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6-BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 6-1 Stress Management 6-2 Conflict ManagementNegotiation 6-3 Anger Management

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Author: Prof.Tomas Ganiron Jr

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6-1 Stress Management

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WHAT IS STRESS? • It is your mind and body’s response or

reaction to a real or imagined threat, event or change. * The threat, event or change are commonly called stressors. Stressors can be internal (thoughts, beliefs, attitudes or external (loss, tragedy, change).

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1.

EUSTRESS

2.

DISTRESS

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1. EUSTRESS ď‚— This is caused by happy and exciting events in our

lives such as Child birth, graduation, promotion, going abroad and weddings.

ď‚— This stress is positive, progressive, normal,

necessary, tolerable and manageable.

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2. DISTRESS  This is caused by sad and unexpected events in our

lives such as death, ill-health, divorce and loss of a job

 This stress is negative, abnormal, regressive, and

disturbing.

 This is the stress that needs to be managed.

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BURNOUT  It is the lethargic feeling that comes in when

someone’s energy is depleted, at which time they no longer feel like doing anything.

 It is not only about the work place. It is about life

issues too. People lose enthusiasm and become pessimistic. They view everything as an impossibility and they no longer have the vigour to go on

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ALARM STAGE * As you begin to experience a stressful event

or perceive something to be stressful psychological changes occur in your body. * This experience or perception disrupts your body’s normal balance and immediately your body begins to respond to the stressor(s) as effectively as possible.

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SYMPTOMS OF ALARM STAGE * * * *

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Cardiac - increased heart rate Respiratory - increased respiration Skin - decreased temperature Hormonal - increased stimulation of adrenal genes which produce an adrenal rush.

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RESISTANCE STAGE During this stage your body tries to cope or adapt to the stressors by beginning a process of repairing any damage the stressor has caused. Your friends, family or co-workers may notice changes in you before you do so it is important to examine their feedback to make sure you do not reach overload.

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SYMPTOMS OF RESISTANCE STAGE * Behavior indicators include lack of enthusiasm for family, school, work or life in general, withdrawal, change in eating habits, insomnia, hypersomnia, anger, fatigue. * Cognitive indicators include- poor problem solving, confusion, nightmares, hyper-vigilance. 4/20/2011

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EXHAUSTION STAGE During this stage the stressor is not being managed effectively and the body and mind are not able to repair the damage.

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EXAMPLES OF EXHAUSTION STAGE Digestive disorders, withdrawal, headaches, tension, insomnia, loss of temper.

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SOURCES OF STRESS IN AN ORGANIZATION  Tight deadlines  Work load/less work load  Frequent transfers  Long working hours  Repetitive nature of work  Low job satisfaction

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SOURCES OF STRESS IN AN ORGANIZATION cont-- Field work  Cultural diversity  Obsession with work  Inadequate resources  Lack of proper communication  Different expectations  Weather conditions

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SYMPTOMS OF STRESS PHYSICAL SIGNS  Overeating/eating too little  Tension/headaches  Fatigue  Muscle aches  Substance abuse  Indigestion

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SYMPTOMS OF STRESS EMOTIONAL SIGNS  Anxiety  Frustration  Mood swings  Bad Temper  Nervousness  Crying spells  Lack of self esteem & confidence

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SYMPTOMS OF STRESS MEDICAL SIGNS  Ulcers  High blood pressure  Insomnia  Loss of libido (interest in sex)  Fainting  Colds, flu, bronchial asthma & other infections

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Stress Management  This is all about taking charge: taking charge of your

thoughts, your emotions, your schedule, your environment, and the way you deal with problems.  The ultimate goal is a balanced life, with time for work,

relationships, relaxation, and fun – plus the resilience to hold up under pressure and meet challenges head on.

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PROPER STRESS COPING MECHANISMS 1. Become Self Aware  One way of doing this is understanding your self concept. This helps one to accept situations and look for realistic solutions knowing that life needs to go on.  This means that one will be able to orient rapidly to

change & accept to get help from external sources

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PROPER STRESS COPING MECHANISMS cont---

2. Develop and Maintain a positive Attitude ď‚— Psychology says that we have the ability within us to

choose our feelings and attitudes irrespective of the situation we are going through

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PROPER STRESS COPING MECHANISMS cont--4. Develop Hobbies  Don’t just sit there staring into space. Get up and swim, walk, watch a play, dance, join the choir or do community work. 5. Manage your Time  Make time for yourself and make your priorities right.  Empower your juniors by delegating without abdicating 4/20/2011

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PROPER STRESS COPING MECHANISMS cont--6. Understand your environment ď‚— It is your responsibility to know your operating environment. What is your boss like? What does he/she like? Who are the decision makers? ď‚— Appreciate that your boss also has his/her own

stress.

