Human Capital - Career Trends

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HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN CAPITAL

AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURE

CO-CREATING A WORLD THAT THRIVES

THE AGRICULTURE 5.0

EXPERT OPINION: JOHN RAINES, PRESIDENT, TELUS AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER GOODS

VERTICAL FARMING

AGRICULTURE WORKFORCE

THE US WINERY THE US WINERY

FARMING FARMING

COMPANY PROFILE: CASANEL

VINEYARDS & WINERY, NELSON DESOUZA

SUSTAINABLE SUSTAINABLE IINFRASTRUCTURE NFRASTRUCTURE

IIMMIGRATION MMIGRATION

FARM WORKFORCE MODERNIZATION ACT IMPACT ON AGRIBUSINESS

THE IMPACT OF EB2-NIW IN THE U.S. ECONOMY

VETERINARY VETERINARY CAREER CAREER

EXPERT OPINION: MAURO TUPINAMBÁ, VETERINARIAN AND ENTREPRENEUR

ANNUAL MEAN WAGE OF VETERINARIANS, BY STATE

FOREIGN VETERINARY GRADUATES (ECFVG) CERTIFICATION OVERVIEW

THE FARMER’S DILEMMA

FOREIGN OWNERSHIP: U.S.

AGRICULTURAL LAND

The Bright Side

We are leading the career path for a global mobile generation of high-skilled professionals, executives, and entrepreneurs, lighting the way for a more brilliant future for all.

HumanCapital Career Trends

Career Trends HUMAN CAPITAL

EDITOR IN CHIEF Ana Paula Montanha

CEO Leonardo Freitas

CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER Danilo Dias

MAGAZINE JOURNALIST & MARKETING DIRECTOR Elaine Dotto

BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT DIRECTOR Luiz Franca

Human Capital Career Trends Magazine (Online ISSN 2771-9146 | Print ISSN 2771-9138) is an American national magazine focused on career trends, immigration, and society, published six times per year on a bimonthly basis, it is published by Hayman-Woodward Human Capital Services.

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CONTENTS CONTENTS

4 | Human Capital Career Trends
Leonardo Freitas, our CEO, Business Immigration expert Danilo Dias, our CRO, Infrastructure expert
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Ana Paula Montanha, our Managing Partner and Editor-in-Chief, Human Capital expert John Raines, President, TELUS Agriculture & Consumer Goods Luiz Franca, our BD Director, Business Development expert Mauro Tupinanbá, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, CEO Veterinária Grajaú

EDITOR'S NOTE

Future Agriculture

Future agriculture will require a more Future agriculture will require a more comprehensive approach to food production and comprehensive approach to food production and ssustainability. ustainability

Traditional farming practices must be Traditional farming practices must be supplemented with new technologies, such as supplemented with new technologies, such as precision agriculture, hydroponics, and vertical agriculture, hydroponics, and vertical farming. As a result, careers in the agricultural farming As a result, careers in the agricultural sector will need to evolve to meet the changing sector will need to evolve to meet the changing needs of the industry. needs of the industry.

Careers in the agricultural sector will require a Careers in the agricultural sector will require a greater understanding of the science and greater understanding of the science and technology behind the industry technology behind the industry.

This could include careers in agricultural This could include careers in agricultural engineering, agronomy, and food science engineering, agronomy, and food science. Additionally, careers in marketing, finance, and Additionally, careers in marketing, finance, and business management will be needed to help business management will be needed to help farmers and producers navigate the changing farmers and producers navigate the changing landscape of the agricultural industry. landscape of the agricultural industry

The agriculture of the future calls for a holistic

The agriculture of the future calls for a holistic approach to food production that prioritizes approach to food production that prioritizes sustainability. To achieve this, traditional farming sustainability. To achieve this, traditional farming methods will have to be integrated with methods will have to be integrated with innovative technologies such as precision innovative technologies such as precision agriculture, hydroponics, and vertical farming. agriculture, hydroponics, and vertical farming.

The United States is among the world's most

The United States is among the world's most dominant and influential agricultural producers dominant and influential agricultural producers. The domestic market is robust for farmers, and The domestic market is robust for farmers, and the US is the world's largest exporter of several the US is the world's largest exporter of several agribusiness products agribusiness products.

This leads to over one trillion dollars of GDP per

This leads to over one trillion dollars of GDP per year for the United States, and agricultural policy year for the United States, and agricultural policy has helped shape various trade and energy acts has helped shape various trade and energy acts that affect our overall economy each year. The that affect our overall economy each year The size, shape, and form of farms may have changed size, shape, and form of farms may have changed over time, but the role of agriculture has always over time, but the role of agriculture has always been prominent in the development and been prominent in the development and sustenance of the powerhouse United States sustenance of the powerhouse United States economy. economy.

Future agriculture will also require a greater focus

Future agriculture will also require a greater focus on sustainability and environmental stewardship. on sustainability and environmental stewardship This could include careers in conservation, This could include careers in conservation, renewable energy, and sustainable agriculture. renewable energy, and sustainable agriculture. Additionally, jobs in policy and advocacy will be Additionally, jobs in policy and advocacy will be needed to help shape the agricultural sector's needed to help shape the agricultural sector's ffuture. uture.

Agriculture is not only a driver of economic Agriculture is not only a driver of economic growth for the United States, but it creates a growth for the United States, but it creates a broader market with related industries – meaning broader market with related industries – meaning its impact is felt in more places than the grocery its impact is felt in more places than the grocery store and wholesale food supply store and wholesale food supply.

Consider industries like food sales, nutrition

Overall, future agriculture will require a more

Overall, future agriculture will require a more comprehensive approach to food production and comprehensive approach to food production and sustainability This means that traditional farming sustainability. This means that traditional farming practices will need to be supplemented with new practices will need to be supplemented with new technologies and that careers in the agricultural technologies and that careers in the agricultural sector will need to evolve to meet the changing sector will need to evolve to meet the changing needs of the industry. needs of the industry

Consider industries like food sales, nutrition research, horticulture, and restaurants. These research, horticulture, and restaurants These sectors depend on American agriculture; with sectors depend on American agriculture; with hard-working farmers and dependable products, hard-working farmers and dependable products, these industries will continue. these industries will continue

In addition to the industries mentioned, In addition to the industries mentioned, agriculture also plays a critical role in agriculture also plays a critical role in manufacturing. Raw materials from agriculture manufacturing. Raw materials from agriculture are used to produce items such as paper, are used to produce items such as paper, clothing, and building materials clothing, and building materials.

6 | Human Capital Career Trends

With agriculture, the supply chain for these With agriculture, the supply chain for these products would be greatly disrupted products would be greatly disrupted.

Furthermore, agriculture is an essential Furthermore, agriculture is an essential contributor to the energy sector Biofuels, derived contributor to the energy sector. Biofuels, derived from crops such as corn and soybeans, are an from crops such as corn and soybeans, are an increasingly popular alternative to traditional increasingly popular alternative to traditional fossil fuels. This not only reduces the country's fossil fuels This not only reduces the country's dependence on foreign oil but also helps to dependence on foreign oil but also helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. reduce greenhouse gas emissions

The classic portrayal of American agriculture is The classic portrayal of American agriculture is the hard-working farmer – and there are still the hard-working farmer – and there are still those who embody this vital portion of our those who embody this vital portion of our workforce today workforce today.

There are also several other United States

There are also several other United States agricultural jobs that include: agricultural jobs that include:

Agricultural scientist Agricultural scientist

Winemakers Winemakers

Agricultural Personnel Management Agricultural Personnel Management

Agricultural Researcher Agricultural Researcher

Another benefit of agriculture to the U.S. economy is its contribution to its trade balance. The United is its contribution to its trade balance. The United States is one of the largest exporters of States is one of the largest exporters of agricultural products in the world, and this helps agricultural products in the world, and this helps to offset the trade deficit in other areas In 2020, to offset the trade deficit in other areas. In 2020, U S agricultural exports were valued at over $135 U.S. agricultural exports were valued at over $135 billion and $177 billion in 2021 billion and $177 billion in 2021.

Another benefit of agriculture to the U.S. economy

Forest Fire Management Forest Fire Management

Engineering Equipment Operator Engineering Equipment Operator

Food scientist Food scientist

Nursery/Florist management

Nursery/Florist management

These jobs and career opportunities are just some of the fulfilling paths of agricultural work that help of the fulfilling paths of agricultural work that help the U S economy the U.S. economy.

These jobs and career opportunities are just some

Overall, agriculture plays a critical role in the

Overall, agriculture plays a critical role in the United States economy, providing jobs, driving United States economy, providing jobs, driving economic growth, supporting related industries, economic growth, supporting related industries, and contributing to the country's trade balance. and contributing to the country's trade balance

As we continue to face new challenges in the

As we continue to face new challenges in the global economy, it is essential to recognize and global economy, it is essential to recognize and support agriculture's vital role in our economic support agriculture's vital role in our economic and social well-being. and social well-being

THE U.S. AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY IS A THE U.S. AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY IS A MAJOR COMPETITOR IN THE GLOBAL MARKET MAJOR COMPETITOR IN THE GLOBAL MARKET DUE TO ITS STRONG WORKFORCE, MARKET DUE TO ITS STRONG WORKFORCE, MARKET SIZE, AND INFRASTRUCTURE. THE SIZE, AND INFRASTRUCTURE. THE AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY ENCOMPASSES AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY ENCOMPASSES SUB-SECTORS SUCH AS AGRICULTURAL SUB-SECTORS SUCH AS AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS, CROP PRODUCTION, CHEMICALS, CROP PRODUCTION, AQUACULTURE, FORESTRY AND LOGGING, AND AQUACULTURE, FORESTRY AND LOGGING, AND LIVESTOCK. LIVESTOCK.

Mrs. Montanha is a seasoned executive and entrepreneur. She co-founded Hayman-Woodward Human Capital Services and serves as Managing Partner Mrs Montanha holds a master’s in business administration from Stephen M Ross School of Business, the business school of the University of Michigan, a graduate degree in marketing, and a bachelor’s in economics

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COCREATING A WORLD THAT THRIVES

The Agriculture 5.0

The future agriculture will require a more The future agriculture will require a more comprehensive approach to food production and comprehensive approach to food production and ssustainability. ustainability.

This means that traditional farming practices This means that traditional farming practices must be supplemented with new technologies, must be supplemented with new technologies, such as precision agriculture, hydroponics, and such as precision agriculture, hydroponics, and vertical farming As a result, careers in the vertical farming. As a result, careers in the agricultural sector will need to evolve to meet the agricultural sector will need to evolve to meet the changing needs of the industry Jobs in the changing needs of the industry. Jobs in the agricultural sector will require a greater agricultural sector will require a greater understanding of the science and technology understanding of the science and technology behind the initiative. This could include careers in behind the initiative This could include careers in agricultural engineering, agronomy, and food agricultural engineering, agronomy, and food science. Additionally, careers in marketing, science Additionally, careers in marketing, finance, and business management will be finance, and business management will be needed to help farmers and producers navigate needed to help farmers and producers navigate the changing landscape of the agricultural the changing landscape of the agricultural iindustry. ndustry.

The future agriculture will also require a greater The future agriculture will also require a greater focus on sustainability and environmental focus on sustainability and environmental stewardship This could include careers in stewardship. This could include careers in conservation, renewable energy, and sustainable conservation, renewable energy, and sustainable agriculture Additionally, positions in policy and agriculture. Additionally, positions in policy and advocacy will be needed to help shape the advocacy will be needed to help shape the agricultural sector's future agricultural sector's future.

Overall, future agriculture will require a more Overall, future agriculture will require a more comprehensive approach to food production and comprehensive approach to food production and sustainability. This means that traditional farming sustainability This means that traditional farming practices will need to be supplemented with new practices will need to be supplemented with new technologies and that careers in the agricultural technologies and that careers in the agricultural sector will need to evolve to meet the changing sector will need to evolve to meet the changing needs of the industry. needs of the industry

The agriculture of the future calls for a holistic The agriculture of the future calls for a holistic approach to food production that prioritizes approach to food production that prioritizes sustainability. To achieve this, traditional farming sustainability. To achieve this, traditional farming methods will have to be integrated with methods will have to be integrated with innovative technologies such as precision innovative technologies such as precision agriculture, hydroponics, and vertical farming agriculture, hydroponics, and vertical farming.

As a result, careers in the agriculture sector

As a result, careers in the agriculture sector will have to adapt to the evolving industry. will have to adapt to the evolving industry.

In the future agricultural industry, a deep In the future agricultural industry, a deep understanding of science and technology will be understanding of science and technology will be crucial. This encompasses careers such as crucial. This encompasses careers such as agricultural engineering, agronomy, and food agricultural engineering, agronomy, and food science Furthermore, there will be a greater science. Furthermore, there will be a greater demand for marketing, finance, and business demand for marketing, finance, and business management professionals to assist farmers and management professionals to assist farmers and producers in navigating the changing industry producers in navigating the changing industry llandscape andscape.

Sustainability and environmental stewardship will Sustainability and environmental stewardship will play a more significant role in future agriculture. play a more significant role in future agriculture

Therefore, careers in conservation, renewable Therefore, careers in conservation, renewable energy and sustainable agriculture will be in high energy and sustainable agriculture will be in high demand. Additionally, experts in policy and demand Additionally, experts in policy and advocacy will be essential to shaping the advocacy will be essential to shaping the agricultural sector's future. agricultural sector's future.

To summarize, the future of agriculture calls for a

To summarize, the future of agriculture calls for a more comprehensive and sustainable approach, more comprehensive and sustainable approach, which will require farmers and agricultural which will require farmers and agricultural professionals to adapt and integrate new professionals to adapt and integrate new technologies, and for other roles, such as in technologies, and for other roles, such as in marketing, sustainability and policy to emerge in marketing, sustainability and policy to emerge in the industry the industry.

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Ana Paula Montanha, Editor-in-Chief and Elaine Dotto, Chief Journalist

Science and Technology

FUTURE FUTURE AGRICULTURE AND WHAT IT MEANS AGRICULTURE AND WHAT IT MEANS TO CAREERS. TO CAREERS.

The agriculture of the future will be characterized

The agriculture of the future will be characterized by increased precision and efficiency with by increased precision and efficiency with advanced technology such as sensors, robotics, advanced technology such as sensors, robotics, and artificial intelligence. This will enable farmers and artificial intelligence This will enable farmers to monitor and control their crops, livestock, and to monitor and control their crops, livestock, and land more effectively and efficiently, resulting in land more effectively and efficiently, resulting in improved yields and greater sustainability. improved yields and greater sustainability.

The demand for skilled workers in agriculture will The demand for skilled workers in agriculture will also increase as the industry continues to evolve. also increase as the industry continues to evolve. There will be a need for professionals who are There will be a need for professionals who are knowledgeable in data analysis and machine knowledgeable in data analysis and machine learning, as well as those with expertise in areas learning, as well as those with expertise in areas such as crop production, livestock management, such as crop production, livestock management, and soil science Additionally, there will be a need and soil science. Additionally, there will be a need for workers skilled in the maintenance and for workers skilled in the maintenance and operation of advanced agricultural technology. operation of advanced agricultural technology

The agriculture industry is also expected to

The agriculture industry is also expected to become more automated, using robots and become more automated, using robots and drones to harvest and plant. This will create job drones to harvest and plant. This will create job opportunities for those with knowledge of these opportunities for those with knowledge of these machines' programming, operation, and machines' programming, operation, and maintenance. maintenance

Overall, the future agriculture industry will require Overall, the future agriculture industry will require a diverse range of skilled professionals to ensure a diverse range of skilled professionals to ensure its success. It is an exciting time for those its success. It is an exciting time for those pursuing a career in this field, as there will be pursuing a career in this field, as there will be plenty of opportunities for growth and innovation. plenty of opportunities for growth and innovation. As the agriculture of the future will likely be As the agriculture of the future will likely be characterized by characterized by increasing use of technology, increasing use of technology, this could lead to several changes in the way this could lead to several changes in the way agriculture is conducted agriculture is conducted, such as: , such as:

Precision agriculture: Precision agriculture: This involves using This involves using technology such as sensors, GPS, and drones technology such as sensors, GPS, and drones to gather data on the condition of crops and to gather data on the condition of crops and the land. This data can then be analyzed to the land This data can then be analyzed to make more accurate decisions about planting, make more accurate decisions about planting, fertilization, and pest control, leading to fertilization, and pest control, leading to increased yields and reduced use of increased yields and reduced use of rresources esources.

Automation: Automation: Robotics and automation can Robotics and automation can perform tasks such as planting, harvesting, perform tasks such as planting, harvesting, and monitoring crops. This can help to and monitoring crops This can help to increase efficiency and reduce labor costs. increase efficiency and reduce labor costs

Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence: AI can analyze data : AI can analyze data from sensors and other sources to make from sensors and other sources to make predictions about crop yields, weather predictions about crop yields, weather patterns, and other factors that affect patterns, and other factors that affect agriculture This can help farmers make more agriculture. This can help farmers make more informed decisions about managing their land informed decisions about managing their land and resources. and resources.

Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture: With the help of With the help of technology and sustainable practices, farmers technology and sustainable practices, farmers can develop the best ways to grow crops and can develop the best ways to grow crops and raise livestock while minimizing their raise livestock while minimizing their environmental impact and preserving natural environmental impact and preserving natural resources like soil and water resources like soil and water.

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Sustainability

AS A RESULT OF THESE CHANGES, THE AS A RESULT OF THESE CHANGES, THE DEMAND FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SKILLS IN FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SKILLS IN TECHNOLOGY, DATA ANALYSIS, AND TECHNOLOGY, DATA ANALYSIS, AND PROGRAMMING WILL LIKELY INCREASE IN PROGRAMMING WILL LIKELY INCREASE IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR. THIS CAN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR. THIS CAN INCLUDE CAREERS SUCH AS PRECISION INCLUDE CAREERS SUCH AS AGRICULTURE TECHNICIAN, AUTOMATION AGRICULTURE TECHNICIAN, AUTOMATION ENGINEER, DATA SCIENTIST, AND ENGINEER, DATA SCIENTIST, AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SPECIALIST, SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SPECIALIST, AMONG OTHERS. FURTHERMORE, THE AMONG OTHERS. FURTHERMORE, THE TRADITIONAL ROLES IN THE FARMING TRADITIONAL ROLES IN THE FARMING INDUSTRY WILL ALSO BECOME MORE DATA- INDUSTRY WILL ALSO BECOME MORE DATADRIVEN, SUCH AS AGRONOMIST, THE USE OF DRIVEN, SUCH AS AGRONOMIST, THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN THEIR FIELDWORK WILL TECHNOLOGY IN THEIR FIELDWORK WILL ENABLE THEM TO MAKE MORE INFORMED ENABLE THEM TO MAKE MORE INFORMED DECISIONS. DECISIONS.

