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Think water, think WISA!

Water& Sanitation

The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete resource and wastewater management

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d tion e r e dra tion w o hy olu p r de n s a l So rless itatio te san a w dly n e i r

The TM AFRISAN Elite A FIRST Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant PANEL DISCUSSION Membrane technology advancements Baldwin Matsimela, marketing and communications manager, Johannesburg urg g Water, speaks about meeting the challenges of the growing city January / February 2012 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R30.00 • Vol 7 No. 1.



300 000 metres of

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CONTENTS Volume 7. No.1 Think water, think WISA!

Water& Sanitation

The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete resource and wastewater management




n d ere atio tion ow dr r p dehy n solu a l So rless itatio n te wa dly sa rien

The AFRISANTM Elite A FIRST Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant


PANEL DISCUSSION Membrane technology advancements Baldwin Matsimela, marketing and communications manager, Johannesburg urg g Water, speaks about meeting the challenges of the growing city January / February 2012 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R30.00 • Vol 7 No. 1.



ABOVE The South African Young Water Professionals, KwaZulu Natal Chapter, have recently held a technical tour on integrated water resource management of Midmar Dam


Panama City’s 238 000 m3/d wastewater treatment plant l iis under construction

Editor’s letter


COVER STORY Solar-powered diversion toilet


WISA President’s comment Integrated water resource management

7 8

PUBLIC SECTOR Turning water losses into saved revenue


TRENCHLESS NEWS No-Dig 2011 feedback SASTT Standards sponsorship On track to exceed 2011 pipejacking targets

47 49 51

EDUCATION & TRAINING Where water and didactics meet


TECHNOLOGY Leading water and energy expert appointed 54 Water meters 56 Industry warning on sub-standard meters 59 Laboratory equipment 61 Technology showcase 63 RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Safe use of greywater for urban food production


PROJECT Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant 20 Panama’s wastewater treatment plant under construction 27 AFRICA Sustainable solutions for Africa


PANEL DISCUSSION Membrane technology advancements


EVENT WISA’s Membrane Technology Conference


ENVIRONMENT Water resource management on an urban planet


Leading water and energy expert appointed

REGULARS News – International News – Africa Level of dams Subscriptions JAN/FEB 2012

54 12 14 68 69 1


Publisher Elizabeth Shorten Editor Debbie Besseling Creative executive head Frédérick Danton Senior designer Hayley Moore Mendelow Chief sub-editor Cindy Maulgue Sub-editor Patience Gumbo Contributors Preshanthie Naicker, Sibusiso Sikhosana, Pierre Marais, Agnes Maenhout and Johan Oost Marketing Martin Hiller Production manager Antois-Leigh Visagie Production assistant Jacqueline Modise Subscription sales Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham Administration Tonya Hebenton Printers United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales Avé Delport Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6224 • Cell: +27 (0)83 302 1342 Fax: 086 502 1216 E-mail:

Dear readers


elcome to the first issue of 2012. There is no doubt that the highlight of this new year will be the WISA 2012 biennial conference and exhibition. The conference is themed Water footprints and will be taking place in Cape Town from 6 to 9 May. The deadline for the notification of acceptance of papers was 30 November 2011. Other important upcoming deadlines include: • 28 February 2012 Early bird registration deadline • 3 May 2012 Late registration deadline. For further information on the conference, visit A highlight of this issue is the Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant, which is the first direct (toilet-to-tap) plant in South Africa and the second of its kind in the world. The term direct is used because treated effluent from the wastewater treatment works is further treated and pumped back into the town s water supply system. The technical details of this significant project are covered in a case


MEDIA Physical address: No 4, 5 th Avenue Rivonia 2056 Postal address: PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117, South Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail:

ISSN: 1990 - 8857 Annual subscription: R270 (SA rate) Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. All articles in Water&Sanitation Africa are copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publishers. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Water Institute of Southern Africa or the publishers. WISA CONTACTS: HEAD OFFICE Tel: +27 (0)11 805 3537 Fax: +27 (0)11 315 1258 Physical address: 1st Floor, Building 5, Constantia Park, 546 16th Road, Randjiespark Ext 7, Midrand BRANCHES Eastern Cape Chairman: Anderson Mancotywa Tel: +27 (0)41 506 2172 Secretary/treasurer: Owen Wentzel Tel: +27 (0)41 363 1984 Free State Chairman: Gerda Venter Tel: +27 (0)51 405 9201 Secretary/treasurer: Riana Wessels Tel: +27 (0)56 515 0375

Western Cape Chairman: John Clayton Tel: +27 (0)21 531 6411 Secretary/treasurer: Farouk Robertson Tel: +27 (0)21 400 4574 WISA mission statement um The Water Institute of Southern Africa provides a forum for exchange of information and views to improve

! rn Africa , think WISA e of Southe Think water ne of the Water Institut

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On behalf of the WISA 2012 Organising Committee, we would like to extend an invitation to you to attend the WISA 2012 Conference and Exhibition. This prestigious biennial event will take place at the CTICC in Cape Town on 6 to 9 May 2012. A wide range of topics will be covered in a number of parallel sessions and we encourage you to take part in the conference, which promises to welcome a record number of delegates and exhibitors. We also plan to include an exciting programme of soci social events and hope that you can join us in Cape Town.


Dan Dana Grobler: conference chairperson

d ion n ere rat tio o we h y d s o l u p lar s d ion S oe r l e s n i t a t t y sa a w ndl frie

Cover opportunity


water resource management in southern Africa.

Endorsed by

study in this issue on pages 20 to 25. As part of the project, a comprehensive awareness campaign was launched with various groups and scholars visiting the plant. Today, the people of Beaufort West are proud of their plant. Here s to another successful year in the water sector. Cheers!

Message from the WISA 2012 conference chairman

KwaZulu-Natal Chairman: Gordon Borain Tel: +27 (0)33 846 1826 Secretary/treasurer: Stephanie Walsh Tel: +27 (0)31 302 4077

DebbliiengM Besse

A FIRST t Water Beaufort Wes Plant Reclamation USSION PANEL DISC technology Membrane advancements

nesb mana ger, Johan unica tions eting and comm grow ing city imela , mark nges of the Baldw in Mats ing the challe s abou t meet 1. • Vol 7 No. Wate r, speak price R30.00

g urg


February January /

2012 • ISSN

• Cover 1990-8857


In each issue, Water & Sanitation Africa offers companies the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the magazine. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story on pages 4 and 5 and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings contact Avé Delport on +27 (0)83 302 1342 or e-mail

JAN/FEB 2012




Solar-powered dehydration toilet African Sanitation Outsourcing, a member company of a BBBEE Cape Town based group of companies, is the principle distributor of the AfrisanTM Solar Powered Urine Diversion toilet, the S.P.U.D., in South Africa.

Lamella settlers separate clarified water from flocculated solids in the VWS patented Multiflo with a flow velocity of up to 20 m/hr at the Durban Water Recycling plant.


he S.P.U.D was developed over a period of six years, during which time specific attention was paid to various important aspects of its operational functionality in terms of the need to address important challenges such as the scarcity of water resources, the lack of bulk infrastructure in most municipal areas, the cost of establishing WWTW, the existence of more than 2 500 densely populated and inaccessible informal settlements, irrepressible levels of unemployment and poverty, environmental impact etc., as the technology had to adequately deal with these issues in order to ensure end user acceptance and rapid implementation in order to address municipal backlogs. Further issues, such as monthly maintenance frequency, monthly operational costs and the safe removal of the end by-product were key drivers insofar as the development of the final product was concerned.

Important technical features: The Afrisan S.P.U.D. product range: • is primarily a urine diversion, dehydration and aerobic dry system • is solar powered • ventilation powered through a wind driven extractor • is an on-site system, i.e. it collects and processes human faecal matter on‒site, with very limited need for off-site removal to official landfill sites

African Sanitation Outsourcing

TOP Solar Panel - 40 watt

National contact centre: 0860 DRY LOO or 0860 379 566 | CAPE TOWN t/f +27 (0)21 933 1336 | GAUTENG t +27(0)11 275 0449 | f +27(0)11 275 0275 |


LEFT The AfrisanTM Elite installed in concrete cast topstructure

JAN/FEB 2012


• is designed as a 1:1 domestic system, i.e. 1 toilet for 1 family (four to six people), thus contributing to the safety, dignity and healthier living conditions of the family • is an in-dwelling toilet, i.e. is designed to be installed within the confinement of the house but can also be installed in a standard concrete panel cast or single cast top structure • is 100% waterless (requires zero water input for evacuation of faecal matter) and therefore requires no connection to bulk infrastructure, thus contributing to significant savings in terms of the capital expenditure of municipalities as there is no need for bulk water and waste infrastructure, nor the need to establish and maintain a WWTW • is 100% chemical-free and is therefore environmentally friendly • is self-contained, i.e. it prevents and prohibits the spillage of any human excreta and urine into the surrounds and contributes to healthier and more hygienic living conditions • is simple to install as this aspect was designed on a do-it-yourself basis. However, where the municipality requires installation, the installation process is completed with the involvement of the target community. Community members (men and women) are employed, in terms of Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) guidelines, for the duration of the project. Comprehensive training is provided.

Operational features: • Under normal use, the cleaning frequency is every four weeks. • Monthly maintenance costs are approximately R100 per month, i.e. less than R3 per day. Afrisan offers a cleaning, maintenance and reporting service contract ‒ the Afrisan CLTS Programme (i.e. Community Led Total Sanitation Programme). The programme addresses the following: • community acceptance of the technology • community involvement in both the installation and maintenance phases of the toilet, i.e. job creation in terms of EPWP guidelines

• health and hygiene education of the beneficiaries (the involvement of the EHP is required). The Afrisan toilet is the most advanced dehydration and composting toilet in the world today insofar as that it is: • the most simple, effective and troublefree in its design and application • the most rugged and durable in its composition and will withstand the harsh African climate and conditions • the most economical, i.e. it is affordable in terms of both maintenance and servicing costs • the most practical in design and

ABOVE Production and assembly plant, Beaconvale, Parow, Cape Town

application and can be used anywhere in the world.

Other important facts: • the patented components are covered by a lifetime warranty • other parts and components are covered by a 12 month warranty • the current production capacity is 20 000 units per month.

The AfrisanTM Elite installed at a creche in Lanasia, Gauteng (LEFT) Before (RIGHT) After

In each issue, Water&Sanitation Africa offers advertisers the opportunity to promote their company s products and services to an appropriate audience by booking the prime position of the front cover, which includes a two-page feature article. The magazine offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Please call Avé Delport on +27 (0)11 467 6224/ +27 (0)83 302 1342 to secure your booking.

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President's comment

Updates and challenges


was honoured to participate in the Regulatory Performance Management System Symposium that was held in East London, Eastern Cape Province, on 1 to 2 September 2011. This was a very good information sharing session, especially for a province that has significant challenges, as identified in the last Blue and Green Drop Assessment. The symposium also provided an opportunity for information sharing, especially for those who could not make it for the 3rd Water Quality Conference recently held in Cape Town. Successful management of operations in the sector is dependent on the information we have or gather with regard to our assets, legislation, policies, procedures, etc. The new SANS 241, classification and professionalisation of process controllers, was discussed at length, although most questions/concerns could not be dealt with by the presenting officials. The Department of Water Affairs officials promised to take these back to their colleagues for answers. It is vital that these questions/concerns be addressed before these proposals are promulgated as they impact on the operation of the water care works. Addressing these issues first will ensure that the proposed regulations can be applied without problems. On 21 and 22 September 2011, technical managers and operational staff converged in Swellendam, Western Cape Province, in a bid to establish a Water Care Forum. The forum will serve as a platform from which the Department of Water Affairs can interact with local government in the Western


Cape with regard to all sectors water sector management. The forum will be utilised as a vehicle to support municipalities with the implementation of the Blue and Green Drop Certification recommendations and legislation pertaining to the National Water Act. This was the first forum of its kind in our country and our members in the province need to be commended for a job well done. I would like to see this approach being rolled out to other provinces. We are currently facing a challenge in terms of of-

We are proud of our vice president, Ronald Brown, for leading the South African delegation which attended the International Water Week in Amsterdam

We also welcome the announcement of a sanitation task team by the Human Settlements minister to advise the government on open toilets. The team had been tasked with identifying irregularities and malpractice, the scale of the problem, its nature and its geographic extent. We hope that, at the end of these investigations, funding will be made available to address the findings and control measures will be put in place to avoid their recurrence. Finally, we are proud of our vice president, Ronald Brown, for leading the South African delegation which attended the International Water Week in Amsterdam, Netherlands, from 27 October to 4 November 2011. I am confident that his attendance at the event will strengthen WISA s relations with the Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP). WISA President

ficials within the sector not taking decisions timeously, leading to unfavorable working conditions. I believe that a forum like this will play an important part in enhancing role players decision making and improving water sector performance. We welcome the appointment of a dedicated committee of experts by the minister of Water and Environmental Affairs, who will advise on how to effect and implement a radical improvement in the Department of Water Affairs. The department is also set to work with municipalities to address challenges such as effluent discharges into rivers and streams and aging water infrastructure.

• Development Bank of Southern Africa

• Magalies Water • Merck

Anderson Mluleki an M cotywa

• SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants


• Mhlathuze Water

• ESKOM Holdings

• NCP Chlorchem

• Amatola Water

• eThekwini Municipality

• Nelson Mandela Bay

• Aveng Water

• Festo


• GE Betz South Africa

• Overberg Water


• Golder Associates Africa

• PD Naidoo & Associates

& Technologies South Africa

• Bloem Water

• Grundfos Alldos

Consulting Engineers

• Water Research Commission

• Botjheng Water

• Hatch

• Rand Water

• City of Cape Town

• Huber Technology


• City of Tshwane

• ITT Water & Wastewater

• SAME Water

• ABS Wastewater Technology

• Dow Water & Process SA • Department of Water Affairs

South Africa • Johannesburg Water

Metropolitan Municipality

• TCTA • Tecroveer • Umgeni Water • Veolia Water Solutions

• Water & Sanitation Services SA

• Sedibeng Water

• WEC Projects

• Siemens

• Zetachem

JAN/FEB 2012



Midmar Dam

Integrated water resource management

The South African Young Water Professionals (YWP) Programme, KwaZulu Natal Chapter, has recently embarked on a technical tour and discussions on the integrated water resource management of Midmar Dam and its surrounding areas in order to ensure that the water stores in KwaZulu Natal are renewable. By Preshanthie Naicker and Sibusiso Sikhosana


ater is a resource that is of direct interest to the entire population and it has become increasingly evident that the water problems of a country can no longer be resolved by water professionals and/or water ministries alone. The water problems are becoming increasingly interconnected with other development-related issues, as well as social, economic, environmental, legal, and political


BELOW Midmar Dam was completed in 1965 and has a surface area of 1 564 ha

JAN/FEB 2012

factors at local and national levels (and sometimes at regional and international levels). Due to the complexity of water management, it has become imperative that we adopt an integrated approach - integrated water resource management (IWRM) of fresh water stores and supplies. The aim of IWRM is to achieve equitable access to, and sustainable use of, water resources by all stakeholders at catchment, regional, national and international


levels while maintaining the characteristics and integrity of water resources at the catchment scale within agreed limits. Midmar Dam is an example of a major fresh water store which supplies several thousand citizens in the metropolitan area, from Pietermaritzburg to Durban. The dam was completed in 1965 and has a 1564 ha surface area. However, the integrity of this water store is vulnerable due to poor control of upstream activities. The programme, which took place on 6 October, included learning from specialist speakers from Department of Water Affairs, Department of Agriculture, Environmental Affairs and Land Reform, University of Zululand and the private sector - Ground Truth Water, Wetlands and Environmental Engineering and SSI Consulting Engineers and Environmental Consultants. The technical tour included viewing nearby Mpophomeni Township, which is experiencing solid waste and sewage problems, an earmarked downstream housing development and the evaluation of the water pollution status of upstream water which impacts the water quality of Midmar Dam. Capacity building in IWRM for YWPs was achieved from seminars addressing impacts on dam upgrading and dams with multiple functions (hydroelectricity), addressing impacts of upstream and downstream activities on water quantity, quality, ground

ABOVE The technical tour included the evaluation of the water pollution status of upstream waters which impact on the water quality of Midmar Dam RIGHT The programme included presentations from speakers from Department of Water Affairs, Department of Agriculture, Environmental Affairs and Land Reform, University of Zululand and private sector, namely: Ground Truth Water, Wetlands and Environmental Engineering and SSI Consulting Engineers and Environmental Consultants

water and wetlands and impact on environmentally-sensitive areas. IWRM was also put into the context of the National Water Act of 1998 (Act No 36 of 1998) and National

The YWPs also received capacity training on compliance and enforcement as per the National Water Act Environmental Management Act of 1998 (Act No 107 of 1998). The causes of water stress and scarcity in South Africa are mainly increased resource pressure by economic activity and growth in population and pollution. The deteriorating water quality caused by pollution influences water usability upstream and downstream, negatively impacting on

JAN/FEB 2012

human health, as well as the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and water governance. The above problems are aggravated by sectoral approaches to water resource management. These approaches lead to the fragmented and uncoordinated management of the resource. The integrated water resource management concept tries to define how water resources should be managed in an efficient and integrated manner in terms of best practice guidelines, take into consideration the entire water cycle and should take place at the catchment level. The YWPs received capacity training on compliance and enforcement as per the National Water Act in terms of how to deal with the issue of non-compliance. Different fields of study were presented to YWPs in relation to scarce skills, such as science and engineering, by the Department of Water Affairs. The YWPs were introduced to the department s Learning Academy and given information about bursaries for students who choose to study science and engineering. The Learning Academy also showcased lucrative employment opportunities after completion of studies in these fields.