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PROPER STRESS COPING MECHANISMS cont--7. Be Proactive  Stephen R. Covey (1989) in his book, ‘The 7 habits

of effective people’ states that reactive people are affected by the weather but proactive people carry their weather with them. Whether it rains or shines makes no difference to them. They are value driven.

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PROPER STRESS COPING MECHANISMS cont--8. Eat Well  Three square meal a day!! Proper nutrition is

important. A good breakfast is a must if you are to stop craving for unhealthy snacks at 10 o’clock.

 Avoid processed foods and unnecessary sugar

intake.

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PROPER STRESS COPING MECHANISMS cont--9. Nurture your Love life  The sacrifices each one in the relationship makes

with both partners respecting their individuality and developing one another become cushions in times of trouble.

 Stable emotions boost one’s whole being

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PROPER STRESS COPING MECHANISMS cont--10. Keep good grooming  This uplifts one’s self esteem and restores the lost

self image which is destroyed by stress.

11. Exercise regularly

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SUGGESTED RELAXATION ACTIVITIES TO REDUCE STRESS  Deep breathing: This can be done even as one is

seated on the office chair  Going for a walk: Gives one a chance to ‘smell the flowers’  Take up a sport: Keeps your body active and takes up your idle time  Meditation: Religious or other forms: Away to seek peace.

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SUGGESTED RELAXATION ACTIVITIES TO REDUCE STRESS  A picnic out with the family: Enjoy different

surroundings from usual  Vigorous Dancing: Good exercise to release negative energy  Gardening: Gives you a chance for outdoor activities  Learning to speak a new Language: Improves your self esteem

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Definition of Conflict  A condition that exists anytime two or more

people disagree  Is a form of competition between perceived or

actual incompatible needs, goals, desires, ideas, or resources(collectively called interests the “desired state”).  A natural phenomenon, neither inherently good

or bad, but there may be positive or negative outcomes. 4/20/2011

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Causes of conflict  Conflict of aims- different goals  Conflict of ideas- different interpretations  Conflict of attitudes - different opinions  Conflict of behavior- different behaviors are

unacceptable

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Conflict Management ď‚— It involves implementing strategies to limit the

negative aspects of conflict and to increase the positive aspects of conflict at a level equal to or higher than where the conflict is taking place. ď‚— To enhance learning and group outcomes and not

concerned with eliminating all conflict or avoiding conflict.

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Conflict Management In situations of crisis and potential conflict always remember star

STAR We need to:

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STOP THINK ANALYSE RESPOND Author: Prof.Tomas Ganiron Jr

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Conflict Resolution Strategies  AVOIDANCE  FORCE  ACCOMMODATE  COMPROMISE  COLLABORATE

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Wait/See Win/Lose Lose/Win Lose/Win Win/Win

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Conflict Management Strategies

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Conflict Continuum I win, you lose (competition—A) I lose or give in (accommodate—B) We both get something (compromise—C) We both “win”(collaborate—D) A B C D

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1. Force (Competition) ď‚— This is a type of conflict management strategy by using

formal authority or other power that you possess to satisfy your concerns without regard to the concerns of the party that you are in conflict with.

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1. Force (Competition)  Plus  The winner is clear  Winners usually experience gains  Minus  Establishes the battleground for the next conflict  May cause worthy competitors to withdraw or leave the organization

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2. Accommodate ď‚— This is a type of conflict management strategy by allowing the other party to satisfy their concerns

while neglecting your own.

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2. Accommodation  Plus  Curtails conflict situation  Enhances ego of the other  Minus  Sometimes establishes a precedence  Does not fully engage participants

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3. Avoidance ď‚— This is a type of conflict management strategy by not

paying attention to the conflict and not taking any action to resolve it.

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4. Compromise ď‚— This is a type of conflict management strategy by

attempting to resolve a conflict through identifying a solution that is partially satisfactory to both parties, but completely satisfactory to neither.

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4. Compromise  Plus  Shows good will  Establishes friendship  Minus  No one gets what they want  May feel like a dead end

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5. Collaborate ď‚— This is a type of conflict management strategy cooperating

with the other party to understand their concerns and expressing your own concerns in an effort to find a mutually and completely satisfactory solution (win-win).

