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The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa





Paving the Pedicle Road Defining BRT

Integrating transport in South Africa MEDIA

Road building

Evolving ecological solutions towards greener roads

Disaster management

Securing SA’s local government

in the


“It is important for Africa to have the presence of large global operations ensuring the right equipment is available for the market” Rocco Lehman, managing director, Ammann SA

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THE JOAT GROUP OF COMPANIES has moulded itself into an efficient and market-leading solutions-orientated team that primarily addresses the optimisation of water supply to consumers through the minimisation of water losses, application of appropriate technology, revenue improvement and energy efficiency. The group’s key focus areas of operation are consulting and operations engineering (essentially the reduction of nonrevenue water and stabilising of water supply), product sales and support, energy efficiency and mentorship. JOAT’s passion and vision is to ensure that municipalities become as efficient as possible in delivering water to consumers and has adapted its approach towards an outcomes-based partnership that has shared responsibility and accountability. The ultimate objective of any successful partnership with JOAT is to provide water service authorities with an efficient distribution system that they are fully equipped and trained to continue to operate.

In response to this approach, JOAT has invested in wide-ranging technology and partnerships that can be harnessed for the benefit of municipalities. Flow metering solutions (permanent or temporary, monitoring or revenue-generating), data management solutions (data loggers, GSM data loggers), control valve solutions (pressure-reducing valves, pressure controllers, surge control), leak detection solutions (leak detection equipment and service) and energy efficiency solutions (variable speed drives and system optimising) are all available to be presented into cost-effective, custom-made packages. JOAT has also expanded into the optimisation of energy consumption in the water cycle and has a number of in-house experts that can undertake energy audits and design energy efficiency solutions for pump stations and treatment works. This forms part of its overall approach to making the distribution of water as efficient as possible.

HEAD OFFICE Unit 19 Alexander Park, 24 Alexander Road, Westmead, Pinetown, KZN, SA 3610 • Postnet Suite 23, Private Bag X4, Kloof 3640 t +27 (0)31 700 1177 • f +27 (0)31 700 9853 • Contact Daryl Spencer c 083 555 9996 NATIONAL OFFICES • Pietermaritzburg • Port Elizabeth • Johannesburg • Cape Town • Shelly Beach

CONTENTS The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

VOLUME 39 NO 6 JUNE 2014

roads 27 Bitumen construction





Paving the Pedicle Road Defining BRT

Integrating transport in South Africa MEDIA

Road building

Evolving ecological solutions towards greener roads

Disaster management

Securing SA’s local government

in the


“It is important for Africa to have the presence of large global operations ensuring the right equipment is available for the market” Rocco Lehman, managing director, Ammann SA


Selecting on-site sanitation systems for informal settlements

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Kitwe-based multi-disciplinary contractor, Copperfields Mining Services, is forging ahead on a number of contracts forming part of Zambia’s Link 2000 and Link 8000 road upgrade programmes, with Copperfields’ Cat paving fleet forming a key component of the construction works. P6

in the

HOT SEAT Ammann SA is the South African arm of the Ammann Group. The company concluded a strategic partnership with ELB Equipment six months ago and is focused on penetrating the local machine market and establishing the Ammann global brand as a panAfrican giant in the road-building business. P10


Roads and stormwater

Editor’s comment President’s comment Africa Roundup Index to advertisers

3 5 8 60

Road building and maintenance New compact plant runs up to 30% reclaimed asphalt

Cover story Barloworld – Transforming the Pedicle road


Bitumen roads construction



Transport Determining the best BRT for eThekwini – Part one

Hot seat Ammann SA consolidates and looks northward



Sustainable construction 43

‘Green’ concrete

Municipal Feature eThekwini – Stabilising water supply

Disaster and risk management 12

Case Study Selecting on-site sanitation systems for informal settlements


‘Green’ concrete

Developing disaster management in South Africa 47

Geomatics 18

Towards a public sector GIS evaluation methodology



Developing disaster management in South Africa

the best BRT 37 Determining for eThekwini

IMIESA June 2014


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PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten EDITOR Nicholas McDiarmid EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Danielle Petterson HEAD OF DESIGN Frédérick Danton SENIOR DESIGNER Hayley Mendelow DESIGNER Kirsty Galloway CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders SUB-EDITOR Beatrix Knopjes CONTRIBUTORS IM Peña, MA Shepard, VA Poona, MM Maraka, GM Ochieng, JM Ndambuki, E Adwumi, D Allopi, E Kurwakumire CLIENT SERVICES & PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban MARKETING AND EVENTS COORDINATOR Neo Sithole ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________ ADVERTISING SALES Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 4, 5th Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail: ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R550.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2014. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS IMESA Administration Officer: Narisha Sogan P O Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER BRANCH Secretary: Melanie Matroos Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2401 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 E-mail: EAST CAPE BRANCH Clarine Coltman Tel: +27 (0)41 505 8019 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 3437 E-mail: KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH Secretary: Rita Matthews Tel: +27 (0)31 311 6382 Fax: +27 (0)31 701 2935 NORTHERN PROVINCE BRANCH Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0)82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0)86 634 5644 E-mail: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO BRANCH Secretary: Henrietta Oliver Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Fax: 086 536 3725 E-mail: WESTERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Erica van Jaarsveld Tel: +27 (0)21 938 8455 Fax: +27 (0)21 938 8457 E-mail:

A new day The recent national elections had far-reaching implications for the economy. Many divisions of the public infrastructure sector experienced a slowdown in new projects as the various parties put most of their attention on electioneering.


HERE WAS a sense of trepidation, too, as the new cabinet was announced, which ultimately can be seen as a reflection of government priority. The wait is now over and, generally, the newly constellated cabinet is sending out some positive messages – especially with regards to local government. One of the more telling appointments has to be former finance minister Pravin Gordhan’s appointment to the Department of Local Government and Traditional Affairs. Readers may recall the disappointing performance of Richard Baloyi, whose focus on traditional affairs saw the local government component sorely neglected. Gordhan’s task will be to clean up local government and although no miracles can be expected, an improvement in clean audits is. This is great news for the sector. As the most senior appointment within the ministry, if Gordhan’s record as finance minister is anything to go by, this appointment potentially holds the key to unlocking President Jacob Zuma’s commitment to “ensure implementation and the impact of the National Development Plan".

The quiet shifting of policy Behind the scenes, mush else that is positive has been happening. The presidential committee on infrastructure has been meeting actively, and quietly getting the business perspective on the state of the industry. Further meetings between consulting engineers and the Office of the President and National Treasury mean that the pressing concerns regarding procurement policy and regulations are now known and hopefully are being dealt with. There are a number of key policy areas, which I am told will be ironed out within the next six months, in favour of quality, long-term procurement policies, formulated in consultation with professional stakeholders. Although no formal announcement has been made, trusted sources indicate that positive moves are in the offing. This edition of IMIESA has emerged with sustainability as its golden thread. From best practice in road building to township sanitation, sustainable construction to optimal water supply, this has been a rewarding edition to produce. Look out, too, for the first edition of African Government Supplier (incorporating Local Government Supplier) for useful reference to infrastructure across the continent. This will be mailed hot on the heels of the edition you are currently reading. In the meantime, don’t forget to join us online at and sign up for our weekly newsletters. These cover infrastructure, water, transport, mining and waste management. Subscribe online to keep up to date on all developments relevant to your profession. As always, we invite comments, suggestions and opinions from you, our valued reader. Please feel free to contact me at to air your views.

Nicholas McDiarmid To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

FREE STATE AND NORTHERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27(0)83 457 4362 Fax: 086 628 0468 E-mail:

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.





Paving the Pedicle Road Defining BRT

Integrating transport in South Africa MEDIA

Road building

Evolving ecological solutions towards greener roads

Disaster management

Securing SA’s local government

Infrastructure News

Cover opportunity

In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings contact Jenny Miller on tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223.

in the


“It is important for Africa to have the presence of large global operations ensuring the right equipment is available for the market” Rocco Lehman, managing director, Ammann SA

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IMIESA June 2014




Call for Entries C AT E G O R I E S 1. Structures and Buildings 2. Water/Wastewater 3. Roads/Stormwater 4. Environmental 5. Community Upliftment

EXPLANATION Give recognition to well-engineered civil engineering projects for infrastructure. Portray the art and science of civil engineering for infrastructure to the general public and indicate how the profession finds answers to challenges. The project must be in Southern Africa.

CLOSING DATE 11 JUNE 2014 (Only completed projects as at 28 June 2014 will be accepted for the Awards) ENTRY FORMS / AND AWARD CRITERIA Download from IMESA website QUESTIONS Debbie Anderson – IMESA – 031 266 3263 •


t +27 (031) 266 3263 f (031) 266 5094

t +27 (011) 463 2022 f +27 (011) 463 7383

The Civilution has begun Frank Stevens, president of IMESA

IMESA is already and will continue to be part of the action!

After a long build-up and much hype, the Civilution Congress 2014 was held at Emperor’s Palace in Johannesburg early in April. Towards the end of the last year, I indicated IMESA’s full support for, and solidarity with, the aims and objectives of “Civilution” – an initiative of SAICE and driven passionately by their CEO, Manglin Pillay.


S PART of the “Civilution” team, IMESA finds itself in the good company of influential partners such as ECSA and a number of VAs which include SAICE (civils), SAFCEC (contractors), SAIMechE (mechanicals), SAIEE (electricals) and CESA (consultants). By working together, the VAs will make a significant difference. More than a year ago seven “Civilution” issues were identified as needing priority attention. These are: • the urgent need to reinstate technical capacity in all spheres of government • improvement of, and closer involvement in, the education sector to ensure world-class quality of engineering education and graduates • anti-corruption • assistance to government in terms of NDP, NGP, PICC and SIPS • technical leadership and enhancement of learned society activities for all VAs in their circles of influence • public and government awareness of what engineering professionals do • career guidance. The congress consisted of both plenary and parallel sessions during which many presentations and papers, all in keeping with the “Civilution” theme, were presented.

It was soon clear that all delegates were on the same page and I illustrate this by summarising some of the points and statements made by various key speakers:

Trevor Manuel (Minister in the Presidency responsible for the National Planning Commission) In his key-note address, Minister Manuel referred to the NDP and emphasised that in order to reach its goals, engineers must decide where they want the country to go and stated that “we need to rethink how we deal with certain issues”. He added that “Civilution must award engineers the opportunity to think how to get there”. He urged engineers to give serious consideration to sustainability, the environment and the beneficial use of our mineral resources when carrying out projects. Hinting that Africa has not embarked on a major project on the scale of the Cape to Cairo Railway since its having been built by Cecil Rhodes over 100 years ago. The Minister urged South African engineers to once again come up with great and innovative infrastructure projects such as airports and railway lines. (He mentioned that the “Dolos”– now so much a part of

harbour works – was invented in South Africa over 50 years ago!)

institutions such as the Public Protector’s office.

Adv. Thuli Mandonsela – The Public Protector

Ketso Gordhan (CEO of PPC)

Early in her speech, Adv. Madonsela commented that civil engineering is one of the most critical aspects of infrastructure developments, depending heavily on the knowledge, skills and service of the built industry. She went on to say, “My view was that, yes, we have made great strides, but we are not where we should have been. I indicated that maladministration has played a role in this in a sense that resources that should have been used to bring us where we were supposed to be, were lost through bad governance. That is a fact”. In conclusion, Adv. Madonsela listed the traits of an honest business person as: • p laying fair when trading with the state • u sing resources sensibly and not maximising profits at the expense of providing quality infrastructure • n ot short-changing the government • raising the alarm in the event of project scope creeps • n ot certifying work that was not done according to the standards • reporting any suspected improper conduct to

As the opening speaker, Mr Gordhan called for the closing of the gap between the public and private sectors and suggested the creation of an infrastructure Codesa. He felt that the tender process is open to abuse, which could prove costly to delivery as well as slow it down. A possible solution could be the formation of a more centralised system for high-volume and repetitive projects, such as schools and hospitals.

Lefadi Makibinyane (CEO of CESA) Mr Makibinyane stated that “the PICC (Presidential Infrastructure Co-Ordinating Commission) needs to be less political”. He suggested that an agency should be set-up to ensure proper planning of projects which would ensure the acceleration of infrastructure development instead of stifling it. You’ll have gathered that many good suggestions were made at the conference, which now need to be followed through and I’m sure that readers won’t dispute the fact that IMESA is a vital cog in the “Civilutionary” machinery.

IMIESA June 2014



Transforming the Pedicle road Kitwe-based multi-disciplinary contractor, Copperfields Mining Services, is forging ahead on a number of contracts forming part of Zambia’s Link 2000 and Link 8000 road upgrade programmes, with Copperfields’ Cat paving fleet forming a key component of the construction works.


OR MANY decades, dating as far back as the 1950’s, the Pedicle road has served as an important transit route across one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) southernmost sections (the Congo Pedicle), in the process connecting Zambia’s Copperbelt and Luapula provinces over a distance of approximately 70 km. Interconnected by two international border posts, and travelling on the right-hand side of the road as per DRC ordinance, the route, which experiences high truck traffic


IMIESA June 2014

volumes related to the copper mining industry in both countries, starts at Mokambo, some 16 km distant from the Zambian town of Mufulira and ends at Chembe. A single-lane bridge currently crosses over the Luapula River and then back into Zambia en route to Mansa. Without the Pedicle road option, motorists would have to drive up to a thousand kilometres around the Congo Pedicle to reach Mansa, as well as other key destinations in Luapula province, such as Kasama. Historically a two-way gravel road that becomes near impassable in the rainy season, the Pedicle road is now undergoing a major

upgrade to a world-class bitumen riding surface following a 100 per cent investment by Zambia’s Roads Development Agency (RDA), with full approval by the DRC government. This 70 km carriageway will be a tolled route. The 278 million kwacha RDA contract is being undertaken by Kitwe-based Copperfields Mining Services, an integrated mining, earthworks and road construction company, in conjunction with Rankin Engineering Consultants. Included in Copperfields’ scope of works on the Pedicle road is the widening of the Luapula River bridge to a two-lane structure. The contract was awarded in November 2012 for scheduled completion in November 2014, working within the planned constraints of the annual rainy season.


“As a Zambian civil engineering contractor, we are proud to be playing our part in paving our country’s future.”