Johannesburg Water

Providing water, providing life Quality water on tap 24/7

Johannesburg Water is well positioned to meet the challenges of the growing city, said councillor Ross Greef, member of the Mayoral Committee for Infrastructure and Services. The Cosmo City reservoir is one of 88 water reservoirs belonging to the utility. The utility also owns and operates 33 water towers, six state-of-the-art waste treatment facilities and two South African National System-accredited laboratories. All these facilities contribute to the provision of fresh, clean, healthy and affordable drinking water supplies to

Johannesburg Water has embarked on a number of far-reaching projects aimed at upgrading and increasing the capacity of water and sanitation infrastructure. One such project was the construction of Cosmo City Reservoir built due to limited water storage capacity in the Honeydew, Boschkop and Randpark Ridge Reservoir sub-districts.


ccording to Baldwin Matsimela, manager: marketing and communications, Johannesburg Water, findings of a study revealed that dedicated water storage capacity was required for the Cosmo City development. The development of housing units, which started in March 2005, had reached a stage where the water demand justified the construction of a dedicated ct was to proreservoir. The objective of the project ty in the vide dedicated water storage capacity ervoir Cosmos City area. The completed reservoir ater, will ensure adequate provision of water, proper functioning of the system, mancity ageable pressures and adequate capacity for Cosmo City developments. vestThe reservoir represents a capital investon ment of approximately R35.5 million in infrastructure for the community. Furthermore, the construction work created 43 local employment opportunities, with on-the-job training provided for local labour, the majority of whom were youth.


ABOVE Ward councillor for the Cosmo City, Noni Raphata; GM for Capital Investment projects at Johannesburg Water, Ntshavheni Mukwevho and MMC for infrastructure services and environment, Roslynn Greeff, officially opened the reservoir

the city each day and ensure that millions of litres generated daily are treated to the high standards demanded by the Department of Water Affairs.

Diepsloot reception area sewer upgrade The second major project unveiled includes the R15.6 million invested in the upgrading of sewer lines in Diepsloot reception area. Diepsloot reception area was established as a transit camp for families from Alexander informal settlements. The area has not been formalised into a township as yet, but has seen unprecedented settlement of families. This resulted in some structures being built on existing services. Some of these services were damaged, whilst others had frequent blockages due to debris and refuse being thrown into the system. The project was initiated

"Findings of a study revealed that dedicated water storage capacity was required for the Cosmo City development" Baldwin Matsimela, marketing and communications manager, Johannesburg Water JAN/FEB 2012


to reduce the number of blockages in the sewer and upgrade the current network, as well as provide adequate sanitation facilities to the community. Existing communal toilets were also upgraded and 300 new toilets constructed. The project was labour intensive and created employment opportunities for local residents, which included on-the-job training for hired local labour. Johannesburg Water remains committed to improving the level of water and sanitation services across the city through the implementation of infrastructure upgrade projects.

Project details • Start Date: 31 August 2009 • Completion Date: 01 June 2011 • Total value: R15.6 million • 6.849km of sewer pipeline replaced • Portion of outfall sewer upgraded • 300 new toilets constructed.

EPWP statistics • 23 jobs created (12 youths employed) • on-the-job training provided for all who were employed (health and safety, pipe laying, etc.). Johannesburg Water established that it was crucial to conduct a public education programme in support of the technical work in order to address challenges in the area. The programme was aimed at educating residents about the proper use of sanitation facilities (not to dispose of rubble, etc., in

CLOCKWISE FROM ABOVE Connection and pipe laying after levelling of bedding material; Levelling bedding material before pipe laying; Lining of pipe and laying on bedding material

toilets and manholes) and instilling a sense of ownership of the infrastructure in the community at large. The programme was conducted in the form of door-to-door visits targeting affected residents. Workshops were also conducted at schools, NGOs, clinics, taxi ranks and all other communal places where Ward 95 residents could be reached. The programme ran from June to August 2010 and impacted approximately 5 000 residents.

Project benefits Provision of adequate and hygienicallyfriendly sanitation facilities to a large number of residents (the Diepsloot reception area is estimated to have over 18 000 inhabitants). Upgraded sewers and outfall sewers are providing adequate capacity to cater for proposed future developments and to ease the maintenance burden. The public is educated on proper use of water (to curb wastage of this precious resource), general hygiene and proper use of facilities.

LEFT Blocked and damaged manhole due to deposit of foreign materials BELOW Deposit of foreign materials in sewer infrastructure

JAN/FEB 2012



International INDIA

Drinking water in all government schools INDIA HAS CROSSED a major milestone by being able to provide drinking water in all government run schools, though it took 65 years from independence and a lot of persuasion, followed by coercion, from the Supreme Court. The case started in the Apex Court in 2004 with an NGO 'Environmental and Consumer Protection Foundation', through advocate Ravindra Bana, complaining about a lack of drinking water facilities in the national capital.


Later, the court asked all state and Union Territories to give a status report about availability of potable drinking water in all government run schools. Finding the facilities dismal, the court fixed deadlines, threatened officials with contempt and left nothing to chance, saying that it would spare no-one if access to drinking water, access to which is linked to fundamental human rights - the right to education and the right to life ‒ was not expeditiously provided in schools. Justices Dalveer Bhandari and Dipak Misra announced that all states had taken an oath to provide drinking water facilities in all schools. The bench recorded in its order: "In this view of the matter and according to available records, all the schools in the country have been provided with drinking water". But the court did not stop with drinking water being made available in the schools. Even before the counsel for the states could heave a sigh of relief thinking the order would bring to an end the stringent monitoring of basic facilities available in schools, the court asked for a status

report regarding toilet facilities in schools. It asked all state governments and the Centre's ministry of drinking water and sanitation to file affidavits in four weeks detailing the status of toilets in the schools and whether separate toilets for girls had been provided. The bench said: "It is imperative that all schools provide toilet facilities. Wherever separate toilets are not provided, parents are reluctant to send their daughters to school. It clearly violates the girl child's right to education, as guaranteed under Article 21A of the Constitution". Source: Times of India


Desalination plant could make Israel a water exporter

ISRAEL'S NATIONAL WATER company signed a JAN/FEB 2012

financing agreement to build a desalination plant, which officials said could allow droughtridden Israel to export water to its neighbours upon the plant s completion in 2013. Israel's ADL, a subsidiary of stateowned Mekorot, will build and operate the plant in the coastal city of Ashdod for 25 years, supplying 100 million cubic metres of desalinated water annually, the Finance Ministry has said in a statement. Israel is two-thirds arid and, to avoid further depleting its fresh water sources, it has become a world leader in desalination and wastewater recycling. The new Ashdod plant will join four other desalination facilities that are to provide, by the end of 2013, 85% of the country's household water consumption. "In the coming years, we will be able to return water to nature and even sell water to our neighbours," said infrastructure minister, Uzi Landau. ADL secured funding for the project from Israel's Bank Hapoalim and the European Investment Bank (EIB), the statement said. The Finance Ministry had previously put a 1.5 billion shekel ($400 million) price tag on


the plant, which will use reverseosmosis to desalinate seawater from the Mediterranean. Source: Reuters


Radioactive water leaked into Pacific

HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE waste water from a crippled Fukushima nuclear plant has leaked to the Pacific, its operator said, promising to prevent similar incidents. Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) said it believes 150 litres of wastewater, including highly harmful strontium, linked to bone cancers, has spread to the open ocean. The announcement came a day after TEPCO said it found 45 tonnes of

wastewater pooled around the leaky water-treatment system at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. TEPCO said it believed about 300 litres of wastewater had escaped and run into a nearby gutter that leads to the ocean before crews could contain the leaks. The water leaked to the sea is believed to contain 26 billion becquerels of radioactive materials, TEPCO said. The company said, however, that human health should not be affected, even after eating sea food caught in the area for every day for one year. In the weeks after the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami hit the plant, TEPCO dumped 10 000 tonnes of lowerlevel radioactive water into the Pacific Ocean. Subsequent reports have found the radiation was widely dispersed and did not pose a threat to human or animal life. Fukushima's makeshift water treatment system has been hit by a series of problems, which forced officials to temporarily

shut it down. But TEPCO said the leak would not hinder its plans to bring the reactors to a state of cold shutdown by the end of the year. Source: AFP


Water shortages and rising seas forecast to sweep UK by 2100

A QUARTER OF the United Kingdom population could suffer more water shortages by the end of the century without urgent action being taken to tackle climate change, the Met Office has warned. Forecasters said that, while water stress was most likely to affect JAN/FEB 2012

south-east England, Scotland would not be immune from changing weather patterns, with predictions that an extra 160 000 people across the United Kingdom could be put at risk of coastal flooding due to rising sea levels. The report, which was commissioned by the United Kingdom government, found that 24% of the population in 2100 ‒ about 18 million people ‒ could face increased pressure on their water supplies. The analysis, which used 21 climate models to come up with a range of projected impacts for countries across the globe, found that up to 49 million more people worldwide would be at risk of coastal flooding by 2100. The study said the United Kingdom was already getting warmer as a result of climate change; experiencing 35 more unseasonably warm days a year in this decade than in the 1960s. The Met Office predicts temperatures could rise by 3C above the 1960 to



Africa’s leader in natural resource and development solutions

1990 average of 8.3C in the south and by 2.5C in the north of the United Kingdom without global efforts to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Dave Britton, a spokesman for the Met Office, said: It s difficult to say exactly where in the United Kingdom we may see changes in water stress because rainfall patterns are quite uncertain. It s more of an issue for south-east England, but that s not to say that Scotland is immune. Around a quarter of the United Kingdom will see an increase in water stress and we may see an increase in the number of people at risk of coastal flooding. The analysis found that limiting global warming to 2C above pre-industrial levels would substantially reduce a number of the expected impacts on countries. Keith Allott, head of climate change at green group WWF UK, said: It is clear that the United Kingdom can expect significant disruption to its water, transport and other critical infrastructure. Source: Scotsman

including manufacturing facilities, for an undisclosed sum to expand its consumer healthcare segment. The deal also includes the world-wide PUR trademark and more than 200 patents, the consumer products maker said in a statement. The deal is expected to immediately add to its earnings, and Helen of Troy plans to finance the deal through its existing working capital and an expansion of its current credit facility. The company expects PUR sales to exceed $110 million for 2012. The deal does not include P&G's children's safe drinking water corporate philanthropy programme. Source: Reuters

Helen of Troy to buy P&G's water filtration business HELEN OF TROY Ltd will buy Procter & Gamble Co's PUR water filtration business,


A 27.5 million euro grant for water, power

Tel: +27(0) 11 441 1111

BURUNDI HAS received a 27.5 million euro grant from Germany to help improve energy and clean water supplies in the coffee producing nation of 8 million people. The central African country suffers chronic power shortages and just 3% of the population is connected to the grid. The demand for

electricity by households is growing at about 13% a year. "The aid will help to improve living conditions of the population because they will have access to clean water. It will also boost the country's growth as energy is the motor of the economy," Dirk Niebel, Germany's minister of economic development and cooperation, told a news conference. Burundi's authorities say the landlocked country needs an additional 270 megawatts over the next five years to meet the country s high electricity demand. Source: Reuters


World Bank funding for water resources

THE WORLD BANK is to provide loans of 70 million US dollars to finance Mozambique's Water Resources

NEWS Development Programme. The agreement to this effect has been signed in Maputo between the minister of Planning and Development, Aiuba Cuereneia, and the general manager of the World Bank, Mulyani Indrawati. Speaking at the ceremony, Cuereneia said that this programme, scheduled to last for six years, seeks to improve the country's capacity to manage and develop its water resources, and to plan new dams and other hydraulic infrastructures, that will respond to the growing demand for water, particularly for domestic consumption and food production. Most of the World Bank credit, 42 million dollars, will be spent on installing floodgates on the Corumana dam on the Sabie River in Maputo province. This will increase the dam's water storage capacity and enable it to supply water to Maputo and the surrounding area. 11 million dollars will be spent on institutional development and strengthening decentralised operational management of water resources. 12.5 million dollars are intended to reduce and mitigate the effects of both floods and drought in the vulnerable river basins. "This is a fundamental part of the government's five year programme for the 2010 to 2014

team, headed by ANC stalwart, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, has three months to complete its work, Human Settlements minister, Tokyo Sexwale, said.

period," said Cuereneia. "It promotes the participation of users and local authorities in planning, water allocation and the sustainable and integrated management of water resources." For her part, Indrawati stressed that the programme will complete the Corumana Dam as the next source of water for Maputo City. "The project will help improve living conditions for thousands of people living in the most densely populated neighbourhoods," she said. Without new sources, she warned, the Greater Maputo Metropolitan Area could find itself facing water shortages by 2015. Source: AIM

It has been tasked with identifying irregularities and malpractice, the scale of the problem, its nature and its geographic extent, Sexwale added. He acknowledged sanitation was a problem throughout South Africa. Open toilets made headlines in recent months and embarrassed the ANC on the eve of the 18 May municipal elections. The party previously criticised the Democratic Alliance's failure to enclose toilets in Khayelitsha on the Cape Flats. The ANC was then found to be responsible for open toilets in Rammulotsi, near Viljoenskroon, in the Free State, and Tshiame, near Harrismith. Sexwale said the team would deal with matters in every province and all municipalities and that it would report back in January with recommendations on policy, legislation and budgeting. Source: Times Live

Corumana dam


Task team set up to advisory on sanitation A SANITATION task team to advise the government on open toilets has recently been announced in Pretoria. The

Th e N a me t h a t Re a lly H o ld s Wa ter Est. 1983 Manufactured in South Africa Specialists In: Pressed Sectional Steel Tanks • Structural Steel • Supporting Towers • Water Storage • G.R.P Tanks

TANKS Abeco House, 6A Bradford Rd Bedfordview, South Africa

Tel: +27 11 616 7999 | Fax: +27 11 616 8355 E-mail:

National University to set up water treatment plant at institution THE UNIVERSITY OF Zimbabwe is set to establish its own water treatment plant to protect the institution from perennial water shortages, an official has said. The institution opened its halls of residence this semester after the construction of a 2.5 megalitre reservoir. In an interview last week, the university s pro-vice chancellor of Business Development, Dr Takaruza Munyanyiwa, said feasibility studies were already underway. "We want to have a water treatment plant of about 10 million litres as supplementary feeder to the main points," he said. "At the moment, we have one tank working, which provides for three days cover, while the second tank will give one week s cover ." Source: The Herald

University of Zimbabwe JAN/FEB 2012





Aveng Water

Leaders in water treatment At Aveng Water, we believe in applying innovative technologies and responsible management to ensure that development takes place, not at the cost of future generations, but in an environmentallyconscious manner.


aunched as a subsidiary of the Aveng Group in 2011, Aveng Water offers expertise in mine and wastewater treatment, as well as sea water desalination. We have extensive experience in designing, constructing, operating and maintaining commercial-scale water reclamation and desalination plants. In partnership with our mining clients, Aveng Water provides technical solutions to treat and manage mine water that, if not treated, would negatively impact surrounding environments. Our solutions, based on the proprietary and highly-effective HiPRO process, are customised for each mining application. These solutions are available as short-term mobile units or longer-term permanent

plants. Aveng Water s capability in implementing large-scale sea water desalination projects is demonstrated by our construction of southern Africa s largest sea water desalination plant, the Erongo Sea Water Desalination Plant in Namibia. Aveng Water is well positioned to support industrial and mining clients in search of new water sources needed for their operations. Our expertise in membrane-based industrial water plant design, coupled with our depth of experience in water recycling and re-use, together with our capabilities to operate and maintain such plants, means that we are able to deliver reliable water supply for any scale of industrial projects. We are also well placed to assist municipalities looking to sustain long-term,

potable water supply for domestic consumption and to treat wastewater discharges to required standards. Aveng Water is committed to providing sustainable solutions and we look forward to partnering with municipalities as they build, repair and upgrade their water infrastructure to meet future demand. Through our operations division, we are also able to offer a full scale support service to operate and maintain both new and existing water infrastructure.

Technical competence Aveng Water provides consulting and contracting services for the mining, municipal and industrial water sectors. We specialise in the design and engineering of treatment plants for: • sea water desalination • industrial effluent treatment and re-use • municipal water and wastewater re-use • water supply for power generation infrastructure. For the treatment of mine water, Aveng Water has developed a unique product called HiPRO. With this we have pioneered the application of reverse osmosis to treat mine water and achieve ultra-high water recoveries of 97% to 100%. The HiPRO process achieves its high water recovery through the use of multiple stages of ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems, operating in series, and with inter-stage precipitation of low solubility salts. This is applied without the expense of evaporators and crystallisers typically used in the final concentration step. The result is a very small brine stream that can be further treated or discharged into a lined evaporation dam. HiPRO has the following unique features: • produces quality drinking water (SANS highest standard) • very high water recovery, in excess of 97% • lower capital and operating costs than other technologies • minimum waste generation • recovery of potentially useful by-products • elimination of high cost evaporation and crystalliser plants.

eMalahleni Water Reclamation Plant, South Africa Aveng Water was awarded the tender at


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ABOVE Kromdraai Mobile Mine Water Treatment Plant RIGHT eMalahleni Water Reclamation Plant

eMalahleni to design, construct and commission a 20 000 m3/day plant to treat acidic mine water. Since its commissioning in 2007, the plant has been upgraded to treat an average of 30 000 m3/day for Anglo American Thermal Coal/BHP Billiton and has consistently produced high quality potable water a ta water recovery of 99.5%. The plant processes acid mine drainage from Anglo American Thermal Coal s Greenside, Kleinkopje, South Witbank and Navigation collieries to produce drinking quality water for the local municipality. This flagship plant is the recipient of several industry awards and demonstrates Aveng Water s expertise in treating mine water at affordable rates for re-use, thereby generating new water resources. In line with Aveng Water s focus on zero waste, pure gypsum sludge, which is produced as a by-product, is sold to the manufacturing industry for use as gypsum board and building materials.

Municipal water and wastewater treatment Aveng Water provides innovative and custom developed solutions to enhance municipalities ability to supply potable water and treat waste water to acceptable standards.

Our focus extends beyond the basic management of water resources to ensure optimal use of water. Aveng Water has honed its experience in advising and implementing effective processes for water re-use.

Industrial effluent treatment Water is widely used for industrial purposes, and in the production of nearly every manufactured product. For each product, effective water management is essential to minimising the discharge of wastewater into municipal wastewater systems and fresh water sources. The challenge for industry is to reduce the amount of water consumed per unit of valuable product produced. Aveng Water helps clients reduce their water consumption by designing solutions where water is

JAN/FEB 2012

recycled and waste streams are minimised in order to achieve zero effluent goals. Aveng Water has the necessary expertise in membrane and advanced treatment processes to assist industrial users in this regard. The Aveng Group is a leader in infrastructure development with a strong presence in southern Africa, Australia and the Middle East. Currently the largest JSElisted construction company by market capitalisation, the Aveng Group possesses diverse construction, infrastructure and engineering expertise through its various subsidiaries.

t +27 (0)10 205 1800 | f +27 (0) 086 683 5758 |



Emfuleni Municipality

Turning water losses into saved W&S Africa reports on the project that aims to reduce Emfuleni Municipality’s total water demand by 15%.