It's also worth noting that while technology can It's also worth noting that while technology can certainly play a role in improving the efficiency certainly play a role in improving the efficiency and sustainability of agriculture, it's also and sustainability of agriculture, it's also important to consider other factors such as social important to consider other factors such as social and economic conditions and government and economic conditions and government policies. These can have a significant impact on policies These can have a significant impact on the success of agricultural practices and the the success of agricultural practices and the livelihoods of farmers. livelihoods of farmers.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (A.I.) ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (A.I.)

Artificial intelligence (A I ) is a tool with Artificial intelligence (A.I.) is a tool with application across many agricultural fields It can application across many agricultural fields. It can help with data analysis and predictions, such as help with data analysis and predictions, such as price forecasting, crop yield predictions, and price forecasting, crop yield predictions, and weather forecasts to predict sow and harvest weather forecasts to predict sow and harvest times. This helps to increase food yield, increases times This helps to increase food yield, increases

accessibility to foods, and can expedite research. accessibility to foods, and can expedite research

For over a decade, large seed companies have

For over a decade, large seed companies have already utilized A.I. to assess crop-climate already utilized A I to assess crop-climate compatibility and gene selection - such as compatibility and gene selection - such as targeting climate resilient genes (1). targeting climate resilient genes (1).

A I can be used in remotely identifying disease

A.I. can be used in remotely identifying disease and monitoring the states of plants and animals and monitoring the states of plants and animals. Harvesting can be driven by A I , where robotic Harvesting can be driven by A.I., where robotic machines can autonomously harvest crops machines can autonomously harvest crops.

The USDA has already begun investing in A I for

The USDA has already begun investing in A.I. for farming, with the agency providing over $20 farming, with the agency providing over $20 million in grants to six organizations to create the million in grants to six organizations to create the A.I. Institute for Next Generation Food Systems. A I Institute for Next Generation Food Systems (AIFS) (2). (AIFS) (2)

LAND USE LAND USE

As developing nations increase in wealth and, As developing nations increase in wealth and, subsequently, population, projections of global subsequently, population, projections of global food demand and consumption by the FAO states food demand and consumption by the FAO states that to adequately feed the world population, that to adequately feed the world population, global food production needs to increase by 60- global food production needs to increase by 6070% Furthermore, according to the USDA, meat, 70%. Furthermore, according to the USDA, meat, grains, and oilseeds will be the most significant grains, and oilseeds will be the most significant future demand in developing nations, with 81% future demand in developing nations, with 81% and 83% percent more than their current and 83% percent more than their current production amounts, respectively. production amounts, respectively.

These demands far exceed the production rates of

These demands far exceed the production rates of these goods (3). The rising population numbers these goods (3) The rising population numbers are attributed to increasing personal income, are attributed to increasing personal income, urbanization, access to more excellent urbanization, access to more excellent healthcare, and increased longevity. healthcare, and increased longevity

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Some of the solutions to maintaining food

Some of the solutions to maintaining food production with rising population numbers will production with rising population numbers will involve increasing food production with minimal involve increasing food production with minimal expansion on agricultural land to ensure greater expansion on agricultural land to ensure greater yields from livestock, increased crop and pasture yields from livestock, increased crop and pasture productivity per hectare, improved crop productivity per hectare, improved crop breeding, and adequate soil and water breeding, and adequate soil and water management. management

The use of less resource-demanding crops is one The use of less resource-demanding crops is one easy exchange that can be made to increase yield easy exchange that can be made to increase yield per hectare of crop. For example, almond, soy, per hectare of crop. For example, almond, soy, and oat milk require less land and water per and oat milk require less land and water per gallon of production than cow’s milk. This milk- gallon of production than cow’s milk. This milkalternative also outputs less carbon dioxide per alternative also less carbon dioxide per gallon’s yield This means an emerging market for gallon’s yield. This means an emerging market for growers of these crop types as well as jobs in growers of these crop types as well as jobs in marketing and business marketing and business.

WATER: IRRIGATION WATER: IRRIGATION

According to a report from the U S Geological According to a report from the U.S. Geological Survey, agriculture is a significant user of ground Survey, agriculture is a significant user of ground and surface water in the United States, and and surface water in the United States, and irrigation accounted for 42 percent of the irrigation accounted for 42 percent of the Nation’s total freshwater withdrawals. Nation’s total freshwater withdrawals

AS GLOBAL FOOD DEMANDS INCREASE, AS GLOBAL FOOD DEMANDS INCREASE, ENSURING ADEQUATE WATER AVAILABILITY ENSURING ADEQUATE WATER AVAILABILITY FOR FOOD PRODUCTION RELIES ON GOOD FOR FOOD PRODUCTION RELIES ON GOOD WATER MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY WATER MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES. PRACTICES.

According to an analysis by the USDA, despite

According to an analysis by the USDA, despite only 1/5th of the world’s cultivated lands being only 1/5th of the world’s cultivated lands being irrigated, 40% of the world’s food is sourced irrigated, 40% of the world’s food is sourced from these lands (4) The analysis continues that from these lands (4). The analysis continues that irrigated agriculture allows for greater crop irrigated agriculture allows for greater crop diversification and is twice as productive in yield diversification and is twice as productive in yield on average compared to rainfed agriculture on average compared to rainfed agriculture.

Establishing more irrigated lands and adequately Establishing more irrigated lands and adequately maintaining the performance of these systems is maintaining the performance of these systems is a way to increase food yield without increasing a way to increase food yield without increasing land use land use.

Irrigationists, specialists in optimum employment

Irrigationists, specialists in optimum employment of irrigation techniques, will be important of irrigation techniques, will be important technicians in the installation and maintenance of technicians in the installation and maintenance of such systems. such systems

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GENETICS, VIROLOGY, AND VACCINATIONS GENETICS, VIROLOGY, AND VACCINATIONS

Genetic manipulation is another skill that can Genetic manipulation is another skill that can increase farming output by enhancing the increase farming output by enhancing the nutritional density of goods and increasing the nutritional density of goods and increasing the growth rate and size of both plants and animals. growth rate and size of both plants and animals

For example, genetic modification of rice to For example, genetic modification of rice to supplement the precursor to vitamin A creates a supplement the precursor to vitamin A creates a more nutritionally dense product for consumers more nutritionally dense product for consumers than normal rice. than normal rice

Genetic manipulation of plants can also reduce Genetic manipulation of plants can also reduce insect interferences by creating thicker epidermis insect interferences by creating thicker epidermis on fruit and plants, while manipulation of animals on fruit and plants, while manipulation of animals can help increase the immune response against can help increase the immune response against pathogens pathogens.

Meat, dairy, and egg production are risks to Meat, dairy, and egg production are risks to infectious diseases, according to the US infectious diseases, according to the US government, and research in the field of government, and research in the field of vaccination will be a critical component in the vaccination will be a critical component in the management of avian, bovine, fish, and pig meat management of avian, bovine, fish, and pig meat and byproducts. Effective vaccination programs and byproducts Effective vaccination programs and continued research will be necessary to and continued research will be necessary to address viral risks to food production, as well as address viral risks to food production, as well as to predict vaccine interactions and potential to predict vaccine interactions and potential adverse effects. Veterinarians' on-sight of animal adverse effects Veterinarians' on-sight of animal production facilities will be critical to production facilities will be critical to administering these vaccines and managing administering these vaccines and managing animal populations (5). animal populations (5).

DRONES DRONES

Drones can be used in various aspects of Drones can be used in various aspects of agricultural work, including; seeding, livestock agricultural work, including; seeding, livestock maintenance, crop spraying (including maintenance, crop spraying (including maintaining insecticide and pesticide levels), maintaining insecticide and pesticide levels), security, and monitoring irrigation systems. security, and monitoring irrigation systems Drones are increasingly being used in the Drones are increasingly being used in the agricultural sector to help reduce error by agricultural sector to help reduce error by providing more accurate data and facilitating a providing more accurate data and facilitating a quicker response to adverse weather conditions quicker response to adverse weather conditions and disasters, such as floods or droughts. Market and disasters, such as floods or droughts. Market forecasts suggest that drones will transform the forecasts suggest that drones will transform the agricultural sector over the next decade. agricultural sector over the next decade.

For example, drones can identify breeds of wheat

For example, drones can identify breeds of wheat and direct cross-breeding selections to create and direct cross-breeding selections to create species that germinate more quickly (6) species that germinate more quickly (6).

Drones provide the benefit of having a minimal

Drones provide the benefit of having a minimal carbon impact because they are electrically carbon impact because they are electrically powered. Additionally, as they can be remotely powered. Additionally, as they can be remotely piloted, training staff to utilize them can be piloted, training staff to utilize them can be expedited and outsourced, and many drones can expedited and outsourced, and many drones can rely on AI to manage them. rely on AI to manage them

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CAREER PLANNING DIPLOMA VALIDATION PERSONAL ASSET BUILDING SERVICING PROFESSIONALS IN: Ana Paula Montanha | Managing Partner, Co-Founder Office: +1 (202) 753-4133 | https://hwhuman.capital
John

Expert Opinion

Farmers and ranchers around the world are Farmers and ranchers around the world are having to adapt to changing climate conditions having to adapt to changing climate conditions to continue producing enough food to feed the to continue producing enough food to feed the growing global population, support their own growing global population, support their own livelihoods and their communities. How do we livelihoods and their communities. How do we solve these challenges? solve these challenges?

Farmer’s work everyday to be great stewards of Farmer’s work everyday to be great stewards of our natural resources as they produce our food, our natural resources as they produce our food, feed, fiber and fuel every day, but at least one fiber and fuel every day, but at least one third of all of the food produced globally is lost or third of all of the food produced globally is lost or wasted. Countless goods end up in landfills wasted. Countless goods end up in landfills before they even reach consumers because of before they even reach consumers because of inadequate demand forecasting, quality inadequate demand forecasting, quality assurance protocols and other issues This, in assurance protocols and other issues. This, in turn, contributes to greenhouse gas emissions turn, contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and the depletion of resources used to make what and the depletion of resources used to make what goes to waste It’s all interrelated There are clear goes to waste. It’s all interrelated. There are clear inefficiencies in the production and distribution of inefficiencies in the production and distribution of food and consumer goods due to the size and food and consumer goods due to the size and complexity of supply chains, and at TELUS complexity of supply chains, and at TELUS Agriculture & Consumer Goods, we feel that data Agriculture & Consumer Goods, we feel that data is key in addressing those challenges. Data is key in addressing those challenges Data insights, more precisely, allow participants from insights, more precisely, allow participants from one end of the value chain to the other to more one end of the value chain to the other to more effectively anticipate how, where and when to effectively anticipate how, where and when to move products, generating value for the entire move products, generating value for the entire system and for consumers. and for consumers.

We are investing in and delivering digital We are investing in and delivering digital technologies that will help unify the value chain technologies that will help unify the value chain by connecting producers, trusted advisors, by connecting producers, trusted advisors, retailers and manufacturers We offer solutions to retailers and manufacturers. We offer solutions to the entire consumer goods value chain, allowing the entire consumer goods value chain, allowing all of the players to make more informed, data- all of the players to make more informed, datadriven decisions with software that provides driven decisions with software that provides information in real time. On the agriculture side, information in real time On the agriculture side, our solutions help agriculture retailers and our solutions help agriculture retailers and farmers make better agronomic decisions and be farmers make better agronomic decisions and be site-specific with their application of fertilizer as site-specific with their application of fertilizer as well as crop protection products for insects, well as crop protection products for insects,

weeds and disease, at a time when input prices

weeds and disease, at a time when input prices are especially high. By being more predictive and are especially high. By being more predictive and prospective, farmers can reduce purchasing costs, prospective, farmers can reduce purchasing costs, improve their business over time, and savings can improve their business over time, and savings can get passed down the value chain to consumers. On get passed down the value chain to consumers. On the animal health side, we capture data from birth the animal health side, we capture data from birth through every subsequent event in an animal's life, through every event in an animal's life, allowing cattle producers and feedlots to raise allowing cattle producers and feedlots to raise beef much more efficiently while ensuring the beef much more efficiently while ensuring the animals are in optimal health. animals are in optimal health

What do you think would be the most impactful

What do you think would be the most impactful innovation (s) in agriculture in the next five innovation (s) in agriculture in the next five years? years?

While 5G is being rolled out across most countries,

While 5G is being rolled out across most countries, we haven’t seen its full potential yet. It will we haven’t seen its full potential yet. It will unleash the power of AI and IoT, and propel unleash the power of AI and IoT, and propel precision agriculture. Autonomous vehicles and precision agriculture Autonomous vehicles and automated, connected devices, powered by 5G, automated, connected devices, powered by 5G, will usher in a new era in farming and certainly will usher in a new era in farming and certainly raise operational efficiency, while relieving the raise operational efficiency, while relieving the pressures of certain challenges like worker pressures of certain challenges like worker shortages It’s estimated that the next generation shortages. It’s estimated that the next generation of mobile networks will support as many as one of mobile networks will support as many as one million connected devices per square kilometer in million connected devices per square kilometer in the future Farmers will be fed immense amounts the future. Farmers will be fed immense amounts of monitoring data in real time about conditions in of monitoring data in real time about conditions in their fields, and they will be able to intervene their fields, and they will be able to intervene quickly with targeted actions to prevent losses, quickly with targeted actions to prevent losses, increase yields and drive up their revenue. increase yields and drive up their revenue

FARMERS WILL BE FED IMMENSE AMOUNTS OF MONITORING DATA IN REAL TIME ABOUT CONDITIONS IN THEIR FIELDS, AND THEY WILL BE ABLE TO INTERVENE QUICKLY WITH TARGETED ACTIONS TO PREVENT LOSSES, INCREASE YIELDS AND DRIVE UP THEIR REVENUE.
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As tech and data collection improve, it’s easier

KPIs bring specifically in this industry?

As tech and data collection improve, it’s easier to look at the details and measure key to look at the details and measure key performance indicators (KPIs). In agriculture, performance indicators (KPIs). In agriculture, this means tracking the use of resources like this means tracking the use of resources like inputs, such as chemical and feed, and inputs, such as chemical and feed, and evaluating production potential (liters per cow, evaluating production potential (liters per cow, bushels per acre) plus using ratios and other bushels per acre) plus using ratios and other analytical tools to monitor and assess financial analytical tools to monitor and assess financial performance. How much value do you think performance. How much value do you think KPIs bring specifically in this industry?

KPIs are essential to the success of the industry.

KPIs are essential to the success of the industry. Growers have always collected data about Growers have always collected data about weather and field conditions, and their weather and field conditions, and their operations, in an attempt to maximize production operations, in an attempt to maximize production and their farm’s profitability Theyhistorically and their farm’s profitability. Theyhistorically captured production information in notebooks, captured production information in notebooks, but they didn’t have the capacity to analyze data but they didn’t have the capacity to analyze data over an extended period of time, or to cross data over an extended period of time, or to cross data from meteorological models and geospatial from meteorological models and geospatial locations, for example Digitization and the locations, for example. Digitization and the functions that can be performed now thanks to functions that can be performed now thanks to advanced analytics software provides them with advanced analytics software provides them with an unparalleled level of knowledge about how an unparalleled level of knowledge about how their crops are faring at any given point in time, their crops are faring at any given point in time, and how certain factors and actions affect their and how certain factors and actions affect their condition. Thanks to digital farm management condition Thanks to digital farm management records, they can also have a much more detailed, records, they can also have a much more detailed, accurate view of their financials and proactively accurate view of their financials and proactively mitigate risks. mitigate risks.

Farmers work every day to build a stronger Farmers work every day to build a stronger agricultural economy for future generations, agricultural economy for future generations, improve both domestic and international improve both domestic and international markets, and create new income opportunities, markets, and create new income opportunities, namely through the use of renewable energy. A namely through the use of renewable energy. A new farm or ranch business relies on good new farm or ranch business relies on good planning. A good farm business plan is your planning. A good farm business plan is your roadmap to start-up, profitability, and growth, roadmap to start-up, profitability, and growth, and provides the foundation for new farmers. and provides the foundation for new farmers. What advice (s) would you give to beginning What advice (s) would you give to beginning farmers and ranchers? farmers and ranchers?

Farming is a solitary occupation in many respects, Farming is a solitary occupation in many respects, but it’s a relationship business. but it’s a relationship business.

Much like a team sport, farmers and or ranchers

Much like a team sport, farmers and or ranchers benefit greatly from the insights and experiences benefit greatly from the insights and experiences of others It’s critical to develop strong, trusting of others. It’s critical to develop strong, trusting relationships with fellow members of the relationships with fellow members of the community, with a good agronomist, a financial community, with a good agronomist, a financial advisor, local associations, and other support advisor, local associations, and other support experts. They need to attend industry meetings experts They need to attend industry meetings and events to network, make connections, and and events to network, make connections, and also seize the opportunities to interact with also seize the opportunities to interact with customers and consumers, whenever possible, to customers and consumers, whenever possible, to fully understand their needs, wishes and fully understand their needs, wishes and concerns. Their bottom line depends on being concerns. Their bottom line depends on being able to adapt to evolving market trends, including able to adapt to evolving market trends, including the desire for greater transparency and the desire for greater and ttraceability. raceability.

Strengthening and expanding markets for Strengthening and expanding markets for American agricultural products not only helps American agricultural products not only helps U.S. farms and businesses thrive, but it also U.S. farms and businesses thrive, but it also helps improve the quality and variety of foods helps improve the quality and variety of foods available to consumers around the world. What available to consumers around the world. What are the major milestones in terms of are the major milestones in terms of infrastructure you would like America to infrastructure you would like America to accomplish in the next five years, so that the accomplish in the next five years, so that the industry can thrive? industry can thrive?

The number one barrier to the adoption of new

The number one barrier to the adoption of new technologies in the agriculture industry is poor technologies in the agriculture industry is poor connectivity. According to the Ag Economy connectivity. According to the Ag Economy Barometer maintained by the CME Group and Barometer maintained by the CME Group and Purdue University, Purdue University, about one third about one third of top tier of top tier American farmers and ranchers report having no American farmers and ranchers report having no internet or a deficient connection And this internet or a deficient connection. And this situation is not unique to the United States situation is not unique to the United States. McKinsey McKinsey estimates that, “if connectivity is estimates that, “if connectivity is implemented successfully in agriculture, the implemented successfully in agriculture, the industry could tack on $500 billion in additional industry could tack on $500 billion in additional value to the global gross domestic product by value to the global gross domestic product by 2030.” We need governments around the world to 2030 ” We need governments around the world to invest in increasing broadband and connectivity invest in increasing broadband and connectivity access in rural communities, and ensuring rural access in rural communities, and ensuring rural communities get early and fast access to 5G communities get early and fast access to 5G deployment. deployment

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We see a series of evolutions and improvements

We see a series of evolutions and improvements in this industry, but how has it shaped the in this industry, but how has it shaped the talents, skills, and professionals you need for the talents, skills, and professionals you need for the future of your organization? future of your organization?

