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Address Hlaing Kyi Phyu Dhamma Vira Publishing House Head Office: Blk (1), Rm(R6), Myanmar InfoTech, Hlaing Ts, Yangon. Branch Office: No. 50, 2nd Fl. Bank St, Kyauktada Ts, Yangon. Ph: 0980 23992 , 0950 01401 e-Mail - dhammavira@gmail.com

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w,f trsdK;rsdK;qdkawmh vmbfraumif;wJhbk&m; tdrfrSmawmif xm;csifrS xm;r,f? tJ'Dvdkjzpfaew,f? tJ'Dvdk rjzpfygapeJY/ at; jrwfpGmbk&m;&JU b,fvdkyHkawmfyJjzpfjzpf? xdkyHkawmfuae *kPfawmfxdatmif pdwfua&mufoGm;NyD; xdk*kPfawmfudk tm½HkjyK&ojzihf rdrrd mS &&Sw d hJ tusKd ;ubmvJq&kd if xdt k csed rf mS pdwNf ird ;f w,f? avmbawG rjzpfbl;? a'goawGrjzpfbl;? arm[awGrjzpfbl;? pdwfxJrSm ylyefwmawG qif;&JwmawG r&Sdbl;/ tJ'D[m tifrwefrS wefzdk;&Sdw,f/ ylyefrIuif;NyD; pdwfESvHk;at;csrf;NyD;wJhtcg udk,hfqdkif&mtvkyfudk vkyfvdkufr,fqdk&if t&m&m atmifjrifoGm;rSmyg/ [kwf&JUvm;/ bmomjyef 2- rsd K ; 'Dae&mrSm bmomjyefykH interpretation eJY pyfNy;D rSwpf &mav; ajymOD;r,f/ ]]oAÁAk'¨gEkbma0e? o'g okcD b0EÅKaw}} qdkwJh *gxmrSm oAÁAk'¨gEkbma0e yk'fudk bmomjyefwm ESpfrsdK;&Sdw,f/ ]]oAÁAk'¨gEkbma0e- tvHk;pHkaom bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf wdkY\ tpGrf;awaZmftmEkabmfaMumifh? okcD- csrf;omjcif;&Sdonf? a[mwk- jzpfygap?}} 'gu bmomjyefyHkwpfrsdK;/ tJ'v D b kd momjyef&if bk&m;u tpGr;f wefc;kd udk toH;k jyKNy;D awmh csrf;omatmifvkyfay;w,f? bk&m;udk tm;udk;wJhpdwfawG jzpfay:vm apw,f/ [kwv f m;? bmeJo Y mG ;wlwek ;f qd&k if [ked wfb&k m;awG God awGukd udk;uG,fwJh yk*¾dKvfawGeJY rwlbl;vm;/ jrwfpGmbk&m;u vl;wpfa,mufudk csrf;omatmif at;- rif; qif;&Jom;b0uvGwfNyD;awmh 'DuaeY csrf;omap&r,fvdkY tpGrf;wefcdk; udk toHk;jyKwmrsm; Mum;zl;vm;¿ wu,fa&m vufawGUjzpfEdkifyghrvm;/ at; taMumif;wdkufqdkifNyD; jzpfvmvdkY&Sd&ifvnf; bk&m;u ay;wmvdkY pdwfxJu rSwfoGm;a&m? tu,fí rdrdqE´twdkif; jzpfrvm bl;qd&k if 'Db&k m;u rçrbl;qdNk y;D pGeyYf pfawmhrmS aemf/ tJ'aD wmh 'Dbmomjyef yHk r[efbl;/ b,fvdk rSefrSefuefuef bmomjyef&rvJvdkYqdk&if ]]oAÁAk'¨gEk bma0e- tvHk;pHkaombk&m;&SifwdkY\*kPfudk tm½HkjyKojzihf &&SdtyfwJh ukodkvfapwem pGrf;tm;aMumihf}} 'Dvdk bmomjyefrsdK;qdk&if bk&m;&JUwefcdk;aMumifh r[kwfbl;? bk&m;udk tm½Hjk yKwt hJ cg ukov kd &f w,f? xdu k o k v kd w f &m;&JU pGr;f tm;aMumifh r[kwv f m;/ wu,fhvufawGUrSm xdkukodkvf&JUpGrf;tm;uom vlawGudk


EXPOSITION OF THE DHAMMA

5

"r®0D&onf Ak'¨w&m;jzifh avmuudk apmihfa&Smuf&efjzpfonf/ csrf;omapwm? jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif udk,fawmfjrwfuvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ a[mwm/ jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifwkdif;uvnf;oAÁ y gyó tu&PH ? uk o v ól y orÜ ' g/ opd w å y&d a ,m'yeH ? {wH Ak ' ¨ g e omoeH / raumif;rIawGa&Smif? aumif;rIawG rdro d EÅmefrmS jzpfatmifvyk ?f udk,hfpdwfav;udk jzLpifatmifvkyf/ rif;wdkY ightm;udk;Mu? b,fa&mufa&muf ihgwdkifwnfvkdufMu? pD;yGm;wufcsi&f if b,fEpS Bf urd f yef;eJ?Y bmyef;eJY ihgudk ylaZmfvu dk Mf uqdw k m yg&JUvm;? rygbl;aemf/ aA'ifq&mawG ajymovdk pD;yGm;wufcsi&f if xD;jzL (7) vufwdkY xD;eDwdkY xD;0gwdkY [kwfvm;/ yef;b,fESpfyGifhwdkY opfoD; b,fESpfrsdK;eJY ylaZmfygvdkY bk&m;a[mwJhtxJ yg&JUvm;/ jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif udk,fawmfjrwfu ukodkvf&atmifvkyf? xdkukodkvfomvQif oifwdkYudk tusdK;ay;rSm? 'g vufawGUtm;jzihfvnf; odyu f u kd w f myJ/ o&ufoD;pm;csifwJhyk*¾dKvf[m o&ufaphudk pdkuf&if o&ufyif aygufrSm r[kwfvm;¿ at;- o&ufyif aygufvmvd&Yk &dS if ud, k u f o&ufo;D udk oD;cdik ;f aep&m vdkao;vm;/ at; -o&ufaphudkom pdkufyg/ o&ufyifBuD;vm wmeJY wpfNyKd ief uf o&ufyifu tvkv d kd o&ufo;D oD;ay;rSmyg/ xdt Yk wlyJ rdro d EÅmefrmS ukov kd jf zpfatmifom BuKd ;pm;? ukov kd jf zpf&if xdu k o k v kd u f olY[mol tusdK;ay;rSmyg/ 'gaMumifrh Ykd 'D Interpretation ESpcf u k kd owdxm;&r,f? bmom jyefwm[mvJ tifrwefrS ta&;Bu;D ygw,f/ jrwfpmG bk&m;&JU tpGr;f wefc;kd aMumihf csrf;omw,fqdkwmxuf jrwfpGmbk&m; udk,fawmfjrwfudk tm½Hk jyKNyD; &&SdvmwJh ukodkvfapwem&JUpGrf;tm;aMumihf qdkwmurS jrwfpGm bk&m; ESpfoufawmfrlwJh bmomjyefrsdK;jzpfw,faemf/ tJ'gaMumifhrdkY jrwfpGmbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfeJYywfoufNyD; awmh todÓPf&Sd&Sd ]]Aka'¨ ta0pöyoma'e orEém*awm}} bk&m; udk todÓPfeJY MunfndKwJhtqihfa&mufatmif BudK;pm;&r,faemf/ tay:,H MunfndKwmrsdK;qdkvdkY&Sd&if 'Dt&nftaoG; ukd,hfoEÅmefrSm &OD; rSm r[kwfao;bl;/ "ar® ta0pö y om' aemufwpfcku ]]"ar® ta0pö y oma'e orEé m *awm}} wJh/ ]]"ar®- "r®ü? ta0pö-yoma'e- todÓPfygwJh ouf0ifMunfndK jcif;qdkwhJ o'¨gw&m;eJ?Y orEém*awm- jynhpf o Hk nf? a[mwd- jzpf\/}} "r®&JU pGrf;&nfawGudk odatmifBudK;pm;zdkYvdkw,f/ "r®qdkwm bmvkyfzdkYwkef;? udk,fwdkifusihfzdkYyJ? udk,fwdkifusihf&if jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif udk,fawmfjrwf&JU"r®[m Mum;emvkdufwmeJYwGifyJ tylawGNidrf;oGm;NyD; usiw fh t hJ cgrSmvnf; csr;f omw,fw/hJ usiNfh y;D wJah emufrmS vnf; tifrwef rS Nidrf;csrf;w,fwJh/ ]]Mum;em½H k y if ? tyl p if í ? usih f v Qif c srf ; om? usih f N yD ; cg vnf;? vGefpGmNidrf;csrf;}} vdkY tr&yl& r[m*E¨m½Hkq&mawmfBuD;u a&;om;cJhw,f r[kwfvm;/ a[m "r®&JU tqDtESpfu tJ'Dvdk udk,fwdkifusihfoHk;&r,f/ - k,fwdkif 'gaMumifhrdkvdkY jrwfpGmbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfu oEéd|du -ud jrifEdkifwJhw&m;yg/ Moyae,sd u - rdrdpdwfxJra&mufa&mufatmif ESv;kH oGi;f vku d yf g/ w&m;udk cufw,fvYkd wcsKd UxifaeMuw,f/ rusiw fh mu

Ak'*¨ w D u d m q&mawmf OD;oDvmpm&

(½kd;rwdrf r[matmifajrausmif;) 'k p ö & d w zvyD V d w 0w¦ K uóybk & m;&S i f \ omoemawmf ü ,k w f r muk e f a om &[ef;omraPwdkYonf *dZÑuk#fawmifü &[ef;omraP\toGifjzihf ajymifajymifawmufaom ouFe;f oydwjf zihf cHae &ukeaf om Nyw d må wdu Yk kd taMumif;jyKí ]]umom0 uP²m A[a0g}}paom *gxmudk a[mawmfrl onf/ umom0uP²m A[a0g? ygy"r®m tonwm/ ygyg ygay[d uar®[d? ed&,H aw OyyZÆa&/ jref r muAsm jrwfaomouFef; vnfvTrf;a&mufcg? udk,fEIwfpdwfykyf t[kwf,kwfrm? rdrdjyKvkyf usifh,kwfaMumifhom? yg,fi&J a&mufNrJxdkolrSm/ Many on whose neck is the yellow robe of evil disposition and uncontrolled; evil ones by their evil deeds are born in hell.

pum;ajy/ / ouFef;vnfüa&mufukefNyD; ukd,fEIwfpdwfykyf ,k w f r maomtusih f & S d u k e f a om rsm;pG m ,k w f r maomol w k d Y o nf rdrdwkdY\,kwfrmaom raumif;rIwkdYaMumihf i&JüjzpfMuukef\/ cufwmyg/ w&m;u rcufygbl;/ jrwfpGmbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfu ESvHk;oGif;w&m;av;awG &SdzdkY tNrJwrf;a[mw,f/ qdkygpdkY? touft&G,fBuD;&ihfwJhyk*¾dKvfawGudk jrifwJhtcg b,fvdk w&m;ESvHk;oGif;rvJ¿ ]]Z&m "ar®mrSd Z&H tewDawmwd tbdPSH ypöa0u©dwAÁH}} touft&G,fBuD;&ifhwJh tbdk;tbGm;awG jrifvkdufwJhtcg atmf- igrSm vnf; tdkjcif;w&m; &Sdaeygvm;? igvnf; tdk&rSmygvm;vdkY 'DvdkawG;vkduf ygwJh? 'g w&m;udk usihfwmyJ/ 'Dxuf wpfqihw f ufNy;D awmhMunhv f &Ykd &dS if atmf-vlaY vmu[m tdkjcif;? emjcif;? aojcif;qdkwJh 'ku©ab;awGrS ajy;rvGwfygvm;? wdkY&JU cE¨mudk,fBuD;u wpfaeYwjcm;a&GUvsm;NyD; tysufbufudk oGm;aeygvm; qdkwJh rNrJwJhoabmawGudk qifjcifvkdufwm[m w&m;udk usihfoHk;wmyJ aemf/ uJ- 'Dvdkqdk&if wcsdKUuajymaumif;ajymMuvdrhfr,f? tJ'Dvdk ESvHk;oGif;&if tdk&rSmudk aMumufpdwfawG0ifNyD;awmh avmuBuD;rSm ae&wm raysmfjzpfrSmayhgwJh? [kwfvm;/ raysmfawmh wynhfawmfwdkY w&m;ESvHk;oGif;&wm pdwfnpfp&mBuD; rjzpfbl;vm;wJh/ wcsKd UEdik if u H vlawGu ajymMuw,f/ Ak'b ¨ mom[m tedp?ö 'ku?© pmrsuf E S m 7 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

6

"r®0D&onf Nidrf;csrf;aompdwfjzpfwnf&ef &Gnf&G,fonf/

rme\jrpfzsm;cH&m

vu© P (aysmf b G , f )

ZrÁL'dyfuRef;uae oD[kdVfuRef;odkY omoemjyKapvTwfcH&olwdkYwGif t&Sifem&' rax&f j rwf B uD ; vnf ; tygt0if j zpf o nf / t&Sif em&'rax&fjrwfonf *dZÑuk#fawmifrSm oDwif;ok;H Ny;D &mZN*K[ d Nf rKUd ukd a*gp&*grfxm;vsuf qG r f ; cH a eY p Of < uawmf r l o nf / t&S i f e m&' qGrf;cH<uonhf vrf;wpfavsmufrSm aeYpOf awGYae&onfum; NydwåmawGjzpfonf/ Nydwåm awGukdMunhfNyD; t&Sifem&'rax&f&JU &ifxJrSm u½kPmjA[®pkd&fw&m;awG yGm;aerdygonf/ NydwåmwpfaumifawGU&if vnf; t&Sifem&' rax&fu ]]oifbmraumif;rIawGudk jyKvyk cf v hJ Ykd ckvdkqif;&Jjcif;a0'emawGukd cHpm;ae&ygvJ usKyf u k d a jymjyprf ; yg? qG r f ; cH t d r f u 'um? 'umrawGukd "r®oHa0*,l&atmif ajymjycsif vd k Y y g}}? t&S i f e m&'rax&f o nf Nyd w å m wpfaumifawGU&if ar;vku d ?f qGr;f cHtrd rf S 'um 'umrawGukd jyefajymjyvdkufESihf wpfaeYaom tcg t&Sifem&'rax&f *dZÑuk#fawmifuae qGrf;cH<uzkdYqif;vmcsdefwGif rax&fESihfrvSrf; rurf;rSm trsKd;om;wpfa,mufukd awGUvkduf& onf/ xkdtrsKd;om;\ykHpHrSm t&yftarmif; axmifaxmifarmif;armif; aemufuaeMunh&f if usufoa&uvnf;&Sd? t0wftpm;uvnf; awmufawmufajymifajymif? cE¨mukd,ftom; ta&uvnf; wifhwifhw,fw,f oloGm;ae onft h csed rf mS *dZÑu#k af wmifp, G f arSmif&yd o f rf; aeonhfae&mrsKd;rSmqkd&if ukd,fa&mif ukd,f0g av;rsm;vif;vufNyD; a&Ta&mifav;rsm;awmif [yfomG ;onf/ t&Sifem&'rax&fonf þokdYaom

tjcif ; t&mud k jrif v k d u f & csd e f r S m rk ' d w m? 0rf;ajrmufrIrsm;pGm jzpfyGm;rdavonf/ ]]tif;? igaeY p Of 'D * d Z Ñuk # f a wmif r S m awG U ae&wm jrifae&wm NydwåmawGcsnf;yJ? NyD;awmhvnf; u½k P mw&m;awG aeY p Of y G m ;aecJ h & wm 'DaeYawmhjzihf ukokdvfaumif;rI&JUtusKd;ukd cH p m;ae&wJ h y k * ¾ K d v f wpf a ,muf u k d a wG U &NyD ? olYtaMumif;udk igvkdufar;OD;rSyJ}} rax&f j rwf o nf xk d t rsKd ; om;&J U aemufuaevku d o f mG ;Ny;D rvSr;f rurf;uae ]]tkd tarmifukodkvf&Sif- cPavmuf&yfprf;ygOD; qkdwmESihf a&SUrSoGm;aeonhf xkdtrsKd;om;vnf; &yf qkdonhfae&mrSm aemufjyefvSnhfrMunhfbJ &yf v k d u f o nf / t&S i f e m&'rax&f u vnf ; rvSr;f rurf;rSm&yfvu dk o f nf/ ]]tk-d tarmifuo k v kd &f iS f oihu f dk ckvdk ac:&wmu oifh&JUcE¨mukd,fu xl;jcm;vkdYyg? t0wf t pm;awmuf a wmuf a jymif a jymif a&Ta&mif0if;aewJh oihfvkdbkef;uH&Sifukd 'DaeYrSyJ jrif&ayw,f/ bmaumif;rIaMumifh 'DvdktusKd; awG cHpm;&ygovJ? qGrf;cHtdrfu 'um? 'umr rsm; twk,l&atmif jyefvnfajym&atmifvdkY ighudk ajymjyprf;yg tarmifukokdvf&Sif}} rax&fjrwf\tar;ukd a&SUu trsKd; om;uvnf; aemufjyefvSnhfrMunfhbJ ]]t&Sif bk&m; wynhfawmftaMumif;odcsifwmvm;}}? ]][kwfygw,f tarmifukokdvf&Sif}}? ]]tJ'gqkd wynhfawmf taMumif;ukd wynhfawmfajymjyyghr,fbk&m;uóybk&m;&Sifvufxufwkef;u wynhfawmf[m &[ef;wpfyg;jzpfcJhygw,f/ &[ef;jzpfcsdefupNyD; wynhfawmf[m 0denf;? yd#uwfawGudkoif,lNyD; pMu0VmurÇmwpf ode;f ru ysUH ESUH Ekid pf rG ;f &Sw d hJ tmPma'oemawmf