Water is among the most valuable resources on the African continent. The current demand far exceeds sustainable supply levels. Water planners forecast that South Africa will face severe water shortage if the usage is not reduced immediately. At the southern tip of Africa s inland water supply lies the Orange-Senqu catchment area which provides parts of South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Namibia with water. One of the largest water supply systems to this region is the Vaal River system, a tributary of the Orange River (which originates as the Senqu in Lesotho). The large population of Gauteng and surrounding areas, and approximately 60% of South Africa s economy, relies on water from the Integrated Vaal River system. Extensive studies conducted by the National Department of Water Affairs have shown that the current water use from this water supply system is not sustainable. To address this growing imbalance, the National Department of Water Affairs has set a 15% water savings target for municipalities located in the region to be achieved collectively by 2014. The partnership project does not only aim to fix leak-

"The three-year project aims to significantly reduce the amount of water wasted through leakages and thereby save Emfuleni money" Thembi Mkhize, Emfuleni’s Metsi-a-Lekoa water services unit


Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the Emfuleni Water Conservation Project has recently been signed by the Emfuleni Municipality and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the German, British and Australian governments, as well as Sasol. Speaking at the signing ceremony, chief director for Emfuleni s Metsi-a-Lekoa water services unit, Thembi Mkhize, explained the environmental and financial importance of this partnership: The three-year project aims to significantly reduce the amount of water wasted through leakages and thereby save Emfuleni money. By the end of the third year, a 15% reduction in total water demand would equate to an annual reduction of 12 million kilolitres (12 billion litres) or expenses of some R 62 million, compared to the 2010 baseline. The water conservation and demand management project was officially launched as part of the Gauteng Water Sector Forum, held at Gallagher Estate.


ABOVE Delegates who signed the MoU for the Emfuleni Water Conservation Project. From left: Dr Horst Vogel, head of programme at GIZ; councillor Greta Hlongwane, mayor of Emfuleni Local Municipality and Maurice Radebe, group executive: Corporate Affairs, at Sasol

JAN/FEB 2012

ages in public and private water systems, but also intends to increase public awareness of water issues and conservation measures through school and community education programmes. Apart from the local importance, this intervention also carries a regional aspect. According to Lenka Thamae, executive secretary of the Orange-Senqu River Commission, As Emfuleni sources its water from the Orange-Senqu catchment area, water which is saved in this municipality can be used elsewhere as needed. Moreover, after successful implementation of the project, the design and idea can be replicated in many other municipalities in southern Africa which face the same challenges as Emfuleni. This partnership serves as another example of the importance of the involvement of business in development. Through partnerships such as the Emfuleni Water Conservation Project, a win-win situation is created for involved parties. The Emfuleni municipality, GIZ Transwater SADC and Sasol can all benefit from the know-how and skills of their partners. Moreover,


revenue partnerships are of special importance to the private sector as they demonstrate collective action on a shared risk in a sound economic, social and environmental way. Sasol New Energy s manager for Sustainable Water, Andries Meyer, explains the importance of the partnership for the company: Water management is a key priority for our business in terms of it being a critical resource for our operations. Through this partnership, we can minimise unnecessary water losses from the Vaal system and ensure that water security is improved. The Emfuleni water conservation partnership is part of Sasol New Energy s water stewardship programme and underlines our commitment to sustainable water management.

ABOVE FROM LEFT Lenka Thamae, executive secretary of the OrangeSenqu River Commission; Horst Vogel, head of programme at GIZ and Andries Meyer, Sasol New Energyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manager for sustainable water

About Emfuleni An estimated 1.2 million citizens make Emfuleni Municipality the fourth largest municipality in Gauteng. The municipality gets its water from the Vaal River

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system. Water losses from potable water distribution systems remain a major issue when examining the overall water wasted throughout the country. Emfuleni Local Municipality is one of the Water Service Authorities in Gauteng that have realised the importance of managing their leakages, and other aspects of non-revenue water, and are beginning to implement water demand management measures to address the aforementioned challenges.

About GIZ GIZ is owned by the Federal Republic of Germany. Through its operations around the globe, it supports the German government in the fields of international cooperation for sustainable development and international education. GIZ supports people and societies in shaping their own future and improving their living conditions. In this partnership, GIZ operates through the SADC and ORASECOM and on behalf of Germany, the United Kingdom and Australia.




Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant First direct (toilet-to-tap) plant in South Africa By Pierre Marais1, F von Dürckheim2 FIRST TASTE Louw Smit (left), director Engineering Services, Beaufort West Municipality, and Pierre Marais, MD, Water & Wastewater Engineering

identified water supply as a key strategic resource and embarked on a short-, medium- and long-term strategy to secure the water supply. The short-term strategy focused on water demand management. This included detecting and managing water losses, installing pre-paid water meters, redeveloping existing boreholes, developing additional boreholes and implementing water restrictions. The medium-term strategy focused on further groundwater exploration, water reclamation and desalination of existing saline boreholes. The long term strategy is to develop a field of boreholes 30 kilometres out of town.

Historically, final effluent from a wastewater treatment works would either flow into a river or be used for irrigation. As a result of the topographical conditions in Beaufort West, the municipality decided to implement the first ‘direct’ water reclamation plant in South Africa.


he project was initiated and awarded to Water & Wastewater Engineering under a 20-year design, build and operate concession. The water reclamation plant has been completed and is fully operational, delivering water which complies with the SANS 241-1: 2011 (Edition 1) standard. It is a ground-breaking project in that it unlocks a significant water source that has historically either been overlooked or under-utilised. Beaufort West is situated in the heart of the Great Karoo and is renowned for its vast landscapes, beautiful wildlife and rich history. Beaufort West was the first town in South Africa to be proclaimed a municipality, is the birth place of the world-renowned heart surgeon, Chris Barnard, and now has the first direct water reclamation plant in South Africa. The


Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant (WRP) is only the second of its kind in the world. The other direct WRP is situated in Windhoek, Namibia. The term direct is used because treated effluent from the wastewater treatment works is further treated and pumped back into the town s water supply system.

Water demand history What makes the Beaufort West water supply difficult is that it has no perennial rivers in the surrounding area. Water supply is heavily reliant on rainfall and drought is inevitable. The municipality has two main sources of water, i.e. surface runoff that is captured in the Gamka and Springfontein Dams and borehole water. During the recent drought, both dams and approximately 50% of the boreholes dried up. Given this background, the municipality

JAN/FEB 2012

After completion of the short-term strategy and groundwater exploration, the municipality embarked on implementing the water reclamation plant. Beaufort West municipality invited tenders for the design, build and operation of the plant under a 20-year concession. After reviewing the various tenders received, the tender was awarded to Water & Wastewater Engineering. The company used leading technology and applied innovative design in order to ensure optimal removal of organics and harmful pathogens. The design applies the 'multiple barrier principle to ensure the removal of: • macro elements • physical and aesthetic determinants • chemical determinants (macro and micro) • organic determinants


â&#x20AC;˘ contaminants (CEC).




Implementation of the project The project was completed in three stages, i.e. the EIA/planning stage, construction stage and the current operational stage. During the EIA process, emphasis was placed on informing all communities of the proposed plant. From the outset it was clearly stated that treated eďŹ&#x201E;uent would be further treated and used for potable water. Newspaper articles were published and leaďŹ&#x201A;ets were handed out from door to door. During community meetings, the proposed water reclamation plant was placed on the agenda and questions around water quality were answered as transparently as possible. No major objections were received from the public and the EIA process was completed. Construction of the plant commenced at the height of the drought. A decision

was made to fasttrack the construction works. This implied civil and mechanical contractors being on site at the same time. Despite these challenges, the project team managed to complete the

first project of its kind in South Africa and that there could be no compromise on water quality. The design focussed on pre-treatment with multiple removal of determinants.

The project was completed in three stages, i.e. the EIA/ planning stage, construction stage and the current operational stage project in six months and delivered the first reclaimed water on 15 January 2011. Currently the project is in its operational stage and the plant is delivering reclaimed water of exceptional quality. Table 1 and table 2 provide a summarised list of determinants being tested.

Multiple barrier treatment From the outset of the project, a very conservative design philosophy was adopted. The project team knew that it was the

Pierre Marais from Water & Wastewater Engineering says, From the outset, the municipality focused on proper pre-treatment. Louw Smit, director of engineering services, was aware of the sensitivity of the project. The design had to incorporate safety measures with automatic shutdown in case there is deterioration in unit processes. Marais explains the treatment processes: 1. Phosphate removal Ferric-Chloride is dosed into the existing activated sludge


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Water Puriſcation Plant & Equipment INTRODUCTION SWANSA (PTY) LTD trading as SWAN’S WATER TREATMENT is a privately owned South African company specializing in the design and manufacture of the full spectrum of water puriſcation equipment. Cost effective innovations are incorporated in our process and equipment designs with the plant being customised for each installation. Our extensive in-house expertise, ensures that out advanced technology is applied to the clients best advantage. PRODUCT RANGE • Water ſlters • Moore Airlift Rapid Gravity ſlters • Steel pressure ſlters • Steel rapid gravity ſlters Liquid/Solid Separation • Sludge Blanket Vertical Upƀow Clariſers • Diminishing Intensity Floc Conditioners • Incline Sheet Clariſers • Upgrading of Horizontal Flow Clariſers Chemical Dosing • Helical screw feeders • Rotary disc dry feeders • Water operated dry feeders • Gravity solution feeders • Metering pumps • Gas Chlorinators Efƀuent Treatment • Bioſlter rotary distributors • Aerators • Clariſers Miscellaneous • Package plants • Ammoniators • Sulphonators • Pilot operated diaphragm valves • Laboratory ƀoc testers • Automatic pH control • Comparators • Domestic and industrial cartridge ſlters

Swan’s Water Treatment Prop. Swansa (Pty) Limited Reg. No. 80/11814/07 Plot 91, Honingklip, Muldersdrift P O Box 777 Muldersdrift 1747 Tel: 079 699 5179 Fax: 086 609 1595 P Swan




SANS 241-1: 2011


Final water


Physical and aesthetic Colour


mg/L Pt

≤ 15





≤ 170


Passed Passed

Total Dissolved Solids (Calculated)



≤ 1200



Total Dissolved Solids (Measured)



≤ 1200



pH value


pH units

≥5 to ≤ 9,7



Turbidity (Operational)






Ammonia as N



≤ 1.5

< 0.1


Chloride as Cl-



≤ 300



Fluoride as F-

Chronic Health


≤ 1.5

< 0.1


Nitrate plus Nitrite as N

Acute Health


≤ 11.9



Sodium as Na



≤ 200



Sulfate as SO4



≤ 250



Zinc as ZN




< 0.01




Chemical requirements – macro determinand

Chemical requirements – organic determinand Dissolved Organic Carbon

Chronic Health


≤ 10

TABLE 1 Analysis plant to remove Ortho-Phosphates from the final efFirst, many organic contaminants that absorb UV of physical fluent. The Ferric-Chloride also acts as flocculent for light may undergo a change in their chemicalstrucand chemical determinands better settling of suspended solids in the secondary ture or may become more reactive with chemical of the reclaimed settling tank. oxidants. Second, and more importantly, UV light water 2. Settling After the final effluent leaves the existing catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide wastewater treatment works, it flows to a settling tank. to produce hydroxyl radicals, which are powerful The settling tank settles SANS 241-1: the remaining susDeterminand Risk Unit Final water Compliance 2011 pended solids and acts Microbiological determinands as a buffer between the Faecal Coliforms Acute Health Count per 100ml Not Detected 0 Passed existing works and the E. Coli Acute Health Count per 100ml Not Detected 0 Passed new water reclamation TABLE 2 Analysis plant. of physical 3. Pre-disinfection After settling of the suspended chemical oxidants. Hydroxyl radicals react with and chemical solids, the feed water is disinfected with chlorine. organic contaminants, destroying them and prodeterminands 4. Filtration The pre-disinfection is followed by gravducing harmless carbon dioxide, halides and water of the reclaimed ity sand filtration. The sand filters remove all macroorby-products. The process produces no hazardous water ganic matter and any remaining suspended solids. This by-products or air emissions. In short, this process barrier also protects the downstream membranes from is designed to destroy any remaining dissolved fouling as a result of shock organic loads or excess flocorganic contaminants in the water. BELOW Site culent dosing. 8. Post-stabilisation and disinfection Following of the water 5. Ultra filtration Ultra filtration is a membrane the advanced oxidation, the pH is elevated and a reclamation plant process where water is pumped through membrane straws. As a result of the nature of the feed water, outside-in flow direction membranes were selected. Ultrafiltration membranes remove, among other contaminants, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, bacteria and most viruses. 6. Reverse osmosis High pressure reverse osmosis membranes follow the ultra filtration membranes. The reverse osmosis membranes remove most remaining organics in the water, as well as pesticides, hormones, CECs, aqueous salts and metal ions. 7. Advanced oxidation An advanced oxidation step follows the reverse osmosis membranes. This process entails the dosing of peroxide, followed by UV lights. The UV light catalyses chemical oxidation of organiccontaminants in water by its combined effect upon the organic substances and reaction with hydrogen peroxide.

JAN/FEB 2012



been implemented by Siemens in other parts of the world. By using proven, established Siemens technology, we reduced the process risk and eliminated the R&D requirements for a new process. The design for the reclamation plant was based on the multibarrier concept (in a similar way as is successfully used at the Goreangab water reclamation plant in Windhoek, Pimpamaon, the Gold Coast and Kranji in Singapore), with the following barriers: Intermediate Chlorination/Rapid Sand Filtration, Ultrafiltration, Reverse Osmosis, UVHydrogen Peroxide, and Final Chlorination.


ABOVE Ultra small amount of chlorine is added to protect the water filtration reverse until it reaches the end user. osmosis 9. Blending of water The reclaimed water is pumped up to a service reservoir and blended with the Professional team other water sources, i.e. Design, build and operation - Water & Wastewater the treated dam water Engineering Civil works - CSV Construction and borehole water. Mechanical electrical supply - Swans Water Treatment The mixing ratio is 1:4. Turnkey mechanical and electrical contract for the The town s water is filtration process – Quality Filtration Systems therefore made up of 20% reclaimed water. This ratio can be increased to 25%. Quality Filtration Systems were awarded the turnkey mechanical and electrical contract for the filtration process (after the sand filters). The project was designed, BELOW FROM manufactured, installed and commissioned by QFS LEFT Site before personnel. According to Herman Smith, director of QFS, construction commenced Being the Siemens Water Treatment representative in Excavation to South Africa, we were able to supply a process that has rock


JAN/FEB 2012

Each technology in the multibarrier approach has a specific task. Smith explains, The sand filter s clean water sump is the feed sump for the ultra filtration membranes. Siemens Memcor hollow fibre membranes were used as the ultra filtration membranes. The ultra filtration membranes must guarantee the water quality that will be fed to the reverse osmosis membranes. An inline turbidity meter ensures that quality of the Ultra filtration permeate is measured constantly. The ultra filtrations permeate feeds to a buffer tank that is the feed water for the reverse osmosis membrane system. The feed to the reverse osmosis membranes are variable and fully automated for variable feed water conditions. The two-stage reverse osmosis system operates at 80% recovery with current feed water TDS of 1200 to 1520 mg/ℓ. Final water quality is less than 30 mg/ℓ TDS. The Brackish water reverse osmosis membranes provide good salt rejection and assist with the removal of endocrine disruptors (EDCs). For added safety and absolute removal of EDCs, an advanced oxidation step was installed. The internationally accepted method of H2O2/UV combination as an advanced oxidation step was chosen. For final disinfection, the chlorination step reduces the chances of recontamination.


Performance-based contract The asset (water reclamation plant) belongs to Beaufort West municipality and Water & Wastewater Engineering operates and maintains the works under a 20-year concession. The contract is performance based and, should the final water not meet the required standard, the plant will be automatically shut down. A shut down results in lower volumes of reclaimed water produced, which in turn converts to a financial penalty. This ensures that Water & Wastewater Engineering continu-


The plant belongs to Beaufort West municipality and Water &Wastewater Engineering operates and maintains the works under a 20-year concession

ously apply astute principles in the operation and maintenance of the plant.


Continuous education

Future testing Umgeni Water is currently in the process of determining selected steroid estrogens in treated sewage effluent in the Umsunduzi (Duzi) River water catchment area [1]. Part of the study is to determine the levels of Estradiol, Estriol, Estrone and 17-Îą-ethinyl-estradiol in a pilot plant membrane bioreactor followed by advance treatment. It is scheduled to embark on a series of similar tests at the Beaufort West WRP in order to compare the results of the Beaufort West WRP with that of the Umgeni Water study.

The authors acknowledge: Louw Smit and Christopher Wright from the Beaufort West Municipality for their vision and continued contribution to the success of the project. Graham Metcalf and Peter Thompson from Umgeni Water for assistance with providing technical information. References 1. Manickum T, John W and Terry S (2011) Determination of selected steroid estrogens in treated sewage effluent in the Umsunduzi (Duzi) River water catchment area Marais P1, von DĂźrckheim F2 1

Water & Wastewater Engineering, Design Office, PO Box 12845, Die

Boord, Stellenbosch 2

Water & Wastewater Engineering

JAN/FEB 2012



x UltraFiltration


Despite the comprehensive planning and EIA process, the initial public perception was negative. A comprehensive awareness campaign was launched with various groups and scholars visiting the plant. Today, the people of Beaufort West are proud of their plant and very few objections are received from the community. Continuous education campaigns, mainly for scholars, are underway. This is undertaken by taking them through the plant and letting them taste, smell and touch 100% reclaimed water. This has been very successful and is planned to take place year to year. In addition to the above, the test results of the final water will be made available to the public and published in the local news paper.

x ReverseOsmosis

x HighRateClarification x WasteWater: MunicipalandIndustrial

x Representativefor SiemensWaterTechnologies

 CapeTown Tel:+27218535248 Fax:+27218533870  Johannesburg Tel:+27119722450 Fax:+27119722454 25


t%$y W%$6yw54^ 234



LIFE. © Les Éditions Stratégiques

Degrémont's membrane filtration technology is suitable for the whole range of treated wastewater uses, from agriculture and landscaping to industry and many others. Already valued by farmers and industries, the clean water produced by this demanding process makes a major contribution to water conservation and environmental protection.