The skill sets needed to serve our customers The skill sets needed to serve our customers continue to evolve, as we help the industry digitize. continue to evolve, as we help the industry digitize With increased digitization, we are able to provide With increased digitization, we are able to provide customers with more prospective, data-driven customers with more prospective, data-driven services and insights. In order to support this services and insights In order to support this evolution, and to offer market-leading platforms, we evolution, and to offer market-leading platforms, we have seen a rapid growth in our need for data have seen a rapid growth in our need for data professionals. We also use technologies such as professionals. We also use technologies such as AI/ML in support of the data challenges in the AI/ML in support of the data challenges in the industry. Data Scientists are in high demand across industry. Data Scientists are in high demand across technology companies, including at TELUS technology companies, including at TELUS Agriculture & Consumer Goods, and one of our Agriculture & Consumer Goods, and one of our challenges is finding data scientists with some challenges is finding data scientists with some domain expertise in the agriculture and consumer domain expertise in the agriculture and consumer packaged goods industries We also invest heavily packaged goods industries. We also invest heavily in Information Security resources, and as in Information Security resources, and as custodians of our customers’ data, we seek top custodians of our customers’ data, we seek top talents in this area to ensure that we protect it with talents in this area to ensure that we protect it with rigor. Data driven insights is the new frontier in rigor Data driven insights is the new frontier in transforming the food and consumer goods supply transforming the food and consumer goods supply chain and TELUS Agriculture & Consumers Goods is chain and TELUS Agriculture & Consumers Goods is at the forefront of creating new value for our at the forefront of creating new value for our customers in this space customers in this space

John Raines, President

TELUS Agriculture & Consumer Goods

As President of TELUS Agriculture & Consumer Goods, John leads a growing global organization that empowers and connects customers, from producers to consumers, improving the quality, safety, distribution and sustainability of food and consumer goods He joined TELUS Agriculture & Consumer Goods in 2021 with more than 20 years of experience in data science and digital agriculture, having held progressively senior leadership roles at Bayer’s Climate Corporation and Monsanto. John holds a Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Systems Management from the University of Missouri, Columbia. In addition to pursuing a professional career in the sector, he has been involved in production agriculture throughout his life, operating a family farm

IN ORDER TO SUPPORT THIS EVOLUTION, AND TO OFFER MARKET-LEADING PLATFORMS, WE HAVE SEEN A RAPID GROWTH IN OUR NEED FOR DATA PROFESSIONALS. WE ALSO USE TECHNOLOGIES SUCH AS AI/ML IN SUPPORT OF THE DATA CHALLENGES IN THE INDUSTRY. DATA SCIENTISTS ARE IN HIGH DEMAND ACROSS TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES, INCLUDING AT TELUS AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER GOODS, AND ONE OF OUR CHALLENGES IS FINDING DATA SCIENTISTS WITH SOME DOMAIN EXPERTISE IN THE AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER PACKAGED GOODS INDUSTRIES.

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The Vertical Farming

A BRIGHT FUTURE FOR FARMING A BRIGHT FUTURE FOR FARMING

In a world where the population is growing, and In a world where the population is growing, and cities are expanding, finding space for agriculture cities are expanding, finding space for agriculture is becoming increasingly difficult. Vertical farming is becoming increasingly difficult Vertical farming offers a solution to this problem by stacking offers a solution to this problem by stacking shelves of crops in enclosed vertical structures, shelves of crops in enclosed vertical structures, making it suitable for urban environments. This making it suitable for urban environments. This revolutionary agricultural technique is changing revolutionary agricultural technique is changing how we grow food and is rapidly expanding due to how we grow food and is rapidly expanding due to its numerous advantages. its numerous advantages.

The benefits of vertical farming are clear It The benefits of vertical farming are clear. It reduces the reliance on weather, water reduces the reliance on weather, water consumption, and skilled laborers while allowing consumption, and skilled laborers while allowing crops to be grown year-round Additionally, crops to be grown year-round. Additionally, advanced monitoring technologies make it easier advanced monitoring technologies make it easier to track plant growth and harvest crops more to track plant growth and harvest crops more efficiently. With these benefits, it's no surprise efficiently With these benefits, it's no surprise that the vertical farming market is expected to that the vertical farming market is expected to reach nearly 20 billion USD by 2026. reach nearly 20 billion USD by 2026

The Asia Pacific region and North America have The Asia Pacific region and North America have been leading the way in vertical farming been leading the way in vertical farming development, but the sector can expand globally development, but the sector can expand globally as technology advances and opens new as technology advances and opens new possibilities for crop growth. With governments possibilities for crop growth. With governments investing in sustainable agricultural solutions, investing in sustainable agricultural solutions, vertical farming is here to stay vertical farming is here to stay.

In reality, vertical farming offers a solution to the In reality, vertical farming offers a solution to the problems posed by traditional land-based problems posed by traditional land-based agriculture. agriculture

With its numerous benefits, it's a sector to watch

With its numerous benefits, it's a sector to watch as it continues to grow and change the way we as it continues to grow and change the way we grow our food. Whether you're an urban dweller or grow our food Whether you're an urban dweller or a farmer, vertical farming is an exciting a farmer, vertical farming is an exciting development that has the potential to change the development that has the potential to change the world. world.

CHALLENGES WE NEED TO ADDRESS CHALLENGES NEED TO ADDRESS

However, despite its many benefits, there are some However, despite its many benefits, there are some concerns that need to be addressed concerns that need to be addressed.

One of the biggest challenges facing vertical farming is the high cost of energy associated with farming is the high cost of energy associated with maintaining the closed environment. The energy maintaining the closed environment The energy costs of lighting, heating, and cooling the costs of lighting, heating, and cooling the structures, as well as the water and nutrient structures, as well as the water and nutrient systems, can be substantial. As the industry systems, can be substantial As the industry continues to grow, finding more cost-effective continues to grow, finding more cost-effective solutions to these energy requirements will be solutions to these energy requirements will be critical to its long-term success. critical to its long-term success.

One of the biggest challenges facing vertical

However, vertical farming comes with its own set

However, vertical farming comes with its own set of challenges High energy costs associated with of challenges. High energy costs associated with maintaining the closed environment, technological maintaining the closed environment, technological limitations that prevent some crops from being limitations that prevent some crops from being grown efficiently, and difficulties in scaling grown efficiently, and difficulties in scaling production to meet growing demand are just a few production to meet growing demand are just a few of the obstacles the sector faces. Despite these of the obstacles the sector faces Despite these challenges, vertical farming remains an attractive challenges, vertical farming remains an attractive solution, and research is ongoing to improve the solution, and research is ongoing to improve the industry and make it more accessible. industry and make it more accessible

Another challenge facing vertical farming is the Another challenge facing vertical farming is the limitations of technology While many crops can be limitations of technology. While many crops can be grown efficiently in vertical farms, some crops, grown efficiently in vertical farms, some crops, such as root vegetables, are more challenging to such as root vegetables, are more challenging to succeed in this environment Furthermore, scaling succeed in this environment. Furthermore, scaling production to meet growing demand can also be a production to meet growing demand can also be a challenge, as the infrastructure required to support challenge, as the infrastructure required to support large-scale operations is still in its early stages of large-scale operations is still in its early stages of development. development

Despite these challenges, the vertical farming industry is a promising sector with a bright future. industry is a promising sector with a bright future With the increasing demand for organic food and With the increasing demand for organic food and the need for sustainable agricultural solutions, the the need for sustainable agricultural solutions, the industry is poised for significant growth in the industry is poised for significant growth in the

Despite these challenges, the vertical farming

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coming years As technology improves, coming years. As technology improves, innovations and solutions will emerge that will innovations and solutions will emerge that will make vertical farming more accessible and cost- make vertical farming more accessible and costeffective effective.

In conclusion, vertical farming is a revolutionary In conclusion, vertical farming is a revolutionary agricultural technique that has the potential to agricultural technique that has the potential to change the way we grow food. With its many change the way we grow food With its many benefits and exciting potential, it's a sector to benefits and exciting potential, it's a sector to watch as it grows and evolves. Whether you're an watch as it grows and evolves Whether you're an urban dweller, a farmer, or simply someone who urban a farmer, or simply someone who cares about the future of our food supply, vertical cares about the future of our food supply, vertical farming is a development that deserves your farming is a development that deserves your attention. attention.

START YOUR CAREER IN VERTICAL FARMING YOUR CAREER IN VERTICAL FARMING

Starting a career in vertical farming can be a Starting a career in vertical farming can be a rewarding and exciting opportunity Here are a rewarding and exciting opportunity. Here are a few steps to help you get started: few steps to help you get started:

Educate yourself: Educate yourself: Familiarize with the basics of Familiarize with the basics of vertical farming by reading articles and books and vertical farming by reading articles and books and attending workshops or seminars. This will give attending workshops or seminars This will give you a good understanding of the industry and its you a good understanding of the industry and its potential. potential

Gain hands-on experience: Gain hands-on experience: Many vertical farms Many vertical farms offer internships and volunteering opportunities. offer internships and volunteering This will allow you to work alongside experienced This will allow you to work alongside experienced professionals and gain hands-on experience. professionals and gain hands-on experience.

Network: Network: Networking is crucial in any industry, Networking is crucial in any industry, and vertical farming is no exception Attend and vertical farming is no exception. Attend events and conferences related to vertical farming events and conferences related to vertical farming and connect with professionals in the field This and connect with professionals in the field. This will allow you to learn from others and make will allow you to learn from others and make important contacts important contacts.

Consider formal education: Consider formal education: Many universities Many universities and colleges offer courses and programs in and colleges offer courses and programs in vertical farming and related fields, such as vertical farming and related fields, such as horticulture, agronomy, or plant science. Consider horticulture, agronomy, or plant science Consider taking courses or pursuing a degree in these fields taking courses or pursuing a degree in these fields to gain a deeper understanding of the science to gain a deeper understanding of the science

behind vertical farming behind vertical farming.

Look for job opportunities: Look for job opportunities: Keep an eye out for Keep an eye out for opportunities in the vertical farming industry, opportunities in the vertical farming industry, whether in startups or established companies whether in startups or established companies. Consider starting in a junior role and working your Consider starting in a junior role and working your way up as you gain experience and knowledge. way up as you gain experience and knowledge

By following these steps, you can gain the

By following these steps, you can gain the knowledge, skills, and experience you need to knowledge, skills, and experience you need to start a successful career in vertical farming. start a successful career in vertical farming

We listed the We listed the most in-demand positions on this most in-demand positions on this industry in the US: industry in the US:

Agricultural Engineers Agricultural Engineers

Construction skilled in hand and power tools

Construction skilled in hand and power tools

Farm Operator Farm Operator

Fertilization Fertilization Researcher Researcher

Grain Operator Grain Operator

Greenhouse Technician Greenhouse Technician

Grower Grower

Horticulturists Horticulturists

Indoor Vertical Farm Project Manager Indoor Vertical Farm Project Manager

Maintenance Mechanic Maintenance Mechanic

Maintenance Technician Maintenance Technician

Plant Breeder Plant Breeder

Production Technician Production Technician

Scientists, Controlled Environments Scientists, Controlled Environments

Software Engineer Software Engineer

Vertical Farming Architects Vertical Farming Architects

Vertical Farming Assistant Vertical Farming Assistant

Vertical Farming Manager Vertical Farming Manager

Vertical farming is an indoor technique widely Vertical farming is an indoor technique widely used to cultivate a wide variety of leafy greens used to cultivate a wide variety of leafy greens such as lettuces, kales, chard and collard greens, such as lettuces, kales, chard and collard greens, chives, mints, basil, and other crops such as chives, mints, basil, and other crops such as tomatoes, strawberries, mushrooms, and tomatoes, strawberries, mushrooms, and eggplants. In this, crops are grown in vertically eggplants In this, crops are grown in vertically stacked layers to save space and under a stacked layers to save space and under a controlled environment to avoid excess use of controlled environment to avoid excess use of water, energy, and other components. Vertical water, energy, and other components Vertical farming can be carried out using three soil-free farming can be carried out using three soil-free techniques to provide the crops with the required techniques to provide the crops with the required

24 | Human Capital Career Trends

nutrients Hydroponics, in which food is grown in nutrients. Hydroponics, in which food is grown in mineral nutrient solutions without soil; mineral nutrient solutions without soil; aeroponics which uses mist or nutrient solutions aeroponics which uses mist or nutrient solutions instead of water; and aquaponics, in which plants instead of water; and aquaponics, in which plants are grown in water to create a symbiotic are grown in water to create a symbiotic relationship between fish and plants. relationship between fish and plants

Top 7 Vertical Farming Companies for you to Top 7 Vertical Farming Companies for you to watch in 2023: watch in 2023:

1. Futurae Farms (US) - a vertical farming 1 Futurae Farms (US) - a vertical farming company founded in 2021 and based in Los company founded in 2021 and based in Los Angeles. Angeles.

2. CubicFarms (Canada) - is focused on the 2. CubicFarms (Canada) - is focused on the HydroGreen Grow System technology, which can HydroGreen Grow System technology, which can grow up to 25 million pounds (11 3 million kg) of grow up to 25 million pounds (11.3 million kg) of fresh livestock feed every year using just one- fresh livestock feed every year using just onetenth of the water needed in traditional livestock tenth of the water needed in traditional livestock feed produced in irrigated fields feed produced in irrigated fields.

3. AeroFarms (United Arab Emirates) - the 3. AeroFarms (United Arab Emirates) - the company focuses on artificial intelligence and company focuses on artificial intelligence and plant biology to improve how fresh produce is plant biology to improve how fresh produce is grown. Located in Abu Dhabi, AeroFarms was grown Located in Abu Dhabi, AeroFarms was awarded the inaugural Global SDG Awards awarded the inaugural Global SDG Awards celebrating private-sector leadership in celebrating private-sector leadership in advancing the United Nations 2030 Agenda. advancing the United Nations 2030 Agenda The The company partnered up – among others – with US company partnered up – among others – with US retail giants Whole Foods and Walmart to sell its retail giants Whole Foods and Walmart to sell its leafy greens, from baby bok choy and arugula to leafy greens, from baby bok choy and arugula to spinach and micro broccoli. spinach and micro broccoli.

4 InFarm (Germany) - is one of the largest 4. InFarm (Germany) - is one of the largest vertical farming companies in Europe The vertical farming companies in Europe. The company uses an innovative technique known as company uses an innovative technique known as cloud farming – a network of high-capacity, self- cloud farming – a network of high-capacity, selflearning growing centers that improve plant yield, learning growing centers that improve plant yield, taste, and nutritional value constantly while taste, and nutritional value constantly while further reducing the use of natural resources. further reducing the use of natural resources

5. Spread (Japan) - is one of Asia’s leading 5 Spread (Japan) - is one of Asia’s leading vertical farming companies. The company is vertical farming companies The company is known for its crispy and soft lettuce and sweet known for its crispy and soft lettuce and sweet strawberries, sold in more than 4,500 grocery strawberries, sold in more than 4,500 grocery

stores across Japan Moreover, this method only stores across Japan. Moreover, this method only requires 1% of the water needed to grow food requires 1% of the water needed to grow food with conventional farming techniques, and 30% with conventional farming techniques, and 30% less food is lost during production less food is lost during production.

6. Farm66 (Hong Kong) - is one of Hong Kong’s

6 Farm66 (Hong Kong) - is one of Hong Kong’s largest state-of-the-art indoor aquaponics farms. largest state-of-the-art indoor aquaponics farms Farm66 grows products such as leafy greens, Farm66 grows products such as leafy greens, herbs (basil, dill), and fruits. herbs (basil, dill), and fruits

7. iFarm (Finland) - the award-winning iFarm is

7 iFarm (Finland) - the award-winning iFarm is based in Helsinki, Finland. Vertical farms built based in Helsinki, Finland. Vertical farms built with the iFarm technology use 90% less water, with the iFarm technology use 90% less water, 75% fewer fertilizers, and zero pesticides. They 75% fewer fertilizers, and zero pesticides. They also save huge amounts of energy by optimizing also save huge amounts of by optimizing technology and reducing the ‘human factor’ and technology and reducing the ‘human factor’ and labor costs All this allows us to grow crops labor costs. All this allows us to grow crops sustainably and economically all year round iFarm sustainably and economically all year round. iFarm products, such as leafy greens and different types products, such as leafy greens and different types of vegetables and fruit, such as strawberries, are of vegetables and fruit, such as strawberries, are sold worldwide, from Switzerland and France to sold worldwide, from Switzerland and France to Saudi Arabia and India. Saudi Arabia and India.

8. Plenty Unlimited Inc. (US) - a vertical farming

8 Plenty Unlimited Inc (US) - a vertical farming company based in California, their vertical farms company based in California, their vertical farms are designed to support growth even in the are designed to support growth even in the absence of sunlight and use a fraction of land, absence of sunlight and use a fraction of land, nutrient systems, lighting, and water as compared nutrient systems, lighting, and water as compared to conventional farming. On September 2022, to conventional farming. On September 2022, Plenty Unlimited Inc. announced the largest Plenty Unlimited Inc. announced the largest indoor vertical farm in the world with a $300 indoor vertical farm in the world with a $300 million, 120-acre campus near Richmond, Va. million, 120-acre campus near Richmond, Va. Ground The facility is expected to begin Ground. The facility is expected to begin producing produce by late 2023 or early 2024 producing produce by late 2023 or early 2024.

9 Bowery Farming Inc (US) - based in NY, builds

9. Bowery Farming Inc. (US) - based in NY, builds indoor farms outside of cities to grow quality and indoor farms outside of cities to grow quality and flavored products using limited water and space flavored products using limited water and space. They focus on producing pollutant-free, safe, They focus on producing pollutant-free, safe, flavored, and fresh greens for consumption by flavored, and fresh greens for consumption by local communities. local communities

10. Gotham Greens Holdings, LLC (US) - is also

10 Gotham Greens Holdings, LLC (US) - is also based in NY, a fresh food and urban agricultural based in NY, a fresh food and urban agricultural company that delivers delicious, fresh, and company that delivers delicious, fresh, and

Human Capital Career Trends | 25

long-lasting salads, greens, sauces, herbs, and long-lasting salads, greens, sauces, herbs, and dips to various food service customers, retails dips to various food service customers, retails shops, and restaurants shops, and restaurants.

