umifh tjypfay;ta&;,lcH&rnfh }uD;rm;aom pdk;&drfr_cdkifcdkifrmrm &Sdojzifh rdrdEdkifiHrS xGufcGmvm&olrsm;tm; cdkv_HcGifhay;jcif; ray;jcif;onf cdkv_HcGifhawmif;cHcH&aom oufqdkif&mEdkifiH. qENESifh ay:vpDtay:wGifom wnfygonf? awmif;cHvmolreS o f r#ukd cdv k cH_ iG rhf jzpfraeay;&rnfw h m0efr&Syd g? odk@&mwGif 1951 ckESpf 'kuQonf tqifhtwef;qdkif&m oabmwl pmcsKyfESifh 1966 ckESpfaemufqufwJGpmcsKyfrsm;t& “vlrsdK;a&;/ bmoma&;/ EdkifiHom;jzpfr_/ vlr_a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tzJG@0ifjzpfr_ wckcka=umifh tjypfay; ta&;,lcH&rnfh }uD;rm;aom pdk;&drfr_cdkifcdkifrmrm&Sdojzifh rdrdEdkifiHrS xGufcGm vm&olrsm;” onf xdck v kd cH_ iG ahf wmif;cHonfh Edik if eH ,ferdwt f wGi;f od@k a&muf&dS onfEiS hf wòyifeuf cdv k cH_ iG ahf wmif;cHciG &hf o dS nf? cdv k cH_ iG u hf kd vufco H nf jzpfap vufrcHonfjzpfap xdEk ikd if t H pd;k &u xdo k rl sm;tay: qENrygbJ twif;t=uyf ae&if;&yfqo D @kd jyefy@kd jcif;rðyEdik af y? jyefvnfy@kd aqmifygu touftE &W m,fEiS hf &ifqikd ñf uHawG@Eikd af omae&yf&if;qDo@kd twif;t=uyfEiS x f w k I f r&yg? xdo k rl sm;. cdv k cH_ iG u hf jkd iif;y,fyguvnf; xdEk ikd if t H pd;k &onf xdo k rl sm; taejzifh qENtavsmufae&yfo@kd jyefapa&;/ cdv k &H_ ma'otwGi;f o[Zmw usus aexdkifEdkifa&;/ xdkolrsm;tm; vufcHonfh tjcm;EdkifiHwEdkifiHwGif jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;wd@k twGuf wm0ef,l aqmif&u G af y;&ef wm0ef&o dS nf?

100 Q & Q.pmd

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tu,fI cdkv_HcGifhawmif;cHolonf +idrf;csrf;om,ma&;udk xdyg;aom &mZ0wfrr_ sKd ;/ ppf&mZ0wfrr_ sKd ;/ vlom;tm;vH;k tm; tE &W m,fay;aom jypfrr_ sKd ;/ xdo k . l Edik if t H wGi;f Edik if aH &;ESihf roufqikd o f nfh }uD;av;aom &mZ0wfrr_ sKd ;udk usL;vGefcJhjcif;rsdK;/ ukvor*~. OD;wnfcsufESifh rl0g'rsm;tm; qef@usifonfh tr_rsm;udk usL;vGecf jhJ cif;rsKd ;rsm;&Syd gu xdck v kd cH_ iG Ehf iS t hf ñuH;r0ifay? tyd'k f (15) (u) (c)

vlwikd ;f Edik if w H Edik if . H Edifk if o H m;jzpfyikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf? rnfol@udkrS xdkol.EdkifiHom;jzpfr_rS a=umif;usdK;rJhypfy,fcGihfr±Sdap&? xdo k . l Edik if o H m;tjzpfajymif;vJyikd cf iG u hf v kd nf; jiif;y,fjcif;r±Sad p&?

EdkifiHom;jzpfydkifcGifh Ô

Edik if o H m;jzpfyikd cf iG q hf o kd nfrmS tb,fenf;?

rnfow l OD;wa,mufurkd S Edik if o H m;jzpfrr_ aS eI a=umif;usKd ;rJh ypfy,f vdu k jf cif;r&Sad pr_ukd qdv k ykd gonf? xd@k tjyif xdo k . l Edik if o H m;tjzpf ajymif;vJciG hf udv k nf; jiif;y,fjcif;r&Sad p&yg? tyd'fk f (16) (u)

t±G,af &muf+yD;aom trsKd ;om;ESit hf rsKd ;orD;wdik ;f onf vlrsKd ;/ wdik ;f &if;om;/ od@k r[kwf bmoma&; ta=umif;ðyI csKyfcs,u f ef@owfjcif; r±Sad p&bJ vufxyfciG Ehf iS hf rdom;pkxal xmifyikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf? vufxyf xdrf;jrm;csdef/ aygif;oif;csdefESifh tdrfaxmifòyduJGonfh tcsdefrsm;wGif vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;jcif;ESihf ywfoufI xdt k rsKd ;om;ESihf trsKd ;orD;wd@k wiG f

101 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; (c) (*)

wlnaD om tcGit hf a&;rsm;±So d nf? &nf±G,fxm;aom owdk@om;ESifh owdk@orD;wdk@. vGwfvyfaom oabmqENukd tjynft h 0&,l+yD;rSom vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;jcif;ðy&rnf? rdom;pkb0onf vl@tzJ@G tpnf;. obm0usaom/ tajccHusaom tpdwftydkif;wckjzpfonf? rdom;pkb0rsm;udk vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh tpd;k &wd@k u umuG,af y;&efwm0ef±o dS nf?

vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;cGihf Ô

vGwv f yfpmG vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;cGiq hf o kd nfrmS tb,fenf;?