wnf;[laom 0denf;? yd#uwfawGukdoif,lNyD; pMu0VmurÇmwpfodef;ru ysHUESHYEkdifpGrf;&SdwJh tmPma'oemawmf w nf ; [l a om 0d e nf ; ? yd#uwfawmfBuD;ukd EIwfikHtm*kHaqmifcJhygw,f bk&m;? EIwfikHtm*kHaqmifNyD;awmhvnf; enf; enf;av;rS rusKd;rayguf&atmif ygwdarmu© oH 0 &oD v vk d Y a c:wJ h 0d e nf ; tusih f o d u © m ukv d nf; xde;f odr;f apmihaf &SmufcyhJ gw,f/ tJ'v D dk ygwdarmu©o0H &oDvukd xde;f odr;f apmihaf &Smuf cJhwJhtwGufaMumihf wynhfawmf&JUcE¨mukd,frSm a&T0ga&mifav;awG xGufaecJhygw,fbk&m;}} ]]om"k om"k om"k tarmifukodkvf &Si}f } ]]t&S i f b k & m; om"k r sm;ac:vk d u f ovm;}} ]]ac:ygw,f tarmif u k o d k v f & S i f ? oifjyKcJhwJhaumif;rIukodkvfukd tm½kHjyKNyD; om"k ac:vkdufwmyg? bmjzpfvkdYvJ}} ]]rSefygw,fbk&m;? ukokdvfqkdwmu awmh om"kac:&wm ac:oihfygw,f? 'gayrJh wynhaf wmfu ukov dk w f if oufoufvyk cf w hJ m r[kwfbl;bk&m;? t&Sifbk&m;uawmh aemufu ae wynhaf wmfuMdk unhNf y;D bke;f uH&iS v f x Ykd ifae rSmayhg? 'gayrJh wynhfawmf 'D*dZÑuk#fawmifrSm tpma&pmiwfjywfaeygw,f? wpfaeYrSvnf; 00vifvifrpm;&ygbk&m;}} trsK;d om;xHrS 'Dvpkd um;rsK;d Mum;vku d f &csed rf mS t&Sief m&'rax&f&UJ pdwx f J 'DtrsK;d om; t&yfu axmifaxmifarmif;armif;? tom; ta& wifhwifhw,fw,f awmufajymif aewJh yk * ¾ K d v f u tpma&pm0atmif r pm;&bl ; wJ h ? 'DtrsKd;om; ighrsm;aemufaewmvm;}} t&Sif em&'pdwfxJ þokdYatmufarhrdavonf/ t&Sifem&'\pdwftBuHukd &dyfrdwJh trsKd;om;u]]t&Sifbk&m; wynfhawmfqkH;atmif avQmufwifyg&apOD;bk&m;? uóybk&m;&Si&f UJ 0denf;yd#uwfawGudk EIwif aHk qmifvYkd 'dyG #d u"& jzpfwJhtcsdefrSm wynhfawmf[m *kPfyumoe ukd tajccHvkdY a&SUwef;a&mufcJhygw,fbk&m;? q&morm;uvnf ; ajr§ m uf p m;? 'um?


EXPOSITION OF THE DHAMMA "r®0D&onf vkHhvjynfh0jcif;ESifh wnfMunf&J&ifhjcif;ukd jyqkdonf/ pmrsuf E S m 5 rS tewåvdkY a[mw,f? 'ku©udka[mw,f/ 'gaMumihf pessimism tqdk;jrif 0g'BuD; 'DvdkowfrSwfMuw,f/ wu,fawmh tqdk;jrifwm r[kwfbl;/ trSet f wkid ;f jrifwm/ trSet f wkid ;f jrifzUkd vdt k yfygw,f/ trSet f wkid ;f rjrifbeJ YJ rsupf d rSdwf ,HkaewJhyk*¾dKvfwpfa,muf[m wpfaeY xdk'ku©eJY &ifqdkifwJhtcgrSm ydkNyD;awmh qif;&J&w,f/ 'gvkyf&if 'gjzpfr,fvdkY odxm;wJhyk*¾dKvf[m qifqifjcifjcif rvkyfaybl;vm;/ at;- tJ'gaMumifrh Ykd jrwfpmG bk&m;ud, k af wmfjrwf&UJ w&m;awmf awGxJrSm? r*¾if&Spfyg;udk a[mwJhtcgrSm or®m'd|d right under-standing qdkwm ta&;BuD;qHk;vdkY a[mxm;w,f/ tppt&m&m em;vnf atmif vkyf&r,fwJh/ em;rvnfbl;qdk&if bmjzpfvJ? y#dpöorkyÜg'fMunhfav? t0dZÆm ypö,m ocFg&m udk em;rvnfvdkY oHo&mvnfwm? y#dpöorkyÜg'fqdkwJh vnfvrf;udk a[mwJhtcgrSm t0dZÆm udk a&SUwef;wifNyD;a[mw,f/ at; rodwmupcJhvdkY oHo&mvnfwm/ a[m r*¾i&f pS yf g; oHo&mu xGu&f mvrf;Muawmh jrwfpmG bk&m; u right understanding wJ?h em;vnf&r,f? rSerf eS u f efuef em;vnfz&Ykd ef or®m'd|dudk a&SUwef;wifa[mw,f/ 'gMumifhrdkY wdkY trSefjrifzdkYvdkw,f/ wdkY wpfaeY tdk&r,fqdkwm rodoifhbl;vm;/ pdwfnpfzdkYajymwm r[kwfbl;/ tdk&r,fqdkwm odvdkY&Sd&if rtdk cif wdkYbmawGvkyfrvJ? a[m- jyifzdkYqifzdkY tcsdefawGr&bl;vm;/ jyifzdkY qifzYkd tcsed af wG &vmw,f? ukov kd af umif;rIawG rsm;rsm;BuKd ;pm;vkyv f m w,f/ tdkfr,fqdkwmodw,f? emr,fqdkwm odw,f? aor,fqdkwm odw,f/ rtdkcif? remcif? raocif aumif;rIukodkvfawG rsm;rsm;vkyf& r,fqdkwJh 'Dtod0ifzdkYtwGuf qifjcifpOf;pm;&wm? tJ'g[m w&m;&JU 'umrawGuvnf; axmufyhHygw,fbk&m;? tJ'Dvkd q&muajr§mufpm;? 'um? 'umrtaxmuftyHheJY xifay:ausmfMum;csdef rSm wynhfawmf rmefrmewufoGm;w,fbk&m;? rmeaMumihf wynhfawmf[m 0denf;ukdvnf; rapmihfa&Smufrdawmhbl;/ tdyfpuftem;,l &ifvnf; ukd,fhxufax&fBuD;0gBuD;awGbmawG em;rvnfb;l ? xdyq f ;Hk u ae&m,lygw,fb&k m;/ Ny;D awmh yg;pyfuvnf; Murf;wrf;pGmqJa&;rdcyhJ g w,fbk&m;/ t,kwå tewå roifhravsmf wmawGukd ajymqkdwkdif;xGmqJa&;rdcJhNyDbk&m;/ 'Drmefrmew&m;awG[m wpfaeYatmufwef;us ygvdrfhr,fvkdY wynhfawmf rxifcJhrdbl;bk&m;/ uóy bk&m;&Siv f ufxufrmS pkawaovGew f hJ tcgusawmh rmefrmew&m;awGu wynhaf wmf uk d t0D p d y k d Y v k d u f y gw,f b k & m;/ t0D p d u vGwfvmawmh 'D*dZÑuk#fawmifrSmvmNyD; ae& ygw,fbk&m;? 'geYJ t&Sifbk&m; wynhfawmf&JU &ifxJu rmeaMumifh 'ku©a&mufaewJhtcsdefrSm t&Sifbk&m;vdk yk*¾KdvfrsKd;eJYBuKHwkef;av; rme

7

aus;Zl;yJ/ qifjcifpOf;pm;vku d o f jzihf tdrk ,fqt kd wm odaeonhf twGuf aMumihf tdkvmwJhtcg atmf ig pOf;pm;xm;wm? tdkw,fqkdwm vlY obm0yJ? a[m pdwfnpfp&m &Sdao;vm;/ emw,fqdkwmvJ vlYobm0yJ/ aow,fqdkwm vlYobm0yJ/ 'Dobm0w&m;udk b,folrS rausmfvTm;Edkifbl;/ tm;vHk;[m &ifqdkifMu &rSmqdkwJh todav;eJYqdkawmh tEÅ&m,fudk NyHK;NyHK;av;eJY &ifrqdkifEdkifbl; vm;/ wpfcgwke;f u a&m*gonf q&m0efwpfa,muftaMumif; ajym &OD;r,f/ olYa&m*gu ao;ao;r[kwfbl;/ tonf;ajcmufwJha&m*g? tonf;ajcmuf&ifawmh enf;enf;yg;yg;ukpm;vdkY&ao;w,f/ odkYaomf vnf; tonf;ajcmufwJhtqihfwGif rubl;/ tonf;uifqmtqifh a&mufoGm;w,f/ xdkq&m0efukd rdom;pku rajym&ufvdkYrajymMubl;/ q&m0efuvnf; aq;pm;&if jyefaumif;vmEd;k eJY 'Dvakd ew,f/ aemufyikd ;f a&mufwJhtcgusawmh tajctaeu qdk;oxufqdk;vmw,f/ olvnf; q&m0efyJ/ &dyfrdwmayhg/ ig[m ½dk;½dk;tonf;ajcmufwmr[kwfbl;/ tonf;uifqmjzpfEikd w f ,f/ tonf;uifqmqd&k if b,fEpS &f ufavmuf cHr,fvdkY olYudk,fol odvmw,f/ tJ't D cg 0rf;enf;pum;ajymw,fqw kd m wjcm;q&m0efwpfO;D qDu bkef;BuD;wdkY wpfqihfMum;cJh&zl;w,f/ b,fvdk 0rf;enf;pum;ajym wkef;/ ]]uRefawmf raocsifao;bl;Asm}} wJh? ]]uRefawmf ukodkvfaumif;rI bmrSrvkyf&ao;bl;}} wJh/ [kwfvm;? 'Dvkd rjzpfap&bl;/ tdkzdkY? emzdkY? aozkdY ever ready jzpfae&r,f/ bmjzpfwkef;? udk,hfrSm vkyfxm;NyD;NyD? tukefvHk; ukodkvfawG trsm;BuD;&Sdw,f/ a[m tJ'Dvdkusawmh aMumufp&m&Sdao;&JUvm;/ vkyfp&mawGtm;vHk; vkyfxm;NyD;NyD/ ukodkvfaumif;rIawGtm; vHk; vkyfxm;NyD;NyD/ bmrSaMumufp&mr&Sdbl;/ jrwfpGmbk&m;&JU w&m;awmf qdkwm tJ'Dvdk tm;udk;&wmayhg/ (qufvufazmfjyygrnf/)

aMumihf aysmufuG,foGm;wJh*g&0w&m;av; jyef N yD ; awmh ES v k H ; oG i f ; vd k Y t&S i f b k & m;uk d uefawmhyg&ap/ trsK;d om;onf t&Sief m&'rax&fudk OD;ckdufuefawmh&ef aemufjyefrsufESmcsif;qkdif vkdufcsdefrSm t&Sifem&'tHhMooGm;onf/ ]]tvdk igu vlrSwfNyD;pum;ajymaewm olu igwdkYvkd vlrSr[kwfbJ 0ufEIwfoD;BuD;eJY 0ufwpfykdif;? vlwpfykdif;NydwåmBuD;yJ}} t&Sifem&'pdwfxJrS ajymrdvkdufonf/ ]]t&Sib f &k m; wynhaf wmfrmeaMumifh 0ufwpfykdif; vlwpfykdif;jzpfae&w,fbk&m;? t&Sib f &k m;uawmh wynhaf wmfudk aemufuae MunhfNyD; axmifaxmifarmif;armif;eJYoefrm w,fvdkY xifaerSmayhg? 'gayrJh wynhfawmfrSm vufawGygayrJh 'DvufawGeYJ tpmpm;vdrYk &bl; bk&m;? 0ufEIwfoD;ygaeawmh 0ufawGvdkyJ rpifñeT af ysmif;vku d Nf y;D xk;d pm;ae&w,fb&k m;}} ]]t&S i f b k & m;? wynh f a wmf & J U taMumif ; t&mawG u k d vl o m;tm;vk H ; uk d

ajymjya[mjyNyD ; wynh f a wmf v d k rmef r me rxm;zkYd 0pDuaH wG rMurf;wrf;MuzkYd t&Sib f &k m; uyJ owday;qkH;rawmfrlvkdufygbk&m;}} ]]aumif;ygNyaD v..}} t&Sifem&' 0efcHuwday;NyD; qGrf;cH &ef &mZN*Kd[fNrKdUwGif;odkY quf<uoGm;cJhonf/ þtjzpftysufawGukd t&Sifem&' rax&fonf jrwfpGmbk&m;xHavQmufxm;&m jrwfpGmbk&m;u- ]]cspfom; em&' igonf a&S;,cifuyif þ0ufEw I o f ;D eJNY yw d må ukd awGjY rif cJhzl;NyD? jrwfpGmbk&m;onf rsm;pGmaom vlxk y&dowftm; jyefvnfí w&m;a[mMum;&m w&m;emy&dowftwGuf rsm;pGmtusKd;xl;av ownf;/ vu© P (aysmf b G , f ) usrf ; ñT e f ; olu&rkcayw0w¦KawmfBuD;ESihf t&SifZmae,s armfuRef;q&mawmf\ 0de,Ek*[ ¾ w&m;rSjyefvnfíaumufEw k o f nf/


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

8

"r®0D&onf vlrsKd;ra&G;? bmomra&G;? avmuom;tm;vkH;twGufjzpfonf/

Ak'¨a[mMum; pdwfremaMumif;w&m; &S i f Ó P (zsmyH k )

(Ak ' ¨ M o0g'uxm) b*¾wikd ;f ? oHork m&*D&Nd rKd U? abou| awmü Ak'¨oDwif;oHk;awmfrlpOf? eukvydwm trnf&adS om ol<u,fonf Ak'x ¨ aH rSmufa&muf vmNyD; ½dkaopGm avQmufxm;av\/ ]]t&S i f b k & m; wynh f a wmf o nf touft&G,Bf u;D &ifí h tdrk if;vmNy/D t&G,o f ;kH yg;wdw Yk iG f aemufq;kH t&G,o f Ykd a&muf&ydS gNy/D cE¨m udk,fBuD;onfvnf; emrusef;&SdaeygNyD/ tpOf rjywf emusiu f u kd cf v J su&f adS eygNy/D t&Sib f &k m; onf wynhfawmfudk qHk;rawmfrlyg/ jrwfpGm bk&m;\ tqH;k trw&m;onf wynhaf wmftzdYk tm;xm;&m csrf;omokcyGm;wdk;&m jzpfygawmh onfbk&m;.../}} ol<u,fpum;udkMum;&vQif Ak'¨onf tvdkufoifh rdefYMum;awmfrlvdkufavonf/ ]]ol<u,fajymaompum;onf [kwrf eS o f nfom jzpf\/ cE¨mud, k [ f o l nf emusiw f wfpNrjJ zpf\/ þuJo h Ykd ta&yg;jzihf ajr;§ ,Sux f m;onfomjzpf \/}} ]]ol < u,f . .wpf p H k w pf a ,muf aomol o nf þcE¨ m ud k , f u d k &G u f a qmif xm;&onf jzpf y gvsuf ]]tema&m*g uif ; onf ? ud k u f c J e musif j cif ; r&S d } } [k ajymqd k y gvQif xd k o l o nf ol r d k u f o mvQif jzpf a cs\../}} ]]xd k Y a Mumif h ol < u,f . .þt&mü ]]igonf cE¨mudk,f udkufcJoljzpfaomfvnf; ig\ pdwfonf emusifrI.. uif;ap&rnf}} [k ESvHk;oGif;vsuf usihfoHk;oifhayonf}} [k

Ak'¨u rdefYMum;awmfrlvdkufavonf/ Ak't ¨ qH;k trudk em,lNy;D aemuf eukv ydwmol<u,fonf Ak'x ¨ rH S z,fcmG um t&Sio f m&d ykwå&mxHodkY csOf;uyfjyefav\/ ]]jrwfpGmbk&m; u cE¨mud, k f emusiu f u kd cf aJ omfvnf; pdwrf em oljzpfatmif usihfoHk;&rnf}} [k rdefYMum;awmf rl v k d u f a Mumif ; ud k t&S i f o m&d y k w å & mtm; ol<u,fu avQmufxm;vkduf\/ xdktcg t&Sif om&dykwå&mu ol<u,fudk ar;vkduf\/ ]]ol<u,f oihfrSm- pOf;pm;ÓPf ay: rvmbl;vm;? xkdYxufvGefí avQmufxm;&ef rqifjcifrdbl;vm;/ ]cE¨mudk,f emusifvsuf? pdwfvnf; emusifol? cE¨mudk,femusifaomf vnf;? pdwrf emusio f [ l o l nfrmS rnfoyYkd genf;} [k jrwfpmG bk&m;udk rar;avQmufcb hJ ;l vm;../}} ]]t&Sib f &k m;..om&dyw k &å m? xdpk um; \ teuft"dyÜm,fudk t&Sifbk&m;xHrS emMum; vdkygonf/ wynhfawmftm; csD;jr§ihfa[mMum; awmfrlygbk&m;..}} ]]ol<u,f..odjYk zpfvQif a[mMum;ay rnf/ aumif;pGmESvHk;oGif; em,layavmh../}} ]]t&Sifbk&m;..aumif;pGmem,lrSwf om;ygrnf? a[mMum;awmfrlyg..}} ]]ol<u,f.. tMum;tjrifenf;yg; aom t&d,molawmfaumif;wdkY\ w&m;udk rMum;em rodjrifzl;aomolonf ½kyfudk- ]twå} [k ½Ijrif\/ ]igonf ½kyfjzpf\/ ½kyfonf ihgOpöm jzpf\}}- [k ½Ijrifum oabmaygufcH,lxm; \/ xdo k \ l ½kyt f pkonf rwnfrNrJ ajymif;vnf; azmufjyefonfomjzpf\/ xdktcg½kyfudk pGJvef;