DESALINATION Degremont draws its desalination experience from its portfolio of more than 250 reverse osmosis plants around the world. The process removes mineral salts by forcing water to cross a semi-permeable membrane. With the growth in world demand for drinking water and with 40% of the world's population living within 100 km of the sea - this technology offers a sustainable solution for the supply of potable water.

FOR THIS & OTHER DEGRÉMONT’S WATER TREATMENT PLANT EQUIPMENT, CONTACT : DUMI LUTHULI, Deputy Managing Director MORNAY DE VOS, Business Develop. Mg Tel: +27 (0) 11 807 1983 Fax: +27 (0) 11 807 4118




Panama’s wastewater treatment plant under construction

Panama City’s 238 000 m3/d WWTP, commissioned by the Panama Ministry of Health, is the first in the country.


he Panama wastewater treatment plant entered the assembly phase in May 2011. This date, an important new contractual milestone, also marked the start of the installation of equipment (mechanical assembly) following the erection of the buildings and structures by the Brazilian civil engineering company, Odebrecht (Degrémont s partner on this contract). The electrical assembly began in August 2011.

been funded by CAF (Corporación Andina de Fomento), JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and the government of Panama. The project is part of an ambitious public health, environmental protection and sanitation programme launched in Panama at the start of the millennium and which provided for, amongst other things, the renovation and extension of the sewage networks. The team is also truly international, comprising French and Panamanian members, as well as Spanish, Italian, Colombian, Chilean, Venezuelan, etc. In total, more than 15 nationalities are represented on the site.

Limiting discharges into the Bay of Panama Degrémont was also awarded the task of operating the plant for four years in a contract amounting to a total of €180 million, in partnership with Odebrecht. The other party involved in the project is the engineering consulting company, Nippon Koei. The plant, which is located on the outskirts of the capital, is intended to clean up the Bay of Panama by treating effluents before they are discharged. Panama City, representing the equivalent of one million inhabitants, will also benefit from numerous new collection systems and networks, as well as two pumping stations, built by the DegrémontOdebrecht consortium.

A plant with global financing and an international construction site The construction of this urban wastewater treatment plant has

Environmentally-friendly energy and construction

Panama Panama is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama and has a total metro population of 1 272 672. Panama is located between the Pacific Ocean and tropical rain forest. Tropical forests around Panama are vital for the functioning of the Panama Canal. These forests provide the canal with the water required for its operation. Due to the importance of the Canal to the Panamanian economy, tropical forests around the canal have been kept in an almost pristine state.

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The plant uses environmentallyfriendly technology. Reusing biogas emanating from sludge digestion will enable the production of 18% of the plant s energy needs and 100% of the energy required for heating and maintaining the temperature of the digesters. Particular attention has been given to the plant s architecture, located beside the sea in the mangrove forest and soon to be surrounded by the city - it has been designed to integrate into its environment. A deodorising system has been designed to limit any risk of olfactory nuisance to the surrounding populations.



t%$y W%$6yw54^ 234 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Clean water?â&#x20AC;?


Delivering sustainable infrastructure that improves our world. ITâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S OUR SMARTER BUSINESS APPROACH.




Sustainable solutions for Africa W&S Africa speaks to Dr Snowy Khoza, CEO, BIGEN AFRICA, about the organisation’s new vision.


IGEN AFRICA has enhanced its vision, mission and value proposition to reflect its thought leadership in providing innovative, sustainable infrastructure development solutions in Africa and abroad over an entire project s lifecycle. The organisation s new vision emphasises the improvement of the quality of life of all through sustainable infrastructure development. Its mission is to become the thought-leading multi-national infrastructure development consultancy with three main capabilities spanning thirteen sectors, including water, sanitation, roads, energy, housing and rural development: • engineering (e.g. civil, structural, and electrical) • management consulting (e.g. programme and asset management) • development financing (e.g. project financing and transactional advisory). While strengthening the southern Africa business, with South Africa as the regional port of entry, the company will also expand its Africa footprint; initially into West Africa through Ghana (two offices are established in Nigeria) and then into East Africa through Kenya. By 2016, the intention is to expand its offices into Central and North Africa ‒ the current approach is project, and not office-focused. BIGEN AFRICA has fourteen offices in South Africa, and is represented in eight countries on the rest of the continent, including Mauritius. The expansion vision of BIGEN AFRICA focuses on using its partnership strategy as the platform for doing business outside South Africa and Africa. The brand is increasingly recognised in Australia, Ireland, Britain, Dubai, Iran and China. Although

BIGEN AFRICA s base is in South Africa, it will continue to focus on doing projects in Africa and participate in infrastructure development projects outside the continent. According to Dr Khoza, Our infrastructure development strategy is clearly focused on contributing to a country s strategy by addressing its resource, political, economic, social, environmental and technological issues, which are most likely to significantly impact on the lives of people over the short and medium to long term. We recognise the need to participate in assisting countries to address their key emerging public policy priorities which, among others, include integrated human settlements, water and sanitation, rural development, renewable energy, mining, road and rail freight transport, health and education, development/project financing, operation and maintenance of existing infrastructure.

Enhancing development impact: poverty reduction, capacity building and job creation. Dr Khoza adds, Infrastructure development is, first and

"We recognise the need to participate in assisting countries to address their key emerging public policy priorities" Dr Snowy Khoza, CEO, BIGEN AFRICA JAN/FEB 2012

foremost, about the sustainable benefits of the socially desirable developmental outcomes that emanate from the use of infrastructure. Our commitment to all the countries that we operate in (through our annual social compacts) is contributions with a development impact. The development impact includes: • access to services such as water and sanitation, energy and roads for communities • reduction of poverty through, inter alia, rural development by facilitating agricultural beneficiation of products • capacity building, empowerment and skills transfer to local labour and small businesses for sustainable broad-based empowerment or indigenisation • creation of sustainable, quality job opportunities for communities.

Corporate social responsibility In terms of the organisation s corporate social responsibility (CSR), it involves doing good while doing business. Dr Khoza, a development activist at heart, says, While we believe in CSR approaches, the difference which sets us apart from other corporates is that we believe doing business is about doing good. She emphasised that, Gone are the days when corporates take resources from communities and, as an afterthought, give something back to them. As we plan projects, we also plan our contribution for community priority needs ‒ to leave and maintain a legacy.


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Membrane Technology

Membrane technology advancements In this, the second in our series of panel discussions, industry experts discuss the various membrane applications for municipal water, wastewater and industrial effluent, and provide insight into the technologies used in local and global projects.

Claire Lipsett, water consultant, Talbot & Talbot

How have we progressed over the past decade in terms of the various methods of filtration, such as reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, etc.?

success of the Windhoek and NEWater reclamation projects. Public perception of reclaimed water remains the biggest hurdle in wide-stream application of these processes.

The filtration market has seen dramatic growth over the past decade, resulting in substantial investment in membrane development and a reduction in the costs of membrane technology. There has been a noticeable shift away from basic water treatment towards resource recovery and optimisation through the incorporation of membrane technology.

On the topic of performance, high energy costs are just one of the challenges on the list. What are some of the latest technologies that provide for energy reduction and/or recovery? A series of initiatives designed to reduce the energy footprint of effluent treatment systems have been introduced in

"The filtration market has seen dramatic growth over the past decade, resulting in substantial investment in membrane development" recent years. These include the recovery of biogas, efficient aeration systems, low energy membranes and brine turbochargers. Incorporation of these technologies depends on the water quality requirements of the end-user.

What type of membranes (MF, UF, NF, RO) have the biggest growth market in South Africa? As reverse osmosis (RO) is applicable to desalination of sea water, the growth of this market, particularly in coastal towns, remains unlimited. Reverse osmosis continues to dominate the membrane market.

What are some of the latest technologies and methods used in the treatment of municipal water and wastewater, as well as industrial effluent? The conversion of both municipal and industrial wastewater, through the incorporation of multi-barrier filtration systems, is gaining popularity following the

RIGHT Hollow fibres of the MBR

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What are your comments in terms of challenges such as the need to improve the quality of effluent, space limitations and water re-use? Water re-use represents a significant opportunity to limit the impact of industry on communal water resources whilst enabling the end user to select appropriate treatment systems based on the water quality requirements of their main processes, thereby decoupling drinking water from service water at a localised level. It remains, however, financially favourable to obtain bulk water supply from municipalities due to the current tariff structure. As the cost of treating municipal water increases, a systemic shift will ultimately favour a wider application of inhouse membrane treatment systems.

ABOVE Two stage reverse osmosis system

When one considers some of the global desalination and water purification projects, how does South Africa rate when compared to the rest of the world? Although the market is expanding, South Africa remains a small-scale user of this technology.

What are the alternative water sources we should consider for potable water? How does wastewater reuse compare to sea water desalination as a potential water source?

Tell us about the process designs and innovative technologies used in achieving zero liquid discharge. Advancements in anti-scale formulations have allowed a proportion of brine to undergo a second pass through the RO system without impacting the overall recovery rate, reducing the final concentrate volume by up to 20%. In addition, the installation of sludge presses to dewater excess waste activated sludge enables the return of the filtrate to the mixed liquor basin. This eradicates the daily discharge of mixed liquor to drain.

"Desalination and wastewater reuse can assist with short term, poor quality and water stressed locations"

Desalination and wastewater reuse can assist with short term, poor quality and water stressed locations. However, to achieve a sustainable system, the water cycle must be considered as a global issue, irrespective of country boundaries. The disposal of brine, for example, continues to be a market-wide hurdle that prevents landlocked locations from utilising RO technology.

What technology, other than RO, is available for desalination? Research is currently being conducted into forward osmosis. By utilising the natural osmotic pressure of the feed water, water molecules diďŹ&#x20AC;use across a semi-permeable membrane into a concentrated solution, with a signiďŹ cantly reduced pressure requirement. Concentrated salts are returned to the membrane surface via by electrodialysis.

Please provide a brief overview of a maximum of two projects that your company has been involved in (South African, Africa or global).

Looking ahead, what challenges do we face in terms protecting our water, considering options such as water re-use, whilst protecting the environment?

Talbot & Talbot continues to assist industries throughout Africa to secure sustainable water resources. Applications include the conversion of conventional activated sludge systems to Membrane BioReactor and RO systems in order to achieve SANS 241 potable water quality standards and the optimisation of current treatment facilities. This includes plant troubleshooting, membranes replacement, chemical optimisation and capacity expansion.

The management and allocation of South Africa s water resources remains critical to ensuring sustainability. Investment in treatment technologies should be the direct result of license conditions and enforcement. The mindset of membrane applications must shift from a capital cost to an investment if current water usage rates are to be maintained.

JAN/FEB 2012



Peter Cable, regional commercial manager: Sub Saharan Africa, Dow Water and Process Solutions

How have we progressed over the past decade in terms of the various methods of filtration, such as reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, etc.? As RO elements have increased in performance and come down in price, the technology is being used in more and more applications. RO is a readily accepted technology for drinking water, industrial water and wastewater treatment. Ultrafiltration and microfiltration are still on the steeper part of the growth curve and are becoming more commonly adopted.

What type of membranes (MF, UF, NF, RO) have the biggest growth market in South Africa? Nanofiltration (NO) and RO membranes are fairly well entrenched in the industrial water market in South Africa, but both ultrafiltration (UF) and RO have very strong growth drivers in industrial, municipal and wastewater for the next several years.

What are some of the latest technologies and methods used in the treatment of municipal water and wastewater, as well as industrial effluent? From a membrane perspective, UF is becoming a standard technology and being adapted into membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Dow™ FILMTEC™ Low Energy, Ultra Low Energy, Fouling Resistant and eXtraFouling Resistant RO elements are very innovative and are finding wide acceptance in the sub-Saharan Africa market.

On the topic of performance, high energy costs are just one of the challenges on the list. What are some of the latest technologies that provide for energy reduction and/or recovery? There are several technology choices for energy recovery devices in the seawater RO space as most large desalination plants incorporate some form of energy recovery device. Membrane manufacturers are

allocating development resources aimed at lowering the pressure requirements whilst improving the salt rejection of both seawater and brackish water RO membranes. Recently launched, novel technology includes solar/wind power driven sea water desalination plants. An example being Mörk Water Solutions seawater desalination plant in Zanzibar.

What are your comments in terms of challenges such as the need to improve the quality of effluent, space limitations and water re-use? The steady decline in the quality of our water sources, driven by population growth, industrialisation and the lack of proper treatment of effluent, is leading to water that can no longer be adequately treated by conventional methods. Membrane technologies are ideal in terms of providing a solution to these challenges. They have smaller footprints than conventional treatment plants and provide an impenetrable barrier to contaminants, making them ideal choices for potable, water reuse and effluent treatment plants.

Tell us about the process designs and innovative technologies used in achieving zero liquid discharge. While Dow Water and Process Solutions have kept an eye on ZLD technologies, they are currently outside of our portfolio.

Please provide a brief overview of a maximum of two projects that your company has been involved in (South African, Africa or global). ESKOM Medupi - Dow Water and Process Solutions was awarded a contract to provide RO membrane technology for LEFT Solar wind-powered desalination plant in Zanzibar


JAN/FEB 2012


the Medupi dry-cooled, coal fired power station under construction in Lephalale, South Africa. The membrane technology will enable Eskom to achieve the quality of water required for the optimal performance of the six supercritical boilers driving Medupi.DOW™ FILMTEC™ BW30XFR-400/34i membranes have an optimised design and materials of construction to create a durable, high rejection and high productivity element to purify waters with biological and organic fouling tendencies. Soreq desalination plant - Dow Water and Process Solutions 16-inch RO elements have been selected as one of two sources of filtration membranes at the new Soreq Seawater Desalination Plant in Tel Aviv, Israel. This plant will produce 510 000 m3/day of drinking water. Upon completion, it will be the largest 16-inch RO seawater plant in the world.

ABOVE Perth seawater desalination plant – picture courtesy of the Water Corporation of Western Australia

What are the alternative water sources we should consider for potable water? How does wastewater reuse compare to sea water desalination as a potential water source? Today seawater desalination is a widely-accepted technology for direct potable use, while wastewater reuse is most commonly used for indirect potable usage such as aquifer recharge and seawater intrusion barriers. Singapore is leading the way in terms of wastewater being reused for potable water through their New Water projects.

"With increasing demands being placed on water supplies in an effort to support population growth and industrialisation, we need to change our mindsets about water"

What technology, other than RO, is available for desalination?

There are a couple of electrically-driven technologies, such as CEDI and EDR, that are being evaluated for desalination. This is a developing space which is garnering some interest from around the world. Thermal technology is also a well established technology for desalination.

Looking ahead, what challenges do we face in terms protecting our water, considering options such as water re-use, whilst protecting the environment?

When one considers some of the global desalination and water purification projects, how does South Africa rate when compared to the rest of the world?

With increasing demands being placed on water supplies in an effort to support population growth and industrialisation, we need to change our mindsets about water. In areas where clean, potable water is available, it is often undervalued and, in essence, considered free . The cost of water is often not linked to the value of water, making conservation and water management a lower priority than it should be.

South Africa is in the adaption phase and is only beginning to consider this type of technology as a potential supplemental technology to boost potable water production and supply. As such, our projects are limited and on a smaller scale to those of the rest of the world. Energy is also an issue as the current energy generation infrastructure in South Africa is under pressure.

JAN/FEB 2012



Gunter Rencken, managing director, Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa

How have we progressed over the past decade in terms of the various methods of filtration such as reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, etc.? Although technologies such as RO have been around since the 1950s, recent years have seen significant reductions in the energy consumption of RO systems. Energy recovery devices and energy-efficient membranes are the norm on most RO systems these days. UF is becoming the norm as pre-treatment prior to RO due to the high quality water produced by this process. Nanofiltration is an underutilised membrane technology and in my opinion offers many potential benefits in terms of water re-use and recycling.

What type of membranes (MF, UF, NF, RO) have the biggest growth market in South Africa? UF membranes have the biggest growth potential in South Africa.

What are some of the latest technologies and methods used in the treatment of municipal water & wastewater, as well as industrial effluent? I suppose this answer is somewhat subjective, but I would say MBRs. This technology treats the outflow from a sewage or industrial wastewater plant. It s basically a normal activated sludge plant, with a final UF step. The UF step replaces the final clarifier and ensures good water quality, so that treated water can be reused as process water or for other industrial applications.

On the topic of performance, high energy costs are just one of the challenges on the list. What are some of the latest technologies that provide for energy reduction and/or recovery? Two different types of energy recovery devices exist - one being the turbine type and the other the piston type. The turbine

type is somewhat older technology compared to the piston type. The turbine type is more cost-effective from a capital outlay point of view, but runs at significantly lower efficiencies. Advances in membrane design have also led to significant reduction in energy consumption.

What are your comments in terms of challenges such as the need to improve the quality of effluent, space limitations and water re-use? On the need to improve the quality of the effluent issue, I feel that a lot of our municipalities are struggling financially and that this affects the water quality. Municipalities often don t have the inhouse expertise or financial backing to acquire external services to sort our water issues. Although excellent structures, such as the Green Drop, are being put in place, South Africa still has a long way to go in terms of achieving 100% compliance on the water that we send back into the environment. In line with the technological advances that we have seen in the water treatment sector, the issue of space limitations is also being addressed by compact design configurations offered by almost all of the membrane vendors. Membrane suppliers and suppliers of pressure vessels offer clever design configurations, allowing one to design water treatment systems with a relatively large capacity within a small space.

Tell us about the process designs and innovative technologies used in achieving zero liquid discharge. Zero liquid discharge can basically be achieved by a three-step process for which Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa offers a turnkey solution. The first step in the process involves pre-treatment to ensure maximum water recovery in the membrane step. Step 2 is membrane technology aimed at concentrating the salts as far as is

JAN/FEB 2012

"Zero liquid discharge can basically be achieved by a three-step process for which Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa offers a turnkey solution" possible. Step 3 makes use of evaporative technologies concentrating salts at elevated temperatures in order to maximise water recovery, followed by a crystallisation step, where the salts are either crystallised as a mixed salt or salts can be selectively crystallised. The salt crystals are typically filtered or centrifuged out of solution and can be dried or re-dissolved (for re-use or sale), while mixed salts are typically transported to a landfill for disposal. The water removed can be re-used as process water or discharged to the environment at acceptable temperatures and salinity. Water recovered during evaporation and crystallisation is of excellent quality and can be typically used for boiler make-up.