Oya't& owfrw S x f m;aom toufjynfah jrmuf+yD;jzpfonfh trsKd ; om;/ trsKd ;orD;wd@k tjcm;rnfonfh aoG;aqmifzsm;a,mif; +cdr;f ajcmufrr_ rS ygbJ rdrw d @kd EpS Of ;D qENtavsmuf vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;jcif;udk qdv k jkd cif;jzpfygonf? xdo k @kd vufxyfxdrf;jrm;&mwGif trsdK;om;ESifh trsdK;orD;ESpfOD;onf wOD;ESifhwOD; tjyeftvSef vufxyfvo kd nfh rdrw d @kd qENrsm;udk zGi[ hf &efvt kd yfonf? xdo k @kd vufxyfxdrf;jrm;vdkaom qENudk a=unmt+yD; rdrdwdk@tm; vufxyfay;&ef tcGifhtm%m&Sdaom olrsm;a&S@arSmufwGif vnf;aumif;/ oufaorsm; a&S@arSmufwiG f vnf;aumif; rdrw d @kd oabmwlnaD =umif; jyo&rnf? xdt k csuu f kd tcGifhtm%m&Sdolrsm;u auseyf+yD; jiif;qefp&m/ oabmrwlp&m r&Sdygu xdv k ufxyfr_ txajrmufonf? xdo k @kd vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;vdu k af om olEpS Of ;D ESio hf ufqikd af om tdr, f m xlaxmifjcif;/ uGm&Si;f jywfpjJ cif;wd@k EiS hf ywfouf&mwGif trsKd ;om;/ trsKd ;orD; cJjG cm;jcif;r&Sad pbJ wef;wltcGit hf a&;&&Sad p&ef tpd;k &wGif wm0ef&ydS gonf?

102 Q & Q.pmd

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tyd'k f (17) (u) (c)

vlwdkif; "eypPnf;OpPmrsm;udk rdrdwOD;csif;jzpfap/ tjcm;olrsm;ESihf zufpyfIjzpfap ydik q f ikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf? rnfolwOD;wa,muf. udk,fydkifypPnf;udkrS Oya'a=umif;usdK;rJh odrf;ydkufjcif;r±Sdap&?

udk,fydkifyPnf;ydkifqdkifcGifh Ô

ud, k yf ikd yf Pnf;qdo k nfrmS bmudq k v kd ykd govJ?

ud, k yf ikd yf pPn;f qdo k nfrmS wOD;csi;f od@k r[kwf tkypf v k u kd yf ikd q f ikd af om ±k y f 0 wW K ypP n f ; rsm;omru xd k o l w d k @ wD x G i f x m;aomypP n f ; / xd k o l w d k @ . ta=umif;t&mrsm;/ xdo k w l @kd wiG &f adS om owif;rsm;tm;vH;k udk qdv k ykd gonf? tyd'k f (18) vlwikd ;f vGwv f yfpmG awG;ac:cGi/hf vGwv f yfpmG cH,&l yfwnfyikd cf iG Ehf iS hf vGwv f yfpmG ud;k uG,cf iG ±hf o dS nf? Tvkyyf ikd cf iG t hf & rdru d ;kd uG,af om bmomudk od@k r[kwf ouf0if,=kH unfcsuu f kd vGwv f yfpmG ajymif;vJyikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf? xd@k jyif rdrw d OD;wnf;aomfvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;olrsm;ESihf pkaygi;f I aomfvnf;aumif; trsm;a±S@wiG jf zpfap od@k r[kwf rdro d ;D oef@wiG jf zpfap rdru d ;kd uG,o f nfh ,H=k unfr_ od@k r[kwf bmomudk vGwv f yfpmG oifjyEdik cf iG /fh usio hf ;kH cGi/hf 0wfðyud;k uG,cf iG Ehf iS hf aqmufwnfcGifh±Sdonf?

103 Q & Q.pmd

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5/25/2007, 1:46 PM


vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; vGwfvyfpGm,Hk=unfudk;uG,fcGifh Ô

bmoma&;qdik &f mvGwv f yfciG q hf w kd m bmvJ?

rnfolwOD;wa,mufudkrS xdkol,Hk=unfudk;uG,faom bmomw&m; a=umifh cJGjcm;qufqHjcif;rsm;/ tjcm;bmomodk@ twif;t=uyf ajymif;vJ apcdik ;f jcif;rsm; rvkyaf qmif&yg? vlwa,muf od@k r[kwf vltodik ;f t0dik ;f tkypf k wck. ,H=k unf&mud;k uG,cf iG q hf o kd nfrmS bmoma&;tpOftvmrsm;/ yJaG wmfrsm; usi;f yydik cf iG /hf owfrw S x f m;aom bmoma&;taqmifta,mifrsm; 0wfqifciG /hf bmoma&;ausmif;rsm;ESihf taqmuftOD;rsm; wnfaqmufciG /hf trsm;pkaygi;f 0wfðycGifhESifh 0wfðy&mae&mrsm;&SdcGifh/ bmoma&;ESifh ywfoufaom pm&Guf pmwrf;rsm; xkwaf 0jzef@cscD iG /hf ,H=k unfrE_ iS hf ywfoufaom ae@x;l ae@jrwfrsm; qifEc$J iG /hf bmoma&;ESihf ywfoufI vdt k yfaom jynfwiG ;f jynfy qufo, G af &; rsm; aqmif&u G cf iG /hf apwemtavsmuf tvSLrsm;vufcjH cif;ESihf &SmazGjcif;wd@k tm;vH;k tñuH;0ifygonf? vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:cGifh/ ouf0if,Hk=unfcGifhESifh udk;uG,f,Hk=unfcGihf wd@k ukd ta&;ay:tajctaersKd ;rSmyif ydwyf ifciG rhf &Sad y? od@k aomf jynfo@l vðkH cHr/_ usifh0wfoduQmESifh tjcm;olrsm;tcGifhta&;udkumuG,fay;&efvkdtyfvmygu od@k r[kwf onf;rcHEikd rf E_ iS hf zdEydS cf jGJ cm;r_ut kd m;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðyaom twef; tpm;cJjG cm;jcif;/ oD;oef@jzpfapjcif;/ uef@owfjcif;rsm;udk bmoma&;trnfcI H vkyaf qmifvmygu Oya'jzifh uef@owfaqmif&u G Ef ikd o f nf? bmoma&;vGwv f yfciG u hf kd tpd;k &uud;k uG,af ombmomESihf rwluGJ jym;aom bmomudk udk;uG,fonfhtkyfpkrsm;taejzifh trsm;qHk; ydwfyif cH&avh&Sdwwfygonf? EdkifiHawmfomoemtjzpfjyXmef;xm;aom bmomESifh uJGjym;onfh tjcm;rwlaom bmom0ifrsm;tm; EdkifiHawmfomoemodk@