½Ijrifxm;aom xdkolonf pdk;&drfylyefjcif; jzpf& \/ pdwfa&mvlyg qif;&Jyifyef;&ay\/}} ]]ol<u,f.. xked nf;twlyif? tMum; tjrif ÓPfynmenf;olonf? a0'em? onm? ocFg&? 0dnmPfwdkYudkvnf; ½kyfuJhodkYyif ½Ijrif pGJrSwfojzihf aMumihfMuylyef&\/ pdwfa&mvlyg qif;&Jyifyef;jcif;jzpf&ay\/ ol<u,f..þodkY vQif ½kyfcE¨mudk,femusifvsuf? pdwfemusifol jzpf&rnf.../}} ]]ol<u,f..½kyfcE¨mudk,femusifNyD; pd w f r emusif o l j zpf & jcif ; um; þod k Y w nf ; / ol < u,f þomoemawmf ü tMum;tjrif &S d a om t&d , mol a wmf a umif ; wd k Y \ w&m;ud k Mum;emrS w f o m;zl ; aomol o nf ½kyfudk ]twå} [k r½Ijrif? ]igonf ½kyfjzpf\? ½k y f o nf ih g Opö m jzpf \ } [k r½I j rif / xd k o d k Y v nf ; oabmayguf c H , l j cif ; r&S d a y/ xd k o l \ ½k y f t pk o nf rwnf r NrJ azmuf j yef ajymif ; vJ a omtcgwG i f ½k y f u d k p G J v ef ; ½I j rif j cif ; r&S d a om xd k o l o nf pd k ; &d r f y l y ef jcif ; rjzpf & ay/ qif ; &J y if y ef ; jcif ; rjzpf &ay/}} ]]ol<u,f.. xdek nf;twlyif tMum; tjrif ÓPfynmESihfjynhfpHkolonf a0'em? onm? ocFg&? 0dnmPfwdkYudkvnf; ½kyfüuJhodkY yif pGv J ef;½Ijrifjcif;r&So d jzihf pd;k &dryf yl efrI rjzpf& ay/ qif;&Jyifyef;rI rjzpf&ay/ ol<u,f þodkY vQif ½kyfcE¨mudk,fom emusifvsuf? pdwfrem usio f jl zpfatmif usio hf ;kH &rnf}} [k t&Sio f m&d ykwå&mu a[mMum;awmfrlvkdufavonf/ usrf ; ñT e f ; (cE¨ o H , k w f ? euk v yd w k 0 *f ) (jref r mjyef u srf ; ) av;Nrd K if ? Ak ' ¨ 0 g'ppf y G J r sm;/ &S i f Ó P (zsmyH k )


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf avmuD avmukwå&mtusKd;ESpfyg;twGuf jzpfonf/

9

a*gwrAk'¨ESihf rif;wdkY\ avmuobm0"r® jyóemajz&Sif;enf;rsm; (1) wuú o d k v f o Qif o D & d ( "r® m p&d , ? B.A)

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wpfckrQr&SdaomaMumihf þodkYaom ysufpD;jcif; odkYa&muf&ukefonf/ igwkdYonf aiGpkaqmif;í y&d0kPfudk jyKMuukeftHh}} ]]t&Sif aumif;ygNyD}} xdkodkYoabmwlNyD;vQif tBuD;trSL; ol<u,fu aiGusyfwpfaxmif? usefolwdkYu usy(f 500) pD toD;oD;xnh0f ifvLS 'gef;Muonf/ rde;f rwdu Yk usy2f 50 pDtoD;oD; xnh0f ifvLS 'gef; Muonf/ xdkolwdkYonf aiGudkpkpnf;NyD;aomf txGww f yfaom ausmif;wpfaxmift&H&adS om bk&m;&SifoDwif;oHk;&ef tvdkYiSmBuD;pGmaom y&d0kPfudk jyKvkyfwnfaqmufMuonf/ pDrHaqmufvkyfaom taqmuftOD; yrmPESihf pkaqmif;aiGravmufaomaMumihf xyfrx H nh0f ifvLS 'gef;MuNy;D ausmif;aqmufvyk f NyD;aomtcg bk&m;&SiftrSL;&Sdaom oHCmawmf ESpfaomif;wdkYudk (7)&ufywfvHk; qGrf;uyfvSLNyD; ouFef;yg uyfvSLylaZmfMuonf/ tBuD;trSL;ol<u,f\ r,m;onf wpfyg;aom rdef;rwdkYESihfxyfwlxyfrQ rjyKrlí rd r d Ó Pf y nmjzih f aumif ; pG m pD & if v suf olwpfyg;wdkYxuf ydkvGefonfudkjyKíbk&m;&Sif tm; ylaZmftHh[k BuHpnfum taemfZmyef; tqif;&Sdaom tzdk;wpfaomif;xdkufwefaom ykqdk;ESihfwuG taemfZmyef;awmfudk aumif;pGm pDrHí bk&m;&Sifudk vSL'gef;ylaZmfNyD;vQif ]]bkef;awmfBuD;aom jrwfpGmbk&m; wynh f a wmf r onf jyKpk v S L 'gef ; tyf a om þaumif;rIuHaMumihf jzpfwdkif;jzpfwdkif;aom XmebHkb0ü wynhfawmfrtm; taemfZmyef; tqif;&SdonfomvQifjzpfaom cE¨mudk,fonf jzpfygapownf;? trnftm;jzihfvnf; taemf ZmrnfonfomvQif jzpfygapownf;}} [k qkawmif;avonf/ ]]þodkY awmihfwwdkif; jynhfapo wnf;}}- [k bk&m;&Sifu tEkarm'emjyKawmf rlonf/ xdkolwdkYonf touf&SnforQ aeMu NyD; aovGefaomtcg ewfjynfüjzpfMu&NyD;

,cka*gwrbk&m;&Sif yGihfxGef;ay:aygufvm aomtcg ukuú#jynf0,f rif;ESihfrdzk&m; rif;\ tNcHt&H? rdzk&m;\ tNcHt&H toD;oD;vmjzpf Muavonf/ jrwf p G m bk & m;&S i f o nf xd k a eY rdk;aomuf,Htcgü avmuudkMunhf½Iqifjcif onf&Sdaomf r[muydÜeESifh trwfwpfaxmif xGufvmNyD; rdrdxHü &[ef;jyKNyD; y#dfordÇ'gESihf wuG t&[wåzdkvfqdkufa&mufrnfudk od&SdNyD; rdrdudk,fwdkif c&D;OD;BudKqdkjyKjcif;iSmoihf\[k BuHpnfNyD;aemuf ao;odrfaom &Gmi,fwdkYudk ydkifpm;aom &Gmpm;olBuD;udk av;uRef;vHk;udk tpdk;&aom pMumrif;u c&D;OD;BudKqdkjcif;iSm oGm;ouJhodkY udk,fawmfwdkifomvQif oydwf ouFef;udk ,lawmfrlí ,lZem(120)a0;uGm aom vrf;c&D;ud<k uoGm;awmfrNl y;D pE´bm*gjrpf urf;em;jzpfaom yifanmifyif&if;ü a&mifjcnf awmfajcmufoG,fvTwfvsuf oDwif;oHk;aexdkif awmfrlonf/ uyd Ü e rif ; BuD ; onf v nf ; c&D ; pOf twdkif;xGufvmcJhavonf&Sdaomf ty&päm rnfaom jrpfodkYa&mufvmonf/ rif;BuD;u jrpftrnfESihf jrpftus,fudkar;aomf ]t&Sifrif;BuD; ty&päjrpf trnf&Sd NyD ; teuf w pf * g0k w f t us,f t m;jzih f ESpf*g0kwf&Sdygonf} [k trwfwdkYuajzonf/ ]þjrpf ü ul ; &ef a vS a zmif wpf p H k wpfck&Sdygoavm} ]t&Sifrif;jrwf &SdEkdifyg\} ]avS azmifponfwdkYudk &SmazGMunhf½I íaeaom igwdkYudk y#doaE¨aejcif;? tdkjcif;? emjcif;ponfwdkYonf rjywfuyfí aqmif\? igonfvnf; tdkjcif;? emjcif;ponfwdkYonf rjywfuyfíaqmif\? igonfvnf; tkdjcif;? emjcif;ponfwu Ykd kd Ni;D aiGUpufqyk v f o S nfjzpfí &wemjrwfoHk;yg;wdkYudk &nfrSef;vsuf&[ef;jyK jcif;iSmxGufvmcJhonf/ xdk&wemjrwfoHk;yg;wdkY \ tmEkabmfaMumihf þjrpfa&onf a&tvsif pmrsuf E S m 35 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

10

"r®0D&onf b0&SifoefrIudk trSefuefqHk;azmfaqmif&ef jzpfonf/

armif v k H Y v (a&T u ef a jr)

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ES i h f vuf a wG U taumif t xnf a zmf vk y f aqmifonhf xm;arwåm[k ESprf sK;d cGjJ cm;Ekid f onf/ pma&;olonf yGm;arwåmxuf xm;arwåmukd ykdíoabmusonf/ xm;arwåm\ xda&muf ykHukdvnf; uGufuGufuGif;uGif; jrifvm\/ xkdYaMumifh xm;arwåmukd *½kjyK avhvmcJhonf/ ynm&S d o l a wmf p if w d k Y \ b0Zmwf aMumif ; ES i h f u sif h p Of a wG u k d avh v mMunh f onhftcg xm;arwåmESihf b0ukdtvSqifNyD; usiBfh uo H mG ;onhf om"utrsm;tjym;udk awGU&Sd &\/ rdrdywf0ef;usihfukd avhvmonfhtcgwGif vnf; xm;arwåmukd usio fh ;Hk olawG rsm;pGmawGU &ygonf / xk d r sm;pG m xJ r S wpf O D ; aomol \ xm;arwåm jyKusihfykHukd tenf;i,fwifjyvdk ygonf/ xko d rl mS pma&;ol\tazESifh oufwl &G,fwl OD;zkd;aomif;qkdoljzpf\/ rEÅav;wkdif; awmifomNrKUd e,f? ZD;yifuek ;f &Gm\taemufbuf rkdif0ufcefYwGif wl? wlrrsm;ESifhtwlae\/ OD;zkd;aomif;onf &yf&GmtusKd;? omoemhtusKd; ukd tm;BuK;d rmefwufaqmif&u G o f nf/ trsm;ESihf a&mívkyfaqmifovkd wpfOD;wnf;vnf; vkyf aqmif\/ usef;rma&;aumif;aevQif ttm; rae uk, d t f m;? ÓPftm;? aiGtm; tukeo f ;Hk í trsm;tusKd;aqmifonf/ &Gmol&Gmom;awG tay:rS m yG m ;arwå m xuf xm;arwå m jzif h apmihfa&Smufonf/ aeYpOf &Gmvrf;? awmvrf;? vrf;wumudk jyKjyifay;jcif;? a&wGi;f a&uefrsm; ukd wpfOD;wnf;oefY&Sif;rI? q,fwifrIrsm;jyKvkyf jcif;? wpfOD;wnf;rEkdifonfhtcg aiGtm;okH;NyD; vliSm;jzihfjyKvkyfí apmihfa&Smufay;onf/ tnmajrvwfa'o awmol awm om;wdkYonf rsm;aomtm;jzihf vuf,ufwGif; a&uefwdkYukdom tokH;jyKMuonf/ xkda&wGif; a&uefwdkYonf &Gmol&Gmom;wdkY\ rDS&mwnf&m jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí OD;zkd;aomif;onf a&aygyg

ap? ajzmihfjzL;om,maomvrf;jzihf oGm;vmEkdif Muygapqkw d hJ yGm;arwåmtpm; a&wGi;f ? a&uef? vrf;wdkYukdzkdYjcif;? q,fjcif;? jyKjyifay;jcif;wnf; [laom xm;arwåmukd tpm;xkd;vkyfaqmif ygonf/ OD;zkd;aomif;onf &Gmol&Gmom;wkdY\ rS D & mjzpf o vd k ? omoemawmf \ rS D & mvnf ; jzpfygonf/ xkdYaMumifh &Gmol&Gmom;wkdYonf OD;zkd;aomif;ukd ½kdaoav;pm;MuouJhodkY ol\ xm;arwåmukdvnf; wefzkd;xm;Muygonf/ pma&;ol v nf ; xk d x m;arwå m uk d ukd,fwkdifusifhokH;cJhzl;ygonf/ a&mufav&m&m t&yfü usihfokH;ygonf/ 1361 ckESpfavmufu rEÅav;NrKdU? jrif;0efwkduf? ykyÜm;ausmif;ü aepOf ujzpfygonf/ ausmif;a&SUvrf;rS r[mjrwfrked bk&m;BuD;ESifh bk&m;aps;BuD;ukd vlaygif;pkHoGm; ygonf / tnma'ojzpf o nh f t m;avsmf p G m aEGtcgü tvGefylonf/ xkdaeylxJü bk&m;zl; oGm;ol&o dS vdk aps;0,foEl iS fh yvyfpwpfaumuf olrsm;? olawmif;pm;rsm;vnf; oGm;aeMuyg onf/ pma&;ol\pdwfxJ0,f xkdolwdkY aomuf ok;H &eftwGuf a&tk;d pifxm;ay;csipf w d af y:vm í a&tk;d (oJa&tk;d ) wpfv;Hk 0,fum ok;H acsmif; axmuf a&tk;d pifjzihf ausmif;a&SU xef;yifyrk sm; atmuf0,f jyKvkyfay;xm;\/ aeYpOf eHeuf? n ESpBf urd f a&jznfah y;ygonf/ pmoifom;b0 csKdUwJhcsdefjzpfaeí aumfa&cGuf? aumfyef;uef jym;? a&tkd;tzkH;jzihfom xm;ay;Ekdif\/ pma&;ol\ xm;arwåmukd oabm us ESpfoufNyD; okH;acsmif;axmuf a&tkd;pif tjzpf r S tk w f a &tk d ; pif (tk w f a &csrf ; pif ) a&tkd;ESpfvkH;? pwD;rwfcGuf? pwD;yef;uefjym;? a&tkd;zkH;tjzpf odkY csrf;omol tvSL&Sifwpfpku ajymif;ay;oGm;Muygonf/ xko d w l o Ykd nf &efuek rf S rEÅ a v;od k Y bk & m;zl ; vmol a wG jzpf y g\/ pmrsuf E S m 12 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf b0&SifoefrI y"meukdy,fí tukokdvfuif;aom &SifoefrItwGufjzpfonf/

11

MunfEl;&Tifvef; Ak'¨bmom,Ofaus;rIoifwef; uk, d , k (v,fa0;)

oif w ef ; qif ; yJ G w G i f qk & ausmif ; ol w pf O D ; tm; qk c sD ; jr§ i f h a eyk H - bkef;bkef;ac: b,fvkdxl;? t&Sifbk&m;vdkY om,mxl;/ - bkef;bkef;xH b,fvkdoGm;? vuftkyfcsDxm; OD;ñTwfoGm;/ txufyg uAsmav;rsm;ukd &Gwfqkd ylaZmfaeMuaom toHrsm;[m ]BuK;d Mumtif;&Gm} bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;twGif;&Sd "r®m½kHawmfBuD; twGif;rS jzpfygonf/ aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&uf ]Ak ' ¨ b mom tajccH t k w f j rpf ,Of a us;rI oif w ef ; } wuf a &muf o if , l a eMuaom uav;i,frsm;\MunfEl;zG,f&m oHomav; rsm;yifjzpfygonf/ tqkyd goifwef;ESifh ywfouf í MunfEl;zG,f&m? &Tifvef;0rf;ajrmufzG,f&m uk d , f w d k i f c H p m;csuf a v;rsm;uk d rQa0cH p m; a&;om;wifjycsifygonf/ ]Ak ' ¨ b mom ,Of a us;rI o if w ef ; } zGihfvSpf&mXmerSm ]BuKd;Mumtif;&Gm} wGifjzpfyg onf/ tdrfajc (120) cefY&Sdaom nKdUrIdif;a0qm om,mzG,f&m tqkdyg&Gmav;onf aejynf awmf? v,fa0;NrKdUrS taemufbufukd ½IarQmf Munhfygu ig;rkdifausmf? ajcmufrkdifcefYwGif wnf&Sdygonf/ aus;&Gm\taemufbufwGif tif;tkdifBuD;wpfck [kd;,cifu &SdcJhav\/ xkdtif;tkdifBuD;xJwGif aus;iSufom&umrsm; jrL;xl;aysmyf g;vSnv fh nf usupf m;Muavuke\ f /

txl;tm;jzihf BuKd;MumiSufrsm; ykdíaygrsm; Mu\/ xku d o hJ Ykd BuK;d MumiSurf sm; ckad tmif;em;ae usufpm;Mujcif;ukd taMumif;jyKí tif;BuD;ukd ]BuKd;Mumtif;} [kac:wGifMuavonf/ xkdtif; BuD;\teD;rSm wnfxm;aom&Gmav;ukdvnf; ]BuKd;Mumtif;&Gm} [kyif vltrsm;u ac:a0: ynwf e mrnf w yf M uav\/ (tjcm;aom taMumif ; rsm;vnf ; &S d a eao;onf [ k q k d y g onf/) ,cktcgwGifum; tif;tkdifBuD;ysufpD; wdrfaumí v,fuGif;jyifBuD; jzpfíaeonfukd awGU&Sd&ygonf/ Ak'¨bmom,Ofaus;rIoifwef;BuD;ukd OD;aqmifzGihfvSpfolrSm aejynfawmf? v,fa0; NrKdUe,f? atvmNrKdU? &wemykHawm& y&d,wåd pmoifwu dk Bf u;D \ OD;pD;y"me em,uq&mawmf Bu;D b'´Eu Å w d Ndå E, d´ 0Ho (r[m*E¦0gpu y@dw) jzpfygonf/ BuKd;Mumtif;&Gmav;onf q&m awmfBuD;\ Zmwdcsufa<u arG;&yfajrvnf; jzpfygonf/ q&mawmfonf rdrd\Zmwdcsufa<u arG;&yfajrjzpfaom ¤if;&Gmav;ukd Óww¦p&d, [laom bk&m;paom olawmfaumif;Bu;D rsm;\ xk;H ukd ESv;Hk rlvufuidk jf yKí "r®m½kaH usmif;aqmif BuD;ukd aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;jcif;? vQyfppfrD;rsm; xGef;n§dEkdif&ef rD;puf tif*sifpufrsm; OD;aqmif