Please provide a brief overview of a maximum of two projects that your company has been involved in (South African, Africa or global). During the last year, Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa has been involved in several water treatment plants locally. The first project I would like to highlight is a seawater desalination plant constructed in Mossel Bay. This is the largest of its kind in South Africa and was commissioned in October 2011. Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa was also


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awarded a contract at Belville in the Western Cape to build the largest MBR in South Africa to date. The project is still in the execution phase.

Looking ahead, what challenges do we face in terms protecting our water, considering options such as water re-use, whilst protecting the environment?

When one considers some of the global desalination and water purification projects, how does South Africa rate when compared to the rest of the world?

When considering the re-use of water, one needs to determine the end goal as this will determine the complexity of the design. If the water is to be re-used for industrial processes, MBR technology should be considered. If the water is to be consumed by humans, the number of processes involved becomes fairly complex and expensive. Although, RO alone rejects salts in excess of 99%, current debate revolves around the constituents that do pass through the membrane and how this affects the end user. Certain compounds such as endocrine disruptors, for example present in sewage water, can pass through poorly designed direct potable re-use water treatment systems. It is therefore of utmost importance that all the necessary steps and multiple barriers are built into the process to ensure that re-used water is safe for public consumption. Care must be taken by the client in terms of making use of a reputable consultant or contractor who understands the intricacies associated with the re-use of water.

From a global seawater desalination point of view, South Africa currently has several installations of relatively small desalination plants. However, there are currently a number of feasibility studies being conducted for some very large sea water desalination projects. In terms of the treatment of industrial and mining wastewaters, South Africa is a world leader regarding membrane technology.

"From a global seawater desalination point of view, South Africa currently has several installations of relatively small desalination plants"

What are the alternative water sources we should consider for potable water? How does wastewater re-use compare to sea water desalination as a potential water source? In my opinion, one should ďŹ rst consider wastewater re-use before investigating sea water desalination. The costs and energy consumption are normally lower for water reuse.

What technology, other than RO, is available for desalinisation? Nanofiltration, Ion exchange, and thermal technologies such as multiple effect distillation.


JAN/FEB 2012


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JAN/FEB 2012



WISA’s Membrane Technology Conference The 2nd International Conference of the WISA Membrane Technology Division was held in Durban in September. WISA’s president, Anderson Mancotywa, presented the opening address and here are the highlights of his speech


and chlorination. These effluents are a potential health hazard to communities downstream using the same receiving waters as the source of their water supply. There is also a growing public health concern over the long term physiological effects of certain of the trace chemicals found in wastewater, many of which are not removed by conventional sewage treatment or water purification processes. New and improved methods and processes

certain category, and must include people from ground level up. Of course, the magnitude of information sharing will be different from level to level. A well-informed public can do much more to assist the smooth provision of water and sanitation services. The process controllers at water care works have a huge role to play in the success of membrane technology in our country. The optimisation of the upstream processes will ensure better performance of these membranes. The minister of Water and Environmental Affairs once said that the inland waters must be for inland consumers/ users and coastal cities and towns must look at desalination. We as water sector practitioners must ensure that this desalination is done in a cost effective, efficient and sustainable manner. We need to understand and communicate the different values of water, including its role as an economic good, in industrial production, health management, its environmental and social values, its role as a strategic element in energy generation and food security. This means then that water should be put at the centre of planning and economic development.”

The process controllers at water care works have a huge role to play in the success of membrane technology in our country for the removal of a greater proportion of such pollutants from wastewater are therefore needed immediately. I believe that, with the research that has been done in membrane technology, these concerns or challenges can be addressed. The findings of the research work need to be successfully implemented. This then brings the question of education and training to the forefront. This must not be confined to a


ccording to Stephan Roux, chairperson of WISA s MTD, The conference was characterised by the excellent quality and varied nature of the presentations. This included technical topics, i.e. membrane autopsies, case studies of operational membrane dependent applications and contributions of a more academic or research-focused nature. The workshops focused on energy recovery for membrane applications, as well as

Photos by Debbie Besseling

he South African government is committed to the eradication of poverty and building a society based on justice and human rights. Our Constitution, which is a profound and far-reaching document, gives us clear direction on the nature of the society we are trying to build. The rapid growth in the population density due to urbanisation, industrialisation and technological development is making the satisfactory management of liquid and solid wastes a vast and complicated challenge. Waste management implies not only technical aspects of storage, collection, treatment, disposal and re-use, but also the equally important economic, legal, administrative and educational considerations. The increasing use of water for municipal, industrial, agricultural and other purposes has resulted in an increase both in volume of the wastewater produced, as well as in the chemical complexity of the pollutants it contains. In order to meet the increasing demand for water, effluent re-use for industry, agriculture, recreation and municipal water supply in areas of water shortage is already practised in some countries, including South Africa. The uncontrolled discharge of wastewater can spread diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, staphylococcal infections, infectious hepatitis and some vector-borne diseases. Sewage effluents discharged into receiving waters may not be free from viruses, even after secondary treatment

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brine disposal, an important point for consideration with the increase in membrane-dependent applications observed globally. The plenary lectures also gave much-needed insight into the future of energy recovery at membrane-dependent facilities and all delegates, including operators, vendors and consultants, were keen to learn more about this field. As membrane applications in various fields continue to grow, energy savings, whether through brine pressure recovery or general systems design and the use of alternative energy sources like wind power, will ultimately determine the extent to which the unparalleled separation and purification qualities of membrane technology will be available to both industry and suppliers of potable water. Huge strides have been made in reducing the costs of sea water desalination, mostly due to these energy saving practices. The reverse osmosis plant in Perth, Australia, is an excellent


FROM LEFT Stephan Roux, chairperson WISAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MTD; Miguel Angel Sanz, Degremont, Barcelona Span and Prof Adrian Law

example. The plenary lecture by Neil van Wyk (DWA) also indicated that membrane applications, whether for desalination, filtration or effluent treatment, remain very much part of the long-term planning for water management in South Africa. The sponsors all made use of the exhibition facilities at the conference and these facilities were well-attended during all lunch and coffee breaks. A new concept was used at this conference, namely setting aside two hours for short presentations by each sponsor. This time was fully utilised by the sponsors and will be kept as part of future conference proceedings. The conference was well-attended by both local and international delegates, offered high quality technical content and lively entertainment. The organisation by SoA, as well as the various venues, could not have been better. Evaluation and feedback from our delegates will be used to make the 2013 event even better.

JAN/FEB 2012

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Water Supply

Water resource management on an urban planet

W&S Africa speaks to Aurecon,

an organisation that is focused on delivering technical, economic, social and environmentally-friendly solutions that aim to meet the water needs of communities across the globe.


ater is a prerequisite for human and ecosystem health, as well as for the success of a wide range of industrial and agricultural enterprises. Water security through responsible resource management is an essential safeguard for a sustainable urban environment.

Water security and supply In 2010, global warming may be the headline-grabbing issue, but water security and supply is a significant social and environmental concern for many countries around the world. At a humanitarian level, many countries around the globe are currently on track to meet or even exceed the Millennium Development Goals concerning safe drinking water, so that the number of people without access to safe water might be halved by 2015. At a consumer level, the public is becoming increasingly concerned about, and aware of, the protection of the natural environment. Recycling water is becoming as widely accepted as any other form of recycling. In terms of augmentation of existing bulk water availability and supply, critical consideration is currently being given to the three Rs : water reclamation, recycling and reuse,

while in water resources planning, the goal is to sustainably harness and deliver some for all forever .

Supply and treatment: the three Rs Water reclamation, recycling and reuse are part of a continuum that begins with the treatment of wastewater and ends with the resultant potable or non-potable product being used by a designated target, depending on the level of treatment (e.g. greywater starts off with zero treatment). Water reclaimed from wastewater or polluted storm water by conventional treatment has long been recognised as an important potable or non-potable source in urban environments, but also to help restore over-utilised streams and wetlands. Water industry groups and water professionals now recognise that the technologies which yield the highest grade water for reuse ‒ ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection ‒ have become more affordable and more effective options to deliver safe bulk water. Looking to the future, water reuse has the potential to make a huge difference to water security for cities around the world. Unfortunately, the impact on supply continuity due to water reuse has been mixed, with a significant proportion of water

JAN/FEB 2012

suitable for reuse probably still being wasted. With many growing cities facing the prospect of ongoing water shortages, high grade urban water reuse offers an attractive economic option to support water derived from large dams, groundwater aquifiers, river abstractions or desalination.

Desalination In 2010, numerous desalination projects are being delivered to cities and communities around the globe. The Global Water Intelligence report, Desal Data/Desalination Markets 2010, puts overall global capital expenditure at US$9.2 billion. According to Professor André Görgens, Aurecon s Water Sector leader in Africa Middle East, coastal cities in South Africa will increasingly need to turn to desalination to meet the growth in their water needs. Professor Görgens believes that 20 years from now, desalination will become what he calls a standard option for augmenting water security in South African coastal cities. With much of Australia, areas of New Zealand, Asia and Africa having been in the grip of record-breaking droughts, desalination is seen as a solution to uncertain water supplies for major coastal cities. However, desalination is only one element of a larger, multi-pronged and holistic



approach required to achieve water security and continuity of supply to communities. Once the bulk water is available, no matter what the means of sourcing it, the next challenge is to effectively deliver it to people and locations. How this is achieved is dependent on geographical, economic, social and political factors, as well as the availability, or affordability, of infrastructure to supply communities.

"Historically, each municipality or metro would develop their own water services development plan" Professor André


demand-driven and a critical task is to establish the total demand profile for recycled water for all options being considered. Whether we are involved in urban or rural water supply, irrigation or drainage, we cover the project lifecycle from feasibility studies and master planning through to detailed design and actual delivery of water. A key strength we have as a global group is that we are able to leverage on the expertise and knowledge that exists within our various centres of excellence in terms of treatment, storage and delivery in Asia Pacific and Africa, to create innovative and holistic solutions for clients.

With the prospect of drier and longer summers facing many communities, water for irrigation is becoming a critical issue. Recycled water is suitable for use in food growth, municipal environments (for parks, gardens, recreational facilities, etc.) or in greywater networks for use by industry or communities. Most recycled water is used for crop irrigation, landscaping, golf courses and public parks and gardens. However, the extent of treatment of the recycled water depends on where the water ultimately goes. This means that, if people are more likely to come into direct contact with it, the water must undergo more treatment than if it were to be used in an oil refinery or in cooling towers at a power station. Within the Asia Pacific region, practices such as generating recycled water from raw sewage has been identified as one of the potential sources of water for use in irrigation. Aurecon is increasingly being called upon to undertake and deliver feasibility studies which provide information to enable recycled water users to assess costs and risk tradeoffs, and also facilitates a decision if they want to progress to a business case, said William Yong, general manager: Water, Asia Pacific, Aurecon. Typically, our investigations aim to establish the feasibility and costs of a scheme to extract, treat, store and distribute recycled water for use. Recycled water schemes are

Görgens, Aurecon

Bulk water supply ‒ water reconciliation studies In South Africa, water resources management is increasingly being supported by a series of water reconciliation studies. These studies involve the use of innovative tools developed by Aurecon, which forecast and manage supply and demand on a community by community basis. Historically in South Africa, each municipality or metro would develop their own water services development plan, sometimes without taking our government s overarching water resource management strategies into account, says Professor Görgens. These master plans are primary building blocks for water security across the nation and are especially topical in light of

growing urbanisation within rapidly developing countries like South Africa. For our part, Aurecon has been working closely with many municipalities and national government to assess and resolve bulk supply and demand priorities. To this end, we developed an in-house water reconciliation tool which we then use to analyse water balance scenarios for the medium- and long-term future and highlight suitable interventions for each scenario. This approach is cutting-edge in terms of ensuring water security, not just for countries like South Africa, but for many other developing nations. We used this tool very successfully in the Western Cape and Algoa Reconciliation Studies, which were commissioned by our national Department of Water Affairs to develop regional strategies to secure a sustainable future water supply for the Greater Cape Town region, the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality and the Coega Industrial Development Zone in Port Elizabeth. It is intended that these regional strategies guide the optimal selection of interventions and studies to meet anticipated future water requirements, resulting in the ongoing and vital provision of water according to sustainability principles, adds Professor Görgens.

Catchment and drainage management At the other end of the urban water spectrum is catchment and drainage management planning. With the likelihood of more extreme storm events occurring more frequently due to climate change, the importance of development assessments, flood risk assessment, emergency management planning input and flood and storm tide inundation modelling studies cannot be underestimated. Our philosophy is to invest time and effort in the data acquisition stage, ensuring useful information in order to produce useful results, said William Yong. We have invested in developing our technical specialists and in acquiring the most up-to-date modelling software. We are not affiliated with any particular software developer, and will recommend the right package for the right solution on a case by case basis. This is part of our global competencies and integration programme. We now draw upon resources right across our business to deliver LEFT Potsdam wastewater treatment plant


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water projects that utilise the whole team. On a broader project basis, our network of water specialists work together to leverage experience and skills on a myriad of projects. We now have colleagues from Africa based in our Asia PaciďŹ c oďŹ&#x192;ces who bring greater depth to our water resources management and planning capability in the municipal market, together with water management and regulatory capacity in the mining and industrial marketplace. Equally, we have one of our specialist mechanical engineers from Asia PaciďŹ c working in the Olifants River Water Resource Development Project Phase II in South Africa. This is part of our global competencies and integration programme. We now draw upon resources across our business to deliver water projects that utilise the whole team, no matter where they are located.

Water security is one of the great challenges of the 21st century

Challenges and opportunities Water security is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. It is a challenge that

governments, business leaders and technical consultants must address in unison. Traditionally, public sector leaders and nongovernmental organisations have driven the debate on water policy, but a growing number of progressive private-sector companies have begun to work with consultants to eďŹ&#x20AC;ectively manage water resources and

usage. To address usage concerns, progressive companies are developing technologies that deliver more products for the water they use during production. Other companies are developing new technologies for treating water and wastewater to improve resource utilisation. One thing is certain, the water security and management debate will continue to evolve and broaden over time. Positive outcomes are being discussed, designed and implemented. In the meantime, engineering, management and technical services companies such as Aurecon will continue to deliver innovative and practical solutions that address the needs of the urban water marketplace â&#x20AC;&#x2019; now and in the future. Footnotes 1. Global Water Intelligence, The desalination market returns archive/11/7/market-insight/desalinationmarket-returns.html 2. WaterAid â&#x20AC;&#x2019; International website what_we_do/

(QJLQHHULQJVXFFHVVIRU sustainable water management

Aurecon provides engineering, management and specialist technical services for government and private sector clients globally. The group has been involved in projects that span multiple markets across Africa, Asia 3DFLoFDQGWKH0LGGOH(DVW Aureconâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s team of leading water specialists works with clients across every facet of the water cycle to design and deliver the most cost effective and sustainable infrastructure solutions, ranging from network modelling and bulk pipelines to treatment plant design and total operations management. 2XUWHDPRIIHUVZRUOGFODVVWHFKQLFDOVNLOOVDVZHOODVVLJQLoFDQWH[SHUWLVH in the legal, environmental, planning and community consultation issues around water projects. For more information contact us at tel: +27 12 427 2000 or email:

Services: Water and Wastewater Treatment :DWHU5HVRXUFHV0DQDJHPHQW Dams and Bulk Pipelines Water Sciences (FRORJLFDO:DWHU0DQDJHPHQW Stormwater and Waterways Policy and Institutional (QJLQHHULQJ3URFXUHPHQW &RQVWUXFWLRQ0DQDJHPHQW (3&0



No-Dig 2011 feedback The No-Dig conference took place at the CSIR ICC in Pretoria from 23 to 24 August. conference, Masterclass and Exhibition in South Africa where the potential of our people is as rich as our soils and as vibrant as our subsets, said Lotz. The Conference was officially opened by the executive mayor of the City of Tshwane, Cllr K D Ramokgopa. During his opening speech he said that trenchless technology was a breath of fresh air and would no doubt benefit South African citizens as these technologies are utilised in the massive infrastructure programme being rolled out in the country. After his speech, he joined delegates to listen to an introductory overview All images by Guy Schmidt Photography


rganised by SASTT (Southern Africa Society for Trenchless Technology) the exhibition and conference provided an excellent networking and educational forum for engineers to gather information and knowledge on the latest developments, techniques and equipment utilised in trenchless technology. Speaking at the conference, president of SASTT Andries Lotz said In South Africa, government has been promising the development and upgrading of civic infrastructure. These promises are beginning to be realised, but progress is hampered by the shortage of skills. While one is mindful that this shortage can only be solved by better basic education, any kind of skills training must have a positive impact on the welfare of our people. Hence, SASTT was delighted when the ISTT proposed that a first trenchless masterclass be organised in South Africa. SASTT is privileged to have hosted the inaugural No-Dig South Africa 2011

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of trenchless technology presented by ISTT s past chairman, Dr Dec Downey. Cllr Ramokgopa took time to tour the exhibition and with an engineering background, displayed a keen interest in the exhibits, asking many questions on the technical capabilities of the equipment on display.


The two-day Conference programme featured the International Society for Trenchless Technology s (ISTT) Masterclass programme, providing in depth overview presentations on condition assessment, HDD, rehabilitation techniques and pipe bursting.

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Conference delegates and visitors were treated to an excellent display of equipment and services exhibited by more than 30 organisations. Joining the southern Africa-based companies were exhibitors from Germany, Austria, United Kingdom, Singapore and Japan.


Gold sponsors of the event, Vermeer Equipment Suppliers mounted an impressive display of its Navigator horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment, both on their indoor stand, as well outside. Bronze sponsors Insitu-Pipelines and Reef Trenchless Technology also supported their presence with outdoor displays of CCTV and HDD equipment respectively. At the close of the event, president of SASTT, Andries Lötz commented, ''SASTT is delighted that No-Dig South Africa 2011 has achieved its aim to provide a specialist forum for the trenchless technology community in South Africa. We have undoubtedly raised the profile and awareness for the industry through this event and we are looking forward to welcoming new members to the Society as a result of its success''.