104 Q & Q.pmd

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; twif;t=uyfajymif;vJ0ifa&mufapjcif;/ tjcm;,Hk=unf&mudk;uG,fr_rsm;udk tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufrðyjcif;wdk@ &ifqdkif}uHKawG@&wwfygonf? xdkodk@aom bmoma&;t&zdESdyfr_rsm;udk tpdk;&rsm;taejzifh rvkyfaqmif&ef 1981ckESpf Ed0k ifbmv (25) &ufae@wiG f twnfðycJah om bmoma&; ok@d r[kwf ,H=k unf ouf0ifrt _ ay: tajccHaom cJjG cm;r_/ onf;rcHr_ yHpk t H rsKd ;rsKd ; yaysmufapa&; a=unmpmwrf; (Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief) wGif azmfjyxm; ygonf? xdka=unmpmwrf;yg tcsufrsm;udk atmifjrifpGm taumiftxnf azmfEikd &f eftwGuv f nf; bmoma&;ESihf ywfoufI onf;rcHrr_ sm;qdik &f m txl; pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sd (Special Rapportuer on Religious Intolerance) udk 1986 ckEpS w f iG f cef@tyfcyhJ gonf? tyd'k f (19) vlwdkif; vGwfvyfpGm xifjrif,lqydkifcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm zGifh[ wifjyydik cf iG ±hf o dS nf? xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;t& rdrw d ifjy,lqcsurf sm;udk taESmuf t,Suf t[ef@twm;r±SdcH,lusifhoHk;ydkifcGifh±Sdonf? e,fajrydkif;jcm;r_ r±SdbJ owif;pme,fZif;rsm;rSwqifh owif;rsm;/ t,ltqrsm;udk ±SmazGqnf;yl;ydik cf iG /hf vufcHydkifcGifhESifh jzef@jzL;ydkifcGifhwdk@±Sdonf? vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG /hf owif;rsm;&,lciG /hf Ô

vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG /hf owif;rsm;&,lciG t hf wGuf ukvor*~ubmawGvkyfaqmifaeygovJ?

vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifhESifh owif;rsm;&,lcGifhwdk@onf 'Dru kd a&pD vl@abmiftwGuf ta&;ygaom tpdwt f ydik ;f jzpfonf? owif;Xme

105 Q & Q.pmd

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; rsm;rS bufrvdkufaomowif;rsm;udk&,lEdkiftwGuf xdkowif;Xmersm;onf vGwv f yfI taESmiftzJ@G uif;aomowif;Xmersm;jzpfro S m jzpfEikd af yvdrrhf nf? vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG u hf kd ydwyf if&jcif;. t"du ta=umif; w&m;rSm ta=umufw&m;a=umifjh zpfonf? vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG u hf kd cGifhðyvdkufygu rdrdESifhrwlnDaom tjcm;tjrifrsm; ay:aygufvmrnfudk pdk;&drfaom a=umufpdwfa=umifh ydwfyifjcif;rsm; vkyfaqmifvmjcif;jzpfonf? tpd;k &taejzifh Oya'trsKd ;rsKd ;xkwI f vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG rhf sm;udk uef@owfcsKyfcs,fr_ trsdK;rsdK; vkyfaomfvnf; awG;ac:cGifhudk vHk;0ydwfyifI r&Edkifyg? vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG Ehf iS hf owif;vGwv f yfciG w hf @kd ukd umuG,f a&;ESihf ywfoufI ukvor*~EiS hf ‚. txl;jyKat*sipf rD sm;u txl; }udK;yrf; aqmif&u G v f su&f o dS nf? ukvor*~. txl;jyKat*sipf w D ckjzpfaom ynma&;/ odyEH` iS hf ,Ofaus;r_tzJ@G (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization- UNESCO) taejzifh vGwv f yfpmG owif;rsm;&,la&;ESihf vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG &hf &Sad &;wd@k EiS hf ywfoufonfh a'otvku d f aqG;aEG;yJrG sm;udk OD;aqmifusif;ycJhonf? toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvudk jzwfoef;aeaom EdkifiHrsm;udkvnf; EdkifiH.Oya'rsm;xJwGif owif;qdkif&mOya'rsm;udk jyXmef; Edik &f eftwGuf ,leufpudu k vdt k yfaomt}uHOm%frsm; yhyH ;kd ay;vsuf &So d nf? jynfwGif;yÉdyuQrsm;jzpfyGm;aeaomEdkifiHrsm;wGifvnf; awG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;ESifh +id r f ; csrf ; a&;ay:xG e f ; vmEd k i f r nf h t ajctaersd K ;ud k wG e f ; tm;ay;Ed k i f r nf h bufrvdkufbJ vGwfvyfaom owif;rsm;udk xkwfjyefonfh owif;Xmersm; ay:ayguv f m&ef ,leufpudu k ulnrD r_ sm;ay;vsu&f o dS nf? xdk@jyif vGwfvyfpGmxifjrifxkwfazmfajymqdkcGifhqdkif&m txl;pHkprf; ppfaq;a&; t&m&Sd (Special Rapporteur on the Rights to Freedom of

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; Opinion and Expression) udk 1993 ckEp Sw f iG f vl@tcGit hf a&;aumfr&Siu f aeI

cef@tyfwm0efay;cJo h nf? xdt k &m&So d nf vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG Ehf iS hf ywfoufaom tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk umuG,&f eftwGuf vufawG@us+yD; vkyif ef; atmifjrifa&;udk t"duxm;onfh t}uHay;csurf sm;ay;&ef wm0ef&o dS nf? Ô

vGwfvyfpGmxifjrifxkwfazmfajymqkdcGifhwGif tuef@towf&Sdygvm;?