vSL'gef;ay;jci;f? ZD0dw'ge aq;0g;tvSLrsm;? tcgtcGifhoihfovkd vSL'gef;rIjyKjcif;? ausmif; om;ausmif ; ol r sm;tm; pmtk y f p mwrf ; rsm; vSL'gef;rIjyKjcif; ponhfukodkvfxl;rsm;ukd rdrd\ yk*v ¾ u d vmbfvmbrsm;rS cGaJ 0vSL'gef; rIrsm;ukd jyKvkyfay;aeonfukd awGU&Sd&ygonf/ xkdYtjyif aus;&G m &S d uav;i,f r sm; Ak ' ¨ w &m;awmf ? Ak ' ¨ b momtajccH t k w f j rpf r sm; wd w d u sus em;vnfod&SdMuap&ef? Ak'¨w&m;awmfESihfpyf aom ,Ofaus;rIrsm;ukd pepfwus xJxJ0if0if od&SdMuap&ef? Ak'¨bmomtajccHoabmw&m; rsm;ESihf avmu0wf? "r®0wfrsm;ukd od&SdMuNyD; ypöKyÜefb0vnf; txufwef;ususaeEkdifNyD; oHo&mb0c&D;wpfavQmufwGifvnf; rsufESm yef ; vS v S b 0uk d wnf a qmuf E k d i f M uap&ef pdw&f nfoefNy;D þAk'b ¨ mom,Ofaus;rIoifwef; ukd zGihfvSpfay;jcif;jzpfonf[kvnf; q&mawmf BuD;u rdefYawmfrlygonf/ q&mawmfonf oifwef;ESiyfh wfouf í vkdtyfaom pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;? pma&; ud&d,mrsm;? ykHESdyfpmtkyfrsm;? oifwef;qif; atmifvufrSwfrsm;? qkawmfaiGrsm; ponhf axG & mav;yg;tm;vk H ; uk d oif w ef ; tprS oif w ef ; tqk H ; xd w d k i f a tmif wm0ef , l aqmif&Gufay;oGm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ tBudrfBudrf om"kac:í 0rf;om MunfE;l rIawGvnf; wu,f yif jzpfcJh&ygonf/ tqkdyg aus;&Gmav;rS q&mawmf u J h o d k Y ynmwwf & [ef ; wpf y g; ay:ayguf v mcJ h j cif ; onf ]]Zmenf a,musf m ;? tvG e f & S m ;\? rsm;jym;jynf & G m ? jzpf r vmcJ h ? xk d o l j zpf & m? jynf & yf & G m onf ? bmomvl r sKd ; ? csrf ; omwk d ; vd r f h } } [l a om pum;twkdif;yif bmomESihfvlrsKd; aumif;usKd; csrf ; omwk d ; yG m ;Mu&onf r S m {uef y if j zpf y g onf/ aus;&Gm&Sd aqGawmfrsKd;awmf? &Gmol &Gmom;rsm;rSmvnf; aysmfvdkY? &TifvkdY MunfEl; auseyfp&m wu,fyifaumif;vSygonf/ Ak'¨bmom,Ofaus;rIoifwef;wGif oifwef;enf;jyq&mawmfrsm;tjzpf BuKd;Mum tif;&Gm ausmif;xkid q f &mawmf b'´EaÅ ombdw? atvmNrKUd ? &wemykaH wm& y&d,wåpd moifwu dk f BuD;rS t&Sifaombdw (wuúoDv"r®mp&d, BA.Buddhism - pma&;ol)? t&Sifod0geE´


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

12

"r®0D&onf udk,fusifhoDvESifh pm&dwåjrifhrm;ap&ef jzpfonf/

(omoe "Z "r®mp&d,) ESifh t&SifeE´d,wdkYu wm0ef,loifMum;ay;cJhMuygonf/ oifwef; umvwpf a vQmuf v k H ; wG i f oif w ef ; enf ; jy q&mawmfrsm;tm; &GmOD;ausmif;q&mawmf\ Mo0g'ukdcH,lum trIaqmifbmoma&;vlBuD; rsm;jzpf a om Ouú | OD ; uH v S ? OD ; jrih f a &T ? OD;odef;aqmif? OD;odef;atmif? OD;ÓPfjrifhwdkYu OD;pD;OD;aqmifjyKí BuKd;Mumtif;&Gm&Sd 'um? 'umrrsm;u ypönf;av;yg;ukd vdktyforQ? jynhpf o Hk nftxd wwfprG ;f orQ Munh½f aI xmufyHh rIrsm;jyKay;cJMh uonf/ ]]omoemta&; 'kt Yd a&;? omoemh wm0ef 'kw Yd m0ef}} [laom pdwx f m;ukd &if0,fyu dk í f ]]wm0efoo d rl mS wm0ef&ydS gonf}} qkad ompum;ukd vufuidk jf yKí wpf&mG vk;H wm0ef odod Munhf½Iapmihfa&SmufcJhMuonfhtwGuf oifwef;enf;jyq&mawmfrsm;jzpfonhf rdrw d rYdk mS vnf; pdwfcsrf;omp&maumif;vSygonf/ Ak'¨bmom ,Ofaus;rIoifwef;wGif tajccHynmrlvwef;tqifhrS tajccHynm txufwef;tqifx h d oifwef;ol? oifwef;om; pkpkaygif; (90) cefYwufa&mufoifMum;cJhMu ygonf/ oifwef;ukd (1.4.2010) aeYwGif pwifzGihfvSpfcJhNyD; (10.4.2010) aeYwGif oif w ef ; qif ; yG J t crf ; tem;uk d pnf u m; oku d Nf rKu d pf mG usi;f ycJMh uonf/ tqkyd g oifwef; qif;yGJwGif yxrqk (BuD;? i,f)? 'kwd,qk? wwd,qk? pmtkyfpmay oefY&Sif;qk? ,Ofaus; vdr®mausmif;om;pHjyqk (BuD;? i,f)? ESpfodrfhqk? txl;qkrsm;ukd a&G;cs,fí qkrsm;csD;jr§ifhay;cJh ygonf/ oifwef;om;wkdif;ukdvnf; pma&; ud&d,mponfrsm;udk oifwef;qif; atmif vufrw S rf sm;ESihf yl;wGí J ay;tyfcs;D jri§ chf yhJ gonf/ oif w ef ; qif ; yG J t crf ; tem;wG i f wm0ef & S d Xmeqkdif&mvlBuD;rsm;? &yfrd&yfzvlBuD; rsm;? oif w ef ; ol oif w ef ; om;rsm;ES i h f z d w f M um; xm;aom ausmif ; om;rd b rsm;? pk p k a ygif ; y&dowf (400) cefY wufa&mufcJhMuygonf/ tcrf;tem;ukd aeYv,f 1 em&DwGif pwif zGifhvSpfí nae 4 em&DcefYwGif ]Ak'¨omoeH pd&H wd|wk} ok;H Burd &f w G q f ydk al Zmfí ½kyo f rd ;f cJyh gonf/ jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHawmfBuD; onf Ak'¨bmom0iftrsm;pkaexkdifMuaom Ak'¨ bmomEkdifiHawmfBuD; jzpfygonf/ [kd,cif a&S ; tcgurl ausmif ; ol a usmif ; om;wk d i f ; bkef;awmfBuD;oif ynma&;ausmif;rsm;ü ynm oif M um;Mu&onf j zpf í Ak ' ¨ t qk H ; trrsm;? Ak'¨0g'tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;? ,Ofaus;rI tarG t ES p f q k H ; rpum; avmueD w d r sm;uk d pepfwus avhvmoifMum;cGihf &&SdcJhMuonf/

,ckrSmrl Ak'¨bmomqkdonf bmukdqkdvkdonf rod / Moumouef a wmh u sKd ; yif ausaus nuf n uf r&csif M u/ &[ef ; oH C mrsm;ES i h f rajymwwf rqkdwwf? raewwf rxkdifwwf? bmoma&;ES i h f tvS r f ; a0;uG m aeonf r S m wu,fyif 0rf;enf;zG,f&maumif;vSygonf/ avmuDbGJUxl;*kPfodefrsm;ukdum; toD;oD; &&SMd uyg\/ odaYk omf bmomw&m;\ tqk;H tr rsm; &if x J r ud e f ; Muí ynmwwf vl r k d u f (vl½idk ;f )rsm;? r,Ofaus;olrsm; jzpfíaeMuonf ukd awma&mNrKdUyg ae&mrsm;pGmwGif awGUjrifae &onfrSm wu,fyif pdwfraumif;p&myg/ tem*wfumv wkdif;jynfESihfvlrsKd;? bmomESihf omoemtwGurf awG;&Jatmif &ifav;p&myif jzpfygonf/ Ak'¨bmom0ifwkdif; Ak'¨0ifukd aocsm useod&SdMuap&ef &nfoefí ae&ma'oaygif; rsm;pG m wG i f Ak ' ¨ b momES i h f y wf o uf a om oifwef;rsm;ukd q&mawmfrsm;? bmoma&; toif;tzGJUrsm; OD;aqmifí zGihfvSpfay;oifhyg onf/ a'otcsKdUwGif zGifhvSpfoifMum;jcif; jyKaeaomfvnf; xkdxufykdí ykdí zGifhvSpf oifMum;ay;oifhygonf/ txl;tm;jzihf aEG &moDausmif;ydwf&uf umvrsm;wGif zGifhvSpf ay;oifhygonf/ uav;i,frsm;ukd ]usL&SifNyD; usL&Sipf epf}ukd q&m'um nDnmaygif;pk wkid yf if rIjzifh jyKjyifoihfygNyD? rdbq&m nDnmaygif;pk taMumif ; jyKí uav;i,f r sm;\&if x J tonf;xJ Ak'¨bmomtqkH; trrsm;a&muf&Sd atmif pDpOfay;oihfygonf/ BuKd;Mumtif;&Gm&Sd uav;i,frsm; onf uHaumif;jcif;vufaqmifrsm;ukd &&SdcJh jcif ; jzpf y gonf / Ak ' ¨ t qk H ; tr? "r® e D w d ? avmueDwdrsm;ukd i,f&G,fpOfu oifMum;cGifh &&SdcJhonhftwGuf tqkdyguav;rsm;omru pmrsuf E S m 10 rS emrnfukdrl pma&;ol rrSwfrdawmhyg/ a&csrf; pifrSm urÁnf;&SdygvdrfhOD;rnf/ rdrdrSD&mjzpfwJh a&csr;f pifrS rormol vlwpfpu k pwD;yef;uef? pwD ; a&cG u f w d k Y u k d ,l o G m ;Mu\/ pma&;ol ukd,fwkdif 0,fvSLcJhaom aumfa&cGuf? aumf tzkH;wdkYukd ,loGm;MuonfrSmvnf; tBudrf aygif;renf;yg/ pma&;olwdkY Ak'¨ bmomEkdifiHü þxm;arwå m uk d wav;wpm;vk y f a qmif ay;aeMuonfudk pmzwfov l nf; awGUzl;ygvdrfh rnf/ xkdolwdkY\ xm;arwåmukd ½kdaoav;pm; aomtm;jzihf xkdolwdkYonf rdrdwdkY\ rSD&mrsm; jzpf M uovk d xk d o l w d k Y \ xm;arwå m ac:

ausmif;om;rdbrsm;tm;vkH;vnf; aysmfrqkH; Munf E l ; rqk H ; jzpf a e&onf u k d y if rsuf j rif ukd,fawGU awGUjrifcJh&onfrkdY pma&;olwdkYvnf; wu,fyif aysmf&TifMunfEl;rIyDwdawG &ifrSm wzG m ;zG m ;jzpf a y:vmcJ h & ygonf / "r® ' ge uk o k d v f x l ; uk d jznf h q nf ; cG i f h & wmrk d Y v nf ; 0rf ; omMunf E l ; cJ h & ygonf / þuJ h o d k Y a om ]Ak'¨bmom,Ofaus;rIoifwef;} rsm;ukdvnf; pGr;f tm;&So d avmuf aemufaemifumvrsm;wGif BuKd;pm;zGihfvSpf&rnf[laom &nf&G,fqkH;jzwfrI yDwdtm;awGvnf; jzpfapcJhygonf/ tcsKyftm;jzihfqkd&ygaomf aejynf awmf? v,fa0;NrKdUe,f? uefomaus;&Gmtkyfpk? BuKd;Mumtif;aus;&Gmü Ak'¨bmom,Ofaus;rI oifwef;BuD;ukd q&mawmfb'´EÅudwådNE´d,0Ho (r[m*E¦0gpu y@dw) OD;pD;zGihfvSpfay;cJhjcif; onf Ak'b ¨ momjrefrmEkid if t H wGuf tkww f pfcsyf oJwpfyGihfyrm vkdtyfaeaom uGufvyfwpfck ukd jznfhqnf;ay;vkdufjcif;jzpfouJhodkY Ak'¨ bmom0ifrsm;ukd xkdokdYvkyfaqmif&ef wm0ef&Sd onf[k today;vkdufjcif;vnf;jzpfonf/ pma&;oltaeESihfvnf; q&mawmf BuD;ESifhyl;wGJí xl;uJpGmyg&rDjznhfcGihf&onhf twGuf tvGefyifMunfEl;&Tifvef; yDwdyef;rsm; &ifxJrSm a0a0qmqm yGihfvef;cJh&ygonf/ jrefrmEkid if t H ESt YH jym;wGif Ak'b ¨ mom,Ofaus;rI oifwef;rsm;? us,fus,fjyefYjyefY zGihfvSpfEkdifMu ygap[laom &nfoefpdwful; qE´xl;jzihf þ MunfEl;&Tifvef; Ak'¨bmom,Ofaus;rIoifwef; aqmif;yg;ukd a&;om;ylaZmfvkduf&ygonf/ uk d , k , (v,f a 0;)

a&csrf ; pif o nf v nf ; rd r d \ rS D & myif jzpf y g awmhonf/ rdrd\rSD&m tusKd;,kwfoGm;atmif vkyfvQif rdrdvnf;tusKd;,kwfrnfqkdonfukd owd r l a&S m if M uOf í trsm;csrf ; omrI u k d jyKapcsifygonf/ wpfO;D uwpfO;D tm; uk, d f pdwf ESpjf zm csrf ; omatmif ul n D w wf M uvQif ay;ol ? vuf c H o l tm;vk H ; csrf ; omMurnf j zpf í rS D & mwnf & mwd k Y u k d av;pm;oih f y gaMumif h owday;a&;om; wifjyvkduf&ygownf;/ armif v k H Y v (a&T u ef a jr)


DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS "r®0D&onf rdrdudk,fudk apmifha&SmufEdkif&eftwGuf jzpfonf/

13

tcspfeJY trkef;

rsKd ; jrih f ( atmif v H )

"r®rdwfaqG wlav;? wlrav;wdkYa&/ 'Dwpfcgawmh ykxkZOfwdkif; b,folrS ruif;EkdifMuwJh ]tcspfeJYtrkef;} taMumif; ajymjycsifygw,f/ tcspfrSm rsufpdrygbl;qdkwJh pum;awmh Mum;zl;Muygvdrrfh ,f/ tJ'g tcspq f kd wJh rde;f rBu;D rsupf rd ygwmudak jymwmr[kwb f ;l uGJU/ tcspfpdwf? zdpD;ESdyfpufvm&if todÓPf ynmrsufpd r&SdawmhbJ? qifjcifEdkifpGrf;tod w&m;r&Sdawmhwmudk wifpm;NyD; ajymMuwmyg uG,/f wl? wlrav;wdkYa&/ tcspf q d k w m yl a vmif w ,f v d k Y trsm;u vufcHxm;Muw,faemf/ tJ'DtxJrSm 528 oG,farwåmqdkwm rygbl;aygY/ vltrsm; em;vnfxm;wJhtcspfqdkwmu 1500 udav ompdwu f akd jymaeMuwmyguG,/f udavompdwf qdkuwnf;u tukodkvfjzpfapEkdifwJh qdk;usKd; w&m;awGygaewm aocsmwmaygY/ &,lcsifwJh avmbpd w f a wG / rd r d q E´ r jynh f a jrmuf v d k Y jzpf a y:vmwJ h a'gopd w f a wG ? wPS m &m* zH;k vTr;f aewJh arm[pdwaf wG Bu;D pd;k aerSm tao tcsmygyJ/ tcsp&f UJ qefu Y sib f ufuawmh trke;f aygY/ tcspfBuD;awmh trsufBuD;w,fqdkwm Mum;zl;r,fxifygw,f/ cspfcsifwmudk rcspf& &if 'grSr[kwf cspfcGihfr&&if rkef;oGm;awmhwm yJ/ tJ'g[m umr*kPt f m½Hak wGaMumihjf zpf&wm uGJU/ tm½Hkig;yg;aMumihf tcspfpdwf (vdkcsifwyf