The Pedicle road forms part of the multi-billion-kwacha Link Zambia 8000 Project (also known as the Accelerated National Roads Construction Programme), with a planned target of upgrading approximately 8 000 km of national road over a five-year period. Copperfields has also recently been awarded a further Link 8000 contact in joint venture with contractor China Henan. Valued at around K500 million, the project, situated in the Northern province, covers a total distance of approximately 115.7 km. More specifically, the scope of works entails the upgrading and realignment of a 78.1 km section between Chiengi and Kaputa; a 27.6 km section between Chiengi and Luchinda; as well as 10 km of urban roads within Kaputa. The Kaputa urban phase forms part of an allied RDA initiative known as Pave Zambia 2000, which plans to re-pave approximately 2 000 km of township roads in 10 provincial centres, costing K1.6 billion (Source: RDA). In terms of current Link 2000 projects, Copperfields secured a contract during 2013 for township upgrades in the Copperbelt town of Ndola, where work is currently ongoing. Valued at approximately K78 million, Copperfields’ project scope covers a total area of 20.9 km, with a timeframe of approximately two years. These urban roads are being milled and relayed with a 40 mm asphalt premix, with Copperfield’s Cat AP300D paver deployed to ensure perfect matt surfaces. Supplied and supported by Barloworld Equipment Zambia, Copperfields’ Cat AP300D forms part of a comprehensive Cat fleet, which includes the acquisition of a Cat RM500 rotary mixer deployed on the Pedicle road contract

Irvin Chilufya, managing director

(Barloworld Equipment is the Cat dealer for Southern Africa). Driven by a Cat C4.4 ACERT engine, the AP300D is a mid-sized hydrostatic drive wheel paver with a potential paving-width range of 650 mm to 4 m. The Cat AS3173 screed is hydraulically extendible from 1.7 m to 3.2 m and with bolt-on extensions extendible from 1.7 m to 4 m. (A hydraulic paving reduction attachment narrows the paving width to 650 mm.) Crown adjustment ranges from +4.5% to -2.5% with a screed plate vibratory frequency of 3 400 rpm (56.7 Hz). Across the board, the Cat AP300D achieves excellent traction on soft or hard base materials. A four-sensor system allows the operator to fine-tune mix delivery, with the 3.8 m³ capacity hopper delivering a 73 t/h throughput capacity. Copperfields has invested in two mobile asphalt plants, one to support their Ndola project and the other based outside Mufulirato, which supply the DRC project with the final premix riding surface. The new Pedicle road features a cementstabilised sub-base, with Copperfields’ Cat RM500 rotary mixer responsible for all stabilisation phases. Generating a gross power of 403 kW via its Cat C15 ACERT engine, the Cat RM500 is a high-output machine weighing in at around 28 145 kg and optimally designed for both new and reconstruction works. Width of cut

The Pedicle Road interconnects Zambia across a section of the DRC

is 2 438 mm, whilst the maximum depth of cut is 457 mm, enabling the RM500 to comfortably mix and stabilise two 150 mm sub-base layers in one pass. In working this 300 mm layer, the RM500’s universal rotor – equipped with its 200 carbide-tipped bits arranged in a chevron pattern – comes into play in reworking dense in-situ materials. A three-position mode switch enables the rotor depth to be controlled manually or automatically to a preset cutting depth. This ensures exact depth control, proper sizing and thorough blending of imported and reclaimed materials. (The RM500 is fitted with a water pump and an emulsion pump, providing the flexibility to meet either cement- or bitumenstabilised pavement structure designs.) With Copperfields’ first Cat rotary mixer acquisition, the company’s managing director, Irvin Chilufya, says that the production results have been excellent. “On the Pedicle road project we’ve never had to redo any of the areas that we’ve stabilised with the Cat RM500, which consistently provides optimal results to engineering specification.” Road aggregates for the project are being sourced from borrow pits established at designated sections along the Pedicle road; whilse concrete elements, such as culverts, are being fabricated at Copperfields’ precast yard in Kitwe. Established in 2004, Copperfields works across Zambia, with a core focus on the Copperbelt and Northwestern provinces, where, from inception, the company has always had strong roots in the mining sector. Alongside Copperfields’ diversification into road construction, these are now the two main pillars of its business. “Contract mining overtime evolved to include mine civil infrastructure services, of which road construction for private and public sector clients has become an increasing component,” he explains. Africa’s largest copper producer, Zambia is surrounded by eight countries and is strategically positioned to become a major regional trade hub, backed by GDP projections of up to eight per cent annually over the next five years. Rather than being landlocked, Zambia’s Link 8000 project intends to make the nation ‘land linked’, in the process stimulating macroeconomic growth at home. “As a Zambian civil engineering contractor, we are proud to be playing our part in paving our country’s future,” adds Chilufya.

IMIESA offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a two-page cover story and a cover picture to promote their products to an appropriate audience. Please call Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223 to secure your booking.

IMIESA June 2014



INFRASTRUCTURE NEWS FROM AROUND THE CONTINENT ZIMBABWE Upgrading sewage networks The Zimbabwe government will construct new sewage works in Harare and rehabilitate sewers in Bulawayo in an attempt to reduce pollution and address access to water. A status report on Harare’s metropolitan wastewater infrastructure found that there is heavy pollution in the Harare catchment area. This is as a result of the poor state or absence of wastewater infrastructure, non-adherence to effluent by-laws, and increasing populations. In Bulawayo, the city is discharging raw sewage into the Khami Dam and Umguza River. The China Export-Import Bank and the African Development Bank are providing $270 million, of which $250 million will go towards a new sewerage works in Harare, and $13 261 million will be used for sewer rehabilitation and upgrade in Bulawayo. Work is underway at the Kinangop Wind Farm in Kenya

In Harare, the Firle treatment works, as well as the Crowborough effluent ponds will be recommissioned. Desludging of the Crowborough and Firle holdings ponds will be completed by August, while pump and pipe replacement will be carried out at Borrowdale Brooke sewage pump station before December. In the long term, Harare will spend $55.21 million on its sewer rehabilitation and upgrades. Last month, Bulawayo unveiled a $13 261 million project and borrowing power applications to 17 potential financiers who have expressed willingness to support the local authority in sewer rehabilitation and upgrades.

KENYA Work underway at Kinangop Wind Park A new wind farm in Kenya will add to sub-Saharan Africa’s growing wind energy capacity, which is being driven by solid economic growth and an increasing population.

Aurecon has been appointed as the owner’s engineer by the project company, Kinangop Wind Park (KWP), for the construction phase of the 60.8 megawatt wind farm in Kenya’s Kinangop region. This project has African Infrastructure Investment Managers (AIIM) as its majority owner. The project has reached financial close and commissioning is expected to occur in mid-2015. The wind farm will be built by Iberdrola, with General Electric (GE) providing the 38 1.6 megawatt wind turbines. As the owner’s engineer, Aurecon will work closely with the project partners to ensure that the wind farm is delivered on time, within budget and meets the expected level of reliability for long-term operation. “Kinangop is significant as the first major IPP wind farm in Kenya,” said Paul Nel, Aurecon Renewable Energy Service Leader. According to GE, the wind farm will generate enough renewable electricity to power the equivalent of 150 000 homes in the country. “Kenya is an exciting growth market for renewable energy, with an attractive policy framework, which has enabled the progression of a number of wind and geothermal projects,” Nel said.

Urban road improvement project The African Development Bank (AfDB) will finance 90% of Nairobi’s urban road improvement project. The $130 million project will improve the Nairobi outer-ring road – a major arterial road for Nairobi’s northern and eastern districts. The road will be


IMIESA June 2014

converted to a dual carriageway to expand its traffic-carrying capacity. In this way, the project aims to increase economic efficiency through improved mobility and accessibility. The project will also include the provision of social infrastructure such as market stalls and wellness centers. The Kenya Urban Roads Authority sees the urban road improvement project as a way to transform Eastlands, Nairobi, into a modern satellite with less traffic congestion.

ANGOLA $1 billion for energy sector reform A $1 billion loan for the Angola Power Sector Reform Support Programme, in support of the Angolan government’s efforts to reform the power sector, has been approved by the AfDB. The reform support programme aims to promote inclusive economic growth by improving operational and cost efficiency in the sector and consolidating public financial management reforms. It has three components: restructuring the energy sector and improving its regulatory environment, fostering private sector investment in the energy sector, and enhancing transparency and efficiency in public financial management. Isaac Lobe Ndoumbe, director of the Governance, Economic and Financial Management Department at the AfDB, explains that the bank will provide technical assistance and capacity-building support, as well as undertake a comprehensive public financial management diagnostic and produce a medium-term action plan to address weaknesses in public financial management.


“The government of Angola has already shown strong ownership and commitment to the power sector and the public financial management reform process. Therefore, the bank is happy to help government to effectively implement the ongoing reforms with needed financing and technical expertise, in collaboration with other partners. We expect that the programme will ultimately impact positively on economic competitiveness and poverty reduction,” said AfDB director of energy, environment and climate change, Alex Rugamba.

BENIN Repairing flood damage Benin will receive $6.4 million to repair flood damage that occurred in 2010. Heavy rains caused damage to 278 schools and destroyed more than 50 000 houses. The project will directly benefit people in the Cotonou, AbomeyCalavi, Seme-Podji, Ouidah and Porto municipalities. According to the World Bank, the infrastructure improvements will reduce any health hazards related to the mix of rain run-off with latrine and septic tank contents that occurred in 2010. Credit from the International Development Association was approved by the World Bank’s board of executive directors. It will be used to upgrade, clean and repair urban drainage networks, for solid waste management, and wastewater and sanitation infrastructure. It will also support a more effective disaster risk preparedness and management plan. World Bank country director for Benin, Ousmane Diagana, said that by focusing on upgrades for drainage networks and municipal solid waste collection, the funds will restore

much-needed sanitary services, and will benefit poor families by helping prevent future losses.

MOROCCO Using nanotechnology to recycle wastewater Morocco has launched a pilot project to recycle wastewater through a technology used in space stations and space shuttles. According to the North Africa Post, the technological process was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). The technology uses organic and ceramic membranes with holes that are one ten thousandth of a millimetre wide – 700 times thinner than a strand of human hair. These tiny pores can filter out unwanted compounds in water, particularly nitrates. These organic membranebased filtrations have already been used to recycle wastewater from showers, washing machines and dishwashers at the Concordia research base in Antarctica. The ESA told the North Africa Post that the equipment has required very little maintenance since it was installed. The nanotechnology is now being put to use in the Sidi Taibi village where utility authorities find it difficult to provide fresh water to the village’s growing population. This is because the groundwater in the area is rich in nitrates and fertiliser chemicals, making it unsuitable for human consumption. The water pumping and conveyance at the new treatment facility in Sidi Taibi will use energy generated from wind turbines and solar panels. The first phase of the project will provide water to over 1 200 students at a school, and surplus energy and water generated

during school holidays will be shared with locals. If this technology proves successful, the unit will be scaled up to deliver water to the rest of the local population.

SENEGAL Summit on financing Africa's infrastructure Senegal will host a Summit on financing Africa's infrastructure in Dakar this month. The highly anticipated event will promote the participation of the private sector in the financing and development of Africa's infrastructure. In preparation for the summit, a number of projects have been identified for implementation as part of the African Union/NEPAD Programme for Infrastructure development in Africa (PIDA). The PIDA approved projects will be show-cased to private investors and facilitate a discussion on their investment potential. Senegal’s President Macky Sall will host the summit as a member of the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Orientation Committee, supported by the NEPAD Agency, the African Union Commission,

the African Development Bank, the Economic Commission for Africa, World Bank and other partners. The Summit is in response to the outcomes of a study conducted by NEPAD and the ECA on Domestic Resources by African Leaders. The study makes recommendations aimed at harnessing domestic resources for the financing of development in Africa, and in particular, for infrastructure development, which experts note, is a key driver for the acceleration of regional integration and competitiveness. This invitation only summit will facilitate an interactive engagement between political and business leaders on sustainable development through domestic financing. The summit is expected to foster an improved and enabling environment for investment in regional infrastructure projects and increased participation of the private sector in projects that go beyond infrastructure. Angola has received $1 billion for its Power Sector Reform Support Program

IMIESA June 2014



Ammann SA consolidates and looks northward Ammann SA is the South African arm of the Ammann Group, the Swiss-based leading manufacturer of asphalt plants, compaction and road-building machines. In this Hotseat, Ammann SA’s managing director, Rocco Lehman, speaks to IMIESA about the company’s growth and development.


HE COMPANY, which provides its offering on an integrated basis, concluded a strategic partnership with ELB Equipment six months ago and is focused on penetrating the local machine market as well as looking north to Nigeria, Kenya and Ghana (to name a few), establishing the Ammann global brand as a pan-African giant in the road-building business.

Last time we spoke, Ammann SA was demonstrating the latest intelligent compactor, the ASC 110 Acepro. What has happened since? RL You might recall, we had provided a demo model to Hillary Construction at their site in Polokwane. After understanding the machine’s advantages, we are happy to say they bought the first one. We have even sent one of Hillary’s young engineers,


IMIESA June 2014

who is writing his dissertation on the compaction of various aggregates in the road-building sector, to Switzerland for full training to ensure the company gets the most benefit out of the compactor.

What do you think sold it? This is a newgeneration compactor. There really isn’t anything else like it available in South Africa today; it’s different from what most people understand an intelligent compactor to be. It essentially has two specific, advanced functions: one is measurement, the other is controlled measurement. It measures and compacts in a measured, controlled manner. An important factor as well is that in South Africa, we measure density; the ASC 110 measures stiffness, so the correlation between the two needs to be made. It is able to automatically adjust amplitude and frequency on the fly.

What is driving the adoption of this technology in South Africa Well, SANRAL is very keen on getting intelligent compactors on to their job specs for a host of reasons. Their impact on the quality of the road is profound. Although the initial investment is higher than standard machines, the resulting cost savings make for a persuasive business case. This is a seriously cost-saving piece of equipment. Because of its precision, you need to less compaction effort, do less compaction and avoid failures. Failures are a major part of every contractor’s day. You also avoid the typical situation that arises between the civil contractor and the surfacing contractor, in which neither takes responsibility for failures. Because you can perform more controlled measurements, you know where the failure has occurred and who is responsible for it. Now that this sale has been concluded, we look forward to getting the ASC 110 Ace Pro to more contractors.

How important is the machine side to Ammann? It really is a major focus for us right now. It’s not an easy market and one way to distinguish ourselves is in our service offerings. Obviously our machines are up there with the best in the market place, but our commitment is to our customers’ long-term user experience. It takes a lot of coordination between us, our dealers and our factories, and we are getting it right. We think this is the reason there is much interest in our machines from the market at this time. We are very competitive in terms of price and service. Also, economy of scale is crucial to the machine business, and our ability to deliver better-priced quality equipment improves exponentially with each order. One thing we really want our local contractors to understand is that although we are Swiss-based company, Ammann SA has an African ASC110 Ace Pro on-site


mindset, catering to the market on its own strengths.

learning to focus only on what we can control.

An important factor on the machine side is your partnership with ELB Equipment. How is the partnership going? It is

There seems to be global mind-change regarding business in Africa. It’s a

now six months old and going very well. We are well into the operations of our working relationship and they have been a great partner thus far. Their sales staff truly understand our range and we are there to deliver the goods and support them as much as we can.

You’ve mentioned Africa as a key market for Ammann. How is this unfolding? Well, first of all, you have to understand that it is not one market. It is many markets, all working differently, with unique challenges and processes that force you to adapt. My advice

market we can’t ignore. It’s important to remember the size of Ammann globally. The company has operations in Europe, India, South America and now Africa. Our preferred method of growing in Africa is through working closely with locals and finding the right partners. Ammann is learning very quickly how to adapt to massively different market conditions, and from our perspective at Ammann SA, this adaptability has shown impressive results: our turnover has doubled in the last six months and much of that growth has been very organic. Ammann also recently purchased ELBA Concrete, another big brand in Africa, which manufactures

It is important for Africa to have the presence of companies like Ammann to any outfit looking to do business north of our borders is to be wary of any arrogance you may have, and learn to roll with the punches. I just got back from Nigeria last week, and I could not have been more excited. You have 175 million people, all needing infrastructure. There are massive contractors who have set up shop there – big players. We have an asphalt plant currently being commissioned in the Congo, and the whole process is unfolding in its own way. We have had to accept that we don’t know how it works there and put our arrogance aside. Some of the problems will be painful but they are part of the learning curve; you have to keep the business moving forward no matter what. They need the equipment and we will find a way to deliver it. We are

concrete plants. Ammann’s presence and growth in Africa are gaining a lot of momentum.