Ed k i f i H a &;ES i f h Ed k i f i H o m;tcG i f h t a&;qd k i f & m oabmwl p mcsKyf w G i f vGwv f yfpmG xifjrifxw k af zmfajymqdck iG u hf kd “txl;wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;ESihf usio hf ;kH &rnf” [k qdx k m;ygonf? xd@k twGuaf =umifh xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk usio hf ;kH &m wGif tuef@towfabmif&ydS gonf? od@k aomf xdu k ef@owfra_ bmif onf Oya' ESit hf nD uef@owfjcif;rsKd ;jzpf&efvt kd yfygonf? xd@k jyif vlxt k usihf pm&dwEW iS hf pdwf"mwfydkif;qdkif&mrsm;/ EkdifiHawmfvHkðcHa&;ESifh at;csrf;om,ma&;twGuf ruef@owfIrjzpfaoma=umifh Oya'ESit hf nDvyk af qmif&aom uef@owfrr_ sm; jzpf&ygrnf? xd@k jyif vGwv f yfpmG ajymqdck iG u hf t kd cGiahf umif;,lI 0g'jzef@wu kd cf u kd f a&;om;jcif;rsm;/ vlrsKd ;a&;/ bmoma&;rke;f wD;r_ujkd zpfymG ;ap+yD; t"du±k%;f rsm;/ zdEydS rf r_ sm;/ t=urf;zufwu kd cf u kd rf r_ sm;/ r+idrrf oufjzpfrr_ sm; jzpfatmif vH@_ aqmf a&;om;xkwfazmfajymqdkjcif;rsdK;udk cGifhrðyyg? tjcm;olrsm;. *k%foduQmESifh tcGit hf a&;rsm;/ Edik if aH wmfvðkH cHa&;/ jynfo@l use;f rma&;ESihf usi0hf wfou d mQ oDv qdkif&mtajccHrlrsm;udk umuG,f&eftwGuf tajctae rsdK;wGif vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdrk u _ kd uef@owfEikd yf gonf? vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifhonf tuef@towfabmif&Sdonf qdak omfvnf; xdu k ef@owfro _ nf w&m;Oya'ESit fh nD 'Dru kd a&pD oabmw&m; rsm;t& vdt k yfaoma=umifh uef@owfrr_ sm;jzpf&ygrnf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tyd'k f (20) vlwikd ;f +idr;f csr;f pGm vlpv k al 0; pka0;ydik cf iG Ehf iS hf toif;tzJ@G rsm; xlaxmif zJG@pnf;ydkifcGifh±Sdonf? rnfo@ludkr# ‚. qENoabmxm;rygbJ tzJG@tpnf; wcko@kd 0ifap&ef twif;t=uyfrðy&? tzJG@tpnf;rsm;xlaxmifcGifh Ô

tzJt @G pnf;rsm;xlaxmifciG u hf kd bma=umifv h t @l cGit hf a&;tjzpf owfrSwfwmvJ?

jynfow l @kd ukd olw@kd . &nfreS ;f csurf sm;tm; pkaygi;f Iazmfxw k w f ifjy Ed k i f a tmif E S i f h ol w d k @ . tusd K ;pD ; yG m ;twG u f j zpf a p tjcm;ol r sm;. tusdK;pD;yGm;rsm;twGufjzpfap tkyfpktzJG@tpnf;taejzifh umuG,fEdkifatmif vkyfaqmif&mwGif vGwfvyfpGmtzJG@tpnf;rsm; xlaxmifcGifhonf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfvSonf? xdkodk@xlaxmif&mwGif tpdk;&u xlaxmifay;jcif;r[kwfbJ jynfolvlxku tusdK;wl/ &nf&G,fcsufwl&m tzJG@tpnf;rsm;udk rdrdzmom rdrdxlaxmifjcif;udk qdkvdkonf? tpdk;&taejzifh tcsdK@aomtajctaersdK;wGif Oya'ESifhudkufnDaom ta=umif;jycsufwkd@jzifh tcsdK@aomtzJG@tpnf;rsm; xlaxmifciG u hf kd uef@owfEikd o f nf? tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyf}uD;onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;. tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;xlaxmifciG Efh iS hf ywfoufonfh oabmwlpmcsKyfaygi;f rsm;pGmudk a&;qJ G t wnf ð yxm;onf ? xd k p mcsKyf r sm;ud k v nf ; Ed k i f i H a ygif ; rsm;pG m u oabmwlvufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;vsuf&Sdonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tyd'k f (21) (u) (c) (*)

vlwdkif; rdrdwdkif;jynf. tkyfcsKyfa&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif wdkuf±dkufaomf vnf;aumif;/ vGwv f yfpmG a±G;cs,w f ifajrm‡ ufxm;onfh ud, k pf m;vS,f rsm;rSwqifah omfvnf;aumif; yg0ifaqmif±u G yf ikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf? vlwdkif;rdrdwdkif;jynftwGif;±Sd jynfol0efxrf;tzJG@ vkyfief;rsm;wGif 0ifa&mufEidk &f ef wlnaD omtcGit hf vrf;rsm;±So d nf? tpd;k &. tm%monf jynfov l x l . k qENtay:wGif tajccH&rnf? jynf o l @ qEN r sm;ud k tcsd e f u mvyd k i f ; jcm;vsuf usif ; yay;onf h ppfrSefaom a±G;aumufyJGrsm;jzifh azmfxkwfap&rnf? a±G;aumufyJG rsm;wGif vlwkdif;tnDtr#rJay;EdkifcGifh±Sd&rnfhtjyif xdka±G;aumuf yJGrsm;udk vSdK@0SufrJay;pepfjzifhjzpfap/ tvm;wl vGwfvyfaom rJay;pepfjzifjh zpfap usi;f y&rnf?

tpdk;&wGifyg0ifcGifh Ô

tpd;k &wGiyf g0ifciG q hf w kd m bmudq k v kd ykd govJ?