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DHAMMA TALKS

14

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twåpdwfjzpfvmonfESifhtrQ vlwdkYonfvnf; ,k w f n H h v mwwf M u\/ xd k t cg rm,mES i f h omaX,sjzif h avmu\tusKd ; pD ; yG m ;ud k ta,mif j yNyD ; rd r d \ tusKd ; pD ; yG m ; ud k o m aqmif&Gufavawmh\/ þonfrSm rm&fewf\ yxrwyfrBuD;ESifh rawGU&rD? rwdkuf&rDuyif tvHjzLwifí t½HI;ay;vdkufjcif;jzpf\/ xd k o l r sKd ; onf ypö n f ; Opö m rsm;jzif h od r f ; oG i f ; jcif ; rcH & rD u yif od r f ; oG i f ; jcif ; cH &avatmif? &mxl;? *kPfxl;rsm;jzifh odrf oGif; jcif;rcH&rDuyif odrf;oGif;jcif;cH&avatmif? t½dktaotav;tjrwfjyKí awmif;yefjcif; rcH & rD u yif xd k u J h o d k Y a wmif ; yef j cif ; cH & avatmif ? rausmf M um;ao;yguvnf ; xifay:ausmfMum;avatmif b0udktysuf cHNy;D rvkyo f ifo h nfrsm;udk vkyw f wfMu\/ rqdk oifhonfrsm;udk qdkwwfMu\/ rBuHoifhonf rsm;udk BuHwwfMu\/ þonfrSm tajccHynm rvHkavmuf&Smaom omrefvlrsm; taejzifh rm&fewf\ yxrwyfrBuD;jzpfaom umr*kPf wd k Y \ a&S U arS m uf ü 'l ; axmuf í t½H I ; ay; vdkufjcif;jzpf\/ xkdqHk;½HI;jcif;rsKd;wGif um,uHtm;jzifh ½HI;jcif;rsKd;vnf;&dS\/ 0pDuHtm;jzifh ½HI;jcif; rsKd;vnf;&dS\/ raemuHtm;jzifh ½HI;jcif;rsKd;vnf; &d\ S / xdu k o hJ Ykd ½H;I oGm;ygaomfvnf; rdru d , kd u f rkd rd d ½HI;oGm;NyD[k odolrsm;vnf;&dS\/ rodolrsm; vnf;&dS\/ odkY&mwGif avmuygvewfrsm;ESifh wu,fh"r®bufawmfom;rsm;url xkdol½HI;oGm; NyD[k odvm\/ trSefw&m;[lonf rnfonfht"r® buf a wmf o m;rm&f e wf \ tk y f p k 0 if r sm;u trSm;w&m;tjzpf owfrSwfjcif;cH&apumrl trSefw&m;toGifjzifhyif wpfckaomaeYwGif udk,fxifjyvmrnf jzpf \/ ,HkrSm;zG,f&mr&dS/ vlwdkYonf 0dnmPu©E¨m\ vHIYaqmf csuft& yifudk,fADZtm;jzihf rdrd\ tusKd; pD;yGm;udk y"merxm;bJ avmu\ tusKd; pD;yGm;udk aqmif&GufvdkMu\/ xdkodkY aqmif&Guf Edik af tmif tajccHynm vHak vmufaom tod ynm&S i f r sm;? twwf y nm&S i f r sm; jzpf v m ap&ef yHhydk;onfhtaejzifh rdbrsm; uvnf; rdrw d \ Ykd om;orD;rsm;udk ausmif;odYk tyfEMHS u\/ q&mrsm;uvnf; tm;pdkufcGefpdkuf oifay; Mu\/ xd k t cg om;orD ; rsm;onf tod ynm&Sirf sm; jzpfvmMu\/ twwfynm&Sif rsm; jzpfvmMu\/ xdkuJhodkY todynm&Sif rsm; twwfynm&Sifrsm; jzpfvmMuonfh tm;avsmf

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pGm avmu\tpD;tyGm;twGuf aqmif&Guf vmMu\/ Edik if t H pD;tyGm;twGuf aqmif&Guf vmMu\/ trsKd ; om; tpD ; tyG m ;twG u f aqmif&GufvmMu\/ odkY&mwGif rm&fewf\ yxrwyf r BuD ; jzpf a om umr*k P f r sm;ES i f h awGUavaomtcg wkdufpGrf;&nf rxufjruf aomaMumifh rdrdwdkYu rEdkifawmhbJ rm&fewf\ wyfrBuD;tm; t½HI;ay; vdkufMu&\/ ypönf;Opömrsm;jzifh odrf;oGif;jcif; cH&ívnf; t½HI;ay;&jcif;rsKd;vnf;&dS\/ &mxl;? *k P f x l ; rsm;jzif h od r f ; oG i f ; jcif ; cH & ívnf ; t½HI;ay;&jcif;rsKd;vnf; &dS\/ tifESifh tm;ESifh pnf;½Hk;jcif;cH&ívnf; t½HI;ay;&jcif; rsKd;vnf; &dS\/ vkyfydkifcGifhay;NyD; acgif;aqmif wifí pnf;½Hk;jcif;cH&ojzifh t½HI;ay;&jcif; rsKd;vnf; &dS\/ ausmfMum;xif&Sm;atmif vkyfay;NyD; pnf;½Hk;jcif;cH&ojzifh t½HI;ay;&jcif;rsKd;vnf; &dS\/ od k Y & mwG i f xd k o d k Y ½H I ; Muol r sm;rS m tewå'óeudk ravhvmrdbJ twå'óe udkom tm;udk;wBuD; avhvmrdjcif;aMumifh ud k , f u sih f o d u © m rcd k i f r mí wk d u f p G r f ; &nf rxufjrufaomaMumifh ½HI;Mujcif;rsKd;vnf; jzpfEdkifyg\/ yifudk,fADZaumif;ygvsuf pmay ynmtaygif ; tazmf r S m ;ojzif h taumif ; rS tqdk;jzpfoGm;&jcif; jzpfyg\/ jrwfpGmbk&m;uvnf; &SiftmeE´m tm; rd w f a qG a umif ; &d S j cif ; onf t&m&m wdkif;udk NyDF;ajrmufaponf[lí a[mMum; csurf sm; &dyS g\/ xdaYk Mumifh ud, k u f sihf odum© udk xdef;odrf;ay;Edkifaom pmayrsm; onfvnf; rdwfaqGaumif; uvsmPrdwåjzpf\/ trSef tm;jzifh pmayonf Oyg'ge ypö,m ba0gt&'d|Kyg'geftaejzifh b0\ aumif;usKd; qdk;jypfudk zefwD;\/ Ak'¨a'oemawmft&qdkvQif udk,fusifhodu©mjzLpifrItay: wnfaqmuf rxm;aom pdwf"mwfcdkifrmrIonf tEÅ&m,f &daS om acgif;rmrIwpfrsK;d yif jzpfonf/ wpfzef acgif ; rmrI t ay: wnf a qmuf xm;aom ynmum; ynmppfr[kw/f A[kow k om jzpf\/ tu,fí A[kokwudk udk,fusifhodu©m jrifhrm; rItay:ü rwnf aqmufygu A[kow k rsm;av trS m ;ud k usL;vG e f w wf a v[l í jrwf p G m bk&m;u t&Sifom&dykwå&mtm; yg&mZduu@ ygVd awmf a0&ÍÆu@ odu©my' ynwdå,mpe uxmü a[mMum;awmfrlcsufvnf; &dSyg\/ xd k Y a Mumif h ud k , f u sif h o d u © m ud k ck d i f r matmif w nf a qmuf & ef rBud K ;pm;bJ


COVER FEATURE

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rm&fewf\ tvGeftiftm;BuD;rm; aom yxrwyf r BuD ; umr*k P f u d k tEd k i f wd k u f E d k i f a om aoe*F A sL[monf yd # uwf pmayü&dS\/ xdkYaMumifh rdrd\ tusKd;pD;yGm; udk y"merxm;bJ avmu\ tusKd;pD;yGm; udk y"mexm;í aqmif & G u f v d k o l r sm; jzpf vmMuap&ef jrefrmEdkifiHom;wkYdonf rm&f ewf\ umr*kPfwyfrBuD;udk wdkuf&mü yd# uwfpmayvm aoe*FAsL[mtwdkif; vdkuf emí avhusifhtyf\/ xdt Yk jyif jrefrmEdik if o H m;wdt Yk ae jzifh rdrdudk,fudk rdrdcspfonfrSm ,HkrSm;zG,f r&dS/ rdr\ d trsK;d om;udk rdrcd spo f nfrmS ,Hrk mS ;zG,rf &d/S rdr\ d Edik if aH wmfukd rdrcd spf onfrmS ,Hrk mS ;zG,rf &d/S odkY&mwGif rdrdudk,fudk rdrd ESpf&mra&mufbJ cspf & ma&muf a tmif ? rd r d \ trsKd ; om;ud k rdrdESpf&m ra&mufbJ cspf&ma&mufatmif? rdrd\ EdkifiHawmfudk rdrdESpf&mra&mufbJ cspf&m a&mufatmif rnfonfhvkyfief;e,fy,fü rqdk "r®aoe*FAsL[mESit hf nD vky&f efvykd g\/ vludk vlvdkjrifwwfNyD; olwpfyg;udk paw;Ny;D rS &rnft h cGit hf a&;rsK;d udk r,lrad tmif xdef;odrf;zdkY vdktyfyg\/ xdkodkY xdef;odrf;jcif; onf twåudky,fowfjcif;rnfyg\/ twåudk y,f o wf j cif ; onf rm&f e wf \ wyf r BuD ; ]]umr*kPfudk}} "r®aoe*FAsL[mjzifh Edkifatmif wd k u f j cif ; rnf y g\/ od k Y & mwG i f twå u d k y,f o wf & mü ½k y f e mrf c E¨ m ud k od ½ H k r Q Ówy&d n mjzif h rvH k a vmuf a o;? ted p ö ? 'k u © ? tewå u d k od ½ H k r Q wD & Py&d n mjzif h rvH k a vmuf a o;? wPS m rme 'd | d w d k Y u d k y,f o wf E d k i f a om y[mey&d n mjzif h o m twåudk y,fowfEdkif\/ twåonf w'*F y[mefjzifh aoao? 0dur© eÇ y[mefjzifh aoao? ork a pä ' y[mef j zif h a oao twå a oonf ESit hf rQ rm&fewf\ yxrwyfrBu;D umr*kPu f kd Edik o f nfrnfyg\/ umr*kPu f kd Edik o f nfEiS t hf rQ þavmuonf Nidrf;csrf; ayvdrhfrnf/ xd k Y a Mumif h þavmuud k wu,f Nid r f ; csrf ; apvd k y gu ud k , f u sif h p if M u,f r I ? pd w f p if M u,f r I ? tjrif p if M u,f r I w d k Y t ay: tajccH a om y&d n moH k ; yg;jzif h rm&f e wf \ yxrwyfrBu;D jzpfaom umr*kPu f kd Edik f atmif wdkuftyfyg\/ trSeftm;jzifh twåudkEdkifvQif umr*kPfudk Edkifonfrnfyg\/ OD ; a&T a tmif


THE TEACHINGS OR DOCTRINE OF THE BUDDHA "r®0D&onf csrf;ajrhaysmf&TifrItwGuf jzpfap&onf/ aemuf a usmzk H ; rS trSeftm;jzihfawmh tJ'Djrif&awGU& Mum;&wmawGtm;vHk;[m Oyg'geu©E¨mawGcsnf;jzpfw,f/ qif;&Jtppf 'ku©opömw&m;awGcsnf;yJ jzpfw,f/

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17

bd u © a 0-&[ef ; wd k Y ? wH a cgye£'H ' k u © H t&d , opö H - xd k o d k Y oabm&Sad om þ'kut © &d,opömud?k y&dan,sE-dÅ ydik ;f jcm;í odtyfaom w&m;[lí? ar-igYtm;? ykaAÁteEkóak wok "ar®o-k a&S;urMum;zl;ao; aom w&m;wdkYü? pu©HKO'yg'd-ynmrsufpdjzpfay:cJhNyD/ ÓPHO'yg'dtodÓPfjzpfay:cJhNyD/ ynmO'yg'd-tjym;tm;jzihfodaom ynmjzpfay: cJNh y/D 0dZmÆ O'yg'd-xd;k xGi;f íodaom 0dZmÆ ÓPfjzpfay:cJNh y/D tmavmaum O'yg'd-todÓPfynm[laom tvif;a&mifjzpfay:cJhNyD/

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THE TEACHINGS OR DOCTRINE OF THE BUDDHA

18

"r®0D&onf vlom;rsKd;EG,fquftwGuf jzpfonf/

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THE TEACHINGS OR DOCTRINE OF THE BUDDHA "r®0D&onf t&G,foHk;yg;vlom;tm;vHk;twGuf jzpfonf/ jyKusihfaomtm;jzihf t&d,r*fudk jzpfapEdkifygw,f/ 'kuo © pömeJpY yfNy;D ajym&r,fqykd g&if jrifcu kd Mf um;cdu k f ponfwYkd ü xif&Sm;jzpfay:aewJh Oyg'geu©E¨m 'ku©opömw&m;awGudk jzpfwdkif; jzpfwdkif; rjywf½INyD;awmh tedpöponfjzihf ydkif;jcmod&ygr,f/ 'Dvdkydkif;jcm;NyD; odEdkifatmif rjywf½IrSwf&r,fqdkwmudkvJ apmapmuwnf;u odxm;ygrS? tJ'o D x d m;wJt h wkid ;f ½Irw S v f suf ydik ;f jcm; odwJh 0dyóemÓPf &ihfoefjynhfpHkwJhtcg t&d,r*fjzpfay:vmwmyJvdkY a[mawmfrlygw,f/ ork',? eda&m"? r*¾opömwdkYeJYpyfNyD; jyKoihfwJhudpö awGudk apmapmuwnf;u odxm;ygrS? tJ'DudpöawGNyD;atmif tm;xkwf jcif;jzihf t&d,r*fudk jzpfyGm;apEdkifygw,fvdkY a[mawmfrlygw,f/ od E S i h f w ,f q d k w meJ Y jzpf E S i h f w ,f q d k w m 'kuo © pömudk ydik ;f jcm;odoifw h ,fvo Ykd w d hJ udpÓ ö Pf/ ork',udk y,foihw f ,fvo Ykd w d -hJ udpÓ ö Pf/ eda&m"udk qdu k af &mufoih?f rsuaf rSmuf jyKoihw f ,fvo Ykd w d -hJ udpÓ ö Pf/ r*¾ukd yGm;apoihw f ,fvo Ykd w d -hJ udpÓ ö Pf/ 'D udpöÓPfav;yg;uawmh r*fcPodkYrqdkufra&mufrD a&S;umv uwnf;u jzpfESihf&r,fvdkY qdkvdkygw,f/ udpöav;yg;odESihfw,fqdkwmeJY ud p ö Ó Pf av;yg;jzpf E S i h f w ,f q d k w m oabmuawmh twl w l y J jzpfygw,f/ 3/ uwÓPf & S i f ; jycsuf aemufNyD;awmh 'Dudpöav;yg;NyD;pD;oGm;NyDvdkYodwJh uwÓPfqdk wmuawmh? t&[wår*fzdkvfa&mufNyD;wJhaemuf ypöa0u©PmeJY qifjcif wJh tcgusrS ]]tusihfjrwfudkusihfoHk;NyD;NyD? jyKoihfwJhudpöudk jyKNyD;NyDvdkY qifjcifNyD;jzpfwJhÓPfjzpfygw,f/ t&[wår*fjzihf eda&m"udk rsuaf rSmufjyKvsu?f 'kuu © kd ydik ;f jcm; odjcif;? ork',udk y,fjcif;? r*¾udk yGm;apjcif;qdkwJh udpöoHk;yg;udkvJ NyD;apygw,f/ tJ'Dvdk udpöav;yg;udk jyKNyD;aMumif;odwJh uwÓPfuawmh? t&[wår*fjzihf udpöav;yg;vHk; NyD;wJhtcgusrS jzpfygw,f/ ÓPf o H k ; yg;rS w f v G , f o d v G , f E d k i f w J h "r® a qmif y k ' f r sm; ÓPfoHk;yg;eJYpyfvsOf;wJh &Sif;jycsufrsm;uawmh NyD;pD;oGm;ygNyD/ tJ'Ó D Pfo;kH yg;udk tvG,w f ulrw S Ef ikd o f Ed ikd af tmif "r®*w D ad qmify'k rf sm; eJY qufvufazmfjyvdkufygw,f/ "r® a qmif y k ' f (1) a&SUaemufumv? r*fcPrSm? av;opöm? odwm opöÓPf/ (2) odoihfy,foihf? qdkufç yGm;oihf? odESihf udpöÓPf/ (3) udpöNyD;vQif? NyD;aMumif;jrif? ac:wGif uwÓPf/ opömav;yg;pvH;k udk odç y,fç qdu k çf yGm; vkyif ef;rsm;vkyEf ikd &f ef &SpfvHk;bGJU uAsmuav;eJY atmufrSmazmfjyvdkygw,f/ "r® u Asm 'ku©rSefjim;? ydkif;jcm;odap? 'ku©jzpfaMumif;? aumif;aumif;y,fav/ 'ku©csKyfaysmuf? qdkufa&mufumae? r*fw&m;? yGm;rsm;Budrfzefay/ / aemufwpfcg? opömav;yg;rSm ÓPf (12) yg; jzpfay:vmyHkudk vG,fvG,feJYodatmifvdkY azmfjyvdkufygw,f/ "r® u Asm opömav;yg;? wnfxm;yHkrSef? opöç udpö? uwÓPH/ ajr§mufumwGufppf? q,fhESpftrSef?