You say the business is growing organically, but what would you cite as strategic moves that have aided this? Our decision to manufacture components locally has been paying off. The non-technological components, like the steelworks, are locally manufactured and this has enabled us to be more competitive, cost-wise, and has improved our turnaround time. But I must add, the decision to do this was a pragmatic one and the benefits are showing now. It also allows Ammann SA to contribute more to the local economy and job creation, so it’s a win-win. We maintain the same global standards but with a portion of the business that is ‘own risk’. This

Prime 140 on-site

has really unlocked value for us and, beyond local manufacturing, we are also able to transact in rand values, thus transferring risk from our clients back to us. So Ammann SA has the option of buying machines directly from Amman and selling them at our own risk. Where this is an attractive proposition, it is an option.

The relationship between the Ammann Group and Ammann SA sounds like a very healthy one. It is. We are potentially significant contributors to the business as a whole and the factories in particular.

We can’t end this interview without talking about the asphalt plants. How is this side of the business faring? We are very market responsive and the new plant we recently delivered to Hilary Construction in Polokwane demonstrates this. It is truly a unique plant: it is semimobile, 140 t/h and is capable of the 40 per cent recycled asphalt. Additionally, it is capable of foaming the bitumen, which is a process that significantly reduces energy consumption, as it reduces the asphalt mixing temperature. This energy saving is increased by the use of recycled asphalt, which is blended in using the transferred heat. This does come at a cost, but Ammann is conscious of the great need for environmental consideration. This plant ticks all the boxes and will be a major

contributor to road manufacturing in Africa.

There has been a lot in the news lately about the shortage of bitumen; what are your thoughts? This is an on-going challenge and is symptomatic of the fact that bitumen is a secondary product, resulting from the refinement of crude oil. Increasingly, local oil refineries prefer to deal with light crude, which yields a much lower percentage of bitumen.

Finally, what are your thoughts about the state of the road-building industry in South Africa today? I am bullish. There is enough work for everyone and it is a very professional industry. If you look at the roads agencies, these are very well-run entities and Ammann is looking forward to continuing its contribution. It is important for Africa to have the presence of companies like Ammann: large global operations capable of operating on sound business principles and ensuring the right equipment is available for the market, even if it requires some internal cross-subsidisation. It is an effective way of ensuring the right equipment remains available to the market, and only a company of this size is truly capable of that.

Ammann Construction Machinery South Africa t +27 (0)11 849 3939/3333

IMIESA June 2014



Stabilising water supply The KwaNyuswa area of supply was selected as a priority zone to reduce water losses in the eThekwini Municipality. This article looks at how a nonrevenue water reduction approach reduced losses, increased efficiency, and extended service life. By I.M. Peña; Co-Authors: M.A. Shepherd PrEng and V.A. Poona


JOINT VENTURE of companies was appointed as the non-revenue water (NRW) reduction consultant for the western operational area of the eThekwini Municipality (EWS) in March 2009. The KwaNyuswa supply area was selected as one of the priority zones to reduce water losses. Before the NRW project started, the KwaNyuswa water supply system was characterised by intermittent supply and high levels of water loss. In the years preceding the appointment, the water supply service in the area had been deteriorating drastically. This was due to service growth, which was not accompanied by planned capital investment, operations skills or infrastructure maintenance. Factors that contributed to the process of deteriorating infrastructure and service delivery included: remote supply areas, high water pressure in certain areas, no community awareness regarding responsible water usage or reporting water losses, illegal tampering with the distribution network and service connections, extremely low confidence in system characteristics and infrastructure information, no coordination between different departments of the service provider, reduced budgets and limited operational staff skills. Further problems developed when a largescale water mains replacement programme started in January 2008. Insufficient technical skills, management and coordination by the municipality for overseeing the re-laying of the pipelines provided an additional challenge. As a consequence of these factors, two major problems developed. Some parts of


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the supply system received intermittent supply whilst other areas that had a fully charged system, 24 hours a day, received high pressures, hence water losses in those systems were high as well. In February 2010, the NRW by volume was 71% and real losses were 504 litres/conn./day. An estimated 65% of the consumers had constant water supply. The operations department of the municipality was manually operating valves in the system on a daily basis in order to shut down water to certain areas and, in this way, provide water to other areas. Step testing in the supply area was carried out to help identify consumptions for each district metered area (DMA) and ranked these DMA’s to prioritise interventions. Real loss reduction was addressed using pressure reduction interventions, advanced pressure management and leak detection surveys.

Objective According to Charalambous, “Intermittent water supply is enforced not only in cases where there are water shortages, but also where the hydraulic capacity of a network is such that it is not possible to satisfy demand and where the networks are severely deteriorating. However, in most cases water authorities seem to overlook the obvious, which is to manage the water networks in the most efficient and effective way in order to minimise losses. The main objectives of the project were to increase the number of households that received water on a full-time basis and simultaneously reduce levels of leakage in the supply area of KwaNyuswa by undertaking

several interventions. Real losses were addressed using various methods such as pressure reduction, advanced pressure management and leak detection surveys, and the resultant ‘saved water’ was to be used to further the extent of water supply in the area.

Baseline situation System Characteristics KwaNyuswa is a rural area, with 6 500 scattered properties and approximately 45 000 inhabitants. The supply area consists of one inlet that supplies a trunk pipeline. From this trunk pipeline a number of branches provide water to different districts or zones, including small reservoirs and break pressure tanks (BPT) like the Thandukhule and Mnamatha reservoirs and the Ngolosi BPT. Intermittent supply to the area was affecting water quality and water distribution. The resultant ingress of sediments caused blockages in several components of the system, which included water mains, service connections, meters, strainers, pressurereducing valves, pilots and needle valves. The billing aspect was consequently affected due to high levels of theft, low confidence in domestic metering and meter blockages. Additionally, water pressure surges caused leaks and bursts, which reduce water pipelines’ life expectancy. The system characteristics for the KwaNyuswa supply zone are as follows: • average operating pressure: 700 kPa • number of registered connections: 3 743 • number of formal properties: 700 • number of informal properties: 50 • number of rural properties: 6 500


TABLE 1 District metered areas selected for NRW interventions in the KwaNyuswa supply zone

District Ave flow No of zone [kℓ/day] conn.

Billed Length of Ave flow consump. pipes [km] [kℓ/conn./day] [kℓ/conn./day] C 270 530 0.16 19.1 0.51 H 245 197 0.38 7.5 1.2 J 250 495* 0.17 9.8 0.5 * 495 formal properties fed by 38 EBUs (electronic bailiff units).

FIGURE 1 Baseline flow profile for the KwaNyuswa area of supply before interventions

• number of existing PRVs: 64 • length of water mains: 180 km • estimated population: 45 000 • percentage of system 100% pressurised 24 hours/day: 65% (estimated). KwaNyuswa was divided into 11 DMAs, namely DMA A to K. These 11 DMAs were individually identified and prioritised based on water losses or potential water savings. A complete shut-down of the area was done in April 2010. The shut-down was done in different steps in order to identify consumptions for each DMA. In the higher part of KwaNyuswa, three DMAs with significantly high minimum night flows (MNF) and low billed consumption were identified. The discreteness of these three areas was investigated and confirmed. Table 1 shows detailed supply characteristics and selected key performance indicators (KPIs) of the three DMAs.

Supply Flow Baseline The discreteness of the DMAs was difficult to confirm because of the following challenges: 1. Intermittent water supply in certain areas of the supply zone. 2. Extremely low confidence with respect to the infrastructure in the ground versus the GIS information from the client. 3. Operations staff only had partial knowledge about the system in the ground.


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Ave flow Billed [kℓ/km/day] consump. [kℓ/day] 14.2 88 32.6 76 25.5 84

Prior to any work being carried out, the baseline flow profile was logged as indicated in Figure 1 and a standard water balance built using this information.

Programme The project started in March 2010 and all real loss reduction activities and apparent loss reduction/billing improvement activities were targeted to be completed before the end of November 2010. Due to the increased scope of work due to the results achieved, the project is still on-going.

Activities Supply areas discreteness KwaNyuswa supply system was originally operated by another service provider and was transferred to EWS two years before the commencement of this project. Most of the system and infrastructure information was lost during the transfer and, as such, reservoir and DMA boundary confirmation were major challenges for the project at the outset. These important activities, or at least the definition of the supply area, had to take place before the commencement of systemstabilising measures.

Pressure reduction and advanced pressure management DMA C: At the start of the project, there were three existing direct-acting PRVs (DV1526, DV1527 and DV0716). None of them were working so maintenance was carried out on these valves. This was followed by pressure

Total water losses [ℓ/conn./day] 305 771 298

NRW by vol. 67% 69% 66%

optimisation, which took several months to complete. Eventually they were all replaced with piloted PRVs and advanced controllers were installed to reduce the excess pressure during the night. The DV1526 PRV zone was found to be breached. Field work and shutdowns were needed in order to find the breach, confirm the extent of the supply area and re-commission the PRV. The DV1527 and DV0716 PRV zones had different problems and site visits and a series of shutdowns were needed to make the time-modulated controllers function properly. An unusually large variation in pressure was detected between night and day and, after some analysis and site investigations, it was concluded that the pipelines were undersized for the present supply and that water mains needed to be replaced and upsized to resolve this problem. During the programme, new water pipelines were laid by the client’s construction department but were not commissioned due to potential damages that an intermittent water supply would cause to the new infrastructure. Under the monitoring and coordination of the professional team, the water utility commissioned all the pipelines. The DMA bulk meters and average zone pressures were monitored during the commissioning process in order to guarantee supply to customers and, as a precautionary measure, determine if any extreme minimum or maximum flow rates or pressures occurred. Additionally, the area was rezoned to the new pressure regime standard (from 30 m to 90 m to 25 m to 60 m as the minimums and maximums respectively) which was followed by the installation of eight new PRVs in the zone. The commissioning of the new pipelines and PRVs took longer than originally estimated and was completed in June 2011. Table 2 and Figure 2 show a comparison of the baseline flow and pressure profiles and for flow at the end of June 2011, and for pressure till the end of September 2011. Water losses in the area were still high and water conservation measures were continued. As can be noted from the graphs, the pressure range experienced significantly improved, having a


TABLE 2 DMA C – Main characteristics and indicators

District zone January 2010 June 2011

Ave flow No of Billed consump. Length of Ave flow Ave flow Billed consump. Total water losses NRW by [kℓ/day] conn. [kℓ/conn./day] pipes [km] [kℓ/conn./day] [kℓ/km/day] [kℓ/day] [ℓ/conn./day] vol. 270 530 0.16 19.1 0.51 14.2 88 305 67% 331



more stabilised value, while the flow profile shows a permanent water supply but still high minimum night values. As previously mentioned the programme is still underway and DMA C is one of the areas that is still quite unstable and will need further interventions and monitoring. DMA H: According to GIS information, there were eight PRVs (one piloted and seven direct-acting) before the commencement of the project. All direct-acting PRVs were either not found (DV0845 or DV0848), not working properly (DV0620, DV0844 and DV0847), missing i.e. chamber was found with no PRV (DV0846) or incorrectly installed on the wrong pipeline (DV0843). All located PRVs were inspected, maintained, parts installed if necessary and were then optimised in terms of downstream pressure settings. One piloted PRV (DV1509) fed the entire DMA H and all the direct-acting PRVs were located downstream of it. A time-modulated PRV controller was installed to regulate flow




FIGURE 2 DMA Zone C – Flow and pressure profiles before and after WC/ WDM interventions

until water losses in the area were reduced. The primary objective was to control inlet flow to the area, reduce losses and build up pressure in areas with low pressure or no supply at all. The controller and PRV downstream settings are summarised in Table 3. Once leak detection surveys were completed, the MNF reduced drastically. A reducedport PRV was then proposed and installed to replace the existing piloted PRV in order to cope with the low flows that were now being experienced. Similarly to DMA C, new pipelines were installed but not commissioned. The same protocol was observed as before and flows and pressures were monitored and the entire DMA rezoned with a new design approved for six new PRVs, as per the new pressure regime stipulated earlier.

TABLE 3 Pressure control settings for PRV DV1509

Time controller period Peak consumption 04:00 to 07:00 period 15:00 to 18:00 Off-peak 00:00 to 04:00 consumption 07:00 to 15:00 period 18:00 to 24:00

PRV downstream Comments setting 1.5 bar CP at PRV 0.5 bar

Downstream set to keep the line pressurised during off-peak periods




Table 4 displays the comparison of selected KPIs for DMA H before and after pressure management and leak detection interventions. Figure 3 graphically represents the system input volume (SIV) for DMA H before and after all interventions and Figure 4 shows the pressure profile at the critical point using a time-modulated PRV controller. DMA J: There were two existing PRVs at the start of the project; a piloted PRV (DV1131) and a direct-acting PRV (DV1130). Each PRV fed an area inside the DMA. DV1131 fed the majority of consumers in DMA J (which included a housing project). A time-modulated controller was installed to regulate flow until water losses in the area were reduced by leak detection surveys. The primary objective was to control inlet flow to the area, reduce losses and build up pressure in areas with low pressure or no supply at all. The consumers in the housing project were fed by 38 EBUs. The EBUs were programmed to supply at time intervals during a 24-hour cycle (04:00 to 05:00 and 14:00 to 16:00). A field survey and research indicated that these EBUs were tampered with and bypassed in order to get a 24-hour supply. Taking this into account, the time-modulated controller and PRV were set up as detailed in Table 5. Figure 5 presents the pressure profile at the PRV with controller setup.

TABLE 4 DMA H – Main characteristics and indicators

District zone January 2010 Dec 2010

Ave flow [kℓ/day] 245

No of Billed consump. Length of Ave flow Ave flow Billed consump. Total water losses NRW by conn. [kℓ/conn./day] pipes [km] [kℓ/conn./day] [kℓ/km/day] [kℓ/day] [ℓ/conn./day] vol. 197 0.38 7.5 1.2 32.6 76 771 69%










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Table 6 displays the comparison of selected KPIs for DMA J before and after pressure management and leak detection interventions.

Leak Detection and Repair

FIGURE 3 DMA H - Flow before and after pressure management and leak detection

FIGURE 4 DMA H – Pressure profile at the critical point with advance pressure management TABLE 5 Pressure control settings for PRV DV1131

Peak consumption period Off-peak consumption period

Time controller period PRV downstream setting Comments 03:00 to 06:00 1.5 bar CP at PRV. First 13:00 to 16:00 consumer 10 m meters below CP. 00:00 to 03:00 0.5 bar Downstream set to keep 06:00 to 13:00 the line pressurised 16:00 to 00:00 during off peak periods.