11 Iron Ox, Inc (US) - based in California, 11. Iron Ox, Inc. (US) - based in California, believes in improving the quality of food with the believes in improving the quality of food with the help of technology. They have their methods of help of technology They have their methods of producing fresh food using minimum resources producing fresh food using minimum resources such as land. Robots and artificial intelligence are such as land Robots and artificial intelligence are used to ensure the optimal delivery of water, used to ensure the optimal delivery of water, nutrients, and sunlight to each plant. They cater nutrients, and sunlight to each plant They cater to local communities to ensure freshness while to local communities to ensure freshness while the food gets delivered to the consumer. the food gets delivered to the consumer.

12. Agricool (France) - is an agricultural company

12. Agricool (France) - is an agricultural company that produces vegetables and fruits that are that produces vegetables and fruits that are fresh, tasty, pesticide-free, sustainable, and fresh, tasty, pesticide-free, sustainable, and available locally Some of their products include available locally. Some of their products include strawberries, coriander, parsley, basil, and strawberries, coriander, parsley, basil, and lettuce mix They use recycled shipping lettuce mix. They use recycled shipping containers for packaging fruits and vegetables for containers for packaging fruits and vegetables for better air quality, suitable temperature, and better air quality, suitable temperature, and improved lighting with 100% renewable energy. improved lighting with 100% renewable energy

Some of their products include strawberries, Some of their products include strawberries, coriander, parsley, basil, and lettuce mix. They coriander, parsley, basil, and lettuce mix They use recycled shipping containers for packaging use recycled shipping containers for packaging fruits and vegetables for better air quality, fruits and vegetables for better air quality, suitable temperature, and improved lighting with suitable temperature, and improved lighting with 100% renewable energy. 100% renewable energy.

13. Green Sense Farms Holdings, Inc. (US) - 13. Green Sense Farms Holdings, Inc. (US)based in Indiana, is a farming company involved based in Indiana, is a farming company involved in contract research, building services, farm in contract research, building services, farm designing, and horticulture consulting designing, and horticulture consulting.

14 Crop One (US) - based in Massachusetts, is a 14. Crop One (US) - based in Massachusetts, is a food and beverage service company that uses food and beverage service company that uses hydroponic technology to produce fresh, hydroponic technology to produce fresh, delicious, and nutritious food products without delicious, and nutritious food products without chemicals or pesticides. Their science and chemicals or pesticides Their science and technology experts assure increased yield technology experts assure increased yield production using less land and water than production using less land and water than traditional farming. traditional farming

26 | Human Capital Career Trends

Global Wine Industry

ROBUST IN SIZE AND RELEVANT GLOBALLY ROBUST IN SIZE AND RELEVANT GLOBALLY

Four countries Four countries France France, , IItalytaly, , Spain Spain, and the , and the United States United States produce more than half the wine in produce more than half the wine in the world, and a full 85% is produced by a small the world, and a full 85% is produced by a small group of just 28 of the world's group of just 28 of the world's 193+ countries 193+ countries. .

THE U.S. WINE INDUSTRY IS ONE OF THE MOST THE U.S. WINE INDUSTRY IS ONE OF THE MOST DYNAMIC AND INNOVATIVE IN THE WORLD. DYNAMIC AND INNOVATIVE IN THE WORLD. AMERICAN WINES HAVE BEEN GAINING IN AMERICAN WINES HAVE BEEN GAINING IN POPULARITY GLOBALLY, AND THE US IS NOW POPULARITY GLOBALLY, AND THE US IS NOW THE FOURTH LARGEST PRODUCER OF WINE IN THE FOURTH LARGEST PRODUCER OF WINE IN THE WORLD. THE WORLD.

Top 10 Countries that Consume the Most Wine Overall - 2020 (million hectoliters):

United States 33 0

France 24.7

Italy 24.5

Germany 19.8

United Kingdom 13.3

China 12.4

Russia 10.3

Spain 9.6

Argentina 9.4

Australia 5.7

Top 10 Countries that Consume the Most Wine Per Capita - 2020 (liters):

Annual global production of wine averages 260270 mha, with peak years approaching 300 (295 270 mha, with peak years approaching 300 (295 in 2004, 294 in 2018) and lows around 250 (255 in 2004, 294 in 2018) and lows around 250 (255 in 2002 and 248 in 2017). While full data is still in 2002 and 248 in 2017) While full data is still pending, 2021 may post a lower total than 2017. pending, 2021 may post a lower total than 2017 This is largely due to late frosts in Italy, Spain, This is largely due to late frosts in Italy, Spain, and especially France, which together produce and especially France, which together produce roughly half of the world's total wine, as well as roughly half of the world's total wine, as well as wildfires in wildfires in California California, where 85% of U.S. wine is , where 85% of U.S. wine is produced produced.

Annual global production of wine averages 260-

Portugal 51 9

Italy 46 6

France 46.0

Switzerland 35.7

Austria 29.9

Australia 27.8

Argentina 27.6

Germany 27.5

Sweden 27.0

Netherlands 24.2

Top 10 Wine-Producing Countries in the World 2021 (million hectoliters)

Italy Spain France UnitedStates Australia Chile Argentina SouthAfrica Germany Portugal 50 40 30 20 10 0
1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
1 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 28| Human Capital Career Trends
Ana Paula Montanha, and Danilo Dias, Chief Revenue Officer, Board Advisor and our Master Sommelier

U.S. Wine Industry

STEADY GROWTH AND LOTS OF JOB STEADY GROWTH AND LOTS OF JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. WINE INDUSTRY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. WINE INDUSTRY

When you sip a glass of full-bodied Cabernet When you sip a glass of full-bodied Cabernet Sauvignon, savoring its dark fruity flavors, aromas Sauvignon, savoring its dark fruity flavors, aromas of vanilla and clove, and notes of black pepper of vanilla and clove, and notes of black pepper and spice, do you ever think about how many and spice, do you ever think about how many people came together to make that moment people came together to make that moment happen? Of course, there’s the winemaker But happen? Of course, there’s the winemaker. But what about all the other folks who are also what about all the other folks who are also involved in wine production, packaging, involved in wine production, packaging, promotion, and distribution? And let’s not forget promotion, and distribution? And let’s not forget the countless retailers, restauranteurs, and the countless retailers, restauranteurs, and tourist establishments whose livelihoods also tourist establishments whose livelihoods also depend on the wine industry. depend on the wine industry

the industry has been rising steadily since 2001, the industry has been rising steadily since 2001, and as of 2020, according to the U S Bureau of and as of 2020, according to the U.S. of Labor Statistics, Labor Statistics, California, Washington, and California, Washington, and Oregon led the states Oregon led the states with the most winery jobs. with the most winery jobs Additionally, between 2001 and 2020, Additionally, between 2001 and 2020, tthe he number of wineries in the U.S. more than number of wineries in the U S more than quadrupled quadrupled to 5,024. to 5,024

Currently, Currently, there are 7,608 registered wineries in there are 7,608 registered wineries in the U.S. The industry also produces significant tax the U.S. The industry also produces significant tax revenue for federal, state, and local governments. revenue for federal, state, and local governments.

THE FACT IS THAT THE U.S. WINE INDUSTRY THE FACT IS THAT THE U.S.

WINE INDUSTRY CREATES A LOT OF JOBS. CREATES A LOT OF JOBS.

Over the years, the U.S. wine industry has Over the years, the U.S. wine industry has consistently grown at a steady pace, and consistently grown at a steady pace, and nowadays, the industry is truly a force to be nowadays, the industry is truly a force to be reckoned with regarding its impact on the reckoned with regarding its impact on the American economy This article explores what’s American economy. This article explores what’s driving this tremendous growth and the driving this tremendous growth and the implications for the future In addition, we’ll implications for the future. In addition, we’ll examine one of many successful American examine one of many successful American wineries, wineries, Casanel Vineyards and Winery, which Casanel Vineyards and Winery, which is based in Virginia and run by notable is based in Virginia and run by notable entrepreneur and immigrant Nelson DeSouza. entrepreneur and immigrant Nelson DeSouza.

THE AMERICAN WINE INDUSTRY WILL THE AMERICAN WINE INDUSTRY WILL GENERATE MORE THAN $276 BILLION IN GENERATE MORE THAN $276 BILLION IN DOMESTIC ECONOMIC ACTIVITY THIS DOMESTIC ECONOMIC ACTIVITY THIS YEAR, WITH ALMOST A THIRD OF THE YEAR, WITH ALMOST A THIRD OF THE OUTPUT COMING FROM CALIFORNIA, OUTPUT COMING FROM CALIFORNIA, ACCORDING TO THIS STUDY. ACCORDING TO THIS STUDY.

ECONOMY.

WINE PLAYS A HUGE ROLE IN THE U.S. WINE PLAYS A HUGE ROLE IN THE U.S. ECONOMY.

The wine industry is a major contributor to the The wine industry is a major contributor to the United States economy. In fact, according to a United States economy In fact, according to a recent study published by Wine America, a winery recent study published by Wine America, a winery trade group organization, trade group organization, the wine industry is the wine industry is expected to generate a whopping $276.07 billion expected to generate a whopping $276.07 billion in economic activity in economic activity and support an estimated 1.8 and support an estimated 1.8 million jobs in just 2022 The number of jobs in million jobs in just 2022. The number of jobs in

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More than 7,000 wineries are operating in the U S , More than 7,000 wineries are operating in the U.S., producing over 20 million gallons (75 million liters) producing over 20 million gallons (75 million liters) of wine each year The majority of these wineries of wine each year. The majority of these wineries are located in California, responsible for more than are located in California, responsible for more than 85% of all U S wine production, according to the 85% of all U.S. wine production, according to the Wine Institute (1). In 2021, California produced an Wine Institute (1) In 2021, California produced an average of 81% of total U.S. wine production (in average of 81% of total U S wine production (in gallons), while in 2020, it produced 88%. The U.S. gallons), while in 2020, it produced 88% The U S wine industry is worth an estimated $276 billion, wine industry is worth an estimated $276 billion, making it a major driver of the country's economy. making it a major driver of the country's economy

It supports over 1.8 million jobs across the nation, It supports over 1 8 million jobs across the nation, from vineyard workers to cellar masters to from vineyard workers to cellar masters to marketing and sales staff worldwide. The Wine marketing and sales staff worldwide. The Wine America study mentioned above estimates that America study mentioned above estimates that there will be around 49.2 million visits to wineries there will be around 49.2 million visits to wineries this year alone this year alone.

Moreover, the wine industry supports a thriving Moreover, the wine industry supports a thriving hospitality sector, with restaurants, hotels, and hospitality sector, with restaurants, hotels, and other businesses catering to winery/vineyar other businesses catering to winery/vineyar visitors The wine industry is a vital part of the U S visitors. The wine industry is a vital part of the U.S economy that generates jobs, produces ta economy that generates jobs, produces ta revenue, promotes tourism, and supports man revenue, promotes tourism, and supports man businesses across the country. RISK FACTORS Th businesses across the country RISK FACTORS Th American wine industry needs further studies t American wine industry needs further studies t prevent smoke taint in grapes, which has been prevent smoke taint in grapes, which has been concern during recent wildfires, especially i concern during recent wildfires, especially i California. California

KEY GROWTH DRIVERS, WHAT IS DRIVIN KEY GROWTH DRIVERS, WHAT IS DRIVING THIS GROWTH? THIS GROWTH?

There are several reasons, including an increase i There are several reasons, including an increase i the global supply of grapes, shifts in consume the global supply of grapes, shifts in consume drinking preferences, and a rise in th drinking preferences, and a rise in th consolidation of domestic retailers, producers, an consolidation of domestic retailers, producers, an distributors The Covid-19 pandemic als distributors. The Covid-19 pandemic als dramatically affected the industry, domesticall dramatically affected the industry, domesticall and internationally, in both positive (e.g., onlin and internationally, in both positive (e g , onlin and retail wine sales boomed) and negative way and retail wine sales boomed) and negative way (from decimating on-premise sales and win (from decimating on-premise sales and win tourism to creating labor shortages and logistica tourism to creating labor shortages and logistica challenges, for example). Wine plays a vital role i challenges, for example) Wine plays a vital role i the economy. the economy

The production, importation, export, distribution, The production, importation, export, distribution, sales, and consumption of wine benefit many sales, and consumption of wine benefit many sectors of the United States economy This value- sectors of the United States economy. This valueadded product preserves agricultural land, provides added product preserves agricultural land, provides American jobs, attracts tourists, generates taxes, American jobs, attracts tourists, generates taxes, and enhances the quality of life. Wine tourism is a and enhances the quality of life Wine tourism is a growing segment of the tourism industry, and many growing segment of the tourism industry, and many wine regions across the country (think Napa Valley) wine regions across the country (think Napa Valley) attract visitors from around the world. The Wine attract visitors from around the world The Wine America study mentioned above estimates that America study mentioned above estimates that there will be there will be around 49.2 million visits to wineries around 49 2 million visits to wineries this year this year alone. Moreover, the wine industry alone. Moreover, the wine industry supports a thriving hospitality sector, with supports a thriving hospitality sector, with restaurants, hotels, and other businesses catering restaurants, hotels, and other businesses catering to winery/vineyard visitors. The wine industry is a to winery/vineyard visitors. The wine industry is a vital part of the U S economy that generates jobs, vital part of the U.S. economy that generates jobs, produces tax revenue, promotes tourism, and produces tax revenue, promotes tourism, and supports many businesses across the country supports many businesses across the country.

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TYPES OF RANKINGS

The US wine industry is facing some challenges in the current climate, with increased competition from other countries and a strong dollar making American wines more expensive abroad. However, the industry is resilient and continues to grow, innovate and produce world-class wines. As the wine industry has become increasingly globalized, rankings have become an important tool for wineries to market their products In general, there are three types of rankings: those based on objective criteria such as wine quality or grape variety, those based on subjective criteria such as taste or popularity, and those based on a combination of both.

The wine industry directly employs 1,007,059 people, and generates an additional 364,234 jobs in

The wine industry directly employs 1,007,059 people, and generates an additional 364,234 jobs in supplier and ancillary industries which supply goods and services to the industry, and whose sales supplier and ancillary industries which supply goods and services to the industry, and whose sales depend on the wine industry’s economic activity. Ultimately 1.84 million jobs are created and supported depend on the wine industry’s economic activity Ultimately 1 84 million jobs are created and supported by the wine industry, generating $90.13 billion in total wages. by the wine industry, generating $90 13 billion in total wages

Study Highlights Highlights: :

Total Economic Impact: $276.07 billion

Total Economic Impact: $276.07 billion

Wine-Producing States: 50 Wine-Producing States: 50

Wine Producers: 10,637

Wine Producers: 10,637

Vineyard Acres: 119,520

Vineyard Acres: 119,520

J Jobs: 1 84 million obs: 1.84 million

Wages: $90 13 billion

Wages: $90.13 billion

Tourist Visits: 49 1 million

Tourist Visits: 49.1 million

Tourist Expenditures: $16 69 billion

Tourist Expenditures: $16.69 billion

Total Taxes: $22 83 billion

Total Taxes: $22.83 billion

Federal Taxes: $14.67 billion Federal Taxes: $14 67 billion

State and Local Taxes: $8.15 billion

State and Local Taxes: $8 15 billion

J
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VirginiaWinery to visit

Virginia vineyards are home to several award- Virginia vineyards are home to several awardwinning wines, and with more than 300 Virginia winning wines, and with more than 300 Virginia wineries to choose from, it is difficult to pick your wineries to choose from, it is difficult to pick your preferred one. You’ll find beautiful winery preferred one. You’ll find beautiful winery locations, stunning tasting rooms, and plenty of locations, stunning tasting rooms, and plenty of unique winery experiences to ensure an unique winery experiences to ensure an unforgettable visit unforgettable visit.

The Commonwealth's high-quality production, The Commonwealth's high-quality production, from familiar varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon, from familiar varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and Merlot, to less widely known Cabernet Franc, and Merlot, to less widely known ones like Viognier, Norton raised the state to the ones like Viognier, Norton raised the state to the upper echelons of American wine. upper echelons of American wine

COMPANY PROFILE: CASANEL VINEYARDS COMPANY PROFILE: CASANEL VINEYARDS AND WINERY IN VIRGINIA. FROM BRAZIL, AND WINERY IN VIRGINIA. FROM BRAZIL, WITH LOVE. WITH LOVE.

Born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1942. Nelson Born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1942. Nelson DeSouza was the eldest of 12 children of Moyses DeSouza was the eldest of 12 children of Moyses and Dorcelina DeSouza Nelson rose above his and Dorcelina DeSouza. Nelson rose above his humble origins and found a way to come to humble origins and found a way to come to America His Father, Moyses, was an officer in the America. His Father, Moyses, was an officer in the Brazilian navy and came to America to negotiate Brazilian navy and came to America to negotiate submarine purchases Nelson visited him at age submarine purchases. Nelson visited him at age 15 and fell in love with the United States 15 and fell in love with the United States. Determined to return, he fulfilled his required Determined to return, he fulfilled his required military duty as a paratrooper in Brazil, obtained military duty as a paratrooper in Brazil, obtained his visa, and in 1962 after many setbacks, arrived his visa, and in 1962 after many setbacks, arrived safely in the United States. He began his life here safely in the United States He began his life here as a carpenter, worked in Washington, D.C., and as a worked in Washington, D C , and made many friends throughout the years. Some made many friends throughout the years Some have played major roles in his successes as an have played major roles in his successes as an entrepreneur, father, and champion of the United father, and champion of the United States. States.

After retirement from the family's successful

After retirement from the family's successful construction business, he embraced his desire to construction business, he embraced his desire to continue as an entrepreneur, founding the continue as an entrepreneur, founding the vineyard and winery with his beloved wife, Casey, vineyard and winery with his beloved wife, Casey, who passed in 2021 who passed in 2021.

In 2006, Casey and Nelson DeSouza purchased

In 2006, Casey and Nelson DeSouza purchased land in Leesburg, Virginia, and immediately started land in Leesburg, Virginia, and immediately started planting vines of Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Gris, planting vines of Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Gris, and Chardonnay grapes, among others. and Chardonnay grapes, among others

A unique terroir located in the heart of the

A unique terroir located in the heart of the Middleburg AVA in Leesburg, Virginia, provides the Middleburg AVA in Leesburg, Virginia, provides the perfect setting to achieve the exclusive setting to achieve the exclusive winemaking style and flavors. winemaking style and flavors.