Ttydk'fonf 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&. tajccHoabmw&m;jzpfaom “jynfow l @kd . qENonf tpd;k &tm%m.tajccHjzpfonf” qdo k nft h csuu f kd xif[yfxm;aom tcsufjzpfonf? xdkodk@ jzpfap&eftwGuf EdkifiHom;wdkif; rJay;cGi&hf adS om vGwv f yfIw&m;r#wonfh a&G;aumufyrGJ sm;udk usi;f yay;&ef vdktyfonf? tpd;k &wGif vlx. k yg0ifciG q hf o kd nfrmS ud, k w f ikd w f u dk ±f u kd yf g0ifjcif;jzpfap/ vGwfvyfpGm a&G;cs,fwifajr‡ufxm;aom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;uwqifhjzpfap ESprf sKd ;pvH;k udk qdv k jkd cif;jzpfonf? ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;rSwqifh yg0ifEidk &f eftwGuf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk tcgtm;avsmfpGm usif;yay;&efvdkonf? vGwfvyfI ormorwfusr_uif;aom ppfrSefonfh a&G;aumufyJGjzpf&rnf? xdk@jyif a&G; aumufy&GJ vm'fukd wefz;kd xm;I ppfreS o f nfh jynfo@l u, kd pf m;vS,f tpd;k &w&yf azmfaqmifEikd &f ef &nf&, G u f si;f yaom a&G;aumufyrGJ sKd ;jzpf&ygonf? tyd'k f (22) vl o m;wd k i f ; onf vl @ tzJ G @ tpnf ; . tzJ G @ 0if w a,muf j zpf o nf h tm;avsmpf mG vlra_ &; vHðk cHciG chf pH m;ydik cf iG ±hf &dS rnf? xd@k jyif rdr. d ud, k yf ikd t f &nf taoG;ESihf *k%o f u d mQ wd@k ukd vGwv f yfpmG wd;k wufz@GH ðzd;apa&;twGuf rvJrG aoG vdktyfaom pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;udk oabmaygucf , H El ikd &f ef tcGit hf a&;rsm;±S&d rnf? xdo k @kd oabmaygucf , H El ikd &f ef rdrEd ikd if . H zJ@G pnf;yH/k Edik if ±H dS t&if;tjrpftiftm;rsm;ESihf vdu k af vsmnDaxGjzpfonfh Edik if aH wmf. ñud;yrf;aqmif±u G rf r_ sm;jzifh wrsKd ;/ Edik if w H um. yl;aygi;f aqmif±u G rf _ jzifw h zHk aqmif±u G &f rnf? vlr_b0vHkðcHa&; Ô

Ttyd'k w f iG yf g0ifaom vlrv _ ðkH ccH iG o hf nf bma=umifh ta&;}uD;ygovJ?

,cktyd'k f (22) rS tyd'k f (27) txdonf vlom;wOD;. tpGr;f ukef zH@G +zdK;wd;k wufapa&;twGuf vdt k yfaom &ky0f wWKydik ;f qdik &f mESihf &ky0f wWKydik ;f qdik &f m r[kwfaom tcsufrsm;tm; cHpm;cGifhudkazmfjyxm;onf? xdktcsufrsm;wGif pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qikd &f m tcGit hf a&;rsm;tm;vH;k tñuH;0ifonf? xdktcGifhta&;rsm;udk vlom;wdkif;&&SdcHpm;&eftwGuf EdkifiHawmftpdk;&rsm;u vnf;aumif; EdkifiHwumuvnf;aumif; vdktyfovdk aumif;rGefaom

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; aqmif&u G v f yk u f ikd rf r_ sm;udk vkyaf qmifay;&efvt kd yfonf? urBmv h Ol ;D a&. ig;yHw k yHo k nf qif;&Jiwfrw G jf cif;'%fukd cHpm;ae&onf? xdk@jyif a&m*gab;usa&mufaejcif;/ pmrwwfolrsm;jym;aejcif;/ vlr_a&; vHðk cHa&;uif;rJah ejcif;rsm;vnf; urBmay:wGif qufvufwnf&adS eqJjzpfonf? vlom;wd@k . tajccHvrl a_ &;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qikd &f mtcGit hf a&;rsm;onf EdkifiHom;ESifhEdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;rsm;uJhodk@yif jiif;y,fcHae&onfudk xdktcsuf rsm;u oufaojyaeonf? pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ ,Ofaus;r_tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf Edik if o H m;/ Edik if aH &; tcGifhta&;rsm;wckESifhwck tjyeftvSef rSDcdkqufpyfaeonfudk tjynfht0 vufrcHrcsi;f 'Dru kd a&pD/ +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf wnf+idraf t;csr;f a&;wd@k ukd wnfaqmuf Edik rf nfr[kwyf g? rnfonfv h rl t _ odik ;f t0dik ;f wGijf zpfap xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;onf wckESifhwck tjyeftvSefqufpyfae=uonf? EdkifiHom;ESifhEdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&; rsm;udk csKd ;azmufc&H aomolrsm;twGuf olw@kd . pD;yGm;a&;/vlra_ &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_ qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;udkvnf; tmrcHcsufay;Edkifrnfr[kwfyg? xdk@twl vlom;wd@k . tajccHvt kd yfcsurf sm;jzpfaom pm;0wfaea&; vHak vmufjynfph rkH _ r&Syd guvnf; Edik if o H m;ESiEhf ikd if aH &;tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk cHpm;Edik rf nfr[kwyf g? tyd'k f (23) (u) (c) (*)

vlwdkif;tvkyfvkyfcGifh/ rdrdtvkyfudkrdrd vGwfvyfpGma±G;cs,fydkifcGifhESifh w&m;r#wI oifah vsmaf omvkyif ef;cGiu f kd a±G;cs,cf iG Ehf iS hf tvkyv f ufrhJ jzpf&jcif;rS umuG,rf &_ ±Scd iG rhf sm;cHpm;ydik cf iG ±hf o dS nf? vlwidk ;f cJjG cm;r_r±Sb d J wlnaD omtvkyt f wGuf wlnaD omtca=u;aiGukd &±SdcHpm;ydkifcGifh±Sdonf? tvkyv f yk o f nfv h w l ikd ;f rdrEd iS rhf rd . d rdom;pktwGuf vl@*% k o f u d mQ ESihf

111 Q & Q.pmd

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

(C)

nD!$wfatmif aexdkifpm;aomufEdkif&ef pdwfcsavmufonfhtjyif w&m;r#wI oifhwifhavsmufywfaom vpmcHpm;ydkifcGifh±Sdonf? vdt k yfygu tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm;rS vlra_ &;taxmuftyhrH sm;udv k nf; xyfrI H &ydik cf iG ±hf o dS nf? vlwdkif; rdrdtusdK;pD;yGm;udk umuG,f&ef tvkyform;or*~rsm; zJpG nf;ydik cf iG Ehf iS hf 0ifa&mufyikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf?

vlwikd ;f oifw h ifah vsmufywfaom tvkycf sed t f jyif tcgtm;avsmpf mG owfrw S x f m;aom vpmESichf iG , hf cl iG t hf ygt0if tyef;ajztem;,lciG ±hf o dS nf? tvkyv f yk yf ikd cf iG Ehf iS hf tyef;ajztem;,lciG hf Ô

rnfonfEh ikd if w H umpmcsKyfonf vkyif ef;cGit f ajctaeESihf tvkyo f rm;rsm;tcGit hf a&;wdE@k iS hf oufqikd yf govJ?