Leak detection in these DMAs only commenced in June 2010 due to the intermittent supply. The first approach was to get plumbers to survey and repair all visible leaks in the DMA H and use a qualified leak detection contractor to carry out surveys in DMA C and J. The number of leaks found and repaired in DMA H was significantly high and the total estimated water recovered once repaired was 45 m3/h. The estimated recovered volume has not yet completely reflected in the SIV profiles due to the dynamic nature of a network system and more importantly that the volumes ‘recovered’ are now being used to feed other parts of the DMA that had no supply previously. Because KwaNyuswa is a rural area, leaks are extremely hard to locate due to the terrain and overgrown vegetation. Another aggravating factor is the lack of commitment to water conservation by local consumers. Leaks are rarely reported by consumers and water conservation, awareness and educational campaigns are urgently needed in the area. During the length of the project, the professional team erected advertisement boards urging the community to be pro-active and assist the municipality as depicted in Figure 6. Additional challenges were certain pipelines being laid on the surface and grass fires causing damage to the surface pipelines.

Results Water losses reduction The inlet bulk meter for the area is constantly monitored. Figure 8 represents the flow profile before and after the interventions took place. Table 8 gives a summary and comparison of water balance components and water loss and water service indicators before and after interventions.

Water supply increase

FIGURE 5 DMA J – Pressure profile at the PRV with advance pressure management


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Pressure loggers were installed in areas where previously the water supply was not constant. These areas are mainly located in the Thandukhule reservoir and Ngolosi BPT. All pressure logging files are reflecting continuous water service for the last month, but with very erratic pressures. In the baseline section, an estimated 65% of the system was 100% of the time


FIGURE 6 Water conservation awareness boards deployed in the area TABLE 6 District Subzone J – Main characteristics and indicators

District Ave flow No of Billed consump. zone [kℓ/day] conn. [kℓ/conn./day] January 250 495* 0.17 2010 January 126 495* 0.2 2011 * 495 formal properties fed by 38 EBUs.

Length of pipes [km] 9.8

Ave flow Ave flow [kℓ/ Billed consump. Total water losses NRW [kℓ/conn./day] km/day] [kℓ/day] [ℓ/conn./day] by vol. 0.5 25.5 84 298 66%





TABLE 7 Leak detection results for DMA H (24 May 2010 to 4 October 2010)

Trickle (T)

Leaks # 191

Spray (S)


Light Flow (LF)


Medium Flow (MF)


Heavy Flow (HF)


Burst (BR)




Min Rate litres/hr

Max Rate litres/hr

Ave Rate litres/hr

1 10 20 50 200 500

10 20 50 200 500 2000

5.5 15 35 125 350 1250


Ave flow

repaired # 191

recovered litres/hr 1050.5










Ave spilling flow litres/hr 1050.5







45010. 5

45010. 5

TABLE 8 Water balance for KwaNyuswa Valley – Before and after interventions


Previous NRW interventions March 2010

After NRW Difference interventions March 2011  

Water supply service Length of mains










Number of connections


3 743

3 900


Density of connections

Conn./km 20.8



Permanent water supply




Water balance components

% of the area

System Input volume (SIV)


3 720 (*)

2 880


Billed authorised consumption (BAC) kℓ/day

1 043

1 237


Unbilled authorised consumption (UAC) Apparent losses (AL)









Real losses (RL)


1 886

1 023


Water losses indicators

Unavoidable annual real losses (UARL) Current annual volume of real losses (CARL) Infrastructure leakage indicator (ILI)

ℓ/service 117 conn./day ℓ/service 504 conn./day 4.3







Non-revenue water (NRW)


2 677

1 643


Non-revenue water (NRW)







1.  Using an NRW reduction approach to the area not only helped to reduce water losses and optimise a network system but more importantly extended the quality and service of a water supply system. 2. Subjecting the system to intermittent supply has significantly deteriorated the water supply infrastructure. 3. PRV maintenance was proved to be very poor causing many sectors to suffer from high water pressure, requiring pressure rezoning and new pressure control devices. 4. All these factors contribute to a high number of leaks. 5. Advanced pressure management can be used to control demand profiles and spread available water into areas where intermittent supply is experienced. 6. A combination of leakage reduction interventions in KwaNyuswa extended the continuously served area of supply from 65% to 85%. References Charalambous B, ‘The high costs of resorting the intermittent supplies’, IWA publication Water 21 Magazine, p. 29 December 2011. FIGURE 7 Flow profile before and after pressure management and leak detection in KwaNyuswa

(*): when the system is pressurised pressurised when the project started. Estimation for the present situation is that 85% of the supply system is getting continuous water service.

Conclusions The following conclusions could be drawn from the stabilising interventions carried out in KwaNyuswa:

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Selecting on-site sanitation systems for informal settlements This article looks at developing a decision-support matrix to optimise the selection of on-site sanitation systems for informal settlements, using the City of Johannesburg as a case study. By M. M Maraka, G. M Ochieng, and J. M Ndambuki


N-SITE SANITATION is an integral aspect of water services because of its potential impact on water quality. The concern over groundwater contamination has centred on activities associated with human population. Human groundwater contamination can be related to waste disposal (private sewage disposal systems, land disposal of solid waste, municipal wastewater, wastewater impoundments, and land spreading of sludge, among others). Improperly located on-site sanitation systems may also result in the contamination of valuable groundwater, which may be a source of many categories of contaminants;

including bacteria, viruses, and nitrates from human waste. Optimisation tools can be developed to effectively address the groundwater contamination that may result due to inappropriately located on-site sanitation systems. On-site sanitation technologies are flexible and can be modified to suit different geological and social conditions, even where ground conditions are sensitive and settlements are dense. The provision of on-site sanitation in informal settlements within the City of Johannesburg involves the ventilated improved pit latrines (VIP), which are singlepit latrines with a vent pipe, which reduces

fly nuisances and odour, if the VIP is well designed (Tilley et al., 2008). The top of the pipe should be covered with a mesh to stop flies from entering or leaving the pit through the vent. Excreta, along with anal cleansing materials (water/solids), are deposited in the pit. Lining the pit prevents it from collapsing and provides support to the superstructure (EAWAG/SANDEC, 2008). The depth of the pit is at least 2 m. The depth is usually limited by the groundwater or the soil conditions. Due to soil infiltration, there is a danger of groundwater contamination, especially in densely populated areas (Tilley et al., 2008). Design life ranges between three to five years as an interim



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solution; however, they get full before the expected time. In areas where the water table is high, conservancy tanks are used but the tanks are squashed and pop out of the ground due to groundwater pressure. The approach currently in use fails to clearly prioritise measures and to answer pertinent questions with regard to on-site sanitation that, among others, may include: Which appropriate dry on-site sanitation technology can effectively be used on a given site without compromising the groundwater quality? Which cost-effective sanitation technology can be used on environmentally high-risk zones such as wetlands and areas prone to water logging, for instance City of Johannesburg?

Technology options A large number of technology options exist for on-site sanitation, depending on various contributing factors. These options differ from each other as per the conceptual ideologies, construction methods, operation and maintenance costs, environmental effects and social acceptability, among others. In choosing a particular option, the sole objective is to optimise on its operation by maximising the benefits at minimum cost. This can be achieved by analysing the primary and secondary data of all the available alternatives of on-site sanitation systems. For the purposes of this study, the AHP (analytic hierarchy process) will be used to evaluate the criteria for each relevant sanitation technology. The assessment of technology options will involve evaluation of various factors such as cost, environment and social. The selection of the optimal on-site technologies involves multiple objectives and/or criteria and hierarchy process. The AHP provides an optimal solution considering both qualitative and quantitative aspects of a decision (Pophali et al., 2011). Another advantage of the AHP is that it reduces the level of comparison from a large number of factors to a few. The current study aims to develop a decision-support-matrix that will assist in the selection of the most appropriate on-site sanitation technologies for different conditions, and also minimise groundwater contamination in informal settlements within the City of Johannesburg, using AHP. This paper presents the conceptual approach designed to test the tool in the case study.

General objective The main objective of the study is to develop a decision-support matrix that will assist in

the selection of the most appropriate on-site sanitation technologies for different conditions in the informal settlements within the City of Johannesburg.

Specific objectives In addressing the main objective, the following shall be the specific objectives: 1. Identify the current available on-site sanitation technologies. 2.  Evaluate the attributes of each identified on-site sanitation technology vis-Ă vis technical performance, capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, land area requirement, ease of operation, social acceptability and possible environmental effects. 3.  Discern and identify the current and potential informal settlement zones in the City of Johannesburg. 4. Characterise the discerned and identified zones vis-Ă -vis the population (current and future), soil characteristics, hydrogeological factors, especially the groundwater table. 5. Apply the analytical hierarchy process to develop a decision-support-matrix that can be used to identify the optimal onsite sanitation system for each zone.

Methodology In addressing specific objectives 1 to 4, primary as well secondary data will be collected, collated and analysed for the relevant information required. Primary data shall be obtained by means of administered questionnaires to the relevant stakeholders. The relevant data shall include, but not be limited to, the following: current

Leros sewer line in Johannesburg

on-site sanitation systems in use; location and acreage presently occupied by informal settlements, and potential areas to be occupied by informal settlements; usage of current sanitation system; acceptability of current sanitation system; preferred alternative sanitation system; soil characteristics (e.g. infiltration capacity, plasticity index, shrinkage under different moisture contents); and accessibility of the area (this affects the installation and maintenance of the sanitation system). Secondary data shall be obtained from desktop studies and past studies, reports and maps by the relevant government departments, and service providers such as the Departments of Water Affairs, Land, and Human Settlement, Johannesburg Water and local municipalities. The secondary data shall include, but not be limited to, the following: current and projected population density in informal settlements; current and projected service level by the local government and other utility providers such as Johannesburg Water; hydrogeological conditions of the area, e.g. groundwater levels and soil profiles; hydrological data; and current and projected population densities in the informal settlements. Information on the available on-site sanitation systems and their aspects with regard to technical ability, capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, land area requirement, ease of operation, social acceptability and possible environmental effects shall be obtained from the relevant manufacturer’s or

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supplier’s catalogues and also from available documented literature. Information obtained in addressing specific objectives one to four shall then be used as the input to the AHP to achieve specific objective five. Relevant software shall then be used to map out the specific informal settlement zones and the appropriate onsite sanitation system.

Analytical hierarchy process The AHP developed by Saaty (1980), is a structured multi-criteria, systems analysis technique for dealing with complex decision-making problems, in which many competing alternatives exist, ie in Pophali et al.(2011), Anagnostopoulos et al. (2005) and Zeng et al. (2007). It offers a pair-wise comparison of components of the systems, precisely if the attributes are objective, or provide the scaling if the attributes are subjective in nature. Considering primary variables and secondary or sub variables, the hierarchies are formed as a top-down approach. The comparisons are made for

usually made on a scale of 1 to 9 (Pophali et al., 2011).

Mathematical background Assume that there are n alternatives A1, A2... An whose weights (or relative importance) are w1, w2... wn respectively. The ratios of pair wise comparisons of these alternatives can be represented by the following n x n square matrix A whose rows are the ratios of the weights of each alternative with respect to all others as shown in Table 1. TABLE 1 n x n Square Matrix A





w1 w1

w1 w2


w1 wn


w2 w1

w2 w2


w2 wn

. . . An

. . . wn w1

. . . wn w2

. . . ...

. . . wn wn



IMIESA June 2014



each variable and sub variables and the matrix is constructed (Pophali et al., 2011). For the purposes of this study, the objective hierarchy criteria will be based on three factors that are: cost criteria, social criteria and environmental criteria. Each of the three criteria shall also involve hierarchy of indices such as capital costs, operation and maintenance cost, land area requirement, sanitation benefits (e.g. health), impact on groundwater quality, sludge generation, ease of operation, accessibility, user friendliness, and cultural compatibility, among others. The overall structure (top-down) of the hierarchy would logically be as follows: the overall objective of the decision is at the top level. Below the objective level, criteria are considered to reach the decision. The bottom level consists of alternatives from which the choice is to be made. At a given level of hierarchy, each pair of factors is compared with respect to its contribution (level of importance) towards the above level factor. The comparisons are


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AX = λX ............................................[2] Whereby λ is the eigenvalue of matrix A and the column vector X is the eigenvector of matrix A corresponding to the eigenvalue λ. Since every row of matrix A is a constant multiple of any other row, the rank of matrix A is equal to 1. Therefore matrix A has only one non-zero eigenvalue which is equal to λ (Tang et al., 1997). Given a n x n pair wise comparison matrix A, it is possible to evaluate the relative weights of the alternatives by calculating the eigenvector X of the matrix A which corresponds to the maximum eigenvalue λmax. To make the column vector X unique, it is normalised by dividing its elements by their sum. Thus a normalised vector wi/Σwi represents weights with respect to each factor. A comprehensive description of the “A” matrix is given in Zeng et al. (Zeng et al., 2007). The above theory is based on the assumption that matrix A is perfectly consistent. A comparison matrix is consistent if and only if (aij)(ajk) = aik for all i, j, k. However, perfect consistency usually does not occur. Perfect consistency is only possible if matrix A can be constructed based on the importance of individual alternatives (w1, w2,... wn) (Tang et al., 1997). AHP measures the inconsistency of judgement by calculating the consistency index CI of the matrix. The consistency index CI is in turn divided by the average random consistency index RI to obtain the consistency ratio CR (Pophali et al., 2011). The consistency index (CI) is used to check the consistency of matrix A as:

(Pophali et al., 2011). Saaty (1980) has proposed random average indices (RI) for various n as given in Table 2. Consistency Ratio (CR) is expressed as follows: CR = CI RI .............................................[3] A consistency ratio of 10% or less is considered as acceptable. Anagnostopoulos et al. (2005), quotes that “The RI is a constant value for a n x n matrix, which has resulted from a computer simulation of n x n matrices with random values from the 1-9 scale and for which aij = 1/ aij. If CR is less than 5% for a 3x3 matrix, 9% for a 4x4 matrix and 10% for larger matrices then the matrix is consistent.” The weighting vector for a criterion level can be given as WC = (WC1,...,WCK,...,WCS where WCK (k=1,...,s) is the weight of the Kth criterion Ck with respect to the overall objective. For index level with respect to criterion level Ck, the weighting vector is given as WCK = (WIp, WIp+1,...,WIq) where are the indices subject to the kth criterion Ck; p and q are serial numbers of the first and the last indices subject to the kth criterion Ck. WCk’s are estimated by the first providing expert opinion of the relative importance of indices in each criteria. The pair wise comparison of all the criteria is then needed to be carried out. The preferences of factors in each criterion are then given following the above selection strategy. Table 3 presents a pairwise comparison matrix A of component Pi with respect to criterion K. TABLE 3 A Pairwise Comparison Matrix A of Component Pi with Respect to Criterion K




P1 ..........1..........................[ a122] CICI == 1 ((λ .................................[1] ).......... λ max ............................................................ max−- nn) n -1 Where λ = principal eigenvalue of matrix A; n = number of variables. Comparing CI with CI obtained from associated random matrices of order n gives an indication of errors due to inconsistency






1/ a1




. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .


1/ a 1n

1/ a2n



1 0.00

2 0.00

3 0.58

4 0.90

5 1.12

6 1.24

7 1.32

8 1.41

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9 1.45

IMIESA June 2014

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TABLE 2 Random Average Indices (RI) for various n (Pophali et al., 2011)

n RI


Matrix A is a positive reciprocal matrix implying all its elements are positive and aij = 1/aji, where aij and aji are the elements of matrix A (Tang et al., 1997). For a column vector X whose elements are w1, w2... wn then:



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FIGURE 1 Hierarchy of Objectives and Alternatives

Conceptual approach: The structure of the hierarchy Figure 1 presents a schematic of the hierarchy of the model where the first level is the principle objective of selecting the optimal on-site sanitation alternative. The second level is the subordinate criteria used in the pair-wise comparison of the available alternatives. The third level is the indices level with respect to a given criterion and the bottom level is the n decision variables comprising of alternatives from which the choice is to be made. On the pairwise comparison, the decision maker compares two alternatives Ai and Aj using a criterion and assigns a numerical value to their relative weight. The result of the comparison is expressed in a fundamental scale of values ranging from 1 (where Ai and Aj contribute equally to the objective) to 9 (the evidence favouring Ai over Aj is of the highest possible order of affirmation). Given that the n elements of a level are evaluated

in pairs using an element of the immediately higher level, a n x n comparison is obtained. Table 4 presents the scale of 1 to 9 for pairwise comparisons (Anagnostopoulos, 2005 & Tang et al., 1997) NB: Reciprocals of above nonzero numbers: If an activity has one of the above numbers (e.g. 3) compared with a second activity, the second activity has the reciprocal value (e.g. 1/3) when compared to the first.

Conclusions AHP as a multi-criteria analysis is a powerful approach to decision-making problems. The importance of AHP for optimising the selection of on-site sanitation systems lies in its proven ability among other similar tools to deal with complex decision-making problems, which involve many attributes and or variables and some sort of subjectivity. It has been successfully utilised to optimise the selection of wastewater

TABLE 4 Fundamental Scale of 1 to 9 for Pairwise Comparisons





Equal importance Two elements contribute equally to the objective


Moderate importance

Experience and judgement moderately favour one element over another


Strong importance

Experience and judgement strongly favour one element over another


Very strong importance

One element is favoured very strongly over another; its dominance is demonstrated in practice


Extreme importance

The evidence favouring one element over another is of the highest possible order of affirmation

Intensities of 2,4,6 and 8 can be used to express intermediate values. Intensities of 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, etc. can be used for elements that are very close in importance

treatment technologies under different conditions as observed in studies done by Tang et al. (1997), Anagnostopoulos et al. (2005), Zeng et al. (2007), and Pophali et al. (2011). It is envisaged that given the appropriate criteria and indices, a practical decision-support-matrix for the selection of on-site sanitation for the study area shall be developed. Given its ability to account for both subjective and objective attributes, such as environmental, social and cultural factors, it is also envisaged that the developed decision-support-matrix shall be useful to either a group of interest or to a group decision-making process. References 1. E Tilley, C Luethi, A Morel, C Zurbruegg, and R Schertenleib. 2008. Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, Duebendorf and Geneva, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG). 2.  EAWAG/SANDEC. 2008. Sandec Training Tool 1.0 – Module 4: Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Eawag/Sandec. 3.  G R Pophali, A B Chelani, and R S Dhodakpar. 2011. Optimal Selection of Full Scale Tanner y Effluent Treatment Alternative Using Integrated AHP and GRA Approach. Journal of Expert Systems with Applications. 38:10889 – 10895. 4. T L Saaty. 1980 The Analytical Hierarchy Process. New York: McGraw-Hill. 5.  K P Anagnostopoulos, M Gratziou, and A P Vavatsikos. 2005. Evaluation of Wastewater Facilities with the use of AHP Multicriteria Method. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Rhodes Island, Greece, 1 – 3 September 2005:B-39 – B-44. 6.  G Zeng, R Jiang, G Huang, M Xu, and J Li. 2007. Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Alternative Selection by Hierarchy Grey Relational Analysis. Journal of Environmental Management, 82:250–259. 7. S L Tang, C L Wong, and K V Ellis. 1997. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Alternatives. J. CIWEM:14 – 23. Authors Department of Civil Engineering: Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa

IMIESA June 2014



New water pipe for Jerome Drive reservoir in Kloof completed Construction of the new inlet water pipe from the eThekwini Water and Sanitation (EWS) main line to the Jerome Drive reservoir in Kloof was completed ahead of schedule in January this year.


HE JEROME ROAD inlet is part of the ongoing EWS Western Aqueduct project. Because it is runs past St Mary’s School, it was commissioned as a stand-alone job over the December holidays to cause as little disruption to traffic as possible. “We envisaged at the start that working along St Mary’s Road was going to be the most difficult part but, with careful forward planning, constant correspondence with the

school and communication with residents, the work was carried out smoothly with few problems,” says Andrew Copley, senior area engineer for EWS. “We would like to thank St Mary’s School, parents of children at the school, residents and motorists who have been affected by the construction for their patience and understanding,” Copley says. “We know that this route is used by up to 1 000 cars every day and we did everything in our

power to keep disruption to the traffic flow to a minimum. “Other challenges were laying the pipe in the 1.2m diameter jacked sleeve across the M13 and in the narrow servitude at Jerome Place,” he says. The decision to lay a completely new pipe was made to minimise leaks and conserve the city’s precious water resources and because the alternative – ongoing repairs – would be both costly and inconvenient to residents.

Addressing supply

The decision to lay a completely new pipe was made to minimise leaks and because ongoing repairs would be costly and inconvenient to residents


IMIESA June 2014

“The supply to Jerome Drive reservoir initially came from three supply feeds which could be unreliable at times, as well as expensive, because two of them were via a pumping system,” explains Leisel Bowes, project manager for EWS. “The new Western Aqueduct would have solved this problem by providing a dedicated, cost-effective supply to the reservoir but, because it is only due to be commissioned in 2016/2017, we had to consider an alternate supply.” It was decided to eliminate one of the possible supplies to the Jerome Road reservoir. The supply was then designed to come solely from Abelia Road reservoir, with Mount Moriah reservoir as a temporary backup, if the Abelia Road system was unable to cope or was being cleaned. “We tested this theory during construction by only using the Mount Moriah reservoir and were pleased to find that the system coped well for seven months without any disruptions,” Bowes says.

EWS staff check the final stages of the construction of the new water pipe to the Jerome Drive reservoir in Kloof. Left to right: graduate intern, Precious Radebe; clerk of works, Logan Govender and graduate intern, Eric Cele


The new pipe is 300 mm in diameter and 1.5 km long. It crosses the M13 from Old Main Road and exits in front of Standard Bank in Village Road. It then continues down St. Mary’s Road, past St Mary’s School, turns left into Edgecliff Road, passes through a servitude into Jerome Place, and ends in the Jerome Drive reservoir complex.    The first phase of the Western Aqueduct – Durban’s largest ever water pipeline – was commissioned in June 2011 and covered 19 km from Umlaas Road to Inchanga Station. The second phase of this mega project is progressing well after being unbundled into individual contracts that are being rolled out over a seven-year period. When complete, the Western Aqueduct is expected to significantly strengthen the capacity of bulk water supply to the western regions of eThekwini. Eric Cele and Precious Radebe, both graduate interns at EWS, itemise the final work required for the completion of the new water pipe to the Jerome Drive reservoir in Kloof

IMIESA June 2014


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Bitumen roads construction National roads make up 200 986 km of the network, 64 346 km of which are paved. Given that 89 per cent of South Africa’s freight is road bound, extensive investment into our highways and byways is planned by the National Planning Commission. Nicholas McDiarmid, editor, examines the increasing demand for road-building materials and services.


ITH INCREASING energy costs and general environmental considerations, there is global attention on reused Asphalt, or RAP, as well as on warm and cold asphalt technology. The pressure to recycle pavements and use other materials, such as truck tyre rubber in asphalt pavements, is peaking, with SANRAL making it a requirement in all new road tenders. This, coupled with a strained supply of bitumen – driven by oil industry technology innovations – has put pressure on public roads agencies and contractors alike. Public agencies are also gradually moving towards performance-based specifications, per cent within limit specifications, and warranty projects. This means that new compaction technologies, sometimes referred to as

‘intelligent compaction’, will be increasingly more important in providing more homogeneous final compacted pavement layers. Finally, there is a strong trend towards the use of polymer modification to increase the life of pavements.

Accommodating equipment Cold and warm in-situ pavement recycling technologies have led to several innovations in equipment, notably the introduction of steam into the bitumen to induce foaming, manipulating the viscosity of binding agents in order to lower temperatures for mixing and paving through chemical manipulation. Similarly, the focus on performance-related specifications, per cent within limit specifications, and warranty projects is



Predicted fatigue ranking 20oC – 1% 20oC – 2.3% 10oC – 1% 10oC – 2,3%

Experimental 50/70





50/70 Penetration grade (2010)





50/70 Penetration grade (2012)





A-P1 EVA-modified binder





A-E1 Terpolymer-modified binder





A-E2 SBS-modified binder





IMIESA June 2014

leading to an overall increased pressure to increase the quality of paving jobs. Segregation is now being recognised as a problem that can be fixed through good paving and compaction practices. It is likely that we will soon see new compactors that further minimise segregation problems and promote homogeneity of air void distributions within the compacted layer. Finally, we will see much wider use and further development of compactors with some kind of ‘intelligent compaction’ technologies that allow for a reduction in the variability of the compacted pavement and thus increased pavement life. There is consensus that the introduction of polymer modifications, which extend the life of asphalt pavements, is a crucial development in road building. However the innovation with the most impact is the use of intelligent compaction technologies, which hold the promise of contractors being able to reduce the variability of the final product much more systematically than previously, thus leading to increased pavement quality and durability of finished pavements. The move to cold and warm asphalt technologies is likely to dominate the market in the medium term, along with a greater use of special pavers that deliver two or more


layers of asphalt at the same time to minimise problems with bonding between layers. It is even conceivable that paving technologies that deliver directly composite pavement systems for increased pavement life will emerge. Intelligent compaction technologies will develop to a point where they have become a standard part of paving jobs. Importantly, whole-life pavement analysis and design methods will be developed. These will directly incorporate the variability – as obtained from the compactor into the design framework in real time – to allow for a direct evaluation of increased or decreased construction variability on pavement life.

Bitumen binders – a work in progress The South African Bitumen Association (Sabita) was commissioned to investigate dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) based

FIGURE 1 The correlation between m values determined by BBR at different temperatures

methods for assessing a binder’s resistance to viscous deformation, fatigue and temperature fracture. A report has since come to hand and some of the preliminary findings are briefly presented here. Specifically, the work assigned to the CSIR Built Environment division comprised the following components: • a DSR-based method for determining binder stiffness and stress-relaxation properties to counter temperature fracture • examination of the binder yield energy

test (BYET) as an expedient monotonic alternative to cyclical tests to measure a binder’s resistance to fatigue • selection of appropriate stress levels for the multi-stress creep recovery (MSCR) test to characterise a binder’s resistance to viscous deformation. Recommendations are to be made on the suitability of the test methods and procedures investigated.

Resistance to temperature fracture using the DSR Following a literature sur vey and a collaborative meeting with Prof Hussain Bahia of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, comparative testing of 20 selected neat and modified binders, using the Bending IMIESA June 2014

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Beam Rheometer (BBR) and DSR, was carried out. The BBR procedure, used as a datum or reference for the binder’s stiffness and relaxation properties at low temperatures, measures the creep stiffness, S, and the stress relaxation parameter, m. High creep stiffness is indicative of the potential for high thermal stresses to be developed. A low value of the slope of the stiffness cur ve against loading time (m) indicates a lesser ability to relax stresses. It is therefore customar y to specify an upper limit for S and a minimum limit for m. By measuring the complex modulus G* and phase angle, a method suggested by Anderson (1994), enables the conversion of DSR data to stiffness data, based on the following empirical equation: S(t) = 1/D(t) =  3G* (σ) [1+0,2sin(26)] Where tχ 1/σ


IMIESA June 2014

S(t) is the creep stiffness at time t (Pa) D(t) is the extensional creep compliance at time t (1/Pa) G* (σ) is the complex modulus at frequency σ (Pa) 6 is the phase angle at frequency σ (degrees) σ is the frequency (rad/s) As suggested by Petersen et al., 1994 and Ferry, 1980, an approximation of m(t) can be obtained through the following equation: |m(t)| = d[logS(t)] = d[logG*(σ)] d[log(t)] d(logσ) Where m is the creep rate of the binder under load or the slope of the S(t) vs. time or the slope of G* vs frequency plot at a given frequency for dynamic shear data; G* (σ) is the complex modulus at frequency σ (Pa); σ is the frequency (rad/s).

Comparative testing of a selection of 8 neat and 12 modified binders using the BBR and DSR led the researchers to conclude that the DSR can be used successfully to simulate the function of a BBR. Establishing test temperatures relative to the climatic zones requires further consideration by the PG task group. The figure below illustrates the correlation between m values determined by BBR at -6°C and predicted by the DSR technique at 5°C.

Establishing a procedure to determine the binder fatigue characteristics In this section the following activities were carried out: • a literature review and summary to establish the current state of the art •  the selection of six mixes with similar grading and film thickness along with their four point beam fatigue results • testing of the six binders used in the six mixes using the BYET. The following binders were evaluated with the BYET: 



A start-up company in Idaho, USA, has been developing ‘smart’ solar road panels to form a new ‘smart’ highway. Their technology combines a transparent driving surface with underlying embedded solar cells, electronics and sensors to act as a both a solar array and programmable roadway. A photovoltaic solar road is a road surface that generates electricity by collecting solar power with photovoltaics. This is not to be confused with a variant concept of a ‘solar road’ installed in Avenhorn, a village in northern Holland, by Ooms Avenhorn Holding AV, which uses asphalt and tarmac to absorb the sun’s rays. The concept is to replace current petroleum-based asphalt roads, parking lots, and driveways with photovoltaic solar road panels that generate renewable energy that may be used by homes and businesses, and with any excess energy perhaps stored in or alongside the road. Parking lots, driveways, streets and eventually highways are all targets for the panels. Prototype The existing prototype panel consists of three layers. 1. R  oad surface layer – translucent and high-strength, it is rough enough to provide sufficient traction, yet still passes sunlight through to the solar collector cells embedded within, along with LEDs and a heating element. This layer needs to be •  experimental 50/70 penetration grade binder created in a laboratory • 50/70 penetration grade bitumen, produced in 2010 • 50/70 penetration grade bitumen, produced in 2012 • A-P1: EVA-modified binder • A-E1:terpolymer-modified binder • A-E2: SBS-modified binder. Binders were assessed according to energy dissipated up to maximum stress, strain at maximum stress and total energy dissipated up to 2 700% strain for 1%/s strain rate and up to 4 140% strain for 2.3%/s – all at 10 and 20 degrees centigrade. The table below shows the ranking of the binders based on the total energy dissipated. The researchers note that the ranking of the binders at 20 degrees centigrade, 2.3% strain rate, is identical to that at 10 degrees centigrade, 1% strain rate. A further component of this study was to correlate the fatigue parameters with the four point beam fatigue results obtained on mixes previously manufactured FIGURE 2 Stress dependency of JNR of modified binders at 58°C

capable of handling today's heaviest loads under the worst of conditions and be weatherproof, to protect the electronics layer beneath it. The surface layer will also be responsible for redirecting sunlight to hit the solar panels at the optimal angle. 2. Electronics layer – Contains a microprocessor board with support circuitry for sensing loads on the surface and controlling a heating element with a view to reducing or eliminating snow and ice removal, as well as school and business closings due to inclement weather. The microprocessor controls lighting, communications, monitoring, etc. With a communications device every 12 ft (3.7 m), a solar roadway can be an intelligent highway system. 3. B  ase plate layer – While the electronics layer collects energy from the sun, it is the base plate layer that distributes that power as well as data signals (phone, TV, internet, etc.) down the line to all homes and businesses connected to the solar roadway. It needs to be weatherproof to protect the electronics layer above it. Post-modern funding for very modern road The company that invented the prototype recently raised over $1 million in seed money through social funding, utilising social media such as Facebook to market the idea and appeal for funding.

with the binders tested. As the mixes were manufactured from three different aggregate compositions, there was some concern regarding the validity of the intended correlation. While some researchers (Gibson, 2012) have found binder type to have a strong influence on the fatigue life of asphalt mixes, other factors, such as aggregate packing, are also significant contributors and could not be ruled out of any analysis. Of all the BYET parameters investigated, the total yield energy at 20°C and the yield energy to maximum stress determined at 20°C, 2.3%/s, appears to be the most promising. However, it is not recommended that the BYET procedure be instituted as a

fatigue evaluation test in South Africa at this stage. Further investigation seems to be necessary.

