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The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa


WINNER Non-professional ofessiona writer of the year HIGHLY COMMENDED Publishing Excellence



Lesotho’s project in the

Water Integrated lake basin management

Urban design Stormwater flooding alleviation

Service delivery Water and sanitation

“Alth “Although ho our main activity is in the construction industry, we like to consider con n ourselves in the service industry as well.” Rocco Lehman, general manager ma of Ammann South Africa

I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 V o l u m e 3 8 N o . 6 • J u n e 2 0 1 3 • R 5 0 . 0 0 ( i n c l VAT )


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VOLUME 38 NO 6 JUNE 2013

41 Bitumen supply

and 21 Water sanitation


33 urban stormwater

Water supply

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa


WINNER Non-professional ofessiona writer of the year HIGHLY COMMENDED Publishing Excellence

Hot seat 14 Striving to be one step ahead



Water and wastewater 16 The need for six pillars 21 Water and sanitation provision Industry news 30 Mini-substation contract awarded

Lesotho’s METO ME TOLO TO LO ONG DAM project j t in n the


Water Integrated lake basin management

Urban design Stormwater flooding alleviation

Service delivery Water and sanitation

“Altho “Although our main activity is in the construction industry, we like to consider ourselves in the service industry as well.” Rocco Lehman, general con n ma a manager of Ammann South Africa


I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 V o l u m e 3 8 N o . 6 s * U N E     s R 5 0 . 0 0 ( i n c l VAT )

Cover story

Roads and stormwater 33 Authorities not addressing issues 37 Solutions for road infrastructure 41 Acquisition secures bitumen supply

The construction of the new Metolong dam will provide a much needed boost for Lesotho’s capital, with Chinese contractor, Sinohydro, forging ahead on the construction programme, driven by its Cat earthmoving fleet. Meeting Maseru’s medium to longer-term macroeconomic objectives, construction is now well advanced on the Metolong Dam and Water Supply Programme.

Finance 44 Clean audits for municipalities

Panel discussion Township development and housing Kaytech Garth James

Regulars 3 Editor’s comment 5 President’s comment Cover article Bulk water delivery for Maseru 6 Insight 9 The blueprint for our survival – Part 4

in the


Asla Devco Pierre Blaauw National Cold Asphalt Pascal Garrioch


Solving a drainage problem


Distribution of Egyptian groundwater

Waste 60

Sustainable solutions for waste management

Soweto 64

Soweto superblock development

Africa 65

Kazungula Bridge construction

Power 45


Cross-border power project

47 IMESA 49 51


Benchmarking Initiative Workshop

Products and services 71

Road construction 52 Distribution agreement signed

SALGA / WRC National

Solutions for wind power generation


Increasing machine productivity

and sealed

“Although our main activity is in the construction industry, we like to consider ourselves in the service industry as well.” Rocco Lehman, general manager of Ammann South Africa

14 IMIESA June 2013



Ho ow best can you improve e your op perationa al efficiencies? H How can n you ado opt p efficienc cy innov vations by b your p peers? best practice Municiipal Engin neers, Offiicials, Cou uncilors, Service S Prroviders and other p practitione ers are inv vited to work kshop prog gress in th he SALGA A/WRCMun nicipal Be enchmarkiing Initiatiive - impro oving effic ciency and d effective eness thro ough perfo formance benchmar b rking, peer-to-peer o operational knowledge sha aring, and iterative improvem i ments

Municipal Benchmarking Initiative: for municipalities, by municipalities, to the benefit of municipalities

21 and 22 2 Octob ber 2013 3 – 08.30 0 to 16.3 30 The e Boardw walk Ho otel & Conferen C nce Cen ntre,Porrt Elizab beth C Cost perr delega ate: R1,800 (incl VAT)) (2 CPD D points s) Reg gistration Form and d Agenda Requests s: trainin ng@ime En nquiries: IMESA I PR RE-CONFE ERENCE: Judy Step phens @ 0 031 26632 263 Registrration clos ses 4 Octo ober 2013 3 (limited to t 100 dele egates)


PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten EDITOR Richard Jansen van Vuuren HEAD OF DESIGN Frédérick Danton SENIOR DESIGNER Hayley Mendelow DESIGNER Kirsty Galloway CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Claire Nozaïc SUB-EDITOR Patience Gumbo CONTRIBUTORS CA Buckley, Candice Landie, Chantelle van Schalkwyk, Cordula Robinson, E Roma, J Haarhof, L TavenerSmith, Nick Mannie, P Crous, Simon Takawira Muserere PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban MARKETING AND ONLINE MANAGER Martin Hiller ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________

The future of our water


OME INTERESTING statistics were mentioned in the Minister of Water Affairs’ budget speech. The provision of water and sanitation, housing and power will always be the country’s most significant challenges and by the looks of it, there is some good news regarding South Africa’s water sector. Speaking during her budget vote, Minister Edna Molewa, pointed out that while her department is proud of its achievements, it remains cognisant of the challenges that lie ahead. According to the department, the water provision backlog currently stands at a mere 4.8%. “We will continue to deal with these challenges along the entire water value chain, ‘from source to tap and back to source’,” she highlighted. Molewa used the platform to announce the commencement in July this year of the Interim Water Supply Programme. This programme will address backlogs in rural areas through immediate interventions in 23 district municipalities prioritised by Cabinet. The programme is to be funded through the Municipal Water Infrastructure Grant (MWIG) and will include the development and upgrading of local water sources starting in areas with no water supply, as well as water loss management and repairs, including refurbishment, operations and maintenance. A total budget of R4.3 billion will be set aside for the programme over the Medium Term Expenditure Framework period. South Africa’s several water boards are to also play a pivotal role in the implementation of the programme. “This programme is going to require strong partnerships among ourselves as government, the private sector and non-governmental organisations. A o great deal of work g

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PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 4, 5th Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail: ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R530.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS IMESA Administration Officer: Ingrid Botton P O Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER BRANCH Secretary: Melanie Matroos Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2401 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 E-mail: EAST CAPE BRANCH Elsabé Koen Tel: +27 (0)41 505 8005 Fax: +27 (0)41 581 2300 E-mail: KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH Secretary: Rita Zaayman Tel: +27(0)31 311 6382 NORTHERN PROVINCE BRANCH Secretary: Cornel Taljaard Tel: +27 (0)82 899 8341 Fax: +27 (0)11 675 1324 E-mail: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO BRANCH Secretary: Henrietta Oliver Tel: +27(0)79 390 7536 Fax: 086 536 3725 E-mail: WESTERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Erica van Jaarsveld Tel: +27 (0)21 938 8455 Fax: +27 (0)21 938 8457 E-mail: FREE STATE AND NORTHERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27(0)83 457 4362 Fax: 086 628 0468 E-mail: REST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA Representative: Andre Muller E-mail:

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering ineeringg ooff Souther Southern Africa or the publishers.

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

Instit ute Africa ern zine of the al maga eerin g of South The offici cipal Engin of Muni

2012 year ri of the writer wri w al wr ssional Excellence n profession bliss Non-profe Publishing WINNERCOMMENDED HIGHLY

2012 2

ofessiona writer of the year WINNER Non-professional HIGHLY COMMENDED Publishing Excellence

Richard Jansen van Vuuren

is already under way with partners such as the Strategic Water Partners Network South Africa, which hosted a successful dialogue during the World Economic Forum on Africa in Cape Town earlier this year,” pointed out Molewa. One of the strategic interventions that the network has committed to undertake is the development of a tool to support municipalities to take on the challenge to reduce water leakages in their systems. The department, in collaboration with the Strategic Water Partnership Network South Africa, is also developing a strategy for an incentive-based system of water-use efficiency currently referred to as a “No Drop” scorecard, based on the success achieved with the Blue and Green Drop incentive programmes. The department’s budget has been significantly increased due to the increased allocations for infrastructure development. The total allocation now stands at R10.2 billion for 2013/14, R12.4 billion for 2014/15 and R15.5 billion for 2015/16.

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Cover opportunity

In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the oopportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or sservice on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on ccover bookings contact Jenny Miller on tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223.

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.00 • R50


IMIESA June 2013




nelson mandela bay PORT ELIZABETH

23 - 25 OCTOBER 2013 Theme: Municipal Engineering – Meeting Peoples’ Needs EARN 2.5 CPD POINTS BY ATTENDING

! N E P O OW N N O I T RA a . o r g . z a T S I G E R es w w w. i m ONLINE The 2013 IMESA Conference will be hosted at the brand new Boardwalk Hotel & Conference Centre on the beautiful Port Elizabeth beach front. A variety of exciting technical tours are being arranged to SA Breweries, Koega Harbour, VW Factory, Van Staden’s Wind Farm and Coca-Cola..