19

'kv’bw&m; (5)yg;ESihf pyfvsOf;orQ

cif a rmif r d k ; (awmif B uD ; )

'kvb ’ wnf;[laom &cJjcif;w&m;(5)yg;udk Ak'b ¨ mom0ifwikd ;f odMu\/ odkYaomf xdk'kv’b&cJjcif;w&m;(5)yg;udk tb,ftwGuf tb,fudk &nfñTef;í 'kv’b[kqdk&ygoenf;[k ar;cJhaomf ajzqdkEkdifol &Sm;aumif;&Sm;rnfjzpfygonf/ xdkYaMumihf ¤if;pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;aomtaMumif;t&m tajzudk aus;Zl;awmf&Sifv,fwDq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;pD&ifawmfrlonfh Owåryk&do'DyeDusrf;rS aumufEkwfí atmufwGifazmfjyvdkygonf/ 'k v ’ b w&m;(5)yg; ,if;'kv’bw&m;wnf;[laom &cJjcif;w&m;(5)yg;wkdYrSm(1) rEkówå y#dvmb 'kv’b - vlYtjzpf&cJjcif;/ (2) Ak'¨KyÜg' 'kv’b- bk&m;yGihfawmfrlonfudk &cJjcif;/ (3) yAÁZÆdw bm0'kv’b- &[ef;tjzpfudk &cJjcif; (4) o'¨gorÜwdå'kv’b- o'¨gw&m;jynhfpHkrIudk &cJjcif;/ (5) o'¨r®ó0e twd'kv’b -olawmfaumif;wdkY\ w&m;udk Mum;em& rI tvGef&cJjcif;[lí 'kv’bw&m;(5)yg; &Sdygonf/ rEk ó wå y#d v mb'k v ’ b rEkówå y#dvmb 'kv’budk vlYb0csrf;omtwGuf qdk&o avm? ukodkvftwGuf qdk&oavm[k apm'emjim;tHh/ ukodkvftwGuf aMumifhom rEkówåy#dvmb'kv’b[kqdkygonf/ vl Y t jzpf ? vl Y b 0? vl Y c srf ; omum; ewf j A[® m tjzpf E S i h f axmufqygu tao;trTm;jzpfí vlYtjzpf vlYcsrf;omtwGufudk t"duqdkjcif;r[kwfyg/ Ak ' ¨ K yÜ m ''k v ’ b Ak'¨KyÜm' 'kv’budk vlewfjA[®mcsrf;om&&m&aMumif; 'ge? oD v ? bm0emw&m;twG u f o mqd k y goavm/ jrwf p G m bk & m;&S i f \ omoem tppf j zpf a om aAm"d y ud © , w&m;(37)yg;twG u f o m Ak'¨KyÜg''kv’b[kqdk &onf/ oHo&mvnfrnfh 'ge? oDvbm0emtwGuf txH0k goem yg&rD rsK;d aphtwGuaf Mumihf Ak'K¨ ymÜ ''kvb ’ rqd&k / Ak'K¨ ygÜ 'okvb[komqd&k rnf/ xdkolwdkYtwGuf omoemwGif; omemyrnfokdYrQ rxl;onfudk owdrl&m onf/ pmrsuf E S m 26 ok d Y opömwdkif;? &H0dkif;ÓPfoHk;wef/ / 'gu opömwpfyg;wpfyg;rSm ÓPf (3) yg;pDjzpfwmaMumifh? opömav;yg;rSm ÓPf (12) yg;jzpfyHkrsm;yJjzpfygw,f/ tckwifjycJw h hJ 'kuo © pömeJY pyfvsO;f wJh odoiho f x d u kd w f t hJ csuf tvufrsm;u rsm;aomtm;jzihf pmayt& od&wmawGyJjzpfygw,f/ w&m;"r®yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfaeMuwJh a,m*Dtaygif;olawmfaumif;rsm; taeeJYuawmh? 'Gm&ajcmufyg;rSm jzpfcdkufay:cdkuf w&m;rsm;udk ½Iae rSwfae&if;rSmyJ 0dyóemÓPfjzihf opömav;yg;udk ododaeMuygw,f/ "r® 0 D & -oEÅ m atmif tjynf j ynf q d k i f & m ax&0g'Ak ' ¨ o moemjyKwuú o d k v f /


THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON NIYA MA DIPANI

20

"r®0D&onf tarGaumif;ay;Edkif&eftwGuf jzpfonf/

rHk&GmNrdK hr[mv,fwDwdkuf? u

aus;Zl;&Sif v,fwDq

a&;om;jyKp

v,fweD , d

NIYAMA DIPANI OR MAN b

Maha-thera Ledi- Saya-daw, TRANSLATED From the Pa-l.i, B Revised and Edited by Mrs. C.A The Residuum Translated by V (,cif t ywf r S t quf ) oH 0 ¥Xm,D u yf rD;avmif&me,fwpfciG rf mS aumif;uifEiS t hf jynhf use&f MdS uukef aom OwkrsdK;aphwdkYonf txl;xl;tjym;jym; rsm;ukef\/ atmufodvm yx0Dukd avmifaomrD;wdrYk S use&f MdS uukeaf om Owkwo Ykd nf aemifxakd e&m rSm odvmyx0Djzpfay:&ef odvmyx0DrsdK;taeESihf usef&SdMuukef\/ xdktwl pMu0Vmawmifudk avmifaomrD;ç owå&befawmifwdkYudk avmifaomrD;ç jrihfrdk&fawmifudk avmifaomrD;wdkYrS usef&SdMuukefaom OwkwdkYonfvnf; aemifxdkxdkae&mwdkYrS pMu0Vmawmif ponfjzpfay: Edik Mf u&ef ausmufyx0DrsKd ;taeESifh use&f u dS ek \ f / aeç vç eu©wçf wm&m wdkYudk avmifaom rD;ç xdkxdkvnf; xdktwlyifwnf;/ rD;avmif&m e,fwpfcGifrSm aumif;uifESihftjynhf usef&SdMuukefaom OwkwdkYonf wjznf;jznf; yGm;pD;Muukefí umvMumjrihfvwfaomf rdk;wdrfrdk;"mwf rdk;Owk rdk;&moDtjzpfodkYa&mufí wnfMuukef\/ (ausmufawmifBuD; Oyrm wpfckpmMumjrihfav\/) oH 0 ¥Xm,D u yf NyD ; \/

0d 0 ¥uyf urÇmwnfaxmifjcif;[laom 0d0¥uyf ay:vwfaomf rd;k wdrf rd;k "mwf rd;k Owk rd;k &moDtaeESiw fh nf&MdS uukeaf omf xdOk wkwrYkd S a&S;OD;pGm rdk;ao;rdk;zGJwdkYonf &Gmukef\/ xdktcgü avwdkYonf oH0¥Xm,Duyf xuf0ufcefYumvrS aemufü yl&Sdefç ylaiGU tvsif;rawGUMu&ukefojzihf tvGefxuf tvGefat;jrMuukef\/ xdkavwdkYESihf awGUxMuukefaom rdk;a&ç rdk;"mwfwdkYonf rsm;aomtm;jzihf rdk;oD;ç rdk;cJawG jzpfMuavukef \/ wa&GUwa&GU wdk;yGm;Muukefojzihf umvMumjrihfvwfaomf ,lZem wpf & m&S d wpf a xmif & S d B uD ; rm;pG m &G m uk e f \ / yxrpsmef jA[® m h b H k w d k i f a tmif a&cJ ç rd k ; cJ w d k Y o nf jynh f a vuk e f \ / pMu0Vmuk a #wpf o d e f ; onf a&cJ ç rd k ; cJ w pf j yif x J wnf&Sdav\/ xd k a &cJ w d k Y E S i h f xd p yf M uuk e f & m atmuf a tmuf a&wd k Y o nf v nf ; cJ í cJ í vd k u f M uuk e f \ / xd k a &wd k Y E S i f h a e&mrS tyod k Y xG u f MuukefaomavwdkYonf xdka&wdkYudk 0ef;0dkif;vsuf wnfukef\/ rdk;&GmrI

"Being" is a mere "concept". There is no corresponding thing in Nature. When such a really non-existent is regarded as really existent, the result thereof is that mere name and form is made the essence of a being. And by holding that it is the self of a being; not only that, the being himself, a man takes what is not self as self. It is said that a man sees objects through his eyes. Here seeing means visual cognition. The gaze is fixed upon a material form as the object of that cognition. And the form is a visible and tangible phenomenon, and neither the being nor the person. A man having seen such a form, contemplates it in his mind as a being, a woman, a head, a face, a tree, a chariot, a carriage. This is the error of cognitive consciousness originating form seeing. A similar explanation can hold true of such an errors as origniates from hearing etc. But the question as to the error that originates from the mind co-ordinating sensations is rather intricate, though of pressing importance. According as an object is discerned by the mind, it is marked, or fixed by recognition. Later on it may cause bewilderment and confusion. This is what called the hallucination of reconition. According as a man apprehends a thing through the understanding, he speculates upon it:- "Beings, etc., have a self," It is like this and that", "There is a living soul." "It is such and such". This is what is termed the hallucination of illusory opinion. In the Pa-l.i texts the hallucination of recognition as being very obvious is mentioned first. But it may follow the hallucination of opinion. And these three forms of hallucination are rooted in "Ignorance", that is to say, they originate from it. Of these, the first two forms of hallucination have a bearing upon the immoral type of worldly consciousness. Craving, conceit and false notions spring from them. By taking his stand upon philosophical truth, a man can discern the nature of hallucinations; and having ascertained what that is he can give them up for ever. "Householaer, to bring a bout life in the heaven-worlds, it is of no use for an Ariyan disciple, yearning for heaven, either to pray for it or to think much of it; the steps that lead to heaven must be stepped by the Ariyan disciple, and when those steps are


THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON NIYA MA DIPANI "r®0D&onf avmuom;tm;vkH;\ ta&;t&mjzpfonf/

21

usrf;jyKtausmf urÇmausmf

q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;

pawmf awmfrlaom

,mr'DyeD

NUAL OF COSMIC ORDER by

Aggamaha-pan.d.ita, D. Litt. By M. Barua. M.A., D. Litt, and A.F. Rhys Davids, M.A. D. Litt. VEN. U Nya-na., Pathamagyaw. jywfpJvwfaomf xdka&cJç rdk;cJwdkYonf wjznf;jznf; avQmusavukef\/ atmufü urÇmudkcHaom a&ç avwdkYonf rdk;a&ç rdk;cJ tm;BuD;vSaom tcg raqmifMuOf;Edkif&SdMuukef&m ydkrdkorQaom rdk;a&ç rkdk;cJwdkYonf atmuf a umif ; uif o d k Y avQmusavuk e f \ / r[myx0D w nf & mod k Y usa&mufaomtcg urÇmudkcHaomavwdkYonf aqmifMuOf;EdkifMuukef aomtcg rdrdwdkYt[kefjzihf ydwfqdkYukefvsuf &GufaqmifNrJ &GufaqmifMu avukef\/ xdka&cJjyifBuD;onf tpOftwdkif; avQmusav&m xdkxdkXmeü &SdMuukefaom Owktxl;wdkY\tpGrf;jzihf jA[®mbHkae&mü jA[®mbHkjzpfí vmukef\/ ewfbHkae&mü ewfbHkjzpfí vmukef\/ jrihfrdk&fawmifae&m ü jrihfrdk&fawmifjzpfí vmukef\/ pMu0Vmawmifae&mü pMu0Vm awmifjzpfí vmukef\/ owå&befawmifwdkY\ae&mü owå&bef awmifwdkYonf jzpfvmukef\/ yHokyx0Dae&mü yHokyx0Djzpfívm\/ oDvmyx0Dae&mü oDvmyx0Djzpfívm\/ oDwmç ork'´&mwdkYae&mü oDwmç ork'´&mwdkYonf jzpfívmukefü/ aeç vç eu©wfç wm&mwdkYonf rlum; ESi;f jrLç ESi;f cdw k Ykd zH;k tkyv f su&f adS eMuuke\ f / aeç vç eu©wçf wm&mç bHkAdrmefjzpfíaeMuukefaom a&Tç aiGç &wemwdkYonf tvGefaygMuukef \/ ajrrStxuf aumif;uifwpfcGifvHk;wdkYü rvIyfr&Sm;wnfaeaom avaoç avxkBu;D onf cHav\/ twGi;f ü iSuw f o Ykd nf xdak vaowdu Yk kd vIHaqmfí aumif;uifü ysHMu&ukef\/ jrihrf &kd af wmifç owå&befawmifwrYkd S tyodx Yk u G af om av&Sif wdEYk iS hf tyü pMu0Vmawmif0ikd ;f Bu;D rS twGi;f odx Yk u G af om av&Siw f o Ykd nf wdu k q f ikd Mf uukeaf om jrifrh &kd af wmifukd r@dKijf yKí pMu0Vmawmif0ikd ;f Bu;D twGif; ywf0dkufwHkvQif;ç t[kefjyif;pGm vusfm&pfvSnhfvnfíaeaom avaAGcJBuD;ç avayG0ef;BuD;ç avaAGpuf0dkif;BuD;onf&Sd\/ xdkavaAG0ef; BuD;onf aeç vç eu©wfç wm&mwdkYudk tNrJwGef;aqmif vTifhESifav\/ bHAk rd meftayhgç tao;odv Yk u kd í f tjreftaES; tajy;toGm; jcm;em;vsuf &SMd uuke\ f / txufjA[®mjynfrS pkawí OyygwfoaE¨jzihf ajrray:rDcif a&tjyifBuD;\txufrSm usa&mufay:aygufvmMuukefaom jA[®m vm;wl uyfOD;olwdkYvnf; aeMuukef&m umvMumu ajrtpwGif a&tjyifrSm jzpfay:vmaom ajrvTmç ajrqDrsm;udk pm;oHk;Muukefí

stepped by him, they lead to the winning of heaven, and he becomes a winner of the heaven- worlds." Anguttara-Nika-ya, The Book of the Fives, iii(43)

EXPOSITIONS III Of Great Periods of Time We shall now expound our system of the five time-periods called kappas. They are distinguished as (1) a great kappa, a cycle or aeon; (2) an incalculable kappa, four going to each great kappa; (3) an included kappa, falling within one of the preceding; (4) a life-kappa, or one life-span of any given being; and (5) a cataclysmkappa, or age of doom. (1) A "great kappa". -This is a notion of a given time historically cut off, so to speak, and divided into some periods in which many events happen (in a certain order, and which repeat themselves). It would follow from this that a "great kappa" is but a notion of time itself. To a kappa as such is given the name "great" on the ground of its having been conceived as the greatest in duration. How long, then, is the duration of a great kappa? In order of form an idea of its duration, let us imagine a mountain, which is a single cube of rock, one league in length, in breadth, and in height. If a person were to flick it with a piece of cloth once at the lapse of every hundred years, the time that such a mountain would require to be completely worn a way would not be long in duration as is a great kappa. How long in duration has been the succession of great kappa in the past? It is said in the text: "Undetermined, Bhikkhus, is the beginning of this world: the past extremity (pubbakoti) as to the running on of beings in rebirths under the hindrance of ignorance and bonds of craving is not manifest." Here the Pa-l.i word for "undetermined" is anamata, which is the same as a-matta, the syllable an being euphonic, Amata means that which is unknown, unascertained. So it was said: "the past extremity" (or beginning) is not ascertainable by calculation. Or, it may perhaps means that which, like the "eelwriggling" of the Sophists, sets itself no limit. In turnning back to the proposition "the past extremity....is not manifest," it is indeed suggested that here the


THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON NIYA MA DIPANI

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"r®0D&onf oEdÅokcodkY a&S;½Ijy|mef;onf/

udk,fa&mifç udk,f0guG,faysmuf arSmifBuD;a&mufcgrS aeESifhvudk wç oMuukef&m aeç vç eu©wfç wm&mwdkYonf xdktcgrS xifvif;pGm ay:vmMuavukeo f wnf;/ þ0d0¥uyfpum;&yfü tvGefxuf tvGefat;jrvSukefaom avwdkY\ awGUxdrIaMumihf urÇmrdk;ç urÇma&wdkY tcJtjyifawG jzpfMuukef onf[l&mü urÇmay:rSm tcsdKUaomNrdKU&GmwdkYü rdk;oD;ç rdk;BuD;pGm&Gmí vloluRJEGm;rsm;yif ysufpD;aMumif; tdrf&mwdkufwmrsm; NydKysufaMumif; aqmif;&moDtcgwGif [dr0EÅmawmawmifrsm;rSm aumif;uifrS usvm aom qD;ESi;f wdo Yk nf ajrodaYk &mufí tvGeaf t;jraom avwdEYk iS fh awGUMu &m qD;ESif;cJwdkYonf qD;ESif;cJawG awmif&Sdç urf;jzpfMuaMumif;ç ZrÁL'Dyg \ ajrmuft&yfrsuEf mS wdüYk aqmif;&moDtcg at;jrvSpmG aomavwd\ Yk awGUxdrIaMumihf ork'´&m yifv,fa&e,fwpfcGif cJysOfíaeaomaMumihf avSç rD;oabFmrsm; roGm;rvmEdkif &SdaeMuaMumif;ç ajrmuft&yfa'o ½k&SEdkifiH&Sd jrpfBuD;jrpfi,fwdkYrSmvnf; xdkYtwl aqmif;&moDü jrpfa&ç acsmif;a& cJysOí f aeaomaMumihf avSç rD;oabFmrsm; roGm;Edik çf rvmEdik f &SdaeaMumif; aqmif;&moDtcgü igwdkYEdkifiHwGif rdk;ukwfç rdk;rdwf paom &Srf;jynfe,fy,frsm;rSvnf; qD;ESif;cJrI xif&Sm;&SdaeaMumif;rsm;udk arQmf axmufMuav? a&cJjyKvkyfaom ynm&SdBuD;rsm;ESihfvnf; n§dEIdif;Muav/ ,ckjyqdkcJhaom qD;ESif;cJç a&cJwdkYrSmrlum; aeylç avylwdkYESihf awGUxdrI&SdaeaomaMumihf rMumrD t&nfjzpfNrJjzpfí oGm;ukef\/ urÇm a&jyifç urÇma&cJwrYkd mS rlum; oH0¥Xm,Daemufyikd ;f rSpí 0d0¥uyfywfv;kH aeylç avyl[lí rawGUrxdMuojzihf t&nfjzpf&efta&;ESihf ta0;BuD; a0;Muvsuf cufrmonfxuf cufrmxufodkYom a&mufMuavukef\/ 0d 0 ¥uyf N yD ; \/