Appropriate stress level for the MSCR test This task entailed the testing of 10 binders (three neat and modified) for stress sensitivity with regards to the non-recoverable compliance (JNR). The current stress level of 3.2 kPa adopted in this test as per AASHTO M320 is based on the assumption that the G*/sin criteria for neat bitumen do represent their rutting potential. A review of results of MSCR studies conducted on many neat binders by D’Angelo indicated that most binders behaved in a linear fashion typically up to the 3.2 kPa stress level. Since the AASHTO M320 specification is based on measurements in the linear viscoelastic range, it appeared to make sense that the JNR was chosen to be performed within the linear range, i.e. at 3.2 kPa. However, it was felt that such a low stress level may not gauge the behaviour of (especially crosslinked) polymer modified binders; hence a higher level should be investigated. 

IMIESA June 2014


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OVERVIEW OF SURFACING AGGREGATES Surfacing aggregate are those aggregates used in the production of the surface layer of road construction usually applied by chip spreaders. These aggregates shall comply with the relevant specifications. Process overview • Bitumen binder sprayed onto prepared base course layer • aggregate cover is applied immediately and rolled in order to achieve a mosaic  pattern • rolling causes binder to move into voids between the particles. Types of seals There are a number of seals in use: • single seal • double seal (bituminous) • bituminous single seal with slurry (Cape seal) • sand seal.

Conducting the MSCR test at both 58°C and 64°C revealed the following trends – similar to those encountered in the literature survey:

Single seal The construction of new surfaces as well as overlays for the rehabilitation of existing surfaces. Coarse aggregate consists of crushed stone complying with the requirements of COLTO. Fine aggregate may be natural sand or crusher sand, complying with the project specifications. • Traffic volume determines the aggregate size • layers with aggregate larger than 13.2 mm may require a second application of binder • pre-coating of aggregates should be considered to improve adhesion.

Slurry seal • For roads with varying surface texture • a uniform texture results from slurry application • slurry seals are also used for pretreatment before single or double seals • not advisable for smooth-textured surfaces.

Double seal A double seal is constructed using a combination of either 19.0 & 9.5, 13.2 & 6.7 mm, or 19.0 & 6.7 mm aggregate. • Two layers where the top layer contains a smaller aggregate than the bottom layer • larger aggregates are suitable for roads carrying heavy traffic.

Sand seal As the specification is essentially for use in low-cost construction, the grading of the sand may vary. Fine aggregate must be crusher sand complying with COLTO standards. Fine aggregate may be natural sand or crusher sand, complying with the project specifications. Water may be used to assist the screening process and to clean the sand of excess fines. The sand equivalent shall be at least 35. • Use on low-traffic roads and as a dust palliative. • use as pre-treatment for construction of single and double seals.

• the stress sensitivity of the binders increase with increasing temperature • the modified binders are more stresssensitive than the neat binders.

The figure below illustrates the stress dependency of the binders tested, ranging from the relative insensitivity of the AP1  binder to the more stress-sensitive A-H1.

IMIESA June 2014



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Manager for Roads and Highways Western Cape Upgrade of MR172 between Pniel and Johannesdal

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The environmental impact of road building and maintenance is receiving a lot of attention from manufacturers, suppliers, engineers and contractors. With a genuine desire to reduce energy consumed during roadworks, the reuse of asphalt, bitumen foaming and more intelligent and efficient equipment are just some of the methods emerging as best practice in this market. According Tim Saks, managing director of Reliance Laboratory Equipment, most road-building processes lend themselves to improved efficiencies, particularly those dependent on heat. “My grandfather, who was an engineer, invented a compactor back in the 1950s that was unique to the South African market. It was capable of working at double the speed of the European machines and was great for productivity. Unfortunately, these machines have to be restrained now in order to meet various standards, but it remains an

industry standard. The Reliance MOD Compactor can now be found across Africa, having been introduced by South African contractors.” Reliance Laboratories was established in 1952 and has been supplying clients with a full range of services and products in the material-testing field, as well as a wide range of laboratory equipment. Working together with its sister company, Reliance General Engineering Works, which manufactures material testing equipment, the company has always been geared towards high efficiency. “We bring a lot of eco-friendly equipment to the market, with a special focus on heat reduction. One of our innovations has been in the drying of asphalt moulds. Traditionally, drying moulds has been done using heat, and was especially energy intensive. Our product – the CoreDry – uses vacuum technology instead of heat. We have also

developed a refrigeration method that traps moisture, reducing the need for vacuum pumps.” With regards to the state of the road industry today, Saks is optimistic: “The industry is beginning to move again; there is a lot of work to be done. We see the appointment of Pravin Gordhan as head of Cooperative Governance as a very positive move, but we still want to see more action taken to eliminate the corruption at local government level. It does seem that this is finally beginning to happen,” concludes Saks.

Since results to date show that the stress level at which JNR is determined will most likely influence the performance ranking

of especially modified binders, the stress level should be selected with due care. The report by the CSIR Built Environment

division has been circulated to members of the PG specification task group for consideration and debate.

IMIESA June 2014

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New compact plant runs up to 30% reclaimed asphalt

An exceptional asphalt plant that Johannesburg-based Osborn has added to its product line-up is set to make its mark in the South African road building industry.


SBORN PRODUCT sales manager for asphalt equipment, Peet Eksteen, reveals that the new Voyager 120 plant offers a compact, highly portable design. But, what is really special about this unit, is its ability to run up to 30% reclaimed (or recycled) asphalt, he notes. “This is unique for a plant in this class, and with new road contracts in South Africa now requiring the addition IMIESA June 2014



of recycled asphalt to the mix, the need for contractors to have a plant with a recycled asphalt capability has become a must,” Eksteen says. The Voyager 120 is manufactured in the USA by Dillman Equipment, which, like Osborn, is a member of the Astec Industries group of companies. As the official agent in sub-Saharan Africa for this machine, Osborn will offer after-sales service, back-up and spares for it. While it is brand new on the South African market, Eksteen reports that it has already attracted significant interest


from the industry, and Osborn has sold a retrofit of the Voyager drum to a client with another asphalt plant. The Voyager 120 is built around a counter-flow drum featuring Astec V-flights, he explains. “These V-flights provide greater uniformity of the aggregate veil during the drying process, which results in better heat transfer, a reduction of fuel use, and increased productivity.” To enhance the Voyager’s portability, a hydraulically driven swing-out drag and batcher can be set and ready to go in about

10 minutes. Other features of this plant – which boasts a capacity of 120 tph – include a reverse-pulse baghouse, a controls cab with fully automated PLC controls, gravity take-up with direct drive and up to five cold feed bins and two reclaimed asphalt bins. Air-ride suspension provides a smooth ride and allows for fast set-up times by raising and lowering the drum into place. The Voyager 120 also features Astec’s industry-exclusive weigh system. Eksteen elaborates: “This aggregate weigh system provides the ultimate accuracy by using a four-point system that includes adjustable feed gate, weigh scale, S-type tracking system and gravity take-up.” The Voyager’s manual gate adjustment allows for a full and accurate adjustment of material feed safely outside the main frame, while the unit’s safety is enhanced with folding safety handrails for baghouse access along with folding ladder for transport. “We are very excited about opportunities for the Voyager 120 in the South African market,” Eksteen concludes.

IMIESA June 2014

Welcome to the future – a future of Mwangaza We are all writing a part of the script which tomorrow’s society will play out. At Royal HaskoningDHV we would like the title to read: ‘Welcome to the future’ - and for our chapter in that script to read ‘Mwangaza’ - a Swahili word which means ‘light’. Together with our partners and clients we consider how we can create a welcoming future - developing efficient and smart living. Whether switching on a light, travelling to work or drinking a clean glass of water - the solutions and work of our engineers surround us, making lives better and brighter. Our work contributes to the sustainable development of communities. Together, we deliver innovative sustainable answers to today’s challenges. Royal HaskoningDHV is an independent, international engineering and project management consultancy.



Determining the best BRT for eThekwini BRT systems are fast becoming part of the South African urban landscape. In the first part of this two-part article, the authors set about defining BRT systems, look at their history and examine configurations, factors and options. Part two will be published in the July 2014 edition of IMIESA. By Emmanuel Adewumi and Dhiren Allopi, Durban University of Technology


N INTEGRATED transport network that incorporates the various modes of transport and technologies available to improve accessibility in a cost effective way is crucial for efficiencies all round in the eThekwini municipal area. A critical review of literature, assessment of the functional BRT (bus rapid transit) systems in South Africa and the proposed routes of the eThekwini BRT system are analysed in this article. Pros and cons of, and the way forward for, each functional BRT system are highlighted. Tables 4 and 5 show the possible guidelines to be followed in the implementation of the proposed BRT system. There have been historical disproportions in the South African transport system, which resulted from the apartheid city structure. In this perspective, the public transport Action Agenda has been set up to continually reform the current transport system to provide accessibility to all passengers.

The motivation The eThekwini municipal population is about 3.5 million, 1 679 040 males and 1 763 321 females, and is located on the east coast of South Africa, in the province of KwaZuluNatal. The majority of the population is between the ages of 15 and 34. The reason for the proposed BRT system in the eThekwini Municipal Area (EMA) is not only to move passengers in a comfortable way, but also to make the city more efficient by reducing the cost of travel, travel length and developing an integrated transport network that incorporates the various modes of transport and

technologies available to improve accessibility in a cost-effective way. The demand evaluation of eThekwini’s Integrated Rapid Public Transport Network (IRPTN) was done in two ways: developing of base-year demand matrices and demand forecasting (eThekwini Municipality, 2012a). However, demand is pertinent when restructuring public transport systems (Moodley et al., 2011). In this light, the research presents how an appropriate BRT system could be determined for the EMA in Durban, South Africa.

Defining BRT BRT can simply be defined as a rapid mode of transportation that can blend the quality of rail transit with the flexibility of buses

(Thomas, 2001). The Transport Research Board (2001), cited in Levinson et al (2002), defined BRT in a more simplified and understandable way as a flexible, rubber-tired rapid transit mode that combines running way, intelligent transportation system (ITS) elements, stations, vehicles and services into an integrated system with a strong, positive image and identity. BRT is a project embarked on in phases, as fund and opportunity permit, because of the service flexibility.

IMIESA June 2014



FIGURE 1 IRPTN trunk routes Source: eThekwini Municipality, 2011

the replication of the BRT concept gained momentum and BRT systems were opened in Quito, Ecuador (1996), Los Angeles, USA (1999) and Bogotá, Colombia (2000) (Ernst, 2005). The TransMilenio project in Bogotá started operation in 2000 and its success, in particular, drew attention from the world community as an example of the state of the art in BRT systems. As of 2005, there may be up to 70 systems around the world, depending on one’s definition of BRT (Levinson et al, 2003; Wright, 2005). The BRT systems that were considered through in-depth literature outside the shores of South Africa are shown in Table 1, relative to the lane configurations used.

Historical development of the BRT system The large-scale development of the BRTs started in Curitiba (Brazil) in 1974 and, before then, there were several smaller-scale projects earlier in its development. After


the success of effective BRT in Curitiba, Curitiba’s experience inspired other cities to develop similar systems (Matsumoto, 2006). In the 1970s, development of BRT systems was limited to the North and South American continents. In the late 1990s,

Lane configurations of BRT systems These forms of BRT system – kerbside lane, median lane and segregation lane differ in benefits. Moreover, as the investment in BRT systems increases across the

IMIESA June 2014

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globe, there is also an improvement in the travel speed and high-quality stations. Bus lanes, indented bus stops, signal priority and regulatory signs are the simplest form of improvement of the BRT system in the world. In Canberra, Australia, the kerbside lane BRT system is provided with a dedicated and continuous lane for buses to travel against the kerb edge of the road. The bus stops are fairly designed in such a way that it guarantees easy access to the surrounding streets. The main problem is when other vehicles need to cross the dedicated lane into driveways and side streets (Valley Transpor tation Authority Transit Sustainability Policy, 2007). A median lane BRT system is when the lane is situated alongside the median, for instance Adelaide Avenue in Australia; the median is protected possibly with some physical barriers to keep the vehicles off the lane. Bus stations are developed at key locations, which are usually adjacent to the major side street. Passengers are assisted with pedestrian crossways through the traffic signal or overhead walkways. Though an improvement over kerbside BRT, median lane BRT still suffers delays at the intersections; these can be reduced through signal priority measures (Valley Transportation Authority Transit Sustainability Policy, 2007). Segregated lane BRT is fully separated from other traffic either via elevated structures or tunnels. Brisbane and Adelaide in Australia operate this kind of BRT system, which offers a fast operating speed when compared with other types of BRT systems and bus services. The main challenge in this kind of BRT system is that it requires a huge financial investment (ACT Government, 2012).

Factors that determine the type of BRT system to be adopted In determining the type of BRT to be adopted anywhere in the world, there are some factors that need to be put into proper consideration, including the number of passengers to be carried, available road space/land, funding available for the implementation of the BRT system and the time-travel benefits that need to be achieved. The implementation of a BRT system is simply considered flexible in the sense that one method of it can be adopted and then another can be transitioned to seamlessly, just like in Belconnen, Australia, which operates different types of BRT systems in one corridor.