Ttydk'fwGifyg0ifaom tcGifhta&;wdk@ESifhywfoufI EdkifiHwum pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;tcGifhta&;qdkif&m oabmwlpmcsKyfwGif tao;pdwfazmfjyxm;ygonf? xdkpmcsKyft& zJG@pnf;xm;aom pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_tcGifhta&;qdkif&m aumfrwDu xdktcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI pmcsKyftzJG@0if EdkifiHrsm;. av;pm;aqmif&Gufr_tm; avhvm apmifh=uyfygonf? xd@k jyif tvkyo f rm;wd@k . tcGit hf a&;ESihf ywfoufI tjynfjynfqikd &f m tvkyo f rm;tzJ@G csKyfu xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;udk umuG,&f efEiS hf xGe;f um;atmif vkyaf qmif óu;yrf;vsu&f ydS gonf? tvkyform;rsm;twGif;wGif a&$Œajymif;tvkyform;rsm;rSm olwdk@

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tvkyv f yk u f ikd o f nfh Edik if rH S Edik if o H m;rsm;uJo h @kd wef;wlcpH m;cGirhf &Sb d J tcGit hf a&; rsm; qH;k ±_;H aewwfygonf? xdo k @kd aom a&$@ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm;. tcGit hf a&; udk umuG,af y;Edik &f eftwGuf 1990 ckEpS w f iG f a&G@ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm;ESihf ‚wdk@. rdom;pk0ifrsm; tcGifhta&; umuG,fay;a&;qdkif&m EdkifiHwum oabmwlpmcsKyf (The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families) udk jyXmef; xm;cJhygonf? odk@aomf owfrSwfxm;aom EdkifiHta&twGufu vufrSwf xd;k jcif; r&Sad o;onft h wGuf xdpk mcsKyfrmS ,ckwikd t f ouf0ifvmjcif;r&Sad o;yg? tyd'k f (25) (u)

(c)

vlwidk ;f onf rdrEd iS hf rdr. d rdom;pk use;f rma&;ESiw hf uG ud, k pf w d Ef pS jf zm at;csrf;pGmaexdkifEdkifa&;twGuf vdktyfaom tpm;tpm/ t0wf tpm;/ td;k tdr/f aq;0g;ypPn;f ESihf tjcm;vdt k yfaom vlra_ &; taxmuf tyHhrsm; yg0ifaom oifhwifhavsmufywfonfh vlr_tqifhtwef;udk &,lcHpm;cGifh±Sdonf? xdk@jyif tvkyfvufrJhjzpfonfhtcgwGifvnf;aumif;/ rusef;rrm jzpfonfhtcgwGifvnf;aumif;/ udk,ft*F g rpGrf;roefjzpfaomtcg wGiv f nf;aumif;/ rdrcd ifyeG ;f od@k r[kwf ZeD;aoqH;k oGm;aomtcgwiG f vnf;aumif;/ touft±G,ftdkrif;vmonfhtcgwGifvnf;aumif;/ rdrdya,m*a=umifhr[kwfaom tvkyftudkifrJhjcif;udk &ifqdkif&aom tcgwGifvnf;aumif; aexdkifpm;aomufa&;twGuf vHkðcHpdwfcs&r_ tcGifhta&;cHpm;ydkifcGifh±Sdonf? om;onfrdcifrsm;ESifh uav;i,frsm;udk txl;apmifha±Smufjcif;ESifh tultnDay;jcif;wdk@udk ay;&rnf? w&m;0if vufxyfxdrf;jrm;+yD; arG;vmaom uav;jzpfap/ w&m;r0ifarG;vmaom uav;yifjzpfap wlnaD om vlru _ muG,af pmifah ±Smufa&;udk cHpm;ydik cf iG ±hf o dS nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; vHkavmufaomvlaer_tqifhtwef; Ô

touf&Sifaexdkif&efvHkavmufaomtqifhtwef;qdkonfrSm bmudkqdkvdkygovJ?

xdkar;cGef;udk vltrsdK;rsdK;u tajztrsdK;rsdK;ay;ayvdrfhrnf? odk@aomf vlwdkif;rjiif;Edkifaom tcsufrSm vlwdkif;vlwkdif;onf vlom;wdk@. tajccH vdt k yfcsurf sm;jzpfaom pm;0wfaea&;vdt k yfcsurf sm;ESit hf wl a&/ oef@&iS ;f a&;/ usef;rma&;ESifh ynma&;tp&Sdonfh vlr_todkif;t0dkif;qdkif&m 0efaqmifay;r_ rsm;vnf; vdt k yfonfqakd om tcsuyf ifjzpfonf? vlwOD;ESihf xdo k . l rdom;pk twGuf usef;rma&;rcsdK@,Gif;ap&ef/ iwfrGwfjcif;r&Sdap&efESifh t0wftpm;ESifh aetdrf&&Sdap&eftwGuf vdktyfaomt&mrSefor#udk touf&Sifaexdkif&ef vHkavmufaomtqifhtwef;rsm;[lI qdk&ayrnf? xdkvdktyfcsufrsm; &&Sd cHpm;Edkif&eftwGuf tvkyfvkyfydkifcGifhESifh xdkodk@tvkyfrvkyfEdkifaom olrsm;udk vlr_zlvHka&;tpDtpOfjzifh ulnDay;r_rsm;vnf; vdktyfonf? xdkt&mrsm;udk oufqikd &f mtpd;k &u jznfq h nf;ay;jcif;onf rdrEd ikd if o H m;rsm;twGuf touf&iS f aexdik &f ef vHak vmufaomtqift h wef;udk &&Scd pH m;apjcif;yif jzpfonf? tyd'fk f (26) (u)