X| Human Capital Career Trends
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Nelson DeSouza, Casanel Vineywards Ana Paula Montanha, Editor-in-Chief and Nelson DeSouza , Entrepreneur and Wine Maker

In September 2010, the family picked its very

In September 2010, the family picked its very first harvest, and what began as Casanel Farm first harvest, and what began as Casanel Farm eventually became what's now known as the eventually became what's now known as the very successful Casanel Vineyards and Winery very successful Casanel Vineyards and Winery (Casanel being a blend of Casey and Nelson's (Casanel being a blend of Casey and Nelson's names) names).

CASANEL VINEYARDS AND WINERY REMAINS A CASANEL VINEYARDS AND WINERY REMAINS A FAMILY-OWNED AND OPERATED BUSINESS. FAMILY-OWNED AND OPERATED BUSINESS "THE MAIN FOCUS CENTERS ON OUR PASSION "THE MAIN FOCUS CENTERS ON OUR PASSION NOT ONLY FOR GRAPE-GROWING BUT ALSO NOT ONLY FOR GRAPE-GROWING BUT ALSO FOR WINEMAKING, EMPHASIZED IN THE WAY FOR WINEMAKING, EMPHASIZED IN THE WAY WE PRODUCE OUR SMALL LOT, CRAFT WE PRODUCE OUR SMALL LOT, CRAFT WINES, WINES," EMPHASIZED " EMPHASIZED NELSON DESOUZA NELSON DESOUZA DURING OUR INTERVIEW. DURING OUR INTERVIEW.

CASANEL VINEYARDS IS THE ONLY WINERY CASANEL VINEYARDS IS THE ONLY WINERY IN VIRGINIA TO GROW AND PRODUCE A 100- IN VIRGINIA TO GROW AND PRODUCE A 100PERCENT VARIETAL CARMÉNÈRE. PERCENT VARIETAL CARMÉNÈRE.

memberships and making its wine available for memberships and making its wine available for purchase online purchase online.

Just as the U S wine industry continues to grow

Just as the U.S. wine industry continues to grow and create jobs, so has Casanel Vineyards and and create jobs, so has Casanel Vineyards and Winery over the years These days, the Winery over the years. These days, the establishment employs winemakers, tasting establishment employs winemakers, tasting room staffers, vineyard crews, and a hospitality room staffers, vineyard crews, and a hospitality manager, among others, and also works with manager, among others, and also works with many third-party vendors. many third-party vendors

Numerous locals and tourists alike come and Numerous locals and tourists alike come and visit Casanel to enjoy some peace and tranquility visit Casanel to enjoy some peace and tranquility not far from Washington, D.C. The winery hosts a not far from Washington, D C The winery hosts a fantastic tasting room in addition to selling wine fantastic tasting room in addition to selling wine

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"NELSON'S PASSION IS "NELSON'S PASSION IS CONTAGIOUS, IT CONTAGIOUS, IT SPREADS." SPREADS."

2022 AWARDS - CELEBRATING THE HARVEST 2022 AWARDS - CELEBRATING THE HARVEST

The American Wine Society is the largest consumer based wine organization in the United States

The

The American Wine Society is the largest consumer based wine organization in the United States.The American Wine Society (AWS) 2022 Commercial Competition was conducted on October 25-27, 2022 in American Wine Society (AWS) 2022 Commercial Competition was conducted on October 25-27, 2022 in Bellevue, Washington Bellevue, Washington.

2022 BEST WINE BY VARIETAL CATEGORY: 2022 BEST WINE BY VARIETAL CATEGORY:

BEST PINOT GRIGIO - 2021 ELLIANNA PINOT GRIS. GOLD BEST PINOT GRIGIO - 2021 ELLIANNA PINOT GRIS GOLD

PINOT GRIGIO - 2021 PATRICIA MARIE PINOT GRIS - SILVER PINOT GRIGIO - 2021 PATRICIA MARIE PINOT GRIS - SILVER

ROSE - 2021 JOSE ROSE. GOLD ROSE - 2021 JOSE ROSE GOLD

CHARDONNAY - 2021 CHARDONNAY - 2021 CHARDONNAY. SILVER CHARDONNAY. SILVER

AWARDS LIST: AWARDS LIST:

2021 VIRGINIA GOVERNOR'S CUP. SILVER.

2021 VIRGINIA GOVERNOR'S CUP SILVER

2021 SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE WINE COMPETITION GOLD

2021 SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE WINE COMPETITION. GOLD.

MARK SQUIRES 2019 BLACK SPARK (89 POINTS)

MARK SQUIRES. 2019 BLACK SPARK (89 POINTS)

2020 HARVEST TERROIR CHALLENGE GOLD

2020 HARVEST TERROIR CHALLENGE. GOLD.

2020 AMERICAN WINE SOCIETY COMPETITION

2020 AMERICAN WINE SOCIETY COMPETITION.

2020 SAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL WINE COMPETITION

2020 SAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL WINE COMPETITION.

2020 SAVOR WINE COMPETITION.

2020 SAVOR WINE COMPETITION.

2020 VIRGINIA GOVERNOR'S CUP

2020 VIRGINIA GOVERNOR'S CUP.

MEET THE WINNER MEET THE WINNER

2021 Ellianna Pinot Gris is made from 100% estate grapes from Casanel

2021 Ellianna Pinot Gris is made from 100% estate grapes from Casanel Vineyards After hand harvesting and sorting in the vineyard, the wine Vineyards. After hand harvesting and sorting in the vineyard, the wine was aged entirely in stainless steel, and hand-bottled on the Estate in was aged entirely in stainless steel, and hand-bottled on the Estate in April 2021. April 2021.

TASTING & FOOD PAIRING NOTES TASTING & FOOD PAIRING NOTES

Lovely floral noise of white blossoms; fruit forward featuring pineapple, floral noise of white blossoms; fruit forward featuring pineapple, pear, grapefruit, white nectarines and lime zest – hint of minerality – pear, grapefruit, white nectarines and lime zest – hint of minerality –fresh and crispy fresh and

Vintage Year: Vintage Year: 2021 2021

Vineyard: 100% Casanel Vineyard –100% Estate Composition: 100% Vineyard: 100% Casanel Vineyard –100% Estate Composition: 100%

Pinot Gris Pinot Gris

Average Vine Age: 13 years Vine Age: 13 years

Harvest Date: 08/29/2021

Harvest Date: 08/29/2021

Bottling Date: 04/08/2022

Bottling Date: 04/08/2022

Fermentation: Stainless Steel Fermentation: Stainless Steel

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MOVING FORWARD, FOR ALL OF US.

At Hayman-Woodward Human Capital we focus on the future of Recruiting, and what it means for our teams, our clients, and our communities. We invite you to take part in our progress. Our purpose: assist every organization and talent to achieve their full potential.

Building the Future

Sustainable infrastructure is essential for Sustainable infrastructure is essential for economic, environmental, and social outcomes economic, environmental, and social outcomes and involves a strategic and holistic approach to and involves a strategic and holistic approach to developing long-term, quality infrastructure that developing long-term, quality infrastructure that can meet crucial needs Examples include roads, can meet crucial needs. Examples include roads, bridges, and hydroelectric power stations It bridges, and hydroelectric power stations. It creates better conditions for citizens and offers creates better conditions for citizens and offers enhanced economic opportunities, so it's critical enhanced economic opportunities, so it's critical to prioritize longevity and sustainability from to prioritize longevity and sustainability from design through construction

A horizontal project design through construction. A horizontal project with crosscutting best practices can help ensure with crosscutting best practices can help ensure sustainable infrastructure becomes widespread sustainable infrastructure becomes widespread. Crosscutting best practices for sustainable Crosscutting best practices for sustainable infrastructure involve: infrastructure involve:

taking a life-cycle approach, taking a life-cycle approach, considering environmental and social impacts, considering environmental and social impacts, and and incorporating new technologies and incorporating new technologies and iinnovations nnovations.

This can be achieved through collaborations This can be achieved through collaborations between various stakeholders, such as the between various stakeholders, such as the government, private sector, and civil society, to government, private sector, and civil society, to develop and implement sustainable infrastructure develop and implement sustainable infrastructure projects projects.

A few fundamental principles to ensure A few fundamental principles to ensure sustainable infrastructure are using renewable sustainable infrastructure are using renewable energy sources, reducing waste and greenhouse energy sources, reducing waste and greenhouse gas emissions, conserving natural resources, and gas emissions, conserving natural resources, and considering the needs and preferences of local considering the needs and preferences of local communities Additionally, effective monitoring communities. Additionally, effective monitoring and evaluation mechanisms need to be in place to and evaluation mechanisms need to be in place to ensure that infrastructure is operating effectively ensure that infrastructure is operating effectively and efficiently over its lifespan and efficiently over its lifespan.

By prioritizing sustainable infrastructure, we can By prioritizing sustainable infrastructure, we can create a better future for everyone and pave the create a better future for everyone and pave the way for a more sustainable and equitable world. way for a more sustainable and equitable world.

Low-carbon transition: Low-carbon transition: The infrastructure sector The infrastructure sector needs to consider the increasing demand for low- needs to consider the increasing demand for lowcarbon and energy-efficient solutions. carbon and energy-efficient solutions

This can be achieved through the development of This can be achieved through the development of renewable energy sources, innovative grid renewable energy sources, innovative grid systems, and energy-efficient buildings The systems, and energy-efficient buildings. The adoption of sustainable transport systems such as adoption of sustainable transport systems such as cycling, public transport, and electric vehicles will cycling, public transport, and electric vehicles will also contribute to the low-carbon transition also contribute to the low-carbon transition.

Resilience and adaptation: Resilience and adaptation: Sustainable Sustainable infrastructure must be resilient to natural infrastructure must be resilient to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods It must also be designed to adapt to floods. It must also be designed to adapt to changing climate conditions, such as rising sea changing climate conditions, such as rising sea levels and changing weather patterns This levels and changing weather patterns. This requires a comprehensive approach that considers requires a comprehensive approach that considers the complete life cycle of infrastructure projects, the complete life cycle of infrastructure projects, including the design, construction, operation, and including the design, construction, operation, and maintenance phases maintenance phases.

Reduce regional disparities: Reduce regional disparities: Sustainable Sustainable infrastructure must be accessible to all, regardless infrastructure must be accessible to all, regardless of geographic location or socio-economic status of geographic location or socio-economic status. The development of sustainable infrastructure

The development of sustainable infrastructure must take into account the needs of rural and must take into account the needs of rural and remote areas, where access to essential services is remote areas, where access to essential services is often limited This can be achieved through the often limited. This can be achieved through the development of local infrastructure projects that development of local infrastructure projects that support local economies and provide access to support local economies and provide access to critical services critical services.

The development of sustainable infrastructure

The development of sustainable infrastructure requires a strategic and holistic approach that requires a strategic and holistic approach that considers economic, environmental, social, and considers economic, environmental, social, and growth objectives It must be accessible to all, growth objectives. It must be accessible to all, regardless of geographic location or socio- regardless of geographic location or socioeconomic status, and must be resilient to natural economic status, and must be resilient to natural disasters and changing climate conditions. disasters and changing climate conditions.

The infrastructure sector must embrace sustainable principles to ensure that essential sustainable principles to ensure that essential services are delivered to meet the needs of society services are delivered to meet the needs of society and the economy. and the economy

The infrastructure sector must embrace

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The Three Gorges Dam in China: This is the world's

The Three Gorges Dam in China: This is the world's largest hydroelectric power station and was built largest hydroelectric power station and was built to provide renewable energy and help control to provide renewable and help control flooding along the Yangtze River. flooding along the Yangtze River.

Investing in sustainable infrastructure is critical

Investing in sustainable infrastructure is critical for achieving sustainable development goals, for achieving sustainable development goals, including reducing poverty, improving access to including reducing poverty, improving access to education and healthcare, and combating climate education and healthcare, and combating climate change. change

Sustainable infrastructure can also help stimulate Sustainable infrastructure can also help stimulate economic growth and create jobs, especially in economic growth and create jobs, especially in low-income communities. low-income communities

Governments, multilateral organizations, and Governments, multilateral organizations, and private sector investors all have a role to play in private sector investors all have a role to play in promoting sustainable infrastructure. promoting sustainable infrastructure

Governments can provide policy and regulatory Governments can provide policy and regulatory frameworks that incentivize sustainable frameworks that incentivize sustainable infrastructure, while multilateral organizations can infrastructure, while multilateral organizations can provide financing and technical assistance to provide financing and technical assistance to support the development of sustainable support the development of sustainable infrastructure projects. infrastructure projects

Private sector investors can also play a key role in Private sector investors can also play a key role in financing and implementing sustainable financing and implementing sustainable infrastructure projects while benefiting from the infrastructure projects while benefiting from the economic opportunities they provide. economic opportunities they provide

Sustainable infrastructure is crucial for achieving Sustainable infrastructure is crucial for achieving economic, environmental, and social outcomes economic, environmental, and social outcomes and should be a priority in any development and should be a priority in any development agenda. By adopting crosscutting best practices agenda By adopting crosscutting best practices and collaborating across sectors, we can create a and collaborating across sectors, we can create a more sustainable future for all. more sustainable future for all

There are many examples of sustainable There are examples of sustainable infrastructure projects from around the world. infrastructure projects from around the world Here are a few: Here are a few:

The High Line in New York City: This is an elevated The High Line in New York City: This is an elevated park built on a former railway line, which is now a park built on a former railway line, which is now a popular tourist attraction and public space, popular tourist attraction and public space, providing access to green space and recreational providing access to green space and recreational opportunities in a dense urban area. opportunities in a dense urban area.

The London Array offshore wind farm: This is one The London Array offshore wind farm: This is one of the largest offshore wind farms in the world, of the largest offshore wind farms in the world, located in the Thames Estuary. It provides located in the Thames Estuary. It provides renewable energy to over 500,000 homes in the renewable energy to over 500,000 homes in the UK and reduces carbon emissions. UK and reduces carbon emissions.

The Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi, The Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi, India: This airport has implemented various India: This airport has implemented various sustainable features, such as solar power sustainable features, such as solar power generation, rainwater harvesting, and waste generation, rainwater harvesting, and waste management systems, reducing its carbon management systems, reducing its carbon footprint and energy consumption. footprint and consumption.

The Masdar City project in Abu Dhabi: This is a The Masdar City project in Abu Dhabi: This is a sustainable urban development project that aims sustainable urban development project that aims to be a carbon-neutral city, using renewable to be a carbon-neutral city, using renewable energy sources and sustainable technologies in its energy sources and sustainable technologies in its design and construction design and construction.

These projects demonstrate that sustainable These projects demonstrate that sustainable infrastructure can be achieved in a variety of infrastructure can be achieved in a variety of contexts, from large-scale infrastructure to urban contexts, from large-scale infrastructure to urban development projects development projects.

SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE, WE CAN CREATE A BETTER FUTURE FOR EVERYONE, AND PAVE THE WAY FOR A MORE SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE WORLD.
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THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE WILL LIKELY INFRASTRUCTURE WILL LIKELY AFFECT MANY CAREERS AND INDUSTRIES, AS AFFECT MANY CAREERS AND INDUSTRIES, AS IT WILL REQUIRE A SHIFT TOWARDS MORE IT WILL REQUIRE A SHIFT TOWARDS MORE SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES IN VARIOUS SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES IN VARIOUS SECTORS. SECTORS.

Some professions are likely to be impacted: Some professions are likely to be impacted: Engineers: Engineers:

Engineers will play a critical role in designing Engineers will play a critical role in designing and constructing sustainable infrastructure, and constructing sustainable infrastructure, such as renewable energy projects, green such as renewable energy projects, green buildings, and transportation systems. buildings, and transportation systems

Architects: Architects must consider Architects: Architects must consider sustainability in their designs, incorporating sustainability in their designs, incorporating passive solar heating and cooling, green roofs, passive solar heating and cooling, green roofs, and energy-efficient building materials. and energy-efficient building materials

Urban planners: Urban planners must Urban planners: Urban planners must prioritize sustainable infrastructure, such as prioritize sustainable infrastructure, such as designing walkable communities, promoting designing walkable communities, promoting public transportation, and creating green public transportation, and creating green sspaces. paces.

Environmental scientists: Environmental Environmental scientists: Environmental scientists will play a key role in assessing the scientists will play a key role in assessing the environmental impacts of infrastructure environmental impacts of infrastructure projects, identifying potential risks, and projects, identifying potential risks, and proposing mitigation measures. proposing mitigation measures.

Project managers: Project managers will need Project managers: Project will need to have a solid understanding of sustainable to have a solid understanding of sustainable infrastructure and be able to implement infrastructure and be able to implement sustainability goals and practices throughout sustainability goals and practices throughout the project lifecycle. the project lifecycle.

Energy analysts: Energy analysts will be Energy analysts: Energy analysts will be needed to assess energy demand, analyze needed to assess energy demand, analyze energy efficiency measures, and help develop energy efficiency measures, and help develop renewable energy projects. renewable projects.

Construction workers: Construction workers Construction workers: Construction workers will need to be trained in sustainable will need to be trained in sustainable construction practices, such as using recycled construction practices, such as using recycled materials and minimizing waste. materials and minimizing waste.

Overall, the development of sustainable Overall, the development of sustainable infrastructure will require a multidisciplinary infrastructure will require a multidisciplinary approach and will have a significant impact on a approach and will have a significant impact on a wide range of careers and industries wide range of careers and industries.

To thrive in the field of sustainable infrastructure, To thrive in the field of sustainable infrastructure, new executives will need to possess a set of skills new executives will need to possess a set of skills and competencies that go beyond traditional and competencies that go beyond traditional business skills. business skills

Here are some of the skills that are particularly Here are some of the skills that are particularly important for executives in sustainable important for executives in sustainable iinfrastructure: nfrastructure:

Understanding of sustainability principles: Understanding of sustainability principles: Executives need to have a solid understanding Executives need to have a solid understanding of sustainability principles and their of sustainability principles and their applications to infrastructure development applications to infrastructure development. This includes knowledge of renewable energy This includes knowledge of renewable energy technologies, green building practices, and technologies, green building practices, and sustainable transportation solutions sustainable transportation solutions.

Strategic thinking: Executives need to be able

Strategic thinking: Executives need to be able to think strategically and develop long-term to think strategically and develop long-term plans that prioritize sustainability. This plans that prioritize sustainability This requires the ability to identify opportunities requires the ability to identify opportunities for sustainable infrastructure development for sustainable infrastructure development and to navigate the complex political, social, and to navigate the complex political, social, and economic landscape in which and economic landscape in which infrastructure projects operate. infrastructure projects operate.