0d 0 ¥Xm,D u yf þodYk jrihrf &kd çf pMu0VmponfwYkd wnfaxmifí jynfph MkH uaom tcgrS píwpfzef þurÇmBuD; ysufpD;jyef&ef urÇmysufrdk;BuD; &Gmonf wdkifatmif MoumoavmuBuD;onf ausmufawmifBuD; Oyrmwpfckpm rQ t"Ge&Yf n S Mf umpGm wnfav\/ / terw*¾ oH,w k f a0ykvo ’ w k f ygVdawmfü]]þurÇmwGif yGifhMuaom bk&m;ig;qlwdkYwGif wpfqlESihfwpfql tMum;rSm þr[myx0DajrBuD;onf wpf,lZemcefYç wpf,lZemcefY wdk;wuf\/ a0ykv’awmifonf wpf,lZemcefYç wpf,lZemcefYç ajrxJodkY jrKyfav\-}} [lí a[mawmfral omaMumihf yHoyk x0DajrBu;D onf tEÅ&uyf wpfuyfç wpfuyftwGif;rSm wpf,lZemç wpf,lZemwufNrJ[k odtyf\/ tEÅ&uyfqdkonfum;- urÇmOD;tcgü vlwdkY\oufwrf;onf toacsF wrf;jzpf\/ vlwo Ykd nf ESpaf ygif;toacsF touf&n S Mf uuke\ f / toacsF wrf;rS wpfa&GUç wpfa&GU qkwf,kwfav&m q,fESpfwrf;odkY qkduf\/ q,fEpS w f rf;rS wpfa&GUwpfa&GUwufjyef&m toacsw F rf;odYk a&mufjyef\/ þodkY toacsFwrf;rSqkwfí wpfzef toacsFwrf;odkYa&mufjyefaom umvonf tEÅ&uyf wpfuyfrnf\/ ,ckwnfaom þ0d0¥Xm,Duyfonf tEÅ&uyfaygif; 65jyefwnfav\/ urÇmOD;yxr tEÅ&uyfü uukoefbk&m; yGifhawmfrl\/ 'kwd,tEÅ&uyfü aumP*Hkbk&m; yGihfawmfrl\/ wwd,tEÅ&uyfü uóybk&m; yGihfawmfrl\/ pwkw¬tEÅ&uyfü igwdkYocif t&Sifa*gwr bk&m; yGihfawmfrl\/ aemuf yÍörtEÅ&uyfü arawå,sbk&m; yGihfawmfrl vwåHU/ aemufü tEÅ&uyfaygif; 59- usef&Sd\/ bk&m;yGihfrI r&SdavNyD/ 0d 0 d ¥ Xm,D u yf NyD ; \/

words, "is not manifest" mean "does not exist" in the same way as, in the passage, "If there be, Ananda, no birth, are old age and death manifested? Verily they are not. venerable sir"; the word "manifest" means "exist", and "not manifest" means "does not exist". Whether the one or the other be meant, we may conclude that the propostition "the past extremity...is not manifest," means that the past extremity as to the succession of great kappas in general does no exist, while taking akappa in particular, this may be said to have its beginning, its middle, and its end. Those who fancy that there was actually a past extremity to the succession of all great kappas in general have certainly no other reason for it than their own fanciful thinking. Those who reject the Ariyan mode of interpretation called "The Theory of Causation," commit themselves to the error of the assumption of the uncaused, or to that of Theism. So much as to the nature and extent of a great kappa. (2) Incalculable Epochs. -Such is the name of a kappa that is not capable of being definitively enumerated, enumerated even by taking hundreads of thousands of years as a unit. These are four kinds:(i) The Enveloping Epoch; (ii) The Enveloped Epoch; (iii) The Developing Epoch; (iv) The Developed Epoch. It is written in the Anguttara-Nika-ya (iv., 156; or vol. ii., 142): "These are the four incalculable eposhc...(They are enumerated as above.) The epoch, Bhikkhus, when there is a cosmic envelopment, is not easy to reckon as so many years, centuries, tens or hundreds of centuries." Here "the Enveloped" is that which relapses, is destroyed. The worldsystem having once relapsed, while the worldstuff remains in a state of dissolution, it is said to remains in a state of dissolution, it is said to remain enveloped. "The Developing Epoch" is a period of restoration, of evolution. Having once been reinstated, while the world-system continues to be in that state, it is said to be Developed. Of these epochs, again, the first is distinguished as of three kinds:-

avmuES i h f ed , mrtcG J t us,f Moumoavmu 0d 0 ¥Xm,D ü þrQavmuf BuD ; us,f p G m wnf & S d r I o nf aemufurÇmysurf ;D Bu;D us,pf mG ay:vmzdjYk zpf\/ urÇmysurf ;D ay:vm&ef zefqif;oludk &SmBuHzG,fr&Sd? urÇmysufrD; BuD;us,fpGmavmifrIonf aemufurÇmopf wnfaxmif&ef Owktodkufç ttHkBuD;us,fpGm ay:vm bdjzpf\/ Owktodu k t f tHzk efqif;olukd &SmBuzH , G rf &S/d Owktodu k t f tHk BuD;us,frIonf urÇmjyKrdk;BuD; BuD;us,fpGm ay:vmzdkYjzpf\/ urÇmjyKrdk; zefqif;oludk &SmBuHzG,fr&Sd/ urÇmjyKrdk; BuD;us,fpGmjzpfay:zdkY r[myx0Dç jrihfrdk&fawmif tp&Sdaom MoumoavmuBuD; jzpfay:zdkYjzpf\/ þ MoumoavmuBuD;udk zefqif;ol tjcm;&SmBuHzG,fr&Sd/ þMoumo avmuBuD; BuD;us,fpGmwnfrIonf urÇmrD;BuD; BuD;us,fpGmavmifzdkY jzpf\/ þodkYvQif zefqif;oludk &SmBuHzG,fudpö r&Sdonhftjyif xm0& bk&m;aygif; wpfaomif;tm; wpfoed ;f tm;ESiyfh if wm;qD;Edik cf iG rhf &atmif BuD;us,fvSaom "r® e d , mr mr\tpGrf;tm;jzihf a&S;üvnf; tpr&Sd? aemufüvnf; tqH;k r&S?d terw*¾ oHo&m urÇmtqufqufBu;D jzpfav ownf;/ MoumvavmuBuD ; NyD ; \/


VISION OF THE DHAMMA "r®0D&onf Ak'¨\"r®w&m;awmf tppftrSefxGef;um;jyefhyGm;&efjzpfonf/

23

a0'emvdIif;*,uf NidrfoufrIudk &SmazGMunhfrdjcif; Ed k i f c if a &T

(wjref t ywf r S t quf ) rdrdonf orm"dudk jyKpkysdK;axmifaeonfhtcgwGif rwnfNidrf rIaMumifh jyefv Y iG v fh yI &f mS ;aeaompdwrf sm;udk obm0[k rSw, f x l m;ygonf/ xdo k Ykd rSw, f x l m;aom todw&m;aMumifh vkyif ef;cGiw f iG f taESmuft,Suf uif;uif; tm;xkwí f &onf[k qdck siyf gonf/ xdaYk Mumifv h nf; tmemyge tvkyfonfvnf; wjznf;jznf;csif; wdk;wufrIrsm; &&Sdvmygonf/ y#d b m*ed r d w f x if j cif ; 0ifavxGufavtay:wGif awGU&SdMu&avh&Sdaom yljcif;? at; jcif;? Ekjcif;? Murf;jcif;? wdjk cif;? &Snjf cif; ponftodrsm;udk ausmv f eG u f m? avonf jrLuJo h v Ykd nf;aumif;? rD;cd;k aiGUrsm;uJo h v Ykd nf;aumif;? rD;cd;k wef; uJo h v Ykd nf;aumif; jrifawGUvmae&ygonf/ þonfrmS y#dbm*edrw d rf sm; xifjcif;[k qdkygonf/ xdkodkY jrifawGU&aomtwef;BuD;onf rD;cdk;wef;ozG,f rdrd ESmacgif;0odkY 0ifcsDxGufcsDjzihf jzpfay:aeonfudk ½IrSwfcsuftwdkif;ü awGUae&ygonf/ þonfrmS rdryd &dujH yKonht f wdik ;f tm½HEk iS rfh w S o f pd w d f wdYk wpfom;wnf; wpfxyfwnf;jzpfay:aejcif;aMumihf y#dbm*edrw d rf sm; xifjrifvmjcif;udpöjzpfay:vm&onf[k em;vnfvkduf&ygonf/ {u*¾ w mtqih f o d k Y qk d u f a ejcif ; avm¿ þodkY xifjrifvmaomtm½Hkudk orm"dpGrf;tm;trsdK;tpm; tjzpf pdppfa&G;cs,fowfrSwf&rnfqdkygvQif Oypm&orm"dtqihf[k qdk&rnfjzpfygonf/ psmeft*Fgig;yg;jzpfaom 0dwuf? 0dpm&? yDwd? okc? {u*¾wmqdkonhf t*Fgtpdwftydkif;xJrS pdwf\wdk;wufrIonf {u*¾wm pdwftqihfodkY qdkufa&mufaejcif;jzpfonf[k qdkEdkifygonf/ rdrdonf orm"dpGrf;tm;udk&&Sd&ef usihfBuHBudK;ukwftm;xkwf aejcif;onf psmefw&m;rsm;udkvdkvm;í tm;xkwfaejcif;r[kwfyg/ rdrd t"duvdkvm;onfu 0dyóemÓPfynmrsm;omjzpfygonf/ xdkYaMumihf &&Sdvmaom Oypm&orm"dtpGrf;jzihf owdy|mefw&m;wnf;[laom um,Ekyóemenf;udk txl;BudK;pm;í ½IrSwfyGm;rsm;tm;xkwfygonf/ owd y |mef a v;yg;w&m; rdrdonf tmemygP ur®|mef;udk Oypm&owdtajcodkYa&muf atmif tm;xkwfNyD;aemuftodESihfowdudk OD;acgif;xuf i,fxdyf0odkY ydv Yk w T u f m apmifMh unhaf erdygonf/ tawmftwef tm;xkwyf gaomfvnf; xl;jcm;rIwpfpw kH pfcrk Q rawGU&Scd ahJ y/ rdrq d ifjcif½MI unhaf eonfh owdy|mef w&m;wGif yg&Sdonhft&mXmewdkYonf um,vnf;aumif;? pdwåvnf; aumif;? a0'emvnf;aumif;? "r®vnf;aumif; av;yg;om&Sdygonf/ xdaYk Mumihf rdro d nf tb,ft&mXmeudk yHak oum;csoabmrsKd ; tpGrJ xm;yJ? &&Sv d monhf orm"dtpGr;f jzihf jzpfay:vmaomtm½Hw k idk ;f udk owdNrJNrHpGmxm;&SdNyD; ½kyfemrfESpfyg;wdkY\ oabmobm0wdkYudk ZmwfyGJ t&mxm;um? yGMJ unhyf &dowfwpfO;D yrm owdEiS 0hf &D , d pdu k Nf y;D ½Irw S af erd ygonf/

a&yl p D a ygif ; rsm;ayguf u G J v I y f c wf o G m ;jcif ; 0ga,m½kyf\trlt,mvIyf&Sm;wwfonhfoabmonf cE¨m ud, k af tmufyikd ;f csuef m;w0du k üf jzpfay:vIy&f mS ;aeonho f abmudk ½Iae rdygonf/ 0ga,m½kyf\trlt,monf a&jr§Kyfa&yvHkpDwGif yg0ifaom ylpaD ygif;rsm; aygufuNJG y;D vIycf wfomG ;onht f awGUtxdrsKd ;udk jrifvu dk &f yg onf/ rdrdonf orm"d\tpGrf;jzihf xdkjzpfysufajymif;vJazmufjyefae aom ½kyfw&m;udk aphaphpyfpyf ½IrSwfaeaomfjim;vnf;? tjcm;aom jyifytm½Hkrsm;qDodkY trSwftodrsm;vGwfxGufíroGm;ay/ tMum;tm½Hk ESifh uk, d cf E¨mtawGUtxdrsm;udv k nf; jzpfay:awGUxdvu kd w f idk ;f tcsuu f s us ½IrSwfaerdygonf/ odkYaomf xdkae&mü toH\aemufodkYaomfvnf; aumif;? cE¨m\tawGUtxdtm½Hak emufov Ykd nf;aumif; vdu k yf gcHpm;um ESvHk;oGif;rIrsm;rjzpfay:rdcJhyg/ 0d y óem orm"d E S i h f ormxorm"d rdrdwdkYonf 0dyóemorm"dESihf orxorm"dwdkYudk ydkif;jcm;í odem;vnfxm;&rnfjzpfygonf/ 0dyóemorm"dqdkonfrSm tm½Hkay: wkdif; todESihf,SOfíjzpfaom oabm&Sdygonf/ 0dyóemorm"donf t&m&mwdkif;udk trSwfowdpdyfpdyfjzihf odrSwfrIrsm;yif jzpfygonf/ orxorm"d\ pdwfwnfNidrfrIonf rdrdy&duHjyKxm;aom tm½HkedrdwfrSwpfyg; usefaomtm½Hkay:odkY todpdwfrjzpfay:ay/ psmef 0ifpm;aeaom yk*Kd¾ vw f o Ykd nf psmef0ifpm;aecdu k w f iG f jyifytm½Ht k oHrsm;ü ,kwpf t G qH;k jyif;xefonhf aygufuo JG BH u;D rsm;udyk if rMum;Edik [ f q k ykd gonf/ xdaYk Mumifh rdrw d o Ykd nf 0dyóemorm"dEiS fh 0dyóemorm"dpw d \ f wnfNird f MunfvifyHkudk txl;owdjyKí ½IrSwfrIrvGJrSm;atmif owdxm;&ef vdkyg onf/ Ed k ; Mum;aompd w f tod p d y f a e&ef 0dyóemynmudk tm;xkwfrnfqdkygvQif Edk;Mum;aompdwfudk todpyd af ezdYk vdt k yfrnfjzpfygonf/ rdrw d \ Ykd cE¨mtwGi;f jzpfay:aeaom ½kyfemrf"r®ocFg&rsm;\ oabmowådtrlt,mrsm;onf vGefuJaeaom pdwf tay: wnfrSDí ay:vGifonhfoabm&SdaomaMumihf xdkjzpfay:vm onhf tm½HkwdkYukd ½IrSwf&mwGif trlt,mvu©Pmay:prS jzpfqJumv wpfavQmuf owduyfvsuf ,if;tm½HkcsKyfNidrf;oGm;onftxd jzpfysuf jyKjyifajymif;vJaeaomtpOftwdkif; owdrvGwf toduyfvsuf ½IrSwf tyfayonf/ odkYrSom udavomMum;0ifrcdkbJ owdESifhtod csdwfquf rdaernfjzpfygonf/ tvG e f t cH & cuf v S a oma0'em rdrdonf azmfjyyg 0ga,m½kyf\ azmufjyefaomoabm vu©Pmtrlt,mrsm;udk owduyfvsuf ½IrSwfaepOfwGif csufatmuf 0rf;jyifwpfciG v f ;kH ü tvGew f &mrSao;i,faom yd;k aumifrmT ;aumifuav; rsm; &G & G x d k ; í jzpf a y:aeaom a0'emud k tawmf y if o nf ; cH u m


VISION OF THE DHAMMA

24

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25

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DHAMMA DEW

26

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf Ak'¨w&m;jzifh avmuudk apmihfa&Smuf&efjzpfonf/

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

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þokdY½Ijrif tajymcH&? tvGef&SufzG,fygh/ xkdokdYMum;& bDvl;rSm? MunfnKdNyD;&if; MunfnKdum/ Ak'¨avmif;vsm ]a'0"r®}? wu,fodjrif usihfBuHygh/ av;pm;vGef;vS bDvl;rSm? nDi,fESpfOD;pvkH; vTwfay;yg/ xkdtcg tavmif;awmfu? olYukd qkdqkH;r/ a&S;b0u jyKcJhuH? ,ckb0 vmícH/ aoG;oH&J&J olrsm;touf? owfjzwfpm;& bDvl;obuf/ ,ckonftwdkif; qufoGm;vQif? aemufb0vnf; aumif;zkdYrjrif/ i&JrSvQif oiftxuf b,faomtcgrS jyefrwuf/ onftwGufaMumihf ,ckyif? raumif;rIawG oifa&SmifMuOf/ aumif;rIYukdyif oifaqmif&Guf? b,fawmhrS rysufuGuf/ xkdodkY`rGuf[ qkH;r&m? bDvl;BuD; vdr®m/ onft&yfrSmyif nDaemifrsm;? qufvufaexkid o f mG ;/ wpfaeYom;awmh olwdkYvQif? eu©wfw&m Munhfqifjcif/ aus;Zl;&Sif bk&ifBuD;um;? ewf&GmpH&Sm ygayhgvm;/ okH;a,mufom;vQif bDvl;ukdac:? tjrefoGm;Mu aejynfawmf/ ]r[d Ho} ac: aemifawmfu? bk&ifBuD;jzpfygh/ nDi,fpE´ t½dkuft&m? tdrfa&SUrif;jzpfyg/ nDaxG;rSmvnf; b0opf? ppfolBuD;vQifjzpf/ rdwfaqGjzpfcJh vkdufívm? bDvl;ukdvnf; csefrxm;yg/ aumif;aomae&m wpfckukda&G;? Adrmefwpfck zefwD;ay;/ onfaus;Zl;aMumihf bDvl;rSm? ae&xkdif& csrf;csrf;om/ pm;aomuf&yg tcGifhxl;? yef;uk;H çyef;yGiçfh xrif;OD;/ aZmf a emif