TABLE 1: The adopted lane configurations of some of the BRT systems outside the shore of South Africa

Lane configurations

BRT systems

Physically separated median lane

Quito BRT system, Ecuador

Physically separated median lane

Bogota BRT system, Colombia

Grade-separated roadway and majorly using a Ottawa, Canada railroad right of way 24-hr kerbside lane between Mona Vale and Neutral North-South corridor, Sydney Bay and operates at the median/centre of the lane Median Istanbul BRT system, Turkey Median

Beijing southern BRT system, China


Visakhapatnam BRT system, India


Delhi BRT system, India

Both median and kerbside

Seoul BRT system, South Korea


Houston BRT system, USA

Kerb bus lanes and bus subway (segregated)

Boston BRT system, USA


Seattle BRT system, USA

Bus-only street

Vancouver BRT, Canada


Lagos BRT system, Nigeria

Abandoned rail line used as the busway

Miami BRT system, USA


Montreal BRT system, Canada


Pittsburgh BRT system, USA


Los Angeles BRT system

Median busways longitudinally segregated

Curitiba BRT system, Brazil

Source: Adewumi, 2014 Second, the BRT system can be built gradually if needed, without interrupting the operation of the existing bus in such a corridor (ACT Government, 2012).

Current BRT system in South Africa The commuters of Gauteng province have been using a BRT system called Rea Vaya, which means “we are going”. It was the first of its kind in the history of South Africa. Phase One of the BRT system came into effect on 30 August 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa, along the main routes linking Soweto to the centre of Johannesburg. Other functional BRT systems can be found in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth (Thomas, 2010).

Bus options for BRT Buses employed in a BRT system could be standard, standard high-capacity, doubledecker, articulated and bi-articulated or double-decker articulated buses.

Standard bus This kind of bus has a seating capacity that varies from 35 to 70 pax, is 12.5 m in length with 2 to 3 doors for boarding and alighting. A standard high-capacity bus shares the same features with a standard bus if not for the length, which is 14.5 m, which makes it accommodate more passengers

when compared to a standard bus. Due to its length, it will be difficult to negotiate a very tight corner, either to the left or right. A double-decker standard, likewise, shares the features with a standard bus except for the number of doors, which is 1 to 3. This is not used in a place/corridor with height restriction. It is used for a longer distance because of its slow boarding/alighting times and increased number of passengers (ACT Government, 2012).

Articulated bus This is when a bus (length: 18.5 m, number of doors: 2 to 5, seating capacity, including the driver, more than 70) consists of more than one rigid section, which is permanently interconnected to each other with a jointed section, which allows free movement of passengers from one part to the other. The articulated section can only be disjointed by an operation involving facilities which are only found in the workshop. Bi-articulated or double-decker articulated buses (length: 12.5 m, number of doors: 3 to 5, seating capacity including the driver: more than 70) are when there are two articulated sections in a bus (Delhi Transport Cooperation). They tend to consume space because of the length, so it is best used in a corridor/stop  with high passenger demands.

IMIESA June 2014



TABLE 2 IRPTN phasing plan



Planned Start Year

Phase 0

Restructuring of Durban Transport


Phase 1

C1, C3, C9


Phase 1 + rail

C1, C3, C9, C2


Phase 2

C5, C7


Phase 3

C4, C8


Phase 4



growth and development and also offer a strong transport service to the airport workers and users.

Corridor C9: Bridge City to Umhlanga This also forms part of the Phase 1 BRT system and links the growth areas of Umhlanga and Bridge City. This corridor is the shortest at 13 km, as shown in Figure 1.

Source: eThekwini Municipality, 2011

Trunk corridor demand estimates Integrated rapid public transport network (IRPTN) route structure and description The main trunk routes of the BRT system with the eThekwini Municipality are shown in Figure 1: There are seven main trunk routes for the BRT system; three of them would be first considered. It is stratified into phases ranging from Phase 0 to Phase 4, in the order of implementation (Table 2). The planning is on Phase 1, the preliminary design has been done but the final design would take 6 months to a year before execution of the work can start. From the Bridge City Terminal Station, the ROW is shared with C3 and C9 through a tunnel up to a junction alongside the M25 West offramp. C1, C3 and C9 are planned to run to median lane configuration except where C1 and C3 share a dedicated ROW from the junction (M25 West) running kerbside along the southern edge of the M25, up to Malandela Road. C1 then continues along Malandela Road within the centre of the road, see Appendix E (eThekwini Municipality, 2012b). Routes C1 to C9 are explained below (Ethekwini Municipality, 2012a)

Route C1: Bridge City to CBD via KwaMashu It is a 25.3 km BRT corridor that provides connections into the central business district to widen access to employment, which provides capacity between two major centres of employment and other activities.

Route C2: Bridge City and KwaMashu through Berea Road to Umlazi and Isipingo This is an existing rail track that will be upgraded to 60 km in length to provide a more reliable, intensive and higher capacity service, linking Umlazi and Isipingo. Many of the stations in place would be serviced by the IRPTN services, enabling integration of the service to other public transport and provide a wide range of job opportunities.


IMIESA June 2014

Route C3: Bridge City to Pinetown This is a 27.5 km BRT route that provides connection between two major centres in a route that is highly difficult to navigate at the moment. Interchange opportunities will be made available at Bridge City (C1, C2, C4 and C9) and the Pinetown area (C6 and C7).

Route C4: Bridge City to Mobeni and Rossburgh It is a 34 km corridor that provides the opportunity to avoid the need of passenger transfer at Warwick Junction, with the route splitting to give access to Rossburgh and Mobeni.

Route C5: Chatsworth to CBD Route C5 is a 23 km corridor that offers direct service from the CBD and Warwick to Chatsworth. It will be a combination of BRT and light rail (LRT – light rapid transit) services using former heavy rail alignments, platforms and on-street sections to access Chatsworth town.

Route C6: Hammarsdale and Pinetown to Warwick This is a 64 km corridor linking Pinetown to Warwick Junction and some services would be extended to Hammarsdale as an improved means of accessing Mpumalanga and its rural area with feeder services.

Route C7: Hillcrest to Chatsworth This 36 km route links Hillcrest with Pinetown (connecting with C6 to Warwick) to Chatsworth. C7 was planned to be part of C5 but it was separated from the network because of the operating distance.

The demand for the trunk and feeder network was estimated based on the public transport trip matrices for the projection years 2015 and 2025, as shown in Table 3, supplied by the eThekwini Municipality. The demand was calculated for each corridor based on proportioning demand from matrix zones to trunk network stops. For trips which involve travel within more than one corridor, interchange stops were identified and boardings/ alightings were allocated to those stops as appropriate (GOBA, 2012).

Discussion of the results Interpretations in line with the indepth literature review Cost implication Cost is an important factor to be put in place during the construction or execution of a project. As there are common features attributed to any BRT lane configuration, there are also some forms of structure in one configuration that cannot be implemented in the others. The capital cost, which is the cost of design, engineering, project management, construction of corridors, stations, purchasing of vehicles and installing of supporting system like security, ITS and fare collection, with the exclusion of the maintenance cost and replacement of facilities cost. Kerbside and median lane configurations are less expensive when compared to a segregated BRT system because of its aerial or underground busway. A kerbside BRT system does not need a pedestrian bridge while a median needs a pedestrian bridge which is safer than a grade pedestrian crossway.

Pedestrian crossing Route C8: Tongaat and King Shaka to Umhlanga and Warwick There is a 41 km rail service linking Tongaat but the BRT system would provide a service that links Tongaaat and King Shaka International to Umhlanga and Warwick. This route is expected to experience increased

Among the key components of BRT design and planning is pedestrian safety, and convenient and secure access to the facility. If these are not put into proper consideration, commuters will be utterly discouraged about the system. Pedestrian crossing should be controlled traffic light, which enables both

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TABLE 3 Annual demand and passenger kilometres for trunk services 2015 (millions per annum)

Corridors C1 Bridge City to Warwick/CBD C2 Bridge City/KwaMashu to Umlazi/Isipingo C3 Bridge City to Pinetwon C4 Bridge City to Merebank and Rossburgh C5 Mpumalanga & Pinetown to Warwick C6 Chatsworth to CBD C7 Hillcrest & Umhlanga to Durban C8 Tongaat & Umhlanga to Durban C9 Bride City to Umhlanga Total

Demand Passenger (km) Average trip length (km) 31.13 301.13 9.7 103.46 1 218.89 11.8 20.56 11.57

170.65 123.87

8.3 10.7




16.86 25.96

205.64 196.50

12.2 7.6




12.94 260.50

86.76 2 635.60

6.7 10.1

able and physically challenged passengers to be less at risk when going to the station. In all the BRT lane configurations discussed in this study, there is also a provision for pedestrians to cross easily to where the station is situated. It is better to have a pedestrian bridge, which seems to be safer than a crosswalk, and a crosswalk controlled by a traffic light is preferable to the one that is not. It is good for a kerbside and median BRT configuration to have a pedestrian bridge for access, compared to a crosswalk. Also, for physically challenged commuters, kerbside and segregated BRT systems would be ideal because of the access to the station.

Vehicle manoeuvring In terms of the three modes of the BRT system, in respect to the lane discussed in this study, vehicle manoeuvring would pose a delay for a kerbside BRT system but the other lane configurations would be unaffected. If a kerbside system were adopted, a shoulder lane, where automobiles can park and make U-turns to their destination, should be implemented and would improve the system.

Safety Considering the three lane configurations (kerbside, median and segregated) discussed in this research study, it is safer and more cost-effective to board and alight by the kerbside of the road.

Lane configurations of cited BRT systems outside the shore of South Africa Twenty BRT systems were reviewed; the authors of the publications used were well

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versed in the philosophical study of BRT system. The literature review identified the history, feasibility study, plans of execution, usefulness and features of a BRT system. Each article was read through several times in order to understand the content. Table 1 illustrates that any lane configuration could be adopted based on these factors: available funds, ROW (access to manoeuvring for other activities) and available road space, as discussed in the literature.

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Vehicle transport option To be able to select the appropriate vehicle option for a BRT system for a particular area or corridor, the transport demand, coverage/ distance to be covered and length of public transport delay, due to general traffic conditions, must be put into proper consideration. If the transport demand and coverage are low, a standard bus could be selected over other modes of bus options and, in order to enhance rebranding and marketing strategies, a stylised bus could be picked over others provided the condition is the same as above. However, if the length of public transport delay experienced at a particular suggested corridor or area is low, a standard bus system could be appropriate over the modes of bus option and to enhance marketing and branding or rebranding, a stylised bus could be the best to be selected. Conclusively, they offer cost effectiveness when compared to light-rail transit. In part two of this article, the authors present an interpretation of their findings, examining running ways, branding, stations, intelligent transport systems and draw conclusion based on best practise of these finding.

IMIESA June 2014

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‘Green’ concrete Over 1 000 m² of precast concrete panelling was used to clad a section of the external façade of No.1 Silo, South Africa’s latest and largest green office building. Completed in September 2013 at Cape Town’s V&A Waterfront and spanning 18 000 m², it is also one of Africa’s most advanced sustainable buildings.


NCORPORATING numerous green design attributes, recycled waste and heat, the use of seawater in the cooling plant, and a roof garden, to name a few, it is one of only two buildings to have been awarded a 6-Star design rating by the Green Building Council of South Africa. Developed by the V&A Waterfront, No.1 Silo’s architectural team comprised of Van der Merwe Miszewski Architects (VDMMA) in association with Rick Brown and Associates. Other members of the consulting team included Mace (project managers), MLC (quantity surveyors), Sutherland Consulting Engineers (structural engineers), ARUP (façade, wet

ABOVE Textured concrete panelling graces the western core of No.1 Silo RIGHT Smooth-face concrete panelling on the western aspect of No.1 Silo nears completion

IMIESA June 2014



LEFT Workers attach chains to a textured concrete panel prior to lifting by a specially manufactured crane. The protruding corbels can be clearly seen on the panel’s inner face

services and rational fire engineers) and Collaboration (interiors architects).

Energy-conserving constructs

No.1 Silo’s textured panelling clearly demonstrates the aesthetic attributes of precast concrete

Most of the development was clad with double glazing, automatically controlled blinds, which track the sun, and an external singleglazed skin. The blinds prevent unwanted heat gain and control solar glare and the double-glazing prevents radiant heat loss or gain and maximises views and natural light throughout the building. The precast concrete panelling was supplied and installed by Concrete Manufacturers Association (CMA) member, Concrete Units. According to architect Karien Trengove, of VDMMA, the panelling was specified to dress 280 mm masonry cavity walls on the building’s two service cores and western façade, and to distinguish them from the glazed façade of the atrium and office floors. Both textured and flat panels were specified for aesthetic reasons and to give different functions unique identities. One hundred and eighty concrete panel sections, 120 mm thick, were supplied by Concrete Units, 132 with textured (RECKLI Tigris) façades and 48 in flat smooth-face finishes. The former were used on the service cores – the east core measuring ± 128 m² and the west core 738 m². They were manufactured in 17 dimensions, the smallest spanning 1 590 x 1 750 mm and the largest extending to 1 705 x 4 295 mm. The smooth-face panels were supplied in eight sizes and clad a ± 320 m² directional wall on the western façade. The largest measured 2 650 x 3 760 mm and weighed 3.4 tonnes. Smaller smooth panels were also used at the base of the west core to create a plinth line at ground level.

Managing the panels

In keeping with the design ethos of the building, the overall carbon footprint of each panel was reduced through the manufacturing process


IMIESA June 2014

Structural engineer, Justin Arendse, of Sutherland Consulting Engineers, said a combination of steel sub-frames, corbels and dowels were used to anchor the individual panels to either the façade sub-structure or the protruding concrete slab edges. “Each panel was lowered from the roof into position using a purpose-made six-tonne crane and a four-man cage. The reason for this was that the project’s tower crane had a


maximum lifting capacity of only one tonne at the end of its reach. Lifting and then lowering the sections into position required meticulous care and coordination between the cage team and the crane operator and, on average, only three panels could be installed each working day,” commented Arendse. Two 12 mm galvanised steel dowels were cast into the bottom end of each panel. Designed to be epoxied into the guides of the panels below, they provided a vertical connection between each panel and facilitated continuity through the panel joints, thereby transferring wind loads to the corbels at each level. Two further dowels, 20 mm in diameter and also galvanised, were cast into the supporting ledge and epoxied into the panel corbels. Their prime function was to lock the corbels permanently into position after the grouting had been completed and they also acted as guiding pins during installation. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) shims, wedged between the floor ledge and the corbels, were used to ensure that the panels were perfectly aligned before grouting took place.

ABOVE This photo demonstrates how the corbels rest on the ledges. The dowels, which lock the corbels into position, can be clearly seen protruding from the ledge in the foreground. Next to them, the HDPE shims, which are used to align the panels, are also visible RIGHT A textured concrete panel is carefully lowered into position on the northern aspect of No.1 Silo

Lower carbon footprint Trengove added that in keeping with the design ethos of the building, the overall carbon footprint of the each panel was reduced through the manufacturing process. “They were produced using recycled reinforcing and a slag-waste cement extender sourced

from the Saldanha steel mills. Once the moulds were stripped, the panels were tilted into a vertical position and then stored on an A-frame steel rack before delivery to site. “Far from being dull and boring, this panelling demonstrates how, when correctly designed and applied, concrete façades can be extremely attractive,” says Trengove.

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Developing disaster management in SA

Speaking to Andries Fourie of SRK Consulting, Nicholas McDiarmid discusses the basis of disaster management and touches on the current state of disaster and risk management in South Africa today.


S A DISCIPLINE, disaster and risk management delves into areas that may seem arcane and unfamiliar, but have a direct impact on our daily lives. For municipalities, having an approved disaster management plan is a legal requirement.