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5. Collaboration  Plus  Everyone “wins”  Creates good feelings  Minus  Hard to achieve since no one knows how  Often confusing since players can “win” something they didn’t know they wanted

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Tips for Managing Workplace Conflict  Build good relationships before conflict occurs  Do not let small problems escalate; deal with them as they      

arise Respect differences Listen to others’ perspectives on the conflict situation Acknowledge feelings before focussing on facts Focus on solving problems, not changing people If you can’t resolve the problem, turn to someone who can help Remember to adapt your style to the situation and persons involved

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Author: Prof.Tomas Ganiron Jr


WHAT IS NEGOTIATION ?  The word "negotiation" originated from the Latin

expression, "negotiatus", which means "to carry on business".  The process of conferring to arrive at an agreement

between different parties, each with their own interests and preferences.  “A give-and-take decision-making process involving

interdependent parties with different preferences.”

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Why do we NEGOTIATE ?  To reach an agreement  To beat the opposition  To compromise

 To settle an argument  To make a point

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TYPES OF NEGOTIATION  Distributive Negotiation  Integrative Negotiation

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st 1

Type: Distributive Negotiation

 Parties compete over the distribution of a fixed sum of

value. The key question in a distributed negotiation is, “Who will claim the most value?” A gain by one side is made at the expanse of other.  The Seller’s goal is to negotiate as high a price as possible;

the Buyer’s goal is to negotiate as low a price as possible.  Thus, the deal is confined: there are not much

opportunities for creativity or for enlarging the scope of the negotiation. 4/20/2011

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2nd Type: Integrative Negotiation  In

Integrative Negotiation, parties cooperate to achieve maximize benefits by integrating their interests into an agreement. This is also known as a win-win negotiation.

* The key questions is: “How can the resource best be utilized?”  Integrative negotiations tend to occur in following situations:  – Structuring of complex long-term Strategic Relationships or

other collaborations.  – When the deal involves many financial and non-financial terms.

 In an integrative negotiation,, there are many items and issues to

be negotiated, and the goal of each side is to “create” as much value as possible for itself and the other side.

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BATNA BATNA is an acronym for:

Best Alternative To a

Negotiated Agreement 4/20/2011

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Why BATNAs Matter  BATNAs tell you when to accept and when to reject an

agreement When a proposal is better than your BATNA: ACCEPT

IT When a proposal is worse than your BATNA: REJECT

IT

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BATNA  “Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement”  Develop “your” BATNA  - List your alternatives  - Evaluate your alternatives  - Establish your best as your BATNA  Consider “their” BATNA

 Have a Reservation Point – the least you will accept  List their alternatives – their BATNA 4/20/2011

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BATNA Example

Example: [Showroom salesman V/s customers]

 A persons go for car

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purchase. [To negotiate with showroom sales man for lesser price]

 The car owner is not

agreeing for the lesser price.  Than customer can ask for Radial tires[best alternative] with any increase in price further. Author: Prof.Tomas Ganiron Jr

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NEGOTIATION TIPS 1) Do not underestimate your power.

2) Do not assume that other party knows

your weaknesses. 3) It is a mistake to assume you know what the other party wants. 4) Never accept the 1st offer. 5) Don’t fear to negotiate.

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SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATION  Preparation and planning skill  Knowledge of the subject  Ability to think clearly and rapidly

under pressure and uncertainty  Ability to express thoughts verbally  Listening skill  Patience  General problem-solving and analytical skills 4/20/2011

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6-3 Anger Management

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What is Anger?

Anger is "an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage." - Charles Spielberger, PhD 4/20/2011

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Anger is:  a result of our thinking  a choice  controlled by your own thinking

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Anger is not:  a reflex  automatic  caused by others 61


SYMPTOMS OF ANGER EXPRESSION 1. PASSIVE ANGER

2. AGGRESSIVE ANGER

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1. PASSIVE ANGER ď‚— Dispassion-such as giving the cold shoulder or phony

smiles, looking unconcerned, sitting on the fence while others sort things out, dampening feelings with substance abuse, overeating, and oversleeping.

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1. PASSIVE ANGER ď‚— Evasiveness- such as turning your back in a crisis,

avoiding conflict, not arguing back, becoming phobic. ď‚— Ineffectualness- such as setting yourself and others

up for failure, choosing unreliable people to depend on, being accident prone, underachieving, sexual impotence, expressing frustration at insignificant things but ignoring serious ones.

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1. PASSIVE ANGER ď‚— Obsessive Behavior-such as needing to be

inordinately clean and tidy, making a habit of constantly checking things, over-dieting or overeating, demanding that all jobs be done perfectly.