(c)

vlwdkif; ynmoif=um;ydkifcGifh±Sdonf? tenf;qHk; rlvwef;ynmESifh tajccHtqifh ynma&;onf tcrJjh zpfap&rnf? rlvwef;ynmonf roifrae&jzpf&rnf? pufrv _ ufry_ nmESihf oufarG;0rf;a=umif;ynm rsm;udk a,bl,stm;jzifh vltrsm; oif=um;ydik cf iG ±hf &dS rnf? txufwef; ynmES i f h tqif h j rif h y nmrsm;ud k t&nf t csif ; tay: rl w nf I oif=um;Edik &f ef wlnaD om tcGit hf vrf;&±Sad p&rnf? ynma&;ud k vl o m;wd k @ . ud k , f y d k i f t &nf t aoG ; rsm; wd k ; wuf

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; jzpfay: jynfh0vmap&efESifh vl@tcGifhta&;tajccHvGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk av;pm;r_yu kd v J map&ef OD;wnfxm;&rnf? ynma&;onf wEdik if EH iS hf wEdik if /H vlrsKd ;wrsKd ;ESiw hf rsKd ;/ bmoma&;toif;tzJ@G wzJ@G EiS w hf zJ@G t=um; em;vnfr_/ oabmxm;}uD;r_/ cspf=unf&if;ESD;r_wdk@ wdk;wufjzpfay: vmap&efEiS hf urBm+h idr;f csr;f a&; wnfwaHh p&ef ukvor*~u wm0ef,l aqmif±u G af eaomvkyif ef;rsm; t"Ge@f ±n S af p&ef aqmifusO;f Edik &f rnf? ynma&; Ô

ynma&;onf vlt @ cGit hf a&;udak v;pm;apa&;twGuf rnfuJhodk@taxmuftuljyKygovJ?

ynma&;onf vlom;wOD;. ud, k &f nfu, kd af oG;rsm; tpGr;f ukef zH@G òz; wd;k wufap&efEiS hf vl@tcGit hf a&;udk av;pm;r_w;kd yGm;ap&ef txl; taxmuf tulðyygonf? Edik if w H umvl@tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m ,E , W m;rsm;uvnf; ynma&; udk vl@tcGit hf a&;tm; av;pm;vdu k ef maom ,Ofaus;r_w&yf ay:xGe;f ap&efEiS hf vlom;rsm;wOD;ESifhwOD;av;pm;aom/ pdwf&Snfonf;cHaom/ usm;r cJGjcm; zdEydS rf u _ if;aom// Edik if /H vlrsKd ;/ bmoma&;/ bmompum; tcsi;f csi;f t=um; cspf=unf&if;ESD;r_ wdk;yGm;apaom tajctaeudk xGef;um;atmif óu;yrf; aqmif&u G af p&ef &nf&, G x f m;onf? xdkodk@ &nf&G,fxm;onfhtwdkif; atmifjrif&eftwGuf ausmif;cef; oif=um;a&;wGifomru jyify ynmoif=um;a&;/ rlvwef;rStp tqifhjrifh ynma&;rsm;tqH;k oifwef;rsm;ESirhf usef usio hf ;kH oGm;&efvt kd yfvo S nf? xdo k @kd vdktyfonfhtwdkif; ukvor*~. txl;at*sifpDjzpfaom ,leufpudku tpDtpOfrsm; pepfwuscsrw S I f vkyaf qmifvsu&f o dS nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tyd'fk f (2&) (u)

(c)

vlwikd ;f onf vlrt _ zJ@G tpnf;. ,Ofaus;r_b0wGif vGwv f yfpmG yg0if ydik cf iG /hf tEkynmokcrk ynm&yfrsm;udk vGwv f yfpmG vdu k pf m; arG@avsmf Edik cf iG /hf odyy`H nmxGe;f um;a&; vkyif ef;rsm;wGif vGwv f yfpmG 0ifa&muf vkyfudkifEdkifcGifhESifh xdkynm. tusdK;tjrwfwdk@udk vGwfvyfpGm cHpm; oHk;pJGydkifcGifh±Sdonf? vlwikd ;f onf rdru d , kd yf ikd Of m%fjzif}h uHpnfzefw;D r_rS jzpfxeG ;f vmaom odyy`H nmqdik &f m wDxiG rf r_ sm;/ pmayqdik &f m od@k r[kwf tEkynmqdik &f m zefw;D r_rsm;wd@k . *k%Ef iS ±hf yk 0f wWKydik ;f qdik &f m tusKd ;tjrwfrsm;udk cHpm; &,lEidk &f eftwGuf umuG,rf r_ sm;&±Syd ikd cf iG ±hf o dS nf?

,Ofaus;r_qdkif&mtcGifhta&; Ô

,Ofaus;r_qikd &f mtcGit hf a&;qdo k nfrmS bmudq k v kd ykd gvJ?

,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m tcGifhta&;qdk&mwGif rdrdudk,fydkif,Ofaus;r_udk od&u dS sio hf ;kH cGit hf jyif tjcm;olrsm;. ±d;k &m,Ofaus;r_uu kd v kd nf; avhvmod&cdS iG hf wd@k yg0ifonf? rdrw d @kd ±;kd &m ,Ofaus;r_rsm;omru bmompum;/ "avhx;kH xrf;/ yJaG wmfrsm;yg tñuH;0ifygonf? tyd'fk f (2*) vlwikd ;f Tpmwrf;wGiaf zmfjyxm;onfh tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf vGwv f yfciG hf rsm;udt k jynft h 0 tav;xm; todtrSwðf yaom vlrq _ ufqaH &;tajctaeESihf Edik if w H umqufqaH &; tajctaewd@k . tusKd ;aus;Zl;udk cHpm;ydik cf iG ±hf o dS nf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; tyd'fk f (29) (u) (c)