The building blocks Before any plan is developed, it is crucial to perform a cohesive risk assessment. “In doing an integrated risk assessment, you have to start somewhere, and a good place to start is with census data,” explains Fourie. “This data can tell us many things beyond a simple head count. By mining the data effectively, we can discover who is living in what type of dwelling, occurrences of previous disasters in the area, land use and societal specifications,” explains Fourie. SRK is currently developing a disaster management plan for the city of eThekwini which makes for an interesting example of developing an integrated risk assessment. “eThekwini’s South Durban Basin is South Africa’s primary port for all oil imports. One hundred per cent of South Africa’s imported oil comes through the port, is refined in the area, and from there, it enters the national

pipeline. It is for this reason that a detailed risk and vulnerability assessment needs to be carried out to identify potential risks and to define proactive mitigation measures.” Understanding that the focus is on eThekwini as a whole, how does risk assessment morph into a plan? “You have to finish the whole assessment first before you do anything else,” says Fourie. Disaster management plans are dynamic and changeable: “Another method we use is to compare risk factors with other metros of a similar

size. Assumptions have to be made with data, such as growth factors, development changes and changes in the risk and vulnerability profile of a municipality. Other assumptions must be challenged. For example, one might well assume that a shack dweller is more at risk than those in formal housing. The Haiti experience proved that assumption to be completely wrong, and it turned out that formal home dwellers in those circumstances were far worse affected than the shack dwellers.” The

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IMIESA June 2014



initial assessment can take as along six months to complete.

qualifications were offered by UNISA, with international accreditation, and now there are several degrees out there, and no one agrees about the value of any of them. This needs standardisation as with such a wide variety of sources of information, getting professional consensus remains a challenge,” explains Fourie.

National lines of responsibility “The Disaster Management Act was promulgated in 2002 – 12 years ago – so its requirements should have already been implemented, as a district municipality- and metro level responsibility. At national level, we have a functioning disaster management centre and things are going well, but for a lot of smaller municipalities, especially at district levels, the budgets have simply not catered for disaster management plans. These are an expensive exercise, if done properly, as it takes months of work to complete a plan and in many cases this simply hasn’t been budgeted for.” Fourie also notes that capacity issues in local government may also play a negative role in getting municipalities up to date with the Disaster Management Act.


Defining disaster

Qualifications and standards Fourie explains that in South Africa, there are many disparate courses and degrees that focus on disaster management but there is a lot of work needed to standardise the qualifications. “There is still a lot of debate over what qualifications are relevant. The problem is that disaster management grew out of many disparate fields. The very first

IMIESA June 2014

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In the world of disaster management, defining disaster is another crucial issue. “We have to overcome the perception of what a disaster is. People see anything untoward as a disaster, but what actually constitutes a disaster is a situation in which the local resources available to deal with a problem are below the level required to cope. When the situation exceeds the abilities and capacities of the local resources, only then can it be defined as a disaster. There are certain separate standards that are required – for traffic services, fire




services and so on – and these standards are diversified across these disciplines. “By way of example, if you have a ten-car pile-up in the middle of nowhere, and just one ambulance, that would be a disaster. So it’s all about the context of the incident, not the scale of it.”

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The role of institutional memory in disaster management A key challenge facing disaster management in South Africa has been the loss of institutional memory at local government level. “When I think back to my eighteen years in Krugersdrop in the West Rand, I knew all the roads, the back roads, the higher-risk structures, the types of industry and which sections of the roads are dangerous. This kind of information is gained solely through experience. Knowledge like this is irreplaceable. In developing a disaster management plan, it is crucial to talk to the employees across disciplines at local government level in order to get as much information from them as possible. The method I use includes interviews, the presentation of maps to identify different categories of areas and focused meetings with local community representatives. I then take this information and integrate it with the societal analysis. As a process, this stimulates thought in the municipality about the risks and by playing devil’s advocate I can help stimulate ideas and concepts of risk. This is a very important part of the process as well, as it engages the team members directly into new and better perspectives. ”

Elements of risk Fourie goes on to cite other elements of an integrated risk assessment: “A review of local geology is crucial. A good example is the West Rand of Gauteng, which is geologically unstable due to being highly dolomitic. Other factors, such as access to basic services, are also crucial. eThekwini is very vulnerable to breakdowns in basic services, such as electricity and sewerage, because they are very dependent on it. It has a high density of electrification – a large percentage of the population has access to electricity and water – certainly in comparison to places like the Eastern Cape, which is off the grid in many places. In that area, the threats come from more elemental uncertainties, like drought.” Each municipality is unique in terms of its risk profile, and a risk assessment is crucial in revealing those risks. Durban has the busiest harbour in Africa and, as the direct supply route to Gauteng, what there will also affect Gauteng. eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality disaster risk assessment

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“You have to ensure that national key points are adequately catered for in disaster management plans, as per the National Key Points Act,” notes Fourie.

Current legal requirements in South Africa regarding disaster management plans According to Fourie, there are three levels to disaster management plans, each one being more specific than the last, with level three factoring in budgetary and practical responses to potential disasters. “Level one is very basic, looking at institutional readiness and the having a basic plan at hand. At present, level three remains a bit vague, especially with regards to standards of risk assessment. These are currently being redrafted to be more specific, ensuring that all bases get covered. ” Fourie notes that, currently, many municipalities are at risk and stand to be sued if they don’t take action, in line with legislation, sooner rather than later. It must furthermore be noted that the municipal manager is the responsible person regarding implementation of a disaster management plan. If this is not in place, the municipal manager may be sued in his personal capacity. He suggests that municipalities start to consult with the legal departments more and take action. In summary, whilst South Africa does have a national disaster risk management plan, and disaster management centre, the district municipalities are currently behind with their required plans and are struggling with a lack of capacity. Fourie ends on a positive note, saying, “The SABS has convened a committee looking at qualification standards for risk assessment, and this will certainly improve things.”

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Towards a public-sector GIS evaluation methodology There is a growing use of geographic information systems (GIS) within the public sector in different countries. They require a sizeable investment in terms of finances, information and communication technology (ICT) and human resources while they are largely financed by public funds. In part one of this twopart article, a method of evaluating GIS is considered. By Edward Kurwakumire, Department of Geomatics, Tshwane University of Technology


ARBEY ET AL. (1999) define information technolgy (IT) evaluation as “a process or group of parallel processes which take place at different points in time or continuously, for searching and for making explicit, quantitatively or qualitatively, all the impacts of an IT project and the programme and strategy of which it is a part.” This is achieved through the use of some criteria against some set standards and or benchmarks. Evaluation provides information for communicating to a variety of stakeholders about the progress or lack of progress of a project (Frechtling-Westat, 2002). Through this information generated from the evaluation exercise, the worth of projects can be determined. Remenyi et al. (1997) view evaluation as an important activity in ensuring information systems success. The purpose of evaluation is not only to determine the success of the implemented technology, in the case of this study, the GIS, but also the lack of success. In reality, systems and technology often do not always serve their intended users and neither do they always meet their implementation goals. This study attempts to devise a model for determining the success and failures of GIS. The feedback from the evaluation gives the possibility of change and improvement to current GIS implementations. There have been numerous researches on the benefits that can accrue from GIS including those done by Gillespie (1994) and Tulloch and Epstein (2002). This has been referred to as the impact of GIS in a study by Nedovic-Budic (1998; 1999). Uncertainty as to whether GIS and related technologies are delivering their

IMIESA June 2014


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promises to society still prevails according to Nedovic-Budic (1998; 1999) and Georgiadou and Stoter (2008).

Measuring performance At the same time, there is need for performance measurement in order to determine the impact of GIS technology and where it is directed. Several literary efforts have been made in describing approaches to evaluation with the information systems and GIS domains. However, most research has failed to provide concrete methods for evaluation and have been inconclusive

Evaluation provides information for communicating to a variety of stakeholders about the progress or lack of progress of a project on the applicability of the approaches in the real world. This study attempts to bridge this gap between the theoretical perspectives to evaluation from a literature point of view and the development of practical solutions that can be used in the public sector. This study attempts to develop a model for GIS evaluation and borrows concepts from information systems and e-government evaluation to develop a method that can be used as a basis for evaluating GIS within public sector organisations.

Methodology This study utilises the case study research methodology detailed in Yin (1988; 2003) and Kumar (2000) to collect both primary and secondary data on how public sector organisations are evaluating their various spatial information systems. The research includes the problems encountered in carrying out the evaluation activity as well as possible solutions. Concepts from the various evaluation criteria are then integrated with methods and other important variables from literature in order to come up with an evaluation methodology. This study utilises field data collected by Kurwakumire (2009) for evaluating GIS TABLE 1 Relevant social groups Uganda Bureau of Statistics Directorate of Water (parent organisation) Resources Management Department of Surveys and Ministry of Health Mapping Northern Uganda Data Centre UMEME Ministry of Local Government Petroleum Exploration National Forestry Authority Geological Surveys Department of Physical Fells Consultants Planning Geo-Information Ministry of Education Communication Planning Makerere University World Food Programme Kampala City Council *Wetlands Department Ministry of Education – *Uganda Wildlife Authority UNESCO FAO Nile *National Environment Management Authority Electoral Commission of Uganda Note: (*) visited but no data collected

IMIESA June 2014





IMESA in collaboration with Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA)

is calling for project entries C AT E G O R I E S 1. Structures and Buildings 2. Water/Wastewater 3. Roads/Stormwater 4. Environmental 5. Community Upliftment

EXPLANATION Give recognition to well-engineered civil engineering projects for infrastructure. Portray the art and science of civil engineering for infrastructure to the general public and indicate how the profession finds answers to challenges. The project must be in Southern Africa.

CLOSING DATE 11 JUNE 2014 (Only completed projects as at 28 June 2014 will be accepted for the Awards) ENTRY FORMS / AND AWARD CRITERIA Download from IMESA website QUESTIONS Debbie Anderson – IMESA – 031 266 3263 •


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The phenomenon under investigation is GIS, which is viewed as both an information system and as a technology impact in the context of the public sector of Uganda. This case study has also been revisited by Kurwakumire (2013). The organisations (see Table 1) surveyed were in Kampala and Entebbe, Uganda. The case study approach was utilised because of the need to investigate a contemporary phenomenon in the context of Uganda. The phenomenon under investigation is GIS, which is viewed as both an information system and as a technology. The aspects of importance to the study include: •m  otivations for GIS implementations • levels of GIS adoption

• evaluation mechanisms • benefits accruing, if any, from GIS use • pros and cons of GIS use. The instruments used were questionnaires, interviews, observations, photographs and a focus group discussion. The first three tools are recommended by Yin (1988; 2003) as

suitable for the case study approach, which is used as the basis for data collection in this research. See table 1.

Case Description The GIS industry is still young as per the fieldwork performed in 2008 and 2013

IMIESA June 2014




AECOM AJ Broom Road Products Arup SA Aurecon Aveng Manufacturing Infraset Bigen Africa Group Holdings BMK Consulting Bosch Munitech Bosch Stemele Brubin Pumps BVI Consulting Engineers Civilconsult Consulting Engineers Concrete Manufacturers Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa Development Bank of SA DPI Plastics EFG Engineers Elster Kent Metering Engcor Engineers Fibertex South Africa (Pty) Ltd GIBB GLS Consulting Hatch Goba Herrenknecht Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises I@Consulting ILISO Consulting INGEROP Integrity Environment Jeffares and Green Johannesburg Water KABE Consulting Engineers Kantey & Templer (K&T) Consulting Engineers Knowledge Base Lektratek Water Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates Malani Padayachee & Associates (Pty) Ltd

Maragela Consulting Engineers Mhiduve Mott Macdonald PDNA Much Asphalt Nyeleti Consulting Odour Engineering Systems Pumptron Pragma Rocla Royal HaskoningDHV SABITA SALGA SARF SBS Water Systems Sektor Consulting Sight Lines SiVEST SA Siza Water Company SMEC SNA Sobek Engineering Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology SRK Consulting Sulzer Pumps Wastewater Syntell Thm Engineers East London TPA Consulting UWP Consulting Vetasi VIP Consulting Engineers VOMM Water Institute of Southern Africa Water Solutions Southern Africa Wilo South Africa WorleyParsons WRP WSP Group Africa Zebra Surfacing


in the public sector of Uganda. However, several levels of implementation can be identified ranging from desktop systems to web-based systems. Paper maps are used or are printed on demand for the purposes

The most common use of GIS is digitising paper maps, mapping and displaying information. Evidence of such rudimentary and intermediate use is given by Karatunga (2002) and Muhwezi (2005) in their studies

The most common use of GIS is digitising paper maps, mapping and displaying information of outdoor work, though the use of digital data is growing. In most cases, both the manual cataloguing systems and the GIS are being run in parallel, for example at Uganda’s Bureau of Statistics and Surveys and Mapping Department. Currently there is a land information system (LIS) project for capturing all land parcels and connecting them to deed information in Uganda. A detailed presentation of the Uganda LIS was presented at the second Conference in Advances in Geomatics Research in Uganda by Mono (2013) in August 2013.

on the status of spatial data infrastructures in Uganda. The Northern Uganda Data Centre (NUDC) has been training government officials at district level from the Northern Region in Uganda in GIS and basic mapping so that they can implement their programmes at department, district and ministerial level. National Forestry Authority and Geo-Information Communications (GIC) are also involved in GIS training for public sector agencies in a notion to improve awareness. GIC also hosts ESRI user workshops where users can provide feedback and highlight difficulties they are facing in

using GIS and related products. With such training, GIS awareness is high. GIS use has evolved from mostly basic mapping to advanced web mapping and geo-processing functions according to Muhwezi (2005) and Ori-Okido (2005). In local government there is an e-government initiative to connect districts in which the LoGICS system provides a one-stop shop for information on local governments. LoGICS is the local government information and communication system hosted by the Ministry of Local Government in Kampala. On the other hand, there is a current initiative in which districts in rural areas are being connected with telephone infrastructure. To further improve on the LoGICS system, the GIS component needs to be integrated into it so that it becomes a spatially enabled communications system (Oforo-Amoah, 2008). In this regard, Uganda is taking long strides in adopting ICT in public offices. Part two of this article will appear in the July 2014 edition of IMIESA. IMIESA June 2014

Infrastructure Africa



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Africa Gateway Supplier


Esor Construction


Precision Meters


Afri-Infra 57

Infrastructure Africa


Reliance Laboratory Equipment


AMMANN Construction

Interbuild 55

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Jan Palm Consulting Engineers


Rocla 51


Royal HaskoningDHV


Machinery SA

10 & 11

Anton Paar Southern Africa


Joat Group

Aveng Manufacturing Infraset


Kaytech 50

SMEC South Africa


Babcock 29

Lafarge Industries SA

Southern Mapping


Barloworld Equipment

Mercedes-Benz 2

Technicrete 45


Basil Read


Model Maker Systems


Tosas 34

Bell Equipment


Much Asphalt


Wacker Neuson

Concrete Manufacturer Association


National Asphalt


Westrade Group/No Dig

Osborn Engineered Products



Corobrik 46



48 Ticket inserts

IMIESA June 2014

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The June 2014 edition of Imiesa

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