Collaboration and stakeholder engagement: Collaboration and stakeholder engagement: Sustainable infrastructure projects often Sustainable infrastructure projects often require collaboration across different sectors require collaboration across different sectors and stakeholders Executives need to be and stakeholders. Executives need to be skilled at building and maintaining skilled at building and maintaining relationships with a wide range of relationships with a wide range of stakeholders, including government agencies, stakeholders, including government agencies, private sector investors, and local private sector investors, and local communities. communities

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Technical knowledge: Executives need to have Technical knowledge: Executives need to have a strong technical knowledge of the a strong technical knowledge of the infrastructure sector, including engineering, infrastructure sector, including engineering, construction, and project management They construction, and project management. They also need to be up-to-date on emerging also need to be up-to-date on emerging technologies and best practices in sustainable technologies and best practices in sustainable infrastructure development. infrastructure development

Communication skills: Executives need to be Communication skills: Executives need to be effective communicators who can articulate effective communicators who can articulate the value of sustainable infrastructure to a the value of sustainable infrastructure to a variety of audiences, including investors, variety of audiences, including investors, policymakers, and the public. This includes policymakers, and the public. This includes the ability to develop and deliver compelling the ability to develop and deliver compelling presentations, reports, and other presentations, reports, and other communication materials communication materials.

Resilience: Sustainable infrastructure projects Resilience: Sustainable infrastructure projects often face challenges and obstacles, such as often face challenges and obstacles, such as changing political priorities, shifting funding changing political priorities, shifting funding sources, or community opposition Executives sources, or community opposition. Executives need to be resilient and able to adapt to need to be resilient and able to adapt to changing circumstances and find creative changing circumstances and find creative solutions to overcome these challenges. solutions to overcome these challenges

Overall, new executives in sustainable Overall, new executives in sustainable infrastructure will need to be equipped with a infrastructure will need to be equipped with a diverse set of skills that go beyond traditional diverse set of skills that go beyond traditional business skills. They will need to be able to think business skills. They will need to be able to think strategically, collaborate effectively, and navigate strategically, collaborate effectively, and navigate complex political and social environments, all complex political and social environments, all while prioritizing sustainability and long-term while prioritizing sustainability and long-term iimpact mpact.

Danilo Dias is a Global Chief Revenue Officer and Board Advisor at Hayman-Woodward He is a highly accomplished and well-rounded professional with extensive experience in the business world. With a background in C-level executive positions, he served as Chief Executive Officer for various companies. A sought-after author, speaker, and mentor, member of the Digital Marketing Program Advisory Council of George Washington University, based in Washington, D C He also serves on several other Boarders, including Instituto BESC de Humanidades e Economia and the Infrastructure and Logistic Efficiency Brazilian Board. Throughout his career, he has worked in diverse sectors, including Brewery, Oil & Gas, Telecommunications, Defense, and Security, only to name a few All this experience made him our Infrastructure columnist.

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VETERINARY CARE

ACCESS TO VETERINARIANS AND VETERINARY EXPERTS VARIES ENORMOUSLY AROUND THE WORLD.

The accessibility and affordability of veterinary care can vary significantly between countries and regions, resulting in disparities in animal health and welfare

VETERINARIANS PLAY A VITAL PART IN SOCIETY.

Through their vast knowledge and competencies in animal health, human Health, environment, and the interdependencies between these areas, veterinarians play an increasingly important role in agribusiness in our society, thus serving the community

Veterinarians are also crucial to sustainable food systems. Veterinarians play an essential role in promoting One Health and protecting the Health and welfare of animals, humans, and ecosystems. They work collaboratively with various stakeholders and disciplines to achieve these goals and contribute to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Additionally, veterinarians work to promote the human-animal bond, protect species diversity and ecosystem health, and advance food security and economic Health in communities where animals play a critical role.

Veterinarians play a critical role in creating a better and more sustainable world for all of us. By protecting and advancing the Health and welfare of all animals, they help ensure that animals are treated with care and respect and that the environment and ecosystems are protected. They investigate animal and human disease outbreaks and develop and implement programs to prevent, manage, and treat these diseases, which helps.

protect not only animal health and welfare but also human and ecosystem health.

Veterinarians build global surveillance systems to enhance early detection of disease threats, and ensure the wholesomeness and safety of all foods of animal origin, from the farm to the fork. They develop and implement guidelines that govern the international trade of animals and animal products to protect animal health and welfare, as well as human and ecosystem health.

Veterinarians conduct research to advance animal health and welfare, as well as human, public, and ecosystem health. They evaluate the safety and efficacy of medicines and medical products for use in humans and animals, as well as animal foods and food additives. They build and strengthen health infrastructures and help communities around the world recover from manmade and natural disasters.

Veterinarians also protect the environment through programs that manage animal agricultural waste, safe disposal of pharmaceuticals, and utilize environmentally conscious practices in the workplace. They work with captive and freeranging wildlife to protect biodiversity and advance species conservation efforts.

Veterinarians promote life-long learning and embrace innovation and technology, fostering a One Health approach within the next generation of veterinarians and other medical professionals, scientists, and disciplines.

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OVERALL, VETERINARIANS PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN CREATING A BETTER AND MORE SUSTAINABLE WORLD FOR ALL OF US, AND THEIR WORK CONTRIBUTES TO THE HEALTH AND WELLBEING OF ANIMALS, HUMANS, AND ECOSYSTEMS AROUND THE GLOBE.

Access to veterinarians and veterinary experts varies enormously around the world.

The accessibility and affordability of veterinary care can vary significantly between countries and regions, resulting in disparities in animal health and welfare

American Veterinary Medical Foundation (AVMF)'s most recent numbers show 124,069 U.S. veterinarians.

According to FVE, the European representative body for the veterinary profession in Europe, englobing veterinary associations from 38 European Countries, the Most recent survey indicated an estimated 309,144 veterinarians in Europe. The veterinary profession in Europe is young. Most European veterinarians are under the age of 45.

According to the 2021 census by the Federal Council of Veterinary Medicine, 154,312 veterinarians are working in Brazil, with a population of 215 million This translates to an average ratio of 0.7 veterinarians per thousand inhabitants, almost double the ratio in Europe, Canada, and the USA. The high number of veterinarians in Brazil is partly because the country graduates an average of 12,000 new professionals annually. This indicates that the demand for veterinary services in Brazil is high, and the profession is highly regarded. With such a large number of veterinarians, Brazil is in a good position to address animal health and welfare issues and public health concerns related to zoonotic diseases.

SHORTAGE OF VETERINARIANS FOR PETS IN THE U.S., U.K., AND AUSTRALIA.

Despite rising numbers of small animal veterinarians in the U.S., the profession is on pace to fall short of the number needed to meet

pet care needs. According to a study by Mars Veterinary Health, 41,000 veterinarians will be needed in the U.S. by 2030, but the profession is projected to fall 15,000 short of this number.

The situation is similar in the U.K., where the British Veterinary Association has reported a "veterinary workforce crisis" and "storm of shortages" after a 68% drop in veterinarians registering to come and work in the U.K. in the wake of Brexit. Even before the Covid-19 pandemic, only 48% of U.K. veterinarians told the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons that they "would still opt for the veterinary profession if they could start their career over again." This issue has grown since then, and addressing it will be critical to the long-term health of veterinarians and their patients.

In Australia, the pandemic puppy boom has led to a shortage of veterinarians, with the Australian Veterinary Association stating that more veterinarians are urgently needed to fill the shortfalls.

As a result of the shortage, veterinary caseloads are rising rapidly, with almost half of the practices worldwide reporting an increase in a 91-country survey by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. This shortage of veterinarians highlights the need for more investment in the profession and measures to attract and retain more veterinarians to meet the growing demand for pet care.

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THE JOB MARKET IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIESU.S., U.K., AUSTRALIA, AND CANADA

The vast majority (81%) of veterinarians work full-time.

The number of unemployed veterinarians has gone down to 1%

The most common employment sector most respondents were employed in remains clinical practice (58%), and within this, predominantly small animal clinical practice. The second most common sector is public service (14% in 2018, down from 19% in 2015), education and research (11% in 2018, up from 6% in 2015), and industry (4%). A further 12 % of the profession carries out veterinary work in other areas.

ALL GOOD NEWS FOR U.S. VETERINARIANS

a veterinary degree can open doors to many career options beyond traditional clinical practice Veterinarians can work in various fields and settings, including research, public health, education, industry, government, and even nonprofit organizations

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the 2021 Median Pay for Veterinarians is $100,370 per year and $48.26 per hour.

The job outlook project for 2021 - 2031 shows a 19% growth (much faster than average), and the employment change for the same period is an increase of 16,800 positions. This means that about 4,800 openings for veterinarians are projected each year, on average, over the decade.

We live in quickly evolving times Unlike generations before us, people alive today must constantly adapt and readapt to rapid changes in technology, society, and the economy.

VETERINARIANS WORK IN A VARIETY OF SETTINGS BEYOND ANIMAL HOSPITALS AND CLINICS, SUCH AS ZOOS AND AQUARIUMS, FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS, FARMS AND RANCHES, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LABORATORIES, ANIMAL SHELTERS, RACETRACKS, NATIONAL PARKS, AND OFFICES.

In zoos and aquariums, staff veterinarians are responsible for the health and well-being of captive animals and are heavily involved in conservation efforts and public education. In food-processing plants, veterinarians ensure that animals are treated humanely and enforce regulations, which helps reduce foodborne illness and improve the lives of food animals.

Veterinarians specializing in large animals spend a good amount of time on farms and ranches treating animals and implementing preventative measures, and they may also be involved in livestock breeding. They may also work in colleges and universities, teaching students pursuing their Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree or conducting research

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Working in a lab is typical for those involved in research and veterinarians who work specifically with lab animals.

Shelter veterinarians work specifically with pets needing permanent homes and play an important role in keeping pets healthy.

Equine veterinarians who work with racehorses help ensure horses stay healthy and maintain a level playing field. Wildlife veterinarians may work in national parks and nearby facilities to help rehabilitate injured animals, address specific health concerns, and protect populations.

In research, veterinarians can work in academic or industry settings, studying and developing new treatments and techniques for animal diseases or working on biomedical research projects that have applications for human health.

In public health, veterinarians can work in positions such as food safety inspectors, epidemiologists, or public health officers. They can also work for government agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

In education, veterinarians can become university professors or instructors, teaching courses in veterinary medicine, animal science, or related fields. They can also teach and train others in the animal industry.

In industry, veterinarians can work in various roles, such as product development, technical services, or regulatory affairs, for companies that

manufacture animal health products, pet food, or other related products.

In non-profit organizations, veterinarians can work with animal welfare organizations, zoos, or conservation groups to help protect and care for animals.

There are also office-based roles for veterinarians, such as consulting services, advocacy or public policy roles, and writing or opening a small business related to veterinary practice. These diverse roles demonstrate the breadth of career opportunities available to veterinarians and how they can make a difference in animal health and welfare.

Overall, a veterinary degree offers a wide range of career options, and veterinarians can work in diverse fields and settings, positively impacting animal health, welfare, and human health

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VETERINARY EXPERTISE: AS PET POPULATIONS GROW, SO MUST THE NUMBER OF VETERINARIANS AND VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS. WE ARE NOT MEETING THIS DEMAND TODAY, AND THE PROBLEM WILL GROW IN THE FUTURE IF LEFT UNADDRESSED.

A CAREER PATH FOR INTERNATIONAL LICENSED VETERINARIANS:

American Veterinary Medical Foundation (AVMF) explains on its website a career path for internationally licensed veterinarians:

The Educational Commission for Foreign Veterinary Graduates® (ECFVG®) certification program is accepted by all state veterinary regulatory boards and the federal government as meeting, in part or full, the educational prerequisite for licensure or certain types of employment.

The ECFVG certification program consists of the following four steps designed to be completed in order. For complete instructions for each of the program steps:

Step 1: Enroll, provide proof of graduation and verify veterinary college credentials A prospective candidate must be a graduate or final-year student at an AVMA ECFVG®-listed veterinary school To enroll, submit an online application, a signed and notarized confirmation page, all necessary documentation, and required fees to the ECFVG office. The ECFVG will verify your credentials directly with the school from which you graduated.

Step 2: Assess English language ability. Candidates must complete one of three standard English language assessments accepted by the ECFVG. English language assessments' can be completed before enrolling in the program. However, the ECFVG does require an original score report from the testing agency, and the testing agencies retain scores for only two years from the test date Candidates completing secondary school in the United States, United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland), Australia, New

Zealand or Canada (except Quebec) may request that the examination requirement be waived by submitting appropriate documentation of English proficiency per ECFVG policy.

Step 3: Assess basic and clinical veterinary science knowledge Candidates must complete the ECFVG-specific Basic and Clinical Sciences Examination (BCSE), a 225-question, computerbased assessment of basic and clinical veterinary sciences knowledge The ECFVG office will notify candidates of their eligibility to apply for the BCSE only after candidates complete Step 2. Information about application procedures, rescheduling rules, rules of conduct, and testing accommodations, can be found in the BCSE candidate bulletin.

Documentation of surgical experience: Candidates who enroll in the ECFVG program on or after July 1, 2014, must submit validated surgical experience documentation forms as proof of having performed in the five years before the date of the Clinical Proficiency Exam (CPE), at least one ovariohysterectomy as the primary surgeon, and at least five additional surgical procedures as either the primary or assistant surgeon

Step 4: Assess hands-on clinical veterinary medical skills. Candidates must complete the Clinical Proficiency Examination (CPE) to complete the program and achieve certification. The CPE is a multi-day, multi-section postgraduate assessment of hands-on clinical veterinary medical skills. It covers entry-level skills in both large and small animal species and laboratory and other diagnostic practices. The ECFVG office will notify candidates of their eligibility to apply for the CPE only after candidates complete Step 3

For more information, please refer to: https://www avma org/education/ecfvg

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MAURO TUPINAMBÁ

DOCTOR OF VETERINARY MEDICINE & ENTREPRENEUR

Expert Opinion

MVD Mauro Tupinambá, what makes a great

MVD Mauro Tupinambá, what makes a great veterinarian? veterinarian?

A great veterinarian possesses a combination of A great veterinarian possesses a combination of technical knowledge, interpersonal skills, and a technical knowledge, interpersonal skills, and a passion for animal health and welfare. passion for animal health and welfare.

ensure accurate diagnoses, dosing of ensure accurate diagnoses, dosing of medications, and follow-up care. medications, and follow-up care

Patience: A great veterinarian should be Patience: A great veterinarian should be patient with animals and their owners, patient with animals and their owners, particularly in difficult or emotional particularly in difficult or emotional ssituations. ituations.

Here are some key qualities that make a great

Here are some key qualities that make a great veterinarian: veterinarian:

Knowledge and Expertise: A great Knowledge and Expertise: A great veterinarian has a strong educational veterinarian has a strong educational foundation in animal health, anatomy, foundation in animal health, anatomy, physiology, and medicine They must stay up physiology, and medicine. They must stay up to date on the latest developments in the field to date on the latest developments in the field and maintain continuing education and maintain continuing education throughout their careers. throughout their careers

Compassion: A great veterinarian should Compassion: A great veterinarian should show compassion towards their animal show compassion towards their animal patients and their owners. They should have patients and their owners They should have empathy for their patients and be able to empathy for their patients and be able to understand the human-animal bond. understand the human-animal bond.

Communication Skills: A great veterinarian

Communication Skills: A great veterinarian must have excellent communication skills to must have excellent communication skills to work with pet owners and other veterinary work with pet owners and other veterinary staff They must be able to explain complex staff. They must be able to explain complex medical concepts in easy-to-understand medical concepts in easy-to-understand terms and communicate compassionately and terms and communicate compassionately and effectively with animal owners effectively with animal owners.

Problem-Solving Skills: A great veterinarian

Problem-Solving Skills: A great veterinarian must be able to think critically and quickly must be able to think critically and quickly when presented with complex medical cases when presented with complex medical cases or emergencies. They must be able to or emergencies They must be able to diagnose medical problems and develop diagnose medical problems and develop effective treatment plans. effective treatment plans

Attention to Detail: A great veterinarian Attention to Detail: A veterinarian should have excellent attention to detail to should have excellent attention to detail to

Physical Stamina: A great veterinarian must

Physical Stamina: A great veterinarian must have physical stamina, as the job can be have physical stamina, as the job can be physically demanding and may require physically demanding and may require standing for long periods or lifting heavy standing for long periods or lifting heavy animals animals.

In summary, a great veterinarian has a In summary, a great veterinarian has a combination of technical knowledge, combination of technical knowledge, interpersonal skills, and a passion for animal interpersonal skills, and a passion for animal health and welfare, which helps them to provide health and welfare, which helps them to provide the best possible care for their animal patients the best possible care for their animal patients and their owners. and their owners

MVD Mauro Tupinambá, you attend several MVD Mauro Tupinambá, you attend several veterinary conferences. As a celebrated surgeon veterinary conferences. As a celebrated surgeon and considered one of the top 5 best and considered one of the top 5 best veterinarians in Brazil, how do you compare the veterinarians in Brazil, how do you compare the veterinarians who graduated in Brazil and the veterinarians who graduated in Brazil and the US or Europe? US or Europe?

Brazilian veterinarians are very well trained and Brazilian veterinarians are very well trained and highly regarded in the veterinary field, compared highly regarded in the veterinary field, compared to veterinarians who graduated in US and Europe to veterinarians who graduated in US and Europe.

GREAT VETERINARIANS HAVE A COMBINATION OF TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, INTERPERSONAL SKILLS, AND PASSION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELFARE.
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In Brazil, the Federal Council of Veterinary In Brazil, the Federal Council of Veterinary Medicine regulates the veterinary profession, Medicine regulates the veterinary profession, which ensures that all veterinarians meet strict which ensures that all veterinarians meet strict educational and professional requirements educational and professional requirements.

To become a veterinarian in Brazil, one must To become a veterinarian in Brazil, one must complete a five-year undergraduate program in complete a five-year undergraduate program in veterinary medicine at a recognized institution. veterinary medicine at a recognized institution. This program covers various topics, including This program covers various topics, including animal anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, animal anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, microbiology, pathology, surgery, and animal microbiology, pathology, surgery, and animal husbandry. husbandry

After completing the undergraduate program, After completing the undergraduate program, graduates must pass the Brazilian National graduates must pass the Brazilian National Veterinary Examination (Exame Nacional de Veterinary Examination (Exame Nacional de Conhecimentos para a Medicina Veterinária), which Conhecimentos para a Medicina Veterinária), which tests their knowledge and competency in all areas tests their knowledge and competency in all areas of veterinary medicine of veterinary medicine.