(*)

vlom;wkid ;f onf rdru d , kd yf ikd t f &nftaoG;udk wd;k wufjzpfay: jynf0h vmatmif vGwv f w G v f yfvyf aqmif±u G Ef ikd rf u _ akd y;aom vl@abmif tm; jyefvnfay;qyf&efwm0ef0wW&m;±So d nf? vlwOD;wa,mufonf rdr. d tcGit hf a&;ESihf vGwv f yfru _ &kd m,l&mwGif tjcm;olrsm;. tcGit hf a&;ESihf vGwv f yfciG rhf sm;udk xdu k x f u kd w f efwef todtrSwðf yav;pm;&rnf? 'Dru kd a&pDpepf xGe;f um;aom vl@tzJ@G tpnf;wGif ud, k u f siw hf &m;aumif;rGeaf &;/ pnf;urf;ao0yfr±_ adS &;ESihf jynfo@l tusKd ;pD;yGm;jzpfxeG ;f a&;wd@k twGuf w&m;r#wpGm usiahf qmif&ef twGuf &nf±, G I f Oya't& jyXmef;xm;aom uef@owfcsurf sKd ;udk vlwdkif;vdkufem&rnf? TtcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf vGwv f yfciG rhf sm;udk urBmu h v k or*~. &nfreS ;f csufESifh tajccHrlrsm;tm; qef@usifaom udpP&yfrsm;wGif &,l usifhoHk;ydkifcGifhr±Sdap&?

tyd'fk f (30) Tpmwrf;yg tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifhvGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk zsufvdkzsufqD; jzpfaprnfh vkyfief;vkyf&yfrsm;tm; rnfonfhEdkifiH/ rnfonfhtzJG@tpnf;/ rnfonfhvlyk*~dKvfurS udk,fwdkifvkyfaqmifcGihf/ yg0ifvkyfaqmifcGifhr±Sda=umif; Ta=unmpmwrf;utwdtvif;a=unmonf?

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vkŒl tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; wm0efrsm; Ô

vltcGit hf a&;ESihf ywfoufI vlwOD;wa,mufcsif;wGif rnfonfhwm0efrsm;&SdovJ?

vl@tcGifhta&;. qdkvdkcsufrSm vlom;wdkif; rdrd. ywf0ef;usif vlr_ todkif;t0dkif;wGif vGwfvyfpGmESifh rdrd. udk,fa&udk,faoG; tpGrf;tprsm;udk tjynft h 0 azmfxw k Ef ikd af om taetxm;udk qdv k o kd nft h wGuf ywf0ef;usif todik ;f t0dik ;f wGiaf exdik =f uaom vlwOD;csi;f wa,mufcsi;f wdik ;f onf xdv k @l tcGihf ta&;rsm;udk av;pm;&efEiS hf wd;k wufatmifta&;qd&k efwm0ef&ydS gonf? vlwikd ;f xdt k cGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf vGwv f yfciG rhf sm;udk cHpm;Edik &f eftwGuf rdrt d cGit hf a&;udk omrubJ tjcm;olrsm;. tcGit hf a&;rsm;udv k nf; av;pm;wwfz@kd vdt k yfyg onf? rdrEd iS rhf wlnyD gu cJjG cm;jcif;/ ydwyf ifjcif;wd@k rvkyaf qmifbJ rwlnD uJjG ym;r_ onf t,ltqaumif;rsm; xGuaf y:ap&eftwGuf tiftm;jzpfonf[k vufcH ,H=k unfI xdrk wlujGJ ym;r_rsm;udk av;pm;&efvt kd yfygonf? Ô

pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlra_ &;tcGit hf a&;rsm;wd;k wufapa&;twGuf Edik if aH &;t&vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG /hf tzJt @G pnf; zJp@G nf;cGirhf sm;udk uefo @ wf&rnf[al omtcsufonf oifhavsmfygovm;?

tpdk;&tcsdK@u a=unmpmwrf;wGif yg0ifaom tcGifhta&;rsm;wGif rnfonft h cGit hf a&;udk OD;pm;ay;&rnfqakd om tcsuu f kd a&G;cs,o f wfrw S &f mY tcuftcJñuH&a=umif; ajymavh&o dS nf? trSew f u,fyif rnfonft h csuu f kd OD;pm;ay;&rnfenf; qdkaomtajzudk ajzqdk&efrvG,fvSyg? tb,fa=umifh qdak omf Edik if aH &;ESihf Edik if o H m;tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ ,Ofaus;r_ qdik &f m tcGit hf a&;rsm;onf wckEiS w hf ck tjyeftvSef qufpyfaeaoma=umifh

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm; jzpfonf? pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh,Ofaus;r_tcGifhta&;rsm;cHpm;cGifhr&Sdrcsif; vlrw _ &m;r#wr_ukd cHpm;Edik +f yD[q k Ekd ikd rf nfr[kwyf g? tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;wGifvnf; vlom; tm;vH;k wd@k onf pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ ,Ofaus;r_ tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf Edik if o H m;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGit hf a&;rsm; tm;vH;k udk &&Scd pH m;ae&aom tajctae ywf0ef;usiu f kd zefw;D Edik rf o S m vlom;wd@k onf awmifw h jcif;rS uif;a0;jcif;ESihf a=umifu h sjcif;rS uif;a0;jcif;wd@k ukd ausmv f m$ ;Edik rf nf[k twdtvif; azmfjyxm;ygonf? vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;onf vlom;tm;vHk;twGufjzpfonf? cJGjcm;Ir&? wckEiS w hf ck rScD q kd ufpyfaeonf[al om vl@tcGit hf a&; tajccHoabmw&m;rsm; udk 1993 ckEpS f AD,ifemvl@tcGit hf a&;nDvmcHwiG f xyfavmif;I a=unmcJo h nf?

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

120 Q & Q.pmd

120

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vkナ値 tcGit hf a&; ar;cGe;f ESit hf ajzrsm;

121 Q & Q.pmd

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Q__A  

vk l ΠtcG i f h t a&amp;; vk l ΠtcG i f h t a&amp;; 1 Q &amp; Q.pmd 5/25/2007, 1:46 PM1 vk l ΠtcG i f h t a&amp;; ar;cG e f ; ES i f h t...

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