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twd w f \ yk H & d y f azmfjyyg a'0"r®Zmwfudk tcgwpfyg; jrwf p G m bk & m;&S i f aZw0ef a usmif ; awmf ü oD w if ; ok H ; aeawmf r l p Of ]rxif & S m ;aom rsm;aomOpöm &Sdaom&[ef;} ukd taMumif;jyK vsuf a[mMum; jcif;jzpfygonf/ om0w¦djynfae ol<u,fwpfa,muf vQif r,m;aoonfjzpfí aemuftdrfaxmif rjyKbJ &[ef ; jyK\/ &[ef ; jyKonf j zpf j im; ¤if;onf csrf;omaomb0rSvmoljzpf&um; olwpfyg;wnf;\ tusKd;twGufom y&d0kPf ukdvnf;aumif;? rD;wif;ukwfukdvnf;aumif;? b@mwk d u f c ef ; ud k v nf ; aumif ; jyKvk y f N yD ; ¤if ; \b@mwk d u f c ef ; wG i f axmywf ? qef ponfwdkYukd cef;vkH;jynhfyif 0,f,ljznhfwif; xm;\/ ¤if ; ud k t vk y f t auR;jyK&ef t wG u f ¤if;\tdrfütrIxrf;cJhMuaom uRefwdkYukdvnf; ac:aqmifvmNyD; trsKd;rsKd;aom pm;aomuf zG,f&mwdkYukd csufjyKwfapNyD; ¤if;tm;uyfap onf/ ¤if;üouFef; y&du©&m ponfwdkYvnf; trsm;tjym;&Sd\/ xkdYaMumihf ouFef;ukdvnf; xnfvJ0wf½kH\/ wpfaeYü aus;vufZeyk'fü aeMuuk e f a om&[ef ; wd k Y o nf ausmif ; pOf vS n f h v nf v monf & S d a omf xk d & [ef ; \ tdyf&mvTrf;? ouFef; ponfwdkYukd jzefYvSrf; xm;onfwdkYukd awGU&aomtcg rsm;pGmtHhtm; oihaf eMu\/ tb,fo\ l OpömwdjYk zpfoenf;[k ar;vQif xkd&[ef;um; ]]ighOpöm}} [k ajzav onf/ xkdtcg &[ef;wdkYu ¤if;ukdajym\/ jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifu &[ef;wpfyg;ukd okH;xnf omvQif cGijfh yKonfjzpf\/ oifonf tvk&d r®uf enf;onfh bk&m;omoemwGif &[ef;jyKNy;D þrQ tvkBd u;D oljzpf&oavm[kqu dk m ¤if;ukd jrwfpmG bk&m;xH ac:aqmifomG ;Muonf/ jrwfpmG bk&m; xHa&mufaomf ¤if;&[ef;\tjzpfudk bk&m;tm; avQmufwif\/ &[ef;wd\ Yk avQmufxm;csuu f dk Mum;em;NyD;aomf bk&m;&Sifu ¤if;&[ef;ukdar; \/ olwaYkd jymonht f wkid ;f trSeyf ifjzpfoavm [k ar;&m ¤if;&[ef;uvnf; trSefyifjzpf aMumif; 0efc\ H / xkt d cg bk&m;&Siu f ¤if;&[ef; ukd ajymavonf/ ]]oifonf &[ef;wpfyg;jzpfygvsuf rsm;pGmaom Opömypönf;wdkYukd tb,fhaMumihf trsm;tjym;aqmifxm;&oenf;? igbk&m;onf tvk d e nf ; jcif ; taMumif ; ? a&mih f & J v G J j cif ; taMumif;? qdwfNidrfjcif;taMumif;? vkHYvtm; xkwfjcif;taMumif;ukdajymí wpfqufwnf;ü ¤if ; wd k Y ü jzpf & aom tusKd ; aus;Zl ; uk d v nf ;


DHAMMA V IRA ARTICLES

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"r®0D&onf csrf;ajrhaysmf&TifrItwGuf jzpfonf/

a[mMum;qHk;rcJhonfr[kwfavm}}/ xkdokdY bk&m;&Sifu ajymonf&Sdaomf ¤if;&[ef;onf BuD;pGmtrsufxGufí ol\ ukd,f½kHouFef;ukd cRwfcsvsuf ,ckrSpí þodkY omaeawmh r nf [ k ajymum y&d o wf w d k Y \ tv,fü oif;ydik w f pfxnfjziho f m &yfíaeav onf/ jrwfpGmbk&m;onf r[mu½kPmawmf jzihf ¤if;&[ef;ukd u,fwifvkdonfjzpfí þokdY ar;jref;awmfro l nf/ ]]a&S;tcgu oifonf [d&dMowåyÜukd &SmazGum awmt&yfü wpfq,fhESpfESpfvkH;vkH; aecJhzl;\? odkYaomf oifu ig\omoemawmf ü&[ef ; jyKNyD ; y&d o wf a v;yg;tv,f w G i f uk d , f ½ k H u k d c Rwf c sí tb,f h a Mumih f t&S u f taMumufrJhpGm jyKoenf;}} bk&m;&Sifu þodkYrdefY`rGufajymvkduf aomtcgrS - &[ef ; onf [d & d M owå y Ü u k d jyefvnfjzpfapavonf/ &[ef;y&dowfu awmif;yefojzihf bk&m;&Sifu ¤if;&[ef;\ twd w f Z mwf a Mumif ; uk d atmuf y gtwk d i f ; jyefvnfa[mjy awmfrlonf/ a&S;vGefavNyD;aomtcgu Am&mP oDjynfü jA[®'wfrif; rif;jyKonf/ xkdpOf tavmif;awmfonf jA[®'wfrif;\ om;awmf BuD ; jzpf \ / ]r[d H o } [k t rnf w G i f o nf / olYaemuf nDawmfwpfyg; xyf&onf/ ¤if;rSm ]pE´ukrm&} [k trnf&\/ ¤if; pE´ukrm& ajy;vTm;aqmhupm;wwfonht f &G,üf yif ¤if;wdYk \r,fawmfrdzk&m;BuD; uG,fvGefonf/ xkdtcg zcifrif;Bu;D onf aemufxyfrzd &k m;Bu;D wpfyg;ukd xyfí,lonf/ xkrd zd &k m;Bu;D u om;awmfwpfyg; zGm;jrifonf/ om;awmf\trnfrSm ol&d,[k trnfwiG o f nf/ rif;Bu;D onf om;awmfo&l , d ukd jrifaomf tvGecf spcf ifEpS o f ufí rdz&k m;Bu;D tvkd&Sd&mqkdukd awmif;av? igay;rnf[kqkd onf/ rdz&k m;Bu;D u tckrvkt d yfao;yg/ vkt d yf onhftcgwGifrS awmif;ygrnf[k jyefvnfí avQmufxm;onf/ þodkYjzihf ol&d,rif;om; uav; t&G,fa&mufvmonf/ xkdtcgwGifrS rif;BuD;xH olvkdcsifaomqkukdawmif;\/ xkdqk um; wpfjcm;r[kw?f olo Y m;ol&, d ukd rif;tjzpf ay;&ef awmif;cHjcif;jzpfonf/ rif;Bu;D u olaY &SU wGif om;awmfESpfyg;&Sdygao;vsuf ti,fqkH; jzpf a omom;awmf u k d rif ; tjzpf a y;&ef r S m rnfodkY rQrjzpfEkdif/ xkdYaMumifh ray;EkdifaMumif; rdzk&m;BuD;ukdajymonf/ rdzk&m;BuD;uvnf; tcGihfoifhwdkif; þqkukdom pGJNrJírif;BuD;xH awmif ; cH o nf / xk d t cg zcif r if ; BuD ; onf

om;awmfBu;D ESpyf g;ukd a&SUawmfarSmufoaYkd c:í ajym\/ ]]cspf o m;awmf w d k Y ? igum; ol & d , rif;om;i,fukd arG;zGm;pOfumvu rdzk&m;BuD; tm; vk&d mqkuadk wmif;[k ajymzl;onf/ xkpd Ofu rd z k & m;BuD ; u rnf o nh f q k u d k r Qrawmif ; bJ aemufvt kd yfonht f csed af &mufygrS awmif;rnf [kqkdcJhonf? ,ck rdzk&m;BuD;um; olESihf&aom ol&, d rif;om;i,fudk rif;tjzpfay;&ef awmif;cH aeNy/D igu tBurd Bf urd jf iif;qefaomfvnf; r&? txyfxyftcgcgyif qkad eavonf/ rde;f rwd\ Yk oabmum; ,kwrf maumufuspaf om oabm &So d nfomjzpf\/ ol\qE´udk igrjznfph rG ;f aomf om;awmf w d k Y t m; taumuf B uH z G , f & S d \ / xkdYaMumifh cspfom;wdkY wpfjcm;wpfyg;aom t&yf ü acwå o G m ;a&muf a &S m if a eygav}} [kqdkonf/ rif;om;ESpfyg;vnf; zcif\pum; ukd em,lNy;D eef;jymom'frq S if;vm&m upm;uGi;f ü upm;aeaom ol & d , rif ; om;uav;u jrif o G m ;NyD ; taMumif ; pk H u k d v nf ; od a eNyD ; jzpfojzihf cspaf omaemifawmfwEYkd iS fh rcGv J &dk um; xkdrif;om;ESpfyg;xHajy;oGm;NyD; ¤if;wdkYESihftwl vkdufygíoGm;onf/ þodkYjzihf nDaemifokH;yg; onf [dr0EÅmawmtkyfokdY 0ifcJhMuavonf/ wpfae&mta&muf acwåem;pOf aemifawmfBu;D u ol&d,rif;om;ukdajym\/ ]]nDaxG;i,f oifvnf; yef;NyD? a&tkdifü a&oGm;csKd;av? tjyefwGif igwkdYaomuf&eftwGuf MumcGufjzihf a&ukdaqmifcJhav}} ol&d,rif;om;uav;vnf; aemif awmfBuD;aponhftwkdif; a&csKd;&ef a&tkdifBuD; &Sd&modkYoGm;onf/ xkda&tkdifrSm a0o0Pfewf rif;BuD;xHrS 'u&u©Kdofu &xm;jcif;jzpf\/ xkda&tkdifodkY qif;vmolrSeforQrSm ol\tpm yifjzpf\/ odaYk omf cRi;f csuu f m;&S\ d / a'0"r®udk rodaomolukdompm;jcif;jzpf\/ a'0"r®udk odoltm; rpm;/ xkdolukdrS a&tkdifodkYqif;cGifh ay;\/ ol&, d rif;om;onf xkt d aMumif;rsm;ukd rodojzihf a&tkdifokdYqif;\/ 'u&u©Kdofu wm;\/ oifa'0"r®ukd odoavm/ þa&tdkif odYk vlwidk ;f qif;cGirfh &S/d a'0"r®uo dk o d rl S qif;cGifh &Sd\/ oifodonfqkdu ighukd a'0"r®qkdonf tb,fenf;/ &Sif;jyygav[kqkdonf/ ol&d, rif;om;u a'0"r®qkdonfrSm ]aeESihfv} ESpfyg; jzpfonf[kajz\/ ol\tajzonf rrSef&um;? bDvl;onf ol\pHtdrfüzrf;qD;csKyfaESmifí xm;vkdufavonf/ aemifawmfBuD;onf ol&d,rif;om;

av; a&csKd;oGm;&m tcsdefMumjrifhvSNyDjzpfí pdwfrcsaomaMumihf nDi,fpE´ukrm&rif;om; tm; xyfívTwfvkduf&m pE´ukrm&rif;om; ygjyefí a&mufrvmbJ&\ dS / pE´urk m&rif;om; onf v nf ; ol & d , rif ; om;uJ h o d k Y y if j zpf \ / a'0"r®udk olu ]t&yfav;rsuEf mS } jzpfonf[k qkdacsonf/ olYtajzrSmvnf; wpfvGJjzpfae ojzihf olonfvnf; ol&d,rif;om;av;uJhodkY yif bDv;l \zrf;qD;csKyaf ESmifjcif;ukd cH&&Smonf/ nD i ,f E S p f O D ; pvk H ; jyef r vmaomf aemifawmfBuD;jzpfaom r[d Hoonf pdwfyl ojzihf nDawmfwo Ydk mG ;&ma&tkid o f Ydk uk, d w f idk x f í vdkufoGm;\/ a&tkdif&Sd&modkYa&mufvQif nDi,f ESpOf ;D pvk;H \ ajc&mukad wGU&onf/ r[d o H onf csucf si;f yifov d u dk o f nf/ þa&tkid u f m; bDv;l apmihfaomtkdifwnf;/ xkdYaMumifh bDvl;jzihf &ifqkdif&ef csufcsif;yif av;ESifhjrm;ukd xkwf,l í toifhjyifvkdufonf/ bDvl;ukdawGUaomf r[d Houm; aMumuf&GHUxdwfvefYjcif;tvsOf; r&SdbJ bDvl;ukdar;onf/ ]]toifbv D ;l ? oif ighnaD wmfEpS yf g;ukd zrf;qD;xm;onfr[kwfavm? tb,fhaMumifh zrf;xm;&oenf;}} xkdtcg bDvl;u r[d Houkd jyefvnfíajym\/ ]]þa&tkid o f Ydk qif;oufvmolrsm;rSm rdrd\tpmyifjzpf\? odkYaomf tm;vkH;r[kwfyg? cRif;csufxm;ygonf? ]a'0"r®} ukd odolrsm;ukd um; uREkfyfuif;vGwfcGihfjyKygonf/ Ak'j¨ rwfpmG tavmif;awmfonf bDv;l \pd w f q E´ u k d od j rif e m;vnf a wmf r l o jzih f ]a'0"r®} w&m;ukd bDvl;tm; a[mjyawmfrl onf/ ]]toif b D v l ; rS w f x m;avmh ? vlowå0gü ta&;BuD;qkH;rSm [d&dMowåyÜwnf;? [d&dMowåyÜjynhfpkHol? oDvorm"dESihf jynhfpkHol? ukokdvfw&m;ESihf jynhfpkHol? xkdolum; a'0"r® rnf\}} bDvl;onf xkdokdY r[d Ho\w&m;ukd em&vQif vG e f p G m ES p f o uf j cif ; &S d o nf j zpf í pdwfaumif;0ifum olzrf;xm;aom nDawmf ESpfa,mufteufrS wpfa,mufukd jyefay;&ef qk;H jzwfvu dk \ f / xkaYd Mumifh olu Y dk ]a'0"r®} a[m ajymjyonhf yk*¾Kdvftm; ar;Munhfonf/ ]]t&Sif tu,fí uREkfyfonf zrf; xm;aom nDi,fEpS af ,mufteuf wpfa,muf om jyefay;rnfqv dk Qif oifrnfou Yl dk OD;pm;ay; a&G;cs,frnfenf;}}? xkdtcg bk&m;tavmif; awmfu csufcsif;yif jyefíajymvkdufonf/


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf vlom;rsKd;EG,fquftwGuf jzpfonf/ ]]oifzrf;xm;aom ighnDESpfa,muf teuf wpfa,mufukdom iga&G;cs,f&rnfqkd ygu ighukd nDti,fqkH;ukdomay;avmh}} xkdtcg bDvl;u bk&m;tavmif;ukd jyefíajym\/ ]]oifonf a'0"r®ukd od½kHomodol jzpf\? vufawGUusihfBuHolr[kwf? a'0"r®ukd usihfBuHoljzpfygu tBuD;jzpfaom oihfatmuf nDi,fukdom oifa&G;cs,f&rnf? BuD;olukdom vQif OD;pm;ay;&rnfr[kwfoavm}}? xkdtcg bk&m;tavmif;onf bDvl;tm; olYtaejzihf BuD;oljzpfaom nDvwfukdxm;NyD; nDti,fqkH; uk d a&G ; cs,f j cif ; onf a'0"r® j zpf a Mumif ; ? nDti,fqkH;\ rdcifjzpfolu olYom;ol&d, rif ; om;uk d rif ; tjzpf & apvd k \ / od k Y a omf txuf ü aemif a wmf E S p f y g;&S d a eao;ojzih f olYtm; rif;tjzpf&zkdY&ef rvG,fulyg? xkdYaMumifh ¤if;\om; aumif;pm;zkdYtwGuf igwkdYtm; BuHpnfvdrfhrnf? xkdYaMumifh igwkdYnDaemifESpfyg; onf xD;&dyfeef;&dyfa0;&m þ[dr0EÅmawmtkyf odkY &efa&Smifaomtaejzihf vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ odkYaomf nDti,fqkH;jzpfol ol&d,rif;om; uav;onfigwdt Yk m; cspcf ifojzihf igwdEYk iS t fh wl þt&yftxdvkdufvmcJhjcif;jzpf\/ xkdYaMumifh igonf igh a tmuf n D i ,f u k d o ma&G ; cs,f N yD ; nDti,fqkH;rSm bDvl;pm;íaoNyD[k ajymvQif ig\pum;ukd rnfolu ,kHrnfenf;/ igonf eef;&vdkí nDti,fqkH;tm; owfypfcJhonf[k pGyfpGJMurnfomjzpf\/ xkdodkY jyKrlajymqkdjcif; cH&ygu rnfrQ&SufzG,faumif;rnfenf;/ ig þuJhokdY tjzpfrcHEkdifojzihf nDvwfukdxm;cJhNyD; nDi,fukdom awmif;jcif;jzpf\[k bDvl;tm; jynhfjynfhpkHpkH&Sif;jyvkdufonf/ bk&m;tavmif; r[d Ho\pum; tqk H ; ü bD v l ; onf bk & m;tavmif ; tm; MunfnKdvGef;vSojzihf ¤if;zrf;xm;aom ¤if;\ tpmjzpfonfh bk&m;tavmif;\nDawmfESpfyg; pvkH;ukd jyefvTwfay;vkdufonf/ wpfaeYaomf rif;nDaemifokH;yg;onf eu©wfwm&mwdkYukd Munhf&m crnf;awmfzcifBuD; ewf&GmpHonfh ed r d w f u k d j rif o nf j zpf í nD a emif o k H ; OD ; pvk H ; eef ; NrKd U ok d Y j yef c J h o nf / bk & m;tavmif ; \ tqk H ; tratmuf ü aecJ h & í vd r ® m oG m ;NyD jzpfaom bDv;l tm;vnf; rif;nDaemifo;Hk yg;u ac:aqmifvmcJhonf/ Am&mPoDokdYa&muf vQif tuk d t BuD ; qk H ; r[d H o u zcif \ t½kduft&mudkqufcHírif;jyKNyD; nDvwfukd td r f a &S U t&mxm;um nD t i,f q k H ; ol & d ,

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rif ; om;uk d v nf ; ppf o l B uD ; t&mxm;í ajr§mufpm;awmfrlonf/ xkdokdY nDi,fwkdYtm; pDrHcefYcGJNyD;aomtcgwGifrl rif;BuD;onf bDvl; tm;vnf; ae&mcsxm;ay;onf/ bDvl;onf bk&m;tavmi;f\aus;Zl;jzihf aep&mAdrmef wpfckukd &&SdNyD; pm;p&mtwGufvnf; rylyef& awmh/ aeYpOfaeYwkdif; yef;OD;ukdvnf;aumif;? yef ; uk H ; OD ; ud k v nf ; aumif ; ? yef ; yG i f h w d k Y u k d vnf;aumif;? aumif;rGefpm;okH;&awmhonf/ Zmwf a ygif ; aomf ,ck O pö m trsm;

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