In addition to the rigorous educational addition to the rigorous educational requirements, Brazilian veterinarians must requirements, Brazilian veterinarians must participate in continuing education throughout participate in continuing education throughout their careers to maintain their professional their careers to maintain their professional llicenses. icenses

Overall, the veterinary profession in Brazil is well- Overall, the veterinary profession in Brazil is wellregulated and highly trained, and Brazilian regulated and highly trained, and Brazilian veterinarians are well-equipped to provide high- veterinarians are well-equipped to provide highquality care to animals both in Brazil and globally. quality care to animals both in Brazil and globally

Doctor, does the number of veterinarians who Doctor, does the number of veterinarians who graduated yearly in Brazil poses a concern to graduated yearly in Brazil poses a concern to you? you?

THE NUMBER OF VETERINARIANS GRADUATING THE NUMBER OF VETERINARIANS GRADUATING YEARLY IN BRAZIL IS RELATIVELY HIGH, WITH YEARLY IN IS RELATIVELY HIGH, WITH AN AVERAGE OF 12,000 NEW PROFESSIONALS AVERAGE OF 12,000 NEW PROFESSIONALS YEARLY. WHILE THIS MAY SEEM LIKE A LOT, IT WHILE THIS MAY SEEM LIKE A LOT, IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT BRAZIL HAS A IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT BRAZIL HAS A LARGE POPULATION OF OVER 200 MILLION LARGE POPULATION OF OVER 200 MILLION PEOPLE AND A SIGNIFICANT AGRICULTURAL PEOPLE AND A SIGNIFICANT AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY, WHICH REQUIRES MANY INDUSTRY, WHICH REQUIRES MANY VETERINARIANS TO MEET THE DEMAND FOR VETERINARIANS TO MEET THE DEMAND FOR ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELFARE. ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELFARE.

However, the availability of veterinary care in However, the availability of veterinary care in Brazil is not evenly distributed, with some areas Brazil is not evenly distributed, with some areas having a shortage of veterinarians and limited having a shortage of veterinarians and limited access to veterinary services Veterinarians and access to veterinary services. Veterinarians and clinics are still concentrated in the South and clinics are still concentrated in the South and Southeast Regions of the country And this Southeast Regions of the country. And this imposes a concern for animal health and welfare, imposes a concern for animal health and welfare, particularly in rural or remote areas. particularly in rural or remote areas.

It is also important to note that the number of It is also important to note that the number of veterinarians graduating each year is not the only veterinarians graduating each year is not the only factor determining the availability of veterinary factor determining the availability of veterinary services. Other factors, i.e., the number of services Other factors, i e , the number of veterinarians who choose to work in different veterinarians who choose to work in different fields or locations, the quality of veterinary fields or locations, the quality of veterinary education, and the availability of funding for education, and the availability of funding for veterinary care, can also impact the availability of veterinary care, can also impact the availability of veterinary services in Brazil. veterinary services in Brazil.

Can you comment on the professional market for Can you comment on the professional market for veterinarians' clinics? veterinarians' clinics?

It is difficult to determine the exact number of It is difficult to determine the exact number of pets in the Brazilian market, as no central registry pets in the Brazilian market, as no central registry or database tracks the number of pets in the or database tracks the number of pets in the country. However, according to estimates by the country However, according to estimates by the Brazilian Pet Institute (Instituto Pet Brazil), there Brazilian Pet Institute (Instituto Pet Brazil), there are approximately 141 million pets in Brazil, are approximately 141 million pets in Brazil, iincluding: ncluding:

55.1 million dogs

55.1 million dogs

24.7 million cats

24.7 million cats

39.8 million birds

39.8 million birds

18.4 million fish

18.4 million fish

3 7 million reptiles

3.7 million reptiles

36,000 horses

36,000 horses

250,000 other animals

250,000 other animals

These numbers indicate that Brazil has a These numbers indicate that Brazil has a significant and growing pet industry, which significant and growing pet industry, which includes pet food, veterinary services, pet includes pet food, veterinary services, pet supplies, and pet grooming. I strongly believe the supplies, and pet grooming I strongly believe the pet industry in Brazil will continue to grow and pet industry in Brazil will continue to grow and expand in the future, driven by factors such as a expand in the future, driven by factors such as a growing interest in pet health and wellness. growing interest in pet health and wellness

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Brazil is one of the largest agricultural producers Brazil is one of the largest agricultural producers in the world, and the country is home to a in the world, and the country is home to a significant number of agribusiness animals, significant number of agribusiness animals, iincluding: ncluding:

Cattle: Cattle: Brazil has Brazil has one of the largest cattle one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with over 220 million populations in the world, with over 220 million head of cattle. head of cattle. The country is a major exporter of The country is a major exporter of beef and leather, and cattle ranching is an beef and leather, and cattle ranching is an important part of the Brazilian economy. important part of the Brazilian economy.

Poultry: Poultry: Brazil is also one of the world's largest Brazil is also one of the world's largest poultry producers, with over 6 billion birds poultry producers, with over 6 billion birds produced annually. The country exports poultry produced annually. The country exports poultry products, including chicken meat, eggs, and products, including chicken eggs, and processed poultry products. processed poultry products.

Swine: Swine: Brazil has a significant swine industry, Brazil has a significant swine industry, with over 40 million pigs produced annually. The with over 40 million pigs produced annually. The country is a major exporter of pork and pork is a major exporter of pork and pork products. products.

Aquaculture: Aquaculture: Brazil has a growing aquaculture Brazil has a growing aquaculture industry, which includes the production of fish, industry, which includes the production of fish, shrimp, and other aquatic animals. The country is shrimp, and other aquatic animals. The country is a major exporter of aquaculture products, a major exporter of aquaculture products, particularly shrimp particularly shrimp.

Dairy: Dairy: Brazil is also a significant producer of dairy Brazil is also a significant producer of dairy products, with over 25 billion liters of milk products, with over 25 billion liters of milk produced annually The country is a major produced annually. The country is a major exporter of dairy products, including cheese and exporter of dairy products, including cheese and powdered milk powdered milk.

The production of agribusiness animals in Brazil is The production of agribusiness animals in Brazil is an important part of the country's economy an important part of the country's economy. However, it also poses challenges related to However, it also poses challenges related to animal health, welfare, and environmental animal health, welfare, and environmental sustainability As such, ongoing efforts are to sustainability. As such, ongoing efforts are to promote responsible animal husbandry practices promote responsible animal husbandry practices and improve the overall sustainability of the and improve the overall sustainability of the agribusiness industry in Brazil agribusiness industry in Brazil.

So that readers understand the importance of the So that readers understand the importance of the cattle population in Brazil, the most recent cattle population in Brazil, the most recent numbers show that India is the top country in the numbers show that India is the top country in the number of cattle and buffaloes in the world number of cattle and buffaloes in the world.

As of 2020, the number of cattle and buffaloes in As of 2020, the number of cattle and buffaloes in India was 305 million head, which accounts for India was 305 million head, which accounts for 33.38% of the world's cattle and buffaloes. 33.38% of the world's cattle and buffaloes.

THE TOP 5 COUNTRIES ARE INDIA, BRAZIL, THE TOP 5 COUNTRIES ARE INDIA, BRAZIL, CHINA, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AND CHINA, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AND ARGENTINA. THEY ACCOUNT FOR 87.55% OF ARGENTINA. THEY ACCOUNT FOR 87.55% OF CATTLE AND BUFFALOES IN THE WORLD.

CATTLE AND BUFFALOES IN THE WORLD.

Doctor, do you believe that Brazilian Doctor, do you believe that Brazilian veterinarians could complement the growing veterinarians could complement the growing need for these professionals in other countries, need for these professionals in other countries, i.e., the U.S. and Europe? i.e., the U.S. and Europe?

Absolutely! As I said, Brazil has a well-regarded

Absolutely! As I said, Brazil has a well-regarded and rigorous veterinary education system, and and rigorous veterinary education system, and Brazilian veterinarians are trained to meet the Brazilian veterinarians are trained to meet the highest international standards. highest international standards.

THERE IS POTENTIAL FOR BRAZILIAN THERE IS POTENTIAL FOR BRAZILIAN VETERINARIANS TO COMPLEMENT THE VETERINARIANS TO COMPLEMENT THE GROWING NEED FOR VETERINARY GROWING NEED FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS IN OTHER COUNTRIES, SUCH PROFESSIONALS IN OTHER COUNTRIES, SUCH AS THE U.S. AND EUROPE. AS THE U.S. AND EUROPE.

However, several factors need to be taken into However, several factors need to be taken into consideration for veterinarians willing to work in consideration for veterinarians willing to work in these countries, and I would recommend initiating these countries, and I would recommend initiating the process while in the last years of university, the process while in the last years of university, becoming advanced if not fluent in English, and becoming advanced if not fluent in English, and meeting the professional licensing requirements, meeting the professional licensing requirements, a k a "the steps " a.k.a. "the steps."

According to the AVMA - American Veterinary According to the AVMA - American Veterinary Medical Association" Medical Association"to practice as a to practice as a veterinarian in the United States, you must have veterinarian in the United States, you must have either 1) graduated from an AVMA Council on either 1) graduated from an AVMA Council on Education (COE)-accredited school; or 2) Education (COE)-accredited school; or 2) completed an educational equivalency completed an educational equivalency certification program such as that administered by certification program such as that administered by the AVMA's the AVMA's Educational Commission for Foreign Educational Commission for Foreign Veterinary Graduates (ECFVG) Veterinary Graduates (ECFVG) " . "

Thank you, Doctor Mauro Tupinambá!

Thank you, Doctor Tupinambá!

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Mauro Tupinamba is a highly experienced veterinarian with over 30 years of experience He received his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DMV) degree from Universidade Federal Fluminense and founded Veterinaria Grajaú, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in March 1995

With his vast knowledge and expertise in animal health and welfare, Mauro has provided top-quality veterinary care to his clients for many years. His clinic is well-respected in the community for its compassionate care, state-of-the-art facilities, and commitment to improving the lives of all animals Mauro's dedication to his patients and his profession has earned him a reputation as one of the top 5 veterinarians in Brazil

Annual mean wage of veterinarians, by state, May 2021

#5 in Best Health Care Jobs | #12 in 100 Best Jobs

Source: www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes291131.htm

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AVMA ECFVG

The

AVMA's Educational Commission for Foreign Veterinary Graduates (ECFVG) is a certification program designed for foreign veterinary graduates who want to practice veterinary medicine in the United States

The ECFVG program consists of four steps, each building on the previous step The first step is to confirm the applicant's veterinary college credentials, verifying that they have completed a veterinary degree program from an accredited institution. The second step is to assess the applicant's English language ability, which is important for communicating effectively with colleagues and clients. The third step assesses the applicant's basic and clinical veterinary science knowledge, including written and clinical components. Finally, the fourth and final step assesses the applicant's ability to integrate veterinary knowledge into practice in the United States. In addition, candidates who enroll in the ECFVG program on or after July 1, 2014, must submit validated Surgical Experience

Documentation forms as proof of having performed, in the five years before the date of CPE application, at least one (1) ovariohysterectomy as the primary surgeon and at least five (5) additional surgical procedures as either the primary or the assistant surgeon. The five additional procedures may be ovariohysterectomies or other surgical procedures. However, each documented surgery should involve all elements of an aseptic surgical procedure, including gowning & gloving, draping of the patient, and use of sterile instrumentation.

An applicant who satisfactorily completes the following four steps (in order) will be awarded an ECFVG certificate:

Provide proof (diploma and final transcripts) of graduation from an AVMA ECFVG®-listed college of veterinary medicine The ECFVG will seek verification of the applicant's credentials by direct request to the college from which the individual claims graduation

Provide proof of comprehension and ability to communicate in the English language by attaining passing scores on the internet-based TOEFL (TOEFL-iBT®) as administered by the Educational Testing Service of Princeton, NJ; OR the International English Language Testing System (IELTS™) as administered by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, the British Council, and IDE Education Australia; OR the Canadian Academic English Language Assessment (CAEL) as administered by Paragon Testing Enterprises, a subsidiary of The University of British Columbia, Canada. For candidates completing secondary school in the United States, United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland), Australia, New Zealand, or Canada (except Quebec), the English language examinations may be waived, provided such candidates submit documentation attesting to at least three years full-time attendance at a secondary (high) school located in one of the above countries and at which the complete language of instruction was English or, for graduates of US high schools only, a certified, notarized, or official copy of the final transcript. A degree from a US college or university

is not considered adequate proof of English language ability

All candidates who enroll in the ECFVG program on or after January 1, 2014, must pass the Basic and Clinical Sciences Examination (BCSE) to satisfy the requirements of Step 3 of the ECFVG program Candidates will no longer be permitted to submit passing scores from the National Board Examination (NBE), Clinical Competency Test (CCT), and/or North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE) to complete Step 3 of the ECFVG program Those candidates who are enrolled in the ECFVG program before January 1, 2014, and have completed the NAVLE during or before the April 2007 administration or the NBE and CCT before the year 2000, can have those original score reports submitted directly from the Veterinary Information Verifying Agency (VIVA) of the American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB) for completion of Step 3 of the ECFVG program.

Attain a passing score on all sections of the Clinical Proficiency Examination (CPE) approved by the ECFVG.

Source: AVMA - https://www avma org/education/ecfvg/ecfvg-policies-and-procedures/steps-ecfvg-certification-program

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THE IMPACT OF THE EB-2

NATIONAL INTEREST WAIVER GREEN CARD IN THE U.S. ECONOMY

LEONARDO FREITAS

Hayman-Woodward.

Expert Opinion

In 2016, the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) issued a policy memorandum based on the result of a case known as "Matter of Dhanasar," which provided guidance on how the EB-2 National Interest Waiver (NIW) category could be used to benefit immigrants who did not have a formal academic degree

The EB-2 National Interest Waiver (NIW) visa is a powerful tool for foreign professionals seeking to work and live in the United States. This visa allows individuals with advanced degrees or exceptional ability to bypass the traditional labor certification process and apply for a green card on their own.

Before the "Matter of Dhanasar," the EB-2 NIW was only available to individuals who held an advanced degree or who demonstrated exceptional ability in their field However, the new guidance made it possible for professionals, entrepreneurs, artists, athletes, and even persons of specialized skills and knowledge who did not have a formal academic degree to be eligible for the EB-2 NIW

This change opened up the immigration system to a wider range of individuals who could contribute their skills and expertise to the United States. In a post-pandemic era, these professionals, entrepreneurs, artists, athletes, and others with specialized skills and knowledge can play a critical role in the sustainability and growth of the US economy.

For example, entrepreneurs and innovators with specialized skills and knowledge can start new companies and create jobs, while professionals and artists can bring new perspectives and ideas to their respective industries Athletes can bring attention and economic activity to their respective sports and entertainment industry.

All of these individuals have the potential to make significant contributions to the economy and the overall well-being of the United States

The shift in the adjudication policy of the USCIS based on the "Matter of Dhanasar" has had a significant impact on the immigration system and has allowed a wider range of individuals to contribute their skills and expertise to the United States, helping to drive economic growth and sustainability in a post-pandemic era.

One of the major advantages of the EB-2 NIW is that it allows highly skilled professionals to contribute their expertise and drive innovation in various industries. It also allows these highly skilled professionals to assist industry leaders and decision-makers, leading to the creation of new jobs and an overall boost to the economy For example, foreign scientists and engineers who are granted the EB-2 NIW can work on cutting-edge research and development projects, helping to drive technological progress and economic growth

In the healthcare industry, the EB-2 NIW allows foreign doctors and other medical professionals to practice in the United States, providing muchneeded medical care to underserved communities and addressing shortages of healthcare providers in certain areas.

This can lead to the creation of new jobs and an overall boost to the economy. For example, foreign scientists and engineers who are granted the EB-2 NIW can work on cutting-edge research and development projects, helping to drive technological progress and economic growth

In the healthcare industry, the EB-2 NIW allows foreign doctors and other medical professionals to practice in the United States, providing muchneeded medical care to underserved communities.

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This can help to address shortages of healthcare providers in certain areas of the country and improve access to care for patients.

The EB-2 NIW can also have a positive impact on the logistics industry, as it allows foreign professionals with expertise in this field to work in the United States

This can help to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the logistics industry, which plays a vital role in the functioning of the economy.

One of the industries that has been positively impacted by the EB-2 NIW is the airline industry, specifically in regards to the pilot shortage currently affecting the United States.

The demand for pilots in the United States has been increasing in recent years due to a combination of factors, including an aging pilot population and the growth of the airline industry. However, there is a shortage of qualified pilots available to meet this demand, leading to a pilot shortage that has the potential to negatively impact the economy

One solution to this pilot shortage is to allow more foreign pilots to obtain the EB-2 NIW and work in the United States. This would provide a source of qualified pilots to help meet the demand and ensure that the airline industry can continue to operate smoothly. In addition, the presence of foreign pilots can bring a diverse range of skills and experiences to the industry, potentially leading to further innovation and growth.

In the education sector, the EB-2 NIW allows foreign educators and researchers to work in the United States This can bring new perspectives and ideas to American classrooms and research institutions, enriching the educational experience for students and faculty

According to a report by the National Foundation for American Policy, immigrants who have received the EB-2 NIW have started or been a key member of a team that started 256 companies in the United States These companies have created an estimated 45,933 jobs and generated over $11.2 billion in sales.

A study by the American Enterprise Institute and the Partnership for a New American Economy found that immigrants who received the EB-2 NIW were awarded patents at a rate nearly two and a half times higher than the rate for native-born Americans. These patents are often the basis for new companies and industries, leading to further economic growth.

In addition to the direct economic contributions made by EB-2 NIW holders, their presence in the workforce can also lead to indirect economic benefits For example, the presence of highly skilled foreign professionals can lead to the creation of more jobs for native-born workers, as these professionals often work in industries that require support staff and other employees.

According to data from the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), the top 10 nationalities of individuals who have been approved for the EB-2 National Interest Waiver (NIW) are:

India

China

Brazil

Mexico

Philippines South Korea
Taiwan Canada Bangladesh Vietnam
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It is worth noting that only 39.2% of these applicants hold an advanced degree, and that the majority of these approvals were granted based on the exceptional ability or a degree of expertise significantly above the average encountered in arts science or business

While the EB-2 National Interest Waiver (NIW) is typically available to individuals with an advanced degree or who demonstrate exceptional ability in their field, the current specific requirements for the EB-2 NIW are somewhat flexible and may vary depending on the individual's circumstances.