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1. PASSIVE ANGER ď‚— Psychological Manipulation- such as, sabotaging

relationships, using sexual provocation, using a third party to convey negative feelings, withholding money or resources

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1. PASSIVE ANGER ď‚— Secretive Behavior -such as giving the silent

treatment or under the breath mutterings, avoiding eye contact, putting people down, anonymous complaints, poison pen letters and stealing.

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1. PASSIVE ANGER ď‚— Self Blame-, such as apologizing too often, being

overly critical, inviting criticism. ď‚— Self sacrifice-such as being overly helpful, making do

with second best, quietly making long suffering signs but refusing help, or lapping up gratefulness

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2. AGGRESSIVE ANGER  Bullying- such as threatening people directly,

persecuting, pushing or shoving, using power to oppress, shouting, driving someone off the road, playing on people‘s weaknesses.  Destructiveness, such as destroying objects, harming

animals, destroying a relationship, reckless driving, substance abuse,

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2. AGGRESSIVE ANGER ď‚— Grandiosity- such as showing off, expressing

mistrust, not delegating, being a sore loser, wanting center stage all the time, not listening, talking over people's heads, expecting kiss and make-up sessions to solve problems.

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2. AGGRESSIVE ANGER ď‚— Hurtfulness- such as physical violence, including

sexual abuse and rape, verbal abuse, biased or vulgar jokes, breaking a confidence, using foul language, ignoring people’s feelings, discriminating d, blaming, punishing people for unwarranted deeds, labeling others.

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2. AGGRESSIVE ANGER ď‚— Manic behavior- such as speaking too fast, walking

too fast, working too much and expecting others to fit in, driving too fast, reckless spending. ď‚— Selfishness-such as ignoring others' needs, not

responding to requests for help.

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2. AGGRESSIVE ANGER ď‚— Threats, such as frightening people by saying how you

could harm them, finger pointing, excessively blowing a car horn, slamming doors. ď‚— Unjust Blaming-such as accusing other people for

your own mistakes, blaming people for your own feelings, making general accusations.

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2. AGGRESSIVE ANGER ď‚— Unpredictability-such as explosive rages over minor

frustrations, attacking indiscriminately, inflicting harm on others for the sake of it, using alcohol and drugs and illogical arguments. ď‚— Vengeance- such asrefusing to forgive and forget,

bringing up hurtful memories from the past.

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 Feelings of Power  Self-Righteous  Get people’s attention  Make them do what you want

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These are examples of Common factors that can make people angry:

•Losing someone you love •Sexual frustration •Being tired, hungry or pain •Physical withdrawal from certain medicines or drugs 4/20/2011

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Anger Management ď‚— It refers to a system of psychological techniques and

exercises by which someone with excessive or uncontrollable anger& aggression can control or reduce the triggers, degrees, and effects of an angered emotional state.

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The Assertive Problem Solving Style of anger management can be summed up using the ACTS technique.

ACTS A = AWARE of your anger signals C = CONTROL your response T = TALK about the situation in a calm, polite, and assertive manner S = SOLVE the problem through a mutually agreeable plan of action 4/20/2011

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CAN ANGER BE A POSITIVE?  Although anger is often viewed as a negative feeling, it

can be used in a positive way…  Anger provides cues that there is a problem  Anger provides energy and can help motivate action  Anger encourages the expression of feelings

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WAYS TO EASE FEELINGS OF ANGER  Take a walk or engage in some other physical activity  Perform a relaxation exercise (e.g. meditation, 

   

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progressive relaxation, etc.) Read a book Listen to music Watch television Talk to or call a friend Write in your journal Complete chores

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Practicing Relaxation  Progressive relaxation  Take 3 deep abdominal breaths and imagine the tension

leaving your body as you exhale  Clench your fists and hold for up to 10 seconds (use this amount of time for each muscle group). Release.  Tighten your biceps. Release.  Tighten your triceps. Release.  Continue to follow the directions above for each muscle

group making sure you include muscles in your face, shoulders, and core, and continue to breathe deeply.

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• Exercise • Music (Diaphragmatic breathing)

• Classical or sound of nature • Praying (Salah)

• Warm Bath • Massage 4/20/2011

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•Identify a range of feelings including anger

•Identify aggressive acts by self and others •Identify self-destructive behavior •Identify thoughts prior to aggressive acts •Identify internal cues to feelings of anger 4/20/2011

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Anger can be your friend or enemy; it depends on the way in which you choose to express it.

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Anger is a natural part of life. It has many causes and there are many ways to deal with anger. When anger has a connection with spirituality, it is important to acknowledge it and try to understand where the anger is coming from. Often, it is best to go through this process with a trusted professional, such as a therapist or appropriately trained spiritual leader.

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