SASTT Standards sponsorship SASTT has recently embarked on a sponsorship drive to procure funding towards the development of SASTT Technical Standards. This follows the successful production of the SASTT technical standard for sliplining in 2010. It is SASTT’s wish to get a further two standards undertaken at present, namely the specifications for Pipe bursting, splitting and cracking as well as horizontal directional drilling. The cost of producing these two standard is approximately R120 000.00. SASTT wishes to express its gratitude to companies that have embraced this sponsorship drive. To date platinum sponsorships of R15 000 each have been received from Trenchless Technologies cc and TT Innovations, with silver sponsorship being received from Tuboseal and a bronze sponsorship being received from Peninsula Pipeline services. The categories of sponsorship are as follows: • Platinum R 15 000.00 • Gold R 10 000.00 • Silver R 5 000.00 • Bronze R 2 500.00 Sponsors will be recognised by means of: • Displaying the sponsorship category within the corporate member’s details on the SASTT website. • Display the sponsorship category on the membership certificate. • Display contributing member’s sponsorship category on the actual specification. • Additionally, recognition will be in the form of editorial to be published on the accelerated development of technical standards. Should you be interested in supporting the development of SASTT Technical Standards, you may contact:

9 Pipe Bursting 150-650 diameter 9 INSITU CIPP Lining 9 INSITU Patch Lining 9 Micro Tunnelling 9 Slip Lining 9 CCTV 9 Pigging and Testing 9 Ground Penetrating Radar 9 Pipeline Condition Assessment and Leak Detection

Insitu-Pipelines (Pty) Ltd is a wholly owned subsidiary of WBHO Construction (Pty) Ltd

For more information, or to discuss a project call us on Tel: +27 11 786 8099 Fax: +27 11 786 8084 or E-mail: 13, 4th Street, Wynberg, Johannesburg


t%$y W%$6yw54^ 234

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On track to exceed 2011 pipejacking targets Esorfranki is on track to significantly exceed its pipejacking targets for 2011. Water&Sanitation Africa took the opportunity to find out about some of the company’s pipejacking projects.


he company has recently completed a R19 million pipejacking project for WBHO on the Secunda to Sasolburg pipeline, during which it deployed eight pipejacking teams on the project to carry out 1 200 mm and 1 800 mm pipejacks under 23 roads and railway lines. According to Anton Naude, Esorfranki s pipejacking manager, Esorfranki has been party to every southern African pipejacking record set to date and has contributed extensively to bringing the viability of the technique to the civil engineering fraternity in southern Africa. Our expertise in this field dates back to 1978 and includes water supply, railway crossings, gas pipeline and bridge jacking projects across South Africa and neighbouring African countries. Pipejacking is also carried out beneath rivers and Naude says the company has just been awarded a R2.5 million contract by Johannesburg Water to conduct 60 metres of jacking underneath the Jukskei River at a depth of about 12 metres.

Concrete pipejacking

What is pipejacking? Pipejacking is a specialist technique used to install underground pipelines and culverts with minimal disruption to property, traffic or services on the surface. Pipes and culverts are progressively advanced through the ground using high performance hydraulic jacks. Material at the head of the pipeline or culvert is excavated to the exact profile of the structure prior to jacking. This material is removed to the jacking pit via the structure being jacked, where it is hoisted and tipped. Pipejacking is used for sewers and storm water drains, gas and water mains, electricity and telephone cables, box culverts and subways.

under very difficult conditions, with a high water table and hard rock encountered underground. The jacking sites for the 1 800 mm sewer pipes with a two metre diameter are located across the city centre, allowing limited working space to sink the jacking pits. At OR Tambo International Airport, a culvert jacking project 450 mm beneath the tar road has recently been completed. The concrete culvert is seven metres wide by three metres high and 17 metres long, and was commissioned to serve as a pedestrian walkway to and from the Gautrain station. As a sub-contractor to Stefanutti Stocks, Esorfranki is working on a R7.7 million contract at the Medupi Power Station to jack 1 800 mm pipes through solid rock. Also at Medupi, the company is conducting a R7.9 million pipejacking project for Civcon, involving two pipejacks 1 860 metres in length. Other current contracts include a pipe culvert at Lynwood Road for the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality and a culvert at Potchefstroom University for pedestrians and vehicles.

Our jacking team has decades of experience in all kinds of challenging conditions, with a proud track record of successful projects over more than 30 years. The team, which includes a surveyor, is complemented by a full range of jacking equipment. At any given time, we are able to have 23 pipejacks out in the field. Uniquely, we also have our own four-man in-house blasting team, making us the only company in South Africa able to conduct blasting, surveying and pipejacking using in-house capabilities, says Naude.

Concrete pipejacking methods use a steel shield with a hydraulic jack that is positioned at the front of the pipeline. In unstable ground conditions, the jacked structure may be installed as a sleeve through which the actual service will later pass or within which an in-situ invert may be constructed. A single sleeve pipe may be used to install a variety of smaller services. The company is currently conducting concrete pipejacking in Gaborone, Botswana, where it is close to completing a R20 million jacking project for a sewer reticulation upgrade for civil contractor, China Jiangsu International. Naude says this project manager, Esorfranki has been carried out

"Our expertise dates back to 1978 and includes water supply, railway crossings, gas pipeline and bridge jacking projects " Anton Naude, pipejacking

JAN/FEB 2012



Capacity Building

Where water and didactics meet Capacity building in the SA WATSAN sector In this article, we highlight the challenges and importance of this capacity building. By Agnes Maenhout and Johan Oost*


he actual knowledge present within the SA water and sanitation sector is the proper basis for capacity building of the sector. South Africa is a rapidly developing country and some of the many issues in this respect are those of water management, the supply of healthy drinking water and the adequate treatment of wastewater. The most important problem in dealing with these water topics is the availability of well-capacitated personnel, in both quality and quantity. Besides increasing the number of capacitybuilding activities on water topics, the sustainability and outcome of the lessons learned and of the skills gained can be improved. So, water and sanitation (WATSAN) professionals, would you share your knowledge and improve the WATSAN sector in South Africa? The reason for this question is that water professionals determine the quality of economy, public health, empowerment and society in this respect. The actual knowledge present within the South African WATSAN sector is the proper basis for capacity building of the sector. This knowledge is available from a small number of South African water professionals. The challenge for the South African WATSAN sector is to share the existing knowledge and expertise with the younger generation, with the operators and workers in the field. Furthermore, lifelong learning needs to be implemented to keep water professionals up to date during their career. A proven method for capacity building on practical matter is: capacity building for professionals by professionals .

Professional trainers Professionals will benefit from basic didactical knowledge. Didactics and water are different kinds of expertise. The professional does not use didactics in daily practice. A didactical environment will improve the efficiency of the knowledge transfer. Therefore, a didactical expert can help a water professional gain better knowledge and skills on didactics. A didactical expert will design and develop the training, which is focused on the target group and has a clear learning goal. Within this scope, the trainees will be trained in both knowledge and skills. A didactical expert analyses the gap between the prior knowledge and experiences of the participants and the goals to be achieved by formulating learning objectives. The next step is the design of the programme and the schedule. The programme lists the topics to be covered, the teaching methods and the trainer involved. After this, the supporting materials and the course book can be developed.

Teaching methods The training programme describes the teaching methods to be used. A teaching method describes the presentation and provision of the information to the participants. There are various teaching methods and each method is tailored to a specific learning objective. Some examples of using teaching methods in practice are: students get lectures and exercises, workers practise on the job in little groups and policy makers exchange knowledge and skills during interactive sessions. Indications show that people remember 20% by listening, 30% by watching, 50% by listening and watching and 70% by saying and writing after the training. The participants will keep the knowledge and skills better when using various tailored teaching methods instead of only lectures. As a professional trainer, you will have the challenge of using various teaching methods in training your participants.

Water professionals determine the quality of economy, public health, empowerment and society

For professionals by professionals Water professionals are experts at their particular field. They have the knowledge, the daily experience and the know-how relating to WATSAN topics. Water professionals have first access to the most up-to-date information. They are proud of their jobs, motivated and excited to share their experience. Besides this, water professionals


know what kind of knowledge and skills are required to do the water job. A water professional also needs common knowledge of teaching methodology to become a professional trainer. This methodology has to be adequate. Adequate means that the trainee can use the trained knowledge and skills directly in daily practice.

Training experience in South Africa Wateropleidingen (SWO), the leading training institute for the Dutch water sector, has designed, developed and delivered several training courses in South Africa.

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Just like in every capacity-building project, SWO used the concept of combining water expertise and didactical expertise. The water expertise was provided by Dutch and South African water experts, while the SWO staff delivered the didactical expertise. Wateropleidingen executed projects in South Africa with the following partners: DWA Pretoria, Inkomati CMA, BreedeOverberg CMA (South Africa), Waterschap Groot-Salland, Wetterskip Fryslan and Unie van Waterschappen (the Netherlands). The capacity-building projects (2006 to 2009) in South Africa focused on empowering the catchment management agencies: Inkomati CMA and Breede-Overberg CMA. The first training was aimed at the improvement of governing skills, being a representative and an ambassador of the CMA. The course focused on vision and mission, corporate and cooperative governance, planning and control cycle and the code of conduct[1]. The second training was designed and developed on strategic thinking and governmental sensitivity. Focus was on the interaction between the staff and the board to strengthen the staff of the CMAs [2]. How did the didactical part work out? The training needs analysis showed that the prior knowledge and experience of the CMA board members varied significantly on governance items. Also, their prior education varied from primary school to university. In addition, the staff of the CMAs had to work in a new organisation with lots of ambiguities and uncertainties. This input was used to develop the training, including the material. The teaching methods used were tailored for the prior knowledge and daily experiences of the participants. Some examples of the teaching methods are highlighted to illustrate the learning objectives in relation to the chosen teaching methods: To improve the ambassadors role of the board members, short presentations were trained. The participants had to prepare and give a presentation and the target group was the stakeholders. The other participants gave positive feedback and comments to improve the presentation. To strengthen the representative role of the members of the CMA boards, a group discussion was organised to train the

Some comments During these two course days, I had to work very hard. Die geweldige baie inligting is van onskatbare waarde vir die pad vorentoe vir die CMA. Now I can see the difference in what I learned in the seminar and I know how to monitor things. Sharing of best practices between Netherland and South Africa complement each other to improve where it is necessary.

communication between the CMA board members and stakeholders. A group of stakeholders was invited to hear the next year s plans of the CMA. The stakeholders were encouraged to express their expectations of the CMA. This led to a dialogue between the CMA board members and stakeholders and even some appointments on ways of future communication were made. To exchange international knowledge on financial governance, group discussions were organised. South African and Dutch water professionals discovered in interactive sessions the similarities and differences in financial governance and the planning and control cycle in both countries. Every participant discovered useful ideas and challenges. The result of using a variety of teaching methods was enthusiasm and active participation from the participants. Owing to the training process, the members of the CMA boards became a group with the same goal and mission. They showed and expressed a greater willingness to cooperate and to support each other and practised governing skills and decision-making during the assignments. Furthermore, the

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participants gained a lot of knowledge on water management and governance from each other as well as from the Dutch experts.

Lessons learned The above-mentioned projects in South Africa show an example of using various teaching methods in training water professionals. When professionals get acquainted with didactical methods, the outcome of their training will increase significantly. The main base of the required knowledge is the professionals themselves, when they are trained and stimulated to exchange knowledge and know-how. So, capacity building for the WATSAN sector can be improved by you, as a didactically trained WATSAN professional. *Agnes Maenhout is the managing director: Wateropleidingen/SWO and Johan Oost is the project officer: Wateropleidingen/SWO. References

1 Maenhout (2008): Report Seminar series for the Governing Boards of Inkomati CMA and Breede-Overberg CMA. 2 Maenhout (2009): Report Course governmental sensitivity for the staff of Inkomati CMA and Breede-Overberg CMA.




Leading water and energy expert appointed Rob Holmes has recently been en appointed as a director of Quality uality Filtration Systems (QFS). Debbie bie Besseling speaks to Holmes and Herman Smit, director: technical and sales, about the appointment and the company’s area of focus.

before rev reverse osmosis (RO) or the recovery of water from conc concentrated RO brine solutions. We have already signed certain agreements with glob global suppliers to bring novel technologies iinto South Africa ‒ and at just the right time! QFS is looking at the areas of potable drinking water treatment, municipal

Rob Holmes When did you join QFS? RH I joined QFS in July 2011. I have worked closely with the company during the past couple of years since returning to South Africa from the USA, and the transition has been very easy and straight-forward.

Tell us about the structure of QFS, who are the directors of the company and what are their responsibilities? HS Hennie Smit is director: Financial and Administration, Herman Smit is director: Technical & Sales And Rob Holmes is director: Technical & Sales.

Following Rob s appointment, does QFS intend having any new areas of focus?

Qualifications: BSc (Chemistry, Chemical Sciences and Biochemistry): WITS 1995 Career history: 1995 to 1997 – sales engineer, Advanced Water Treatment Applications 1997 to 2009 – Air Products - joined as Sales Engineer in 1997, and held several positions managing the water business in South Africa, USA, and globally. 2009 – joined Siemens Water Technologies in Pennsylvania, USA, as global segment manager: waste-to-energy, before returning to SA in 2009 as Siemens Water Technologies’ business development manager for Africa.

HS Rob s appointment has immediately opened new areas of focus for QFS. His vast experience in the water industry will assist with our continued service to clients. In addition, the focus on the incorporation of new products into the company will ensure that our scope of offering to the water market increases substantially. This will expose the company to new markets that we were not able to enter in the past. We have always spoken about completing the process train and offering a complete solution instead of being just a supplier of equipment. RH My appointment at QFS has come along at just the right time. The company is well positioned for growth, having developed some really solid credentials over the last two to three years by being involved in some very exciting and innovative projects. Now, with my background and access to new technologies, the company will be able to expand in various directions ‒ new markets, technologies and applications. In terms of technology, QFS has focused on membrane technology in the past and this remains our major focus. However, we are starting to offer some unique technologies that can be employed as pre-treatment or polishing, either before or after our traditional membrane treatment ‒ this could include the conditioning of water


" We see water re-use as a critical solution to some of southern Africa’s water challenges and a growth area for the company" wastewater treatment, as well as some new technologies for the industrial market. Our focus has always been on differentiated or advanced technology and this hasn t changed. However, by broadening our portfolio with logical product expansions, we are now able to develop true solutions for our clients, particularly in the area of water re-use. We see water re-use as a critical solution to some of southern Africa s water challenges and a growth area for the company.

Tell us about your relationship with Siemens Water Technologies and the opportunities that this creates for the company?

HS QFS has always had a close relationship with Siemens Water Technologies through our exclusive distribution agreement with Siemens Memcor (part of Siemens Water Technologies). We manufactured the first Memcor Ultra filtration plant in South Africa in 1999. This relationship is being expanded as we incorporate other Siemens Water Technologies products into the agreement. We have not realised the full implication, but have already seen a significant increase in enquiries from the water industry. Siemens Water Technologies is a world leader in many of the new products and this creates opportunities for QFS moving into new markets and applications. RH Our close co-operation with the global Siemens Water Technologies organisation means we have access to specialists in a wide range of water treatment fields. We can start to localise solutions that have been proven globally. This is a very powerful approach to a market like South Africa. We have some unique market conditions ‒ QFS understands these and we bring the input from Siemens global experience. This enables us to be creative, innovative and responsive in the local market, but with a world of experience to draw from.

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When was QFS established? Tell us about some of the company s milestones during this time? HS QFS was established in 1996 by Hennie Smit and Herman Smit. The main focus for the period from 1996 to 1998 was the speciality filtration in the pharmaceutical and food and beverage markets. In 1999, QFS signed a representation agreement with Memcor. QFS was one of the first distributors in the world to be awarded a manufacturing licence agreement from Memcor. In 1999, we manufactured and installed the first two Memcor Micro filtration plants in South Africa. In 2002, QFS invested in its own manufacturing facility. Other milestones include: • 2004 ‒ Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system installed for public works (550m3/day). • 2007 ‒ Designed and developed RO manufacturing capabilities. • 2008 ‒ Malawi Lake source water treated with Memcor CP membranes for potable use for the town of Koronga (10 000 m3/ day). • 2011 ‒ The installation of UF and RO at the Beaufort West WWTW (2300 m3/day).

Please provide an overview of some of the projects that QFS has been involved in. HS • Pearly Beach WTW2.2 MLPD: The use of UF as the main treatment processes for the treatment of Cape brown water (2010).

• Mosselbay WWTW6.7 MLPD: UF for wastewater reuse (2010). • Samancor Chrome smelter 5 MLPD: UF for industrial wastewater reuse (2009). • De Kelders WTW1.6 MLPD: Brackish water treated by UF and RO for potable water (2011).

At a strategic level, what can you tell us about QFS s plans for the next five years?

ABOVE Hennie Smit, director, Financial and Administration BELOW Herman Smit (left), director, Technical & Sales, with Rob Holmes at the De Kelders WTW

HS QFS is definitely in a huge growth phase and would like to strengthen that by the addition of new products. The service department of the company will be crucial in the plans for the next five years as we will focus more on a continued service and aftermarket support for this new technology. We have built up a good base from which to grow and build our reputation as an equipment supplier that is knowledgeable about our products. Our unique approach of supplying speciality equipment, as well as manufacturing, installing and servicing these, must develop into long-term relationships with our clients. RH For me, this is a combination of expanding with new technologies that fit our membrane capabilities and focusing on applications that are a challenge to our customers. If I could sum it up in one word, that word would be re-use . We want to be the re-use company.


JAN/FEB 2012

Trenchless Technology Specialist

Our range of services include: • Pipe Bursting • Horizontal Directional Drilling • Pipe Rehabilitation

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New Helix H5000 range

meter without any affect on the measuring capability. The Helix H5000 has numerous advantages for billing or water distribution applications: 1. The 50 and 80 mm meters have a better Qmin than most combination meters.