According to the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), an individual may be eligible for the EB-2 NIW if they can demonstrate that their work in the United States is in the national interest and they meet one of the following criteria:

Hold an advanced degree (e.g., a Master's degree or higher)

Demonstrate exceptional ability in their field (e g , through awards, publications, or membership in professional organizations)

Meet the criteria for the "exceptional ability" category, but also demonstrate that a waiver of the labor certification requirement would be in the national interest

Therefore, it is possible that some individuals who do not have an advanced degree or demonstrate exceptional ability may still be eligible for the EB-2 NIW if they can show that their work in the United States is in the national interest and that a waiver of the labor certification requirement would be beneficial.

The labor certification process, which is required for many employment-based visas, can be costly, time-consuming, and complex, and it involves obtaining approval from the Department of Labor (DOL) to hire a foreign worker

The EB-2 NIW offers a potential alternative to the labor certification process for certain highly skilled foreign professionals. By allowing these individuals to apply for a green card without the need for a labor certification, the EB-2 NIW can provide a more efficient and streamlined path for these professionals to work and live in the United States

For employers, the EB-2 NIW can also be a useful tool for recruiting and retaining highly skilled foreign professionals. By allowing these individuals to apply for a green card on their own, employers can avoid the need to go through the labor certification process, which can be costly and time-consuming.

It is a useful solution for highly skilled foreign professionals who want to work and live in the United States and for employers who want to hire and retain these individuals. The EB-2 NIW offers a more efficient and streamlined alternative to the labor certification process and can help to ensure that highly skilled foreign professionals are able to contribute their expertise and drive innovation in various industries in the United States

Overall, the EB-2 NIW visa category has the potential to further positively impact the United States on various sectors of the economy, as more highly skilled foreign professionals seek to use this visa to contribute their skills and expertise to various industries in the country.

It is likely that these positive impacts will continue to be felt in the next 50 years.

Leonardo Freitas is the Founder, Chairman, and CEO of Hayman-Woodward; Mr Leonardo Freitas explains recent immigration trends and why 2022 may be the year for qualified professionals to relocate to the United States. Leonardo Freitas is our columnist on entrepreneurship, high-skilled workforce, global mobility, and related immigration issues.

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Expert Opinion

IMMIGRANT WORKERS HAVE BEEN A VITAL PART IMMIGRANT WORKERS HAVE BEEN A VITAL PART OF THE U.S. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY FOR MANY OF THE U.S. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY FOR MANY YEARS, PROVIDING THE LABOR NEEDED TO GROW YEARS, PROVIDING THE LABOR NEEDED TO GROW AND HARVEST THE COUNTRY'S CROPS, WITH 73% AND HARVEST THE COUNTRY'S CROPS, WITH 73% OF CROP FARM WORKERS AND 48% OF CROP FARM WORKERS AND 48% OF HIRED OF HIRED CROP FARMWORKERS BEING IMMIGRANT CROP FARMWORKERS BEING IMMIGRANT WORKERS. WORKERS

These numbers highlight the significant These numbers highlight the significant contribution that immigrant workers make to the contribution that immigrant workers make to the agriculture sector. agriculture sector.

The bill will: The bill will:

Such an important source of labor for many

Such an important source of labor for many agricultural operations, especially those that require agricultural operations, especially those that require a large workforce for seasonal crops like fruits and a large workforce for seasonal crops like fruits and vegetables, needs more attention In recent years, vegetables, needs more attention. In recent years, there has been a growing debate about the need for there has been a growing debate about the need for comprehensive immigration reform that would allow comprehensive immigration reform that would allow these workers to be hired properly and ensures they these workers to be hired properly and ensures they are treated fairly are treated fairly.

The H-2A Temporary Agricultural Program allows The H-2A Temporary Agricultural Program allows farmers to hire foreign-born seasonal workers, but farmers to hire foreign-born seasonal workers, but year-round industries such as dairy and poultry year-round industries such as dairy and poultry production facilities need more than that. production facilities need more than that.

Despite the challenges that immigrant workers face, Despite the that immigrant workers face, their contribution to the U.S. economy and to the their contribution to the U.S. economy and to the agricultural sector, in particular, cannot be agricultural sector, in particular, cannot be overstated. They play a crucial role in helping to overstated They play a crucial role in helping to ensure that America has a stable and reliable source ensure that America has a stable and reliable source of food, and their work helps to keep the U.S. of food, and their work helps to keep the U S agricultural industry competitive in a global market. agricultural industry competitive in a global market

Recent immigration reform initiatives, such as the Recent immigration reform initiatives, such as the Farm Workforce Modernization Act, aim to increase Farm Workforce Modernization Act, aim to increase the number of legal foreign workers available to the number of legal foreign workers available to farms, increase food production, and lower prices for farms, increase food production, and lower prices for all consumers all consumers.

The Farm Workforce Modernization Act passed the The Farm Workforce Modernization Act passed the House of Representatives in 2019 and 2021 and now House of Representatives in 2019 and 2021 and now awaits further action by the U S Senate The bill awaits further action by the U.S. Senate. The bill makes meaningful reforms to the H-2A agricultural makes meaningful reforms to the H-2A agricultural guest-worker program and creates a first-of-its-kind, guest-worker program and creates a first-of-its-kind, merit-based visa program specifically designed for merit-based visa program specifically designed for the nation's agricultural sector. the nation's agricultural sector.

Establish a program for agricultural workers in Establish a program for agricultural workers in the United States to earn legal status through the United States to earn legal status through continued agricultural employment and continued agricultural employment and contribution to the U.S. agricultural economy. contribution to the U.S. agricultural economy. Reform the H-2A program to provide more Reform the H-2A program to provide more flexibility for employers, while ensuring flexibility for employers, while ensuring critical protections for workers. The bill critical protections for workers The bill focuses on modifications to make the program focuses on modifications to make the program more responsive and user-friendly for more responsive and user-friendly for employers and provides access to the employers and provides access to the program for industries with year-round labor program for industries with year-round labor needs. needs

Establish mandatory, nationwide E-Verify Establish mandatory, nationwide E-Verify system for all agricultural employment with a system for all agricultural employment with a structured phase-in and guaranteed due structured phase-in and guaranteed due process for authorized workers who are process for authorized workers who are incorrectly rejected by the system incorrectly rejected by the system.

The executive worked in the best hotels in Brazil, The worked in the best hotels in Brazil, including the Copacabana Palace and Fasano, where including the Copacabana and Fasano, where he developed his business development skills for an he developed his business development skills for an upscale and high-net-worth clientele Following this upscale and high-net-worth clientele Following this experience, he worked for several years as a experience, he worked for several years as a gastronomic consultant for Nestlé in Brazil before gastronomic consultant for Nestlé in Brazil before developing a solid career at Harley-Davidson. He now developing a solid career at Harley-Davidson He now holds the Director of Business Development position holds the Director of Business Development position for HAYMAN-WOODWARD’s Dubai branch in the UAE for HAYMAN-WOODWARD’s branch in the UAE.

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LLuiz Franca Filho is a celebrated business LLuiz Franca Filho is a celebrated business development director and expert in the hospitality, development director expert in the hospitality, food, and services. food, and services

The Farmer’s Dilemma:

Climate Change, Food Security, and Human Mobility

Agriculture is the backbone of many economies Agriculture is the backbone of many economies and societies worldwide, providing billions of and societies worldwide, providing billions of people with food and livelihoods However, people with food and livelihoods. However, climate change has presented a significant climate change has presented a significant challenge for farmers, especially those in challenge for farmers, especially those in developing countries who rely on basic tools, developing countries who rely on basic tools, minimal technology, and rainfall to cultivate their minimal technology, and rainfall to cultivate their crops The impact of climate change on agriculture crops. The impact of climate change on agriculture has the potential to exacerbate food insecurity, has the potential to exacerbate food insecurity, poverty, and human mobility, which all pose a poverty, and human mobility, which all pose a threat to sustainable development threat to sustainable development.

The farmer's dilemma is a complex issue that The farmer's dilemma is a complex issue that requires urgent attention One of the key requires urgent attention. One of the key challenges is improving agricultural productivity challenges is improving agricultural productivity while mitigating climate change's negative while mitigating climate change's negative impacts Small-scale farmers, in particular, are impacts. Small-scale farmers, in particular, are vulnerable to changing weather patterns, as they vulnerable to changing weather patterns, as they lack the resources and capacity to adapt to the lack the resources and capacity to adapt to the changing climate As a result, they often changing climate. As a result, they often experience reduced yields, lower crop quality, and experience reduced yields, lower crop quality, and food shortages, leading to malnutrition and food shortages, leading to malnutrition and hunger. hunger.

Sustainable food security is about more than just Sustainable food security is about more than just ensuring an adequate quantity of food; it's also ensuring an adequate quantity of food; it's also about food quality. Climate change can affect crop about food quality Climate change can affect crop quality, leading to nutrient deficiencies and other quality, leading to nutrient deficiencies and other health problems. For example, as the level of health problems For example, as the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, it can carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, it can cause a reduction in the protein, iron, and zinc cause a reduction in the protein, iron, and zinc content of some crops, such as rice and wheat. content of some crops, such as rice and wheat

This reduction in nutrient content can have severe

This reduction in nutrient content can have severe consequences for the health and well-being of consequences for the health and well-being of millions of people, particularly in regions where millions of people, particularly in regions where these crops are a significant source of nutrition these crops are a significant source of nutrition.

To tackle the farmer's dilemma, there needs to be

To tackle the farmer's dilemma, there needs to be a focus on climate-smart agriculture, which a focus on climate-smart agriculture, which involves practices that increase agricultural involves practices that increase agricultural productivity, resilience, and adaptation to climate productivity, resilience, and adaptation to climate change. Climate-smart agriculture also focuses on change. Climate-smart agriculture also focuses on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving carbon sequestration in the soil. These practices carbon sequestration in the soil These practices can include the use of drought-resistant crops, can include the use of drought-resistant crops, conservation agriculture, and sustainable land conservation agriculture, and sustainable land management. management

Furthermore, technology can play a significant role Furthermore, technology can play a significant role in supporting small-scale farmers in adapting to in supporting small-scale farmers in adapting to climate change. For example, access to climate climate change For example, access to climate information and early warning systems can help information and early warning systems can help farmers prepare for weather events and make farmers prepare for weather events and make informed decisions about planting and harvesting. informed decisions about planting and harvesting Additionally, the use of mobile phones and other Additionally, the use of mobile phones and other technologies can help farmers access markets, technologies can help farmers access markets, financial services, and other information that can financial services, and other information that can improve their livelihoods. improve their livelihoods

The farmer's dilemma is a critical issue that The farmer's dilemma is a critical issue that requires urgent attention. Improving agricultural requires urgent attention Improving agricultural productivity and boosting nutrition is essential, but productivity and boosting nutrition is essential, but this must be done in a way that is climate-smart this must be done in a way that is climate-smart and sustainable. Small-scale farmers, in particular, and sustainable Small-scale farmers, in particular, need support to adapt to the changing climate and need support to adapt to the changing climate and ensure food security for their families and ensure food security for their families and communities. With the right policies, investments, communities With the right policies, investments, and technologies, it is possible to achieve and technologies, it is possible to achieve sustainable food security that benefits both sustainable food security that benefits both farmers and consumers alike farmers and consumers alike

"SMALL-SCALE FARMERS STILL RELY ON BASIC TOOLS, MINIMAL TECHNOLOGY, AND RAINFALL TO CULTIVATE THEIR CROPS, WHICH EXACERBATES THEIR VULNERABILITY TO CHANGING WEATHER PATTERNS AND OTHER STRESSORS THAT AFFECT FOOD SECURITY."
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Foreign Ownership: U.S. Agricultural Land

We need to restrict foreign investment and We need to restrict foreign investment and ownership in the U S food and agriculture sector ownership in the U.S. food and agriculture sector and ascertain reporting requirements for the U.S. and ascertain reporting requirements for the U S Department of Agriculture (USDA) to disclose Department of Agriculture (USDA) to disclose foreign ownership of U.S. agricultural lands. foreign ownership of U S agricultural lands

Existing Federal Requirements: Existing Federal Requirements: current federal current federal law imposes law imposes no restrictions on the amount of no restrictions on the amount of private U.S. agricultural land that can be private U.S. agricultural land that can be fforeign-owned. oreign-owned. Federal law, however, requires Federal law, however, requires foreign persons and entities to disclose foreign persons and entities to disclose information related to foreign investment and information related to foreign investment and ownership of U S agricultural land to USDA ownership of U.S. agricultural land to USDA.

Existing State Requirements: Existing State Requirements: Some states and Some states and localities have instituted restrictions on foreign localities have instituted restrictions on foreign ownership of farmland. ownership of farmland. However, no U.S. state However, no U.S. state has created an absolute prohibition on foreign has created an absolute prohibition on foreign ownership. ownership. Some states limit or have proposed Some states limit or have proposed prohibiting certain foreign persons and entities prohibiting certain foreign persons and entities from acquiring or owning an interest in agricultural from acquiring or owning an interest in agricultural land within their state, and several states have land within their state, and several states have different disclosure requirements. different disclosure requirements USDA has USDA has identified 339 counties in Iowa, Kansas, identified 339 counties in Iowa, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin as having the Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin as having the strictest prohibitions on foreign ownership of strictest prohibitions on foreign ownership of agricultural land and other nonagricultural real agricultural land and other nonagricultural real estates. estates. There is no single uniform approach There is no single uniform approach under state laws to addressing foreign ownership. under state laws to addressing foreign ownership.

Already, Already, six states have laws banning foreign six states have laws banning foreign ownership of farmland. ownership of farmland. Those states are Those states are Hawaii, Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota, Mississippi, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, Mississippi, North Dakota, and Oklahoma State. Virginia could be the next and Oklahoma State. Virginia could be the next to ban foreign adversaries from buying farmland in to ban foreign adversaries from buying farmland in the commonwealth. But Chinese investors can the commonwealth But Chinese investors can circumvent Chinese land ownership restrictions by circumvent Chinese land ownership restrictions by buying large U.S. corporations that own buying large U S corporations that own agricultural land. agricultural land

Land grabbing, the practice of purchasing large Land grabbing, the practice of purchasing large tracts of land in another country, is a global tracts of land in another country, is a global phenomenon that can have negative impacts on phenomenon that can have negative impacts on local land rights and agricultural production, local land rights and agricultural production, potentially jeopardizing food security While the potentially jeopardizing food security. While the media has covered land grabbing in low- and media has covered land grabbing in low- and middle-income countries extensively, this middle-income countries extensively, this phenomenon also occurs in the United States phenomenon also occurs in the United States. IIn n fact, according to the U.S. Department of fact, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, foreign ownership of U.S. Agriculture, foreign ownership of U.S. agricultural land doubled from 2009 to 2019, agricultural land doubled from 2009 to 2019, leading policymakers to become increasingly leading policymakers to become increasingly concerned about foreign control of the U.S. food concerned about foreign control of the U.S. food supply. supply.

Foreign entities purchase U.S. farmland for Foreign entities purchase U S farmland for various reasons, including food production, wind various reasons, including food production, wind farming, carbon offsets, and speculative farming, carbon offsets, and speculative iinvestments. nvestments. In 2019, foreign investors own at In 2019, foreign investors own at least 35.2 million acres of U.S. agricultural land, least 35.2 million acres of U.S. agricultural land, with the largest share held by Canadian with the largest share held by Canadian investors (29 percent), followed by the investors (29 percent), followed by the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and the United Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Although Chinese companies' land Kingdom. Although Chinese companies' land purchases have been the focus of increased purchases have been the focus of increased scrutiny, investors from China own only a tiny scrutiny, investors from China only a tiny fraction of U.S. farmland. fraction of U.S. farmland.

While these purchases do not represent a

While these purchases do not represent a substantial enough portion of U.S. food production substantial enough portion of U S food production to threaten national food security, they do present to threaten national food security, they do present localized concerns in the places where they occur. localized concerns in the places where they occur For example, in water-scarce regions like the For example, in water-scarce regions like the Southwest, external use of freshwater resources Southwest, external use of freshwater resources can affect water availability for local farms and can affect water availability for local farms and communities. Additionally, the 2013 purchase of communities. Additionally, the 2013 purchase of Smithfield Foods by the Chinese firm Shuanghui Smithfield Foods by the Chinese firm Shuanghui escalated concerns about Chinese intervention in escalated concerns about Chinese intervention in U S food systems, leading to increased scrutiny of U.S. food systems, leading to increased scrutiny of

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acquisitions by Chinese investors acquisitions by Chinese investors.

Regulations regarding foreign ownership of U S Regulations regarding foreign ownership of U.S. farmland are scant, with only the Agricultural farmland are scant, with only the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978 providing any federal oversight. While the 1978 providing any federal oversight While the USDA requires foreign entities to report farmland USDA requires foreign entities to report farmland transactions, the data relies on self-reporting, and transactions, the data relies on self-reporting, and the USDA needs to check it for completeness and the USDA needs to check it for completeness and accuracy, leaving the public with a complete accuracy, leaving the public with a complete picture of foreign purchases of U.S. farmland. On of foreign purchases of U S farmland On the state level, regulations vary, with some states the state level, regulations vary, with some states forbidding any foreign landholdings and others forbidding any foreign landholdings and others putting caps on the amount foreign land entities putting caps on the amount foreign land entities can own. can own.

food security is why up-and-coming U S farmers food security is why up-and-coming U.S. farmers cannot buy the land they need According to the cannot buy the land they need. According to the National Young Farmers Coalition, young and National Young Farmers Coalition, young and aspiring farmers say access to land is their most aspiring farmers say access to land is their most significant barrier to starting a successful farm significant barrier to starting a successful farm business. business With an aging U.S. farmer population With an aging U.S. farmer population and not enough new farmers able to enter the and not enough new farmers able to enter the industry, more land will inevitably be converted industry, more land will inevitably be converted to other uses or sold to foreign and domestic to other uses or sold to foreign and domestic investors unless policies are implemented to investors unless policies are implemented to support the next generation of farmers. support the next generation of farmers.

Policymakers should consider the many threats

The more significant concern for long-term U S

The more significant concern for long-term U.S.

Policymakers should consider the many threats facing the future of the U.S. food system and facing the future of the U.S. food system and ensure that current and aspiring farmers have the ensure that current and aspiring farmers have the resources they need to secure long-term U S food resources they need to secure long-term U.S. food production, starting with access to affordable production, starting with access to affordable ffarmland armland.

Overview of Selected State Law Related to Foreign Ownership of U.S. Agricultural Land

Source: CRS using data from National Agricultural Law Center, at https://nationalaglawcenter org/statecompilations/aglandownership/, as depicted at https://nalcpro wpenginepowered com/wp-content/ uploads//assets/Webinars/Foreign-Land-Ownership.pdf.

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