2. With only one meter to log and a large electronic display of both volume and rate of flow, manual recording errors will be reduced. 3. Built in AMR/AMI outputs are standard (no pulse pick-up needed). 4. No straight lengths are required before and after the meter. The Helix H5000 counter mechanism can be fitted to existing Helix H4000 meter bodies (DIN 40-100mm), which is a cost saving benefit. With a battery life of five to 10 to years, and no change-over value and submerged gearing, maintenance is reduced. With its exceptional low and high-end accuracy measurement capabilities, the Helix H5000 looks set to replace conventional combination meters. Source: Elster Kent Metering

of no billing costs. Bad debt is reduced and the lower consumption contributes towards reduced demand on reticulation and treatment plant. The IWM can be set to operate in a number of different modes and it can be electronically switched between modes without removing the meter. This provides both customers and service providers with complete flexibility. The meter can be operated in a number of different modes, for example: • Water management device to control daily consumption. • Standard prepayment meter allows customers to manage their water consumption and provide water to the user at the lowest

possible cost. • Post pay mode with a settable credit limit to provide standard meter advantages, but with no billing required. The unit consists of a Class B multi jet water meter with electronic read out and integrated flow control valve. The unit is designed to operate at high and low temperatures, can handle entrained sand and dirt, compensate for air in the water supply and withstand lightening strikes. The unit is meterologically sealed and provides a high level of resistance to physical tamper and is immune to magnetic tamper. The meter is powered by a long-life battery which is field replaceable. Each user is issued

With a Qmin of 40 litre/ hour in the 50 Dia and 80 Dia models, the new Helix H5000 Woltmann bulk water meter range could well usher in the end of conventional combination meters. THE H5000 is a hybrid meter with the impellor being the only moving part. An inductive signal is transmitted from the impellor to the counter. By redesigning the rotor and eliminating the wet-gearing, all suspended solids pass through the

Yard water meter THE INTELLIGENT Water Meter (IWM) and supporting Meter Management System from Lesira-Teq provides a revolutionary approach to water demand management. The IWM ensures significant water savings through consumption management and leak detection with the added benefit


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Excellence in Chemical Dosing For more than 65 years sera products have represented the highest measure of quality, safety and reliability in the treatment of drinking water, process water and wastewater. „ „ „ „ „

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with a user tag in the form of an iButtonTM. The iButtonTM has a non-volatile memory and is built into a small, robust holder designed to withstand rough handling. The IWM is housed in a robust UVresistant plastic casing that is SANS approved for outside installation and is available in three configurations: • Pillar Box Housing for yard installation, complete with shut off valve, non return valve and quick fit compression fittings. • Above Ground Unit supplied complete with manifold for easy replacement of existing conventional meters. • Wall Mounting, supplied complete with shut off and non-return valve and fully reversible mounting to facilitate pipe runs. Source: Lesira-Teq

Solution for partially filled pipes

Automatic water meter reading NEW TECHNOLOGY is being harnessed to conserve and manage water reserves, but is it going far enough? Basil Bold, MD of Sensus South Africa, says smart technology can make a major contribution towards averting a future water shortage crisis. For increasing numbers of South African municipalities and water utilities, automated water meter-reading (AMR) is delivering critically important cost and environmental benefits. Now AMR is being complemented by a new smart abbreviation ‒ AMI ‒ which is taking water conservation and management to new performance levels. Advanced Meter Infrastructure (AMI), which entails a dedicated long-range radio data communications network system designed to make current mesh networks and GSM/GPRS systems even more efficient in the management of water resources. One such system is Sensus s revolutionary FlexNet, a long-range radio system which can ride on the back of existing AMR smart metering and smart grid applications. It is already achieving significant success in major cities of the United Kingdom and United States in terms of leak detection, meter reading and resources management (and is also slashing operating costs). According to Bold, Water meters are getting smarter, more efficient and more accurate, but in a climatically changing world where fresh water is becoming an increasingly threatened commodity, it has now been realised that, however smart the meter may be, metering alone is not going to be enough to avert water shortages in the future. Bold adds: In addition to the ecological and environmental spinoffs, the greatest business gain for water utilities is the development of systems to manage their water networks smarter, to avoid waste and ensure maximum billing accuracy. It s been demonstrated that saving water ‒ rather than developing new sources ‒ is often the best next source of water. Source: Sensus South Africa

achieve more

No need for civil work and flumes anymore! The TIDALFLUX 4000 flow sensor with integrated and non-contact capacitive level measuring system provides accurate flow measurement in partially filled pipes. It is designed to measure reliably between 10% and 100% of the pipe cross section. The integrated level sensors in the liner are in no contact with the liquid and are therefore insensitive against fat and oil floating on the surface. The sensor has been designed for measuring all water and wastewater applications including groundwater, potable water, wastewater, sludge and sewage, industry water and salt water in partially filled pipes. Available for a wide diameter range of DN200 up to DN1600 for flow rates up to 90,000 m3/hr! The TIDALFLUX 4000 causes no pressure loss and allows for bi-directional flow metering. With no Filters or straighteners required the flow meter can be installed underground and allows for constant flooding (IP 68). The TIDALFLUX4000 provides years of reliable measurements as it has no internal moving parts and nothing can wear. KROHNE - Process engineering is our world Please see our website for more information KROHNE South Africa 8 Bushbuck Close Corporate Park South, Randtjies Park, Midrand John Alexander Tel: +27 011 31 4 1391 Fax: +27 011 314 1681 Cell: +27 082 556 3934

Saving Water, Saving Lives YARD WATER METER OVERVIEW


The Intelligent Water Meter and the supporting Meter Management System (MMS) provides a revolutionary approach to Water Demand Management. The Intelligent Water Meter ensures signiÀcant water savings through consumption management and leak detection with the added beneÀt of no billing costs. Bad debt is reduced and the lower consumption contributes towards reduced demand on reticulation and treatment plant.

• Intelligent Meter options ȩ Conventional Mode: Revenue collection via standard billing. The client can check the status of his/her debt at any given time ȩ Pre-paid Mode: the client buys credit in advance from a vending point ȩ Post-Payment Mode: the user is assigned a negative credit limit in litres or rand value ȩ Flat rate Mode: Àxed amount per month for unlimited volume • Optional metered Lifeline Áow (40 ȳ/hr) when credit runs out • High air Áow detection and correction • Insensitive to lightning, freezing water, ambient temperatures up to 700 C, water hammer and dirt particles in water • Optional built in radio for AMR (no loose wires or antenna) • Arrears collection via User Tag (mode dependent)



The Community Standpipe Water Meter and supporting Meter Management System (WAS) is designed to offer a solution to the provision of water at communal water supply points. It requires low capital investment and can be used in both rural areas and informal settlements. One Meter can typically serve up to 40 households. The unit consists of a Class B multi jet water meter with electronic read out and built in Áow control valve. A patented valve system ensures extended battery life. The unit is meteorologically sealed and provides a high level of resistance to physical tamper and is immune to magnetic tamper. Should the meter become faulty, it can be replaced in the Àeld within ten minutes.

• Eight programmable tariff steps • Physical tamper resistant. Full encryption and copy protection • Immune to magnetic interference • Meter accuracy unaffected by sand particles • High air Áow detection and correction • Adjustable Free Basic Water • Daily consumption limit for water-scarce areas • Full calendar clock • Patented low power consumption system • Battery can provide 90 000 valve applications • Robust metal housing with security screws • Delivered fully assembled and pressure tested to 20 bar • SANS 1529-1 and SANS 1529-9 approved



The Handheld Vending Unit is used in conjunction with the Intelligent Water Meter and Community Standpipe. It provides the link between the Meter and the Meter Management System (MMS). A network of conveniently located Vending Units provides the customer with easy access to “point of sale” where credit can be purchased. Each transaction is supported by a receipt printed from a dedicated printer.

• • • • •

523 Church Street, Provisus Building, Arcadia, Pretoria, 0083, South Africa Tel: +27 12 440 9885 | Fax: +27 12 440 9751 Naphtali Motaung | +27 72 736 2995 |

56 MB internal data memory, LCD display Single membrane keypad with standard key functions Built in battery with battery charge-level indicator Charged batteries provide 8 hours continuous operation Re-chargeable from a 220V AC source using the supplied charger. A car charger can also be used • High level of security with password protection • Theft risk is low as only dedicated functions are provided • Weighs approximately 350 g • Supplied with dedicated printer • Optional increased internal data memory (up to 2GB) • Optional GPRS module for automatic real-time downloading of data and online transactions • Optional collection of capital repayments and service charges



Water Meters

Industry warning on sub-standard meters The South African Water Meter Manufacturersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association (WMMA) has cautioned municipalities and water utilities about the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;questionable quality and sub-standard performanceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of some water meters reportedly being introduced to the local market.


ssociation chairman, Friedrich Draxl, said in a statement that the industry has been receiving complaints from users about the performance of some imported products. The statement further included: It appears that some utilities and municipalities are unknowingly and innocently installing meters of questionable quality, with no proven performance records, which are delivering inaccurate water consumption readings. This is resulting in inaccurate billing, and in the end it s the ratepayer who is being penalised. There are minimum legally prescribed metrological standards which must be complied with, but meters are being installed which do not conform, said Draxl. The WMMA, established primarily as a customer watchdog body to ensure that meters conform to legal metrology standards, also monitors service levels and quality issues. It is made up of representatives from six leading local and international meter manufacturers and acts as official spokesman for the water meter industry. It coordinates its activities with the SA Bureau of Standards (SABS), the SA National Accreditation System (SANAS) and the National Regulator for Compulsory Standards (NRCS). These bodies use the WMMA as a coordinated sounding-board on user issues, said Draxl, an independent chairman not connected to any of the association s member companies. It is not our intention to prescribe to users as to what brand of meter they should install, but it is our duty as a

consumer watchdog to express our concern when we see problems arising, as we do now. The association s advice to users is to check that meters offered have been tested and approved by the NRCS and to further check whether the meters have been verified in an approved South African flow laboratory, as is required by law. The statement further included that SANAS recently held an International Accreditation Forum day, with the primary objective

"There are minimum legally prescribed metrological standards which must be complied with" Friedrich Draxl, Association chairman of coordinating standards worldwide in order to lock in quality and lock out inferior products , and stated that the WMMA fully supports this initiative.

JAN/FEB 2012


Metrohm Water Solutions II

t FREE!!! e g d n a 2 1 ber 31, 20 m e c e D e r o Order bef moâ&#x201E;˘1 full ia t e r a w tion soft m 1 x titra ing system s o d N HM R #N lW

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METROHM SA (PTY) LTD. (011) 804-0030 e-mail:


Laboratory equipment

Water analysis COMPREHENSIVE water analysis includes the determination of different sum parameters (e.g. conductivity, pH value, alkalinity and hardness) and several individual substances (e.g. ions). If those parameters are sequentially determined on separate instruments, you lose a lot of time and waste expensive bench space. The answer is a fully automated Metrohm system integrating all requiredfunctional components to carry out your analyses in a single run! Moreover, such a system automatically performs the necessary sample preparation steps. This includes aspirating the correct/ required volume of the samples, as well as further liquid handling steps such as the accurate addition of titrant and auxiliary reagents. Up to 59 samples can be placed on the sample rack! Your fully automated Metrohm water analysis system not only saves time, but also increases sample throughput as well as precision and repeatability of your results. Sounds good? Don t hesitate: From now utill 31 December 2012, we are offering four all-in-one systems that are 100%

geared to professional water analysis. The four systems are: • Water Analysis I pH value, conductivity, alkalinity • Water Analysis II pH value, conductivity, alkalinity + Ca/Mg hardness • Water Analysis III pH value, conductivity, alkalinity + chloride • Water Analysis IV pH value, conductivity, alkalinity + Ca/Mg hardness + chloride. Not only do we have the right instruments for you, we can also support you with our superior application know-how (monitoring of drinking water, wastewater, ultrapure water, process water and water analysis in environmental research) in this field. Call your local Metrohm office today for an obligation-free discussion to see how your lab can benefit from these attractive packages. Source: Metrohm

JAN/FEB 2012

Ion chromatography and voltammetry to determine chromium(VI) HIGH LEVELS OF toxic chromium(VI) in environmental samples have recently stirred up public attention in the United States in terms of the impact of industrial pollution on humans and the environment. With ion chromatography and voltammetry, Metrohm provides state-of-the-art analytical techniques as well as the required instrumentation to help authorities get a better picture of the hazards to public health. With ion chromatography, chromium(VI) is detected with high sensitivity as a violet chromiumdiphenylcarbazone complex at 540 nm after separation on a polyalcohol anion-exchange column and subsequent post-column derivatisation with 1.5-diphenylcarbazide. When using a 1 000 µL sample loop, the chromate detection limit determined in compliance with DIN 32654 is less than 10 ng/L. For the fully automated determination of chromium(VI), Metrohm recommends the combination of a Professional IC with the 887 Professional UV/VIS Detector and the 886 Professional Reactor. Alternatively, chromium(VI) can be determined by voltammetry on the 797 VA Computrace. Unlike spectroscopic methods, voltammetry is able to distinguish between different oxidation states of metal ions (speciation), as well as between free and bound metal ions.


Mpumamanzi Laboratory Services CC Showcasing the best of African skills in water | Contributing to the excellence of water quality management in South Africa Mpumamanzi is the fastest growing wholly-owned – and black managed Water Laboratory in South Africa. Mpumamanzi is supported by SEDA in its development and certification towards a fully-fledged SANAS Laboratory. Mpumamanzi participates and maintains an acceptable “z” score in terms of both SABS- and NLA performance proficiency schemes. Our laboratory has a staff compliment of fourteen (14) supported by a highly professional team of comprising of Analytical Chemists, Water Technologist, Environmentalist, Chemical Engineer, Microbiologist and Professional Office Manager. In addition to our laboratory functions we also serve as specialist advisors for: the Blue – and Green Drop Compliances; Environmental issues, Analyses and Interpretation of Water analytical data; Evaluation of applied water treatment 2012 chemicals; Asset Management; Serious microbial andJAN/FEB viral failures.

BBBEE Status: Level 1 Emalahleni-Witbank, Mpumalanga Tel: (013) 690 1416 Fax: (013) 690 3544 Senior Partners: Tony Bowers B.Tech, SFWISA: (084) 505 2171 Thusi Motsepe Nat. Dip Anal Chem: (082) 3728434



Laboratory equipment

QLS makes use of the latest technology QUALITY LABORATORY Services are currently opening a laboratory for the Shanta Mine Group in Tanzania. Opening a laboratory in a foreign country lends itself to a number of challenges, such as the availability of chemical reagents, the type of instrumentation to be used, etc. According to Chris Jansen van Vuuren, laboratory manager at QLS, One of the challenges was the availability of Argon and instrument

R11 000 per cylinder, making the operation cost of the AA very high. This also ruled out the purchase of an AA. Agilent Technologies came to the rescue. They recently launched the Agilent 4100 Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (MP-AES). This new technique for the elemental determination of metals uses Nitrogen generated by a Nitrogen generator, therefore no gas needs to be purchased! Agilent-6035 Quality Laboratory Services was the first in Africa to place an order for one of the MP-AES instruments. The expected date of delivery will be the Agilent-6060_bk middle of January 2012. The advantages in purgrade acetylene. No Argon is available, but chasing one of these instruments would it can be imported from Dubai or the United be the high sample throughput with fast States at an enormous cost. This ruled out the sequential measurements ‒ twice as fast installation of an ICP. Acetylene is available as normal AA, superior detection limits, but not in instrument grade, this too can one piece torch with easy torch removal be imported, but at an approximate cost of and replacement ‒ no alignment, runs


JAN/FEB 2012

on air ‒ eliminating the need for Acetylene or Argon and hollow cathode lamps. It also eliminates the need for flammable gases and cylinder handling, thus resulting in a safe, reliable, unattended, multi-element overnight operation. Source: Quality Laboratory Services and Agilent Technologies

How Does MP-AES Work? Agilent’s patented microwave waveguide technology: • creates a concentrated axial magnetic field around the torch • a ‘Microwave Waveguide’ focuses and contains the microwave energy where itis needed • this creates a toroidal plasma with cooler central channel– similar to an ICP • allows stable introduction of liquid samples in the usual way.

Laboratory Technologyequipment showcase


New RSV gatevalves DYNAMIC FLUID CONTROL has introduced a range of SABS-approved resilient seated gate valves for water and wastewater applications. Branded the VOSA RSV line, the valves mark DFC s re-entry to this segment of the market after an absence of several years. According to DFC marketing manager, Charl Myburgh, We are back with a competitively priced product that meets the general market requirement for a specific level of quality combined with on-demand delivery. The new VOSA RSV valves are suitable for operation at temperatures up to120°C, and pressures of 16bar (SANS 664) or 25bar (BS 5163). Operation is by either cap top or handwheel. Designed for installation both above and below ground, the valves feature fully rubber-encapsulated gates and loosely-mounted wedge nuts to reduce torque and wear. The wedge nuts also facilitate easier valve closure. All models are coated internally and externally with fusion bonded sky-blue epoxy (RAL5015) to a minimum DFT of 250 microns, as DFC marketing specified by the manager, Charl Water Regulations Myburgh, with the Advisory newly-launched Scheme (WRAS). VOSA RSV valves Manufacture is in accordance with the specifications of SANS 664. Elastomer O-rings, embedded in non-corrosive material, are replaceable under pressure up to DN200 in accordance with ISO7259, and from DN250 and higher without pressure. Bonnets are fastened to the bodies with Allen screws countersunk and sealed against corrosion. 316L stainless steel extension spindles supplied with muff couplings and wall brackets can be ordered with the valves. Source: Dynamic Fluid Control

Sensors to measure the electrolytic conductivity of pure water ASSTECH S SERIES of JumotecLine Lf-VA sensors has been extended and now includes two new measuring cells, K = 0.1 and K = 0.01. Shortening the active measurement electrodes also enables these sensors to be installed in pipes with smaller diameters and lower sample volumes. The sensor can be used in production plants of ultra-pure water for the pharmaceutical, food and biotechnological industries. Due to its good price/performance ratio, the unit is also for use in pure and ultra-pure water systems for technical washing processes such as reverse osmosis systems and ion exchangers. Conductive conductivity sensors working on the two-electrode principle are used to measure pure and ultra-pure water with conductivities of approximately 0.05 µS/cm (18.3 MΩ) up to 500 µS/cm. The cell constant of the sensor is crucial for getting the best measurement results. When measuring ultra-pure water of optimum quality, i.e. below 1µS/cm, it is essential to use a measuring cell with the cell constant K = 0.01. Cells with K = 0.1 are used in the range 10 µS/cm to a maximum of 500 µS/cm. The wetted parts are made from electro-polished quality stainless steel. The seals and plastic used in the construction ensure



compliance with FDA standards. Electrical connection is via M12 ASSTech -JUMO_tecline connectors. LF-VA A Pt1000. Class A is integrated for temperature acquisition. These sensors are ďŹ tted with the Jumo PEKA process connection system, which is EHEDG-approved and meets optimum hygiene standards. Due to the modular design of the system, the standard version can be quickly ďŹ tted with any process connection the customer requires. A suitable adapter, such as clamp, varivent, milk cone or welded adapter, is screwed onto the sensor as a module. Source: ASSTech Process Electronics & Instrumentation

Gaskets from BMGâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s seals division INCLUDED IN BMG S extensive range of


sealing products are quality branded gaskets, ďŹ&#x201A;ange rotation, bolt stretch, additives to the designed for reliability, chemical and corromedia and the ďŹ&#x201A;ange surface ďŹ nish, now sion resistance, extended service life and easy determine how well a gasket performs. installation. Basically, a gasket has one basic function - to According to Deidre le Roux, from BMG s create a positive seal between two relatively seals division, The demands of modern stationary parts. The gasket must perform a engineering make the choice of the right number of tasks well to function eďŹ&#x20AC;ectively sealing product an important consideration, â&#x20AC;&#x2019;create an initial seal, maintain the seal over a both in the design of new equipment and in desired length of time and be easily removed selecting products to replace those that are and replaced. no longer suitable. The success of a sealing installation is The deďŹ nition of a seal has changed dependent on how eďŹ&#x192;ciently the gasket seals dramatically over the years and leakage the system ďŹ&#x201A;uid and its chemical and corromeasurements have advanced from drops per sion resistance to this ďŹ&#x201A;uid. It is critical that the minute to parts per million (1mg/kg = 1 part gasket does not contaminate the system ďŹ&#x201A;uid. per million. This is the commonly used term to The gasket must deform suďŹ&#x192;ciently to ďŹ&#x201A;ow describe very small amounts of coninto the imperfectaminants in the environment). tions on the gasket The selection of the correct seating surfaces, gasket for a speciďŹ c sealing approviding intimate plication involves consideration contact between of variables present in a ďŹ&#x201A;anged the gasket and the connection. Traditionally, these seating surfaces. factors include temperature, These gaskets are Gaskets from application, media and pressure. used extensively in BMG's seals Variables, like the ďŹ&#x201A;ange metaldiverse industries, division lurgy, bolt thread embedment, including chemical JAN/FEB 2012

Your water storage problems. Solved. P Uniquely engineered construction methods P Commercial and Industrial applications P Applicable to a wide range of industries P Effective and economically efficient P Rapid factory production P Extended life expectancy, minimal maintenance P Durability and value for money

1SFTUSFTTFE1BOFM3FTFSWPJST .VMFCZ4ZTUFN5BOLT .45 meets the highest classification of water tightness. Ideal solution for biogas storage.


Our network of Distributors extends throughout South Africa and beyond its borders.


;JOD"MVNJOJVN$PBUFE5BOLT 'VUVSF5BOLT are highly versatile and can be used to store anything from potable liquid to municipal sludge. Pretoria Tel: 012 - 810 0940t$BQF5PXO5FM021 -JAN/FEB 905 7943 2012


processing and petrochemicals, mining, refineries, power generation, pulp and paper, micro electronics, general engineering and transportation. Source: BMG

Flygt 2660 SH submersible pump THE 2660 SH submersible pump from Flygt, designed for dewatering applications in construction, mining, flooded areas and other demanding situations where the liquid may contain abrasive particles, is fast gaining traction in the South African market since its launch last year. The Flygt 2600 series represents a major breakthrough in dewatering pump technology. Engineered from the ground up, these robust pumps deliver unmatched wear resistance, consistent performance over time and ease of service. The result is lower overall cost of ownership. When you need a portable pump with extra performance, the super-high head Flygt 2660 SH does the job. The two-stage pump with its twin impeller design is highly efficient, has unmatched wear resistance and consistent performance with total discharge head (TDH) over 80 metres. Its patented Dura Spin™ hydraulic system and Hard-Iron™ (60 HRC) impellers significantly improve wear resistThe Flygt ance and 2660 ST dewatering sustain performance pump

Chemical transfer pumps ITALIAN PUMP MANUFACTURER, Argal, has announced a new range of air-operated double diaphragm chemical transfer pumps, which are now available in South Africa. Distributed and supported by Ecochem Pumps, Germiston, the pumps are claimed to deliver superior performance, particularly in dosing applications.This is largely the result of a carefully-designed air distributor system, optimised diaphragm geometries and redesigned air and liquid chambers, all of which have allowed the Argal product to evolve from a traditional transfer pump to an advanced multi-purpose pump. The new range is characterised by reciprocating co-axial chambers with built-in valve cavities and manifolds located above and below them. There is also an unbalanced air distributor system with an air-spring assisted differential air distributor spool. A separate pilot spool coaxial to the diaphragm s shaft, and an air distributor command reversed only at the end of each run of the shaft, together ensure that the pump is absolutely stall free. Argal s new range comprises ten pumps to cover all applications, including the most sophisticated, such as the supply of dosing lines or fine flow-tuning of pumped product. The pumps are offered with a choice of materials for chambers, diaphragms and O-rings. Accessories include an adaptor to feed the air chambers from an external source, an ATEXcompliant probe to detect pumping cycles, an electric transducer to detect diaphragm position, pulsation damper, an air filter/pressure reducer, programmable electronic flow controller, a pneumatic cycle counter for batch dosing process and an air distributor Argal airexhaust cover with operated connections to plumb the double exhaust air to atmosphere diaphragm and collect pneumatic chemical transfer signals to track diaphragm pump position. Source: Ecochem Pumps. over time. The impeller is easily adjusted for optimum performance with just one adjustment screw. Cutting-edge design with few components makes this pump simple and quick to maintain. A removable top cover gives effortless access to the junction box, and external oil and inspection plugs facilitate maintenance. The inspection chamber improves protection and extends service intervals. The unique onepiece Plug-In™ seal with inner Active Seal™ technology provides superior protection and

JAN/FEB 2012

is easy to replace. Source: ITT WATER & WASTEWATER

Turbidity meter IMPACT MEASUREMENT Solutions (IMS) now offers the KPS Turbidity Meter, suitable for fluid food, CIP monitoring, detecting filter breaks, product monitoring phase break and monitoring waste streams. Manufactured in Germany by KEM, the



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Hytec makes pumps good as new

IMS - KEM Turbidity

turbidity sensor optimises the industrial production processes and, by complying with 3A sanitary standards, is appropriate for food applications and chemical and pharmaceutical fluids. Other industrial uses include sludge/ waste water and pulp and paper. The meter measures in the ranges of 150 up to 4 000 NTU and operates in temperature ranges of 0 - 100ºC and pressures of 14 bar maximum. Linearity is ±0.2% of span and output is a standard 4 ‒ 20mA. Source: Impact Measurement Solutions

UNPLANNED DOWNTIME on a production line costs manufacturers dearly. Hytec has introduced a service exchange programme to ensure faster turnaround times on pump repairs, benefiting both production and the customer s bottom line. The Service Exchange programme is a component replacement system that supplies refurbished units with a one-year warranty. Returned equipment is refurbished to factory specification, while repair and service costs are well-priced and easily predicted. With this programme, machine downtime is kept to a minimum. According to André Lindeque, engineering manager, Hytec, Customers who use our Service Exchange Units are guaranteed that no shortcuts are being taken, that only genuine parts as specified by the manufacturer are used and that the pumps are subjected to rigorous inspection and function testing ‒ including leak and pressure tests ‒ before they leave our premises. This ensures that all units are repaired to original factory standards. Lindeque further explains, We are flexible in our approach. Specific service exchange programmes have been implemented to satisfy the unique product requirements of certain customers. Hytec s ability to repair and service pumps, controls, drives, gearboxes, cylinders and electronics, has seen Hytec become one of only six Bosch Rexroth Service Centres of Competence in the world. Hytec technicians have controlled access to repair documentation via the Internet, and they receive on-the-job training from German experts. Source: Hytec

JAN/FEB 2012



t%$y W%$6yw54^ 234

Level of dams The full supply capacity (106 m3) and level of some of South Africa’s dams as at 29 August 2011.

Volume 106 m3 Limpopo Hartbeespoort (NW Olifantsnek (NW Buffelspoort (NW Bospoort (NW Lindleyspoort (NW Roodeplaat (NW Koster (NW Klipvoor (NW Vaalkop (NW Roodekopjes (NW Marico-Bosveld (NW Klein Maricopoort (NW Albasini (LP Vondo (LP

186.44 13.67 10.25 15.79 14.34 41.16 12.80 42.08 56.01 102.33 26.96 7.07 28.20 30.45

98.2% 97.6% 100.5% 92.9% 96.7% 99.2% 94.2% 86.5% 67.9% 94.8% 92.6% 68.0% 46.6% 86.5%

104.02 48.06 56.99 28.19 361.51 5.24 13.45 54.37 5.60 69.14 4.84 156.53 171.93

90.5% 87.1% 98.9% 98.3% 91.2% 83.9% 64.8% 92.3% 99.7% 98.3% 100.5% 94.1% 9.5%

2 603.45 349.53 21.03 13.30 206.06 325.13 71.21 71.48 11.91 2 616.90 15.68 48.66 1 240.24 16.25

88.2% 78.5% 102.5% 99.7%

Olifants Witbank (M Middelburg (M Bronkhorstspruit (M Rust de Winter (M Loskop (M Buffelskloof (M Ohrigstad (LP Blyderivierpoort (LP Klaserie (LP Ebenezer (LP Magoebaskloof (LP Tzaneen (LP Middle Letaba (LP

Vaal Vaal (G Grootdraai (M Boskop (NW Klipdrift (NW Erfenis (FS Kalkfontein (FS Rustfontein (FS Krugersdrift (FS Groothoek (FS Sterkfontein (FS Saulspoort (FS Vaalharts Storage Weir (NC Bloemhof (FS Douglas Storage Weir (NC

97.2% 84.9% 88.0% 84.0% 98.8% 100.0% 83.4% 89.2% 102.0%

Orange Katse (L Egmont (FS Gariep (FS Vanderkloof (FS Boegoeberg (NC

1 519.10 9.25 5 196.04 3 171.30 19.82

79.6% 85.2% 88.6% 96.6% 106.7%

Olifants/Doorn Clanwilliam (WC



158.58 58.71 127.05

89.2% 80.6% 96.0%

Berg Voëlvlei (WC Wemmershoek (WC Berg River (WC

Volume 106 m3

Capacity Steenbrasdam (WC Eikenhof (WC


33.88 28.86

87.3% 99.0%

284.29 7.73 1.98 173.86 480.19 6.18

72.2% 98.9% 97.6% 69.3% 84.7% 97.0%

Breede Brandvlei (WC Roode Elsberg (WC Pietersfontein (WC Kwaggaskloof (WC Theewaterskloof (WC Duiwenhoks (WC

Coastal River Hartebeestkuil (WC Wolwedans (WC Kromrivier (EC Gamtoos Kouga (EC Loerie (EC

7.13 25.10 35.24

98.1% 96.4% 98.6%

125.91 3.03

99.6% 86.7%





46.19 58.11 2.46 24.68

12.4% 94.7% 78.6% 99.9%

115.86 158.00 17.93 37.44

99.6% 91.7% 90.3% 99.9%

Sondags Nqweba (Van Ryneveld Pass (EC Darlington (EC

Fish Grassridge (EC Kommandodrift (EC De Mistkraal (EC Katrivier (EC

Great-Kei Xonxa (EC Lubisi (EC Doornrivier (EC Waterdown (EC

Info supplied by DWA

Mvoti/Mgeni/Mkomazi Midmar (KZN Nagle (KZN Albert-Falls (KZN Inanda (KZN Hazelmere (KZN

235.42 23.24 288.14 237.40 17.86

96.3% 86.2% 75.8% 97.9% 98.2%

Total full supply capacity of dams (106 m3)

270.64 8.69 373.25

100.1% 101.3% 94.8%

Acronyms EC Eastern Cape FS Free State G Gauteng KZN KwaZulu-Natal L Lesotho LP Limpopo province M Mpumalanga NC Northern Cape NW North West WC Western Cape

Last year 31 571.10

2011/08/29 31 553.70

Tugela Spioenkop (KZN Driel Barrage (KZN Woodstock (KZN

Usutu/Phongolo/Mfolozi Goedertrouw (KZN Klipfontein (KZN Hluhluwe (KZN Pongolapoort (KZN Jericho (M Westoe (M Morgenstond (M Heyshope (M

301.26 18.09 25.89 2 267.07 59.27 59.52 100.16 444.94

72.2% 69.4% 64.8% 73.6% 55.8% 88.4% 98.0%

Sabie/Krokodil/Komati Nooitgedacht (M Driekoppies (M Witklip (M Da Gama (M Inyaka (M

78.41 250.92 13.53 123.66

JAN/FEB 2012

80.0% 97.4% 12.52 91.7%

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Safe use of greywater for urban food production

A research project, initiated and funded by the Water Research Commission (WRC) and led by Dr Nicola Rodda of the University of KZN, clarifies the benefits as well as the risks associated with the use of greywater.


he potential contribution of household and urban food gardens to food security is limited by a shortage of water, which can ater be used to supplement rainfall. Greywater ga may help to overcome this limitation by providing trol dependable source of water that is under the control of the household gardener. Although more than half of indoor household water use can normally be intain tercepted as greywater, potential users are uncertain cerabout the risks and local authorities are also uncertain as to what their approach should be. on Active promotion of greywater use for irrigation in gardens and small-scale agriculture has the ater potential, not only to maximise use of limited water owsupplies, but also to improve food security in lowincome settlements. However, before this practice can be promoted through government structures and local authorities, the legal status of greywater use for irrigation needs to be clarified and guidance needs to be formulated for users so that small-scale

irrigation use of greywater is performed in a way that is safe for humans, plants and the environment. Two products were generated by the WRC study in an effort to help guide the wise use of greywater: a user-friendly guide and a supporting technical background document capturing the scientific information on which the guide is based. It is envisaged that the outcomes of this project will provide municipalities, NGOs and householders with greater certainty about how to minimise the health risks and optimise the benefits associated with the use of greywater, specifically in peri-urban or urban food gardens.

What is greywater? According to Dr Rodda, greywater can be defined as untreated household effluent from baths, showers, kitchen and hand-wash basins, as well as laundry (i.e. all non-toilet uses). More than half of indoor household water use is normally undertaken for these purposes ‒ estimates range from 50% to 80%. This percentage represents a large fraction of household wastewater which can potentially be interce intercepted by the householder and used for additional beneficial uses. However, the amount of greywater generated per household varies greatly. The variation variat is affected by factors such as dynamics of the fam family, water usage patterns, age distribution of occupa occupants and lifestyle characteristics. Greywater gene generated in low-income, unsewered areas can be as a low as 20 to 30 litres per person per day, whe whereas it can be about 90 to 120 litres per per person per day in houses with sewage system In general, in areas with sewage, greytems. water represents about 65% of the total wastewater stream, whereas, in areas without sewage, the production of greywater could reach University of KZN 100%.

"Greywater can be defined as untreated household effluent" Dr Nicola Rodda of the

JAN/FEB 2012



Concerns about the use of greywater The WRC study highlights concerns about human health, which could be threatened in the process of using greywater for food production. This is due to the fact that greywater contains micro-organisms from skin surfaces and dirt, from small amounts of urine and faeces (e.g. from washing of soiled nappies or bedclothes), and from the washing and preparation of food. Standing greywater also provides an environment in which micro-organisms can survive and water usuproliferate. As a result, greywater mbers ally contains significant numbers e of of micro-organisms, some sing which may be capable of causing e in disease in those who come contact with it, or with plantss and pe crops irrigated with this type of water. In addition to containing substances which are beneficial to plants (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus), greywater also contains substances that can reduce plant growth or crop yield if present at sufficiently high concentrations, such as salts, sodium and boron. Extreme pH can also be damaging to plants. Some constituents of greywater can change soil properties so that it becomes progressively less productive (i.e. less able to support plant growth). Because soil properties change slowly, these tend to be long-term effects, while effects on plant growth and yield are more short-term. The major concerns with regard to soil are salinity and sodicity, both of which are related to the increased concentration of sodium

in greywater. Other greywater constituents which may affect soil adversely are oil and grease, and suspended solids. Many of these concerns can be overcome by adequate management of greywater irrigation in terms of measures taken to reduce risks and control the quality and quantity of greywater used. The biggest problem lies with informal shack settlements with no sewage systems in South Africa, where there are limited waterborne services and drainage. In these areas, greywater often merges with toilet water and other effluent flows, thus cre creating a toxic mix of contaminated wa water that poses a danger to huma health and the environment. man Alt Although the per capita volume of greywater disposed of on the groun in the vicinity of shack

irrigation, but there are inconsistencies which arise from the absence of a clear definition of greywater as a subset of domestic wastewater which differs in character and hazards from blackwater (wastewater including toilet waste). These need to be resolved to clarify the legal position of use of greywater for irrigation.

Conclusion The project produced a guidance report to assist potential greywater users in identifying measures to reduce the risks highlighted above. The following were listed amongst many recommendations made by the study: Potential greywater users need to be involved in planned greywater implementations from the planning stages, informing them of the benefits and risks of greywater use for irrigation, allowing them to express their views and concerns and providing a mechanism for them Dr to be involved in for Water Utilisation decision-making. Potential irrigation users of greywater also need information in order to practise greywater irrigation in a safe and sustainable manner. Once greywater implementation has been planned and initiated, greywater users need on-going monitoring and support. This should be tailored to meet the different information and support needs of low-income rural and peri-urban settlements, as well as middleto higher-income urban settlements.

"Clarity is needed for the future by explicit definition of greywater" Gerhard Backeberg, director in Agricultureat the WRC dwellings is low, greywater runoff often carries solid and liquid waste contaminants that collect in ponds and are frequently discharged via storm water systems into wetlands and rivers. Dr Gerhard Backeberg, director for Water Utilisation in Agriculture at the WRC says, Current legislation pertaining to disposal and use of water and waste falls short in that a definition of greywater as a separate wastewater stream is lacking. Clarity is needed for the future by explicit definition of greywater and the beneficial uses to which it may be put. The existing legislation does not specifically exclude use of greywater for

References Guidance report (WRC Report No. TT469/10) entitled Sustainable Use of Greywater in Small-Scale Agriculture and Gardens in South Africa Technical report (WRC Report No.1639/1/10 (with the same title)

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Water & Sanitation Jan/Feb 2012  

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