Register & pay BEFORE 31 July 2013 - Early Bird for IMESA members @ R4275 - Early Bird for Non-IMESA members @ R4750 Register & pay BEFORE 30 AUGUST 2013 - Late Registration IMESA members @ R4500 - Late Registration Non-IMESA members @ R5000 Register & pay AFTER 30 AUGUST 2013 - Last Minute Reg IMESA Members @ R4950 - Last Minute Reg Non-IMESA Members @ R5500

For information: Tel: 031 2663263 Email:



Southern Africa: the last two letters of IMESA, which need more attention Some two years ago I was invited to Mutare, which is on the eastern border of Zimbabwe, to deliver the Cecil Leonard Robertson Memorial Lecture to the multidisciplinary Zimbabwe Institution of Engineers (ZIE).


LTHOUGH MY presentation concentrated mainly on water and sanitation service delivery, I was also able to share information on the activities of IMESA fairly extensively. I left, having been impressed by the passion and professionalism of the 140 delegates attending and encouraged by the interest shown in IMESA. During the congress I felt it worthwhile jotting down ZIE’s vision and mission, which reads as follows: “Vision: Our vision is to be recognised as a credible engineer institution whose members are leading players in wealth creation (sustainable growth) in Zimbabwe. Mission: Our mission is to enable our members to consistently provide innovative workable and economic solutions to engineering problems and challenges in society through upholding

high engineering standards and ethical values in the practice of the profession.” Over the past few years, the subject of IMESA’s obligation to serve all municipal engineers throughout Southern Africa has been discussed at both executive committee and council level and hopefully the opportunity for IMESA to become active in Zimbabwe and start a branch in Harare has arisen. This has come about after a fruitful discussion at eThekwini Water and Sanitation with Simon Muserere, who is the wastewater manager with the City of Harare as well as a corporate member of ZIE. Muserere is actively involved with an outreach and upliftment programme funded by eThekwini, the World Bank and AusAID. This initiative has been ongoing in Bulawayo and Harare for some three years. The programme focuses on updating records, assessing the water and sanitation systems, and attending to

the worst bottlenecks and faults that exist in those cities' delivery networks. Training includes aspects such as geo-

Harare would serve as a suitable kick-off. In conclusion, may I refer you to an article entitled “The need for six pillars – inte-

Hopefully the opportunity for IMESA to become active in Zimbabwe and start a branch in Harare has arisen graphic information systems and pressure management. Letters have been written to, among others, Dr Sanzan Diarra, the CEO of ZIE, as well as the Town Clerk and heads of departments of Harare Municipality regarding the establishment of a Zimbabwe IMESA branch. It is felt that a two-day workshop in

grated lake basin management in Lake Chivero” by Muserere, which appears lin this edition of IMIESA (page 16). I’d also like to mention that a similar approach regarding the possible establishment of a branch in Swaziland was met with much enthusiasm by municipal engineers in Mbabane.

LEFT Simon Muserere, wastewater manager: City of Harare, explains supply problems experienced at Lake Chivero RIGHT Dr Diarra presents Frank Stevens with a token of thanks following his presentation, which included the activities of IMESA

IMIESA June 2013




Bulk water delivery for Maseru

The construction of the new Metolong Dam will provide a much needed boost for Lesotho’s capital, with Chinese contractor Sinohydro forging ahead with the construction programme, driven by its Cat earthmoving fleet.


IMIESA June 2013


One of Sinohydro’s Cat 966H wheel loaders working on-site at the Metolong Dam project


ONSTRUCTION IS NOW well advanced on the Metolong Dam and Water Supply Programme (MDWSP). The dam is designed to ensure a dedicated future downstream source of potable and wastewater for domestic and industrial use for Lesotho’s capital, Maseru, as well as the neighbouring towns of Teyateyaneng, Roma, Mazenod and Morija, which will help meet Maseru’s medium- to longer-term macroeconomic objectives. Valued in excess of R540 million, the project will be implemented in set phases. Sinohydro Corporation was awarded the contract for the construction of the key stage, namely the Metolong Dam and allied pump station, and established on-site in January 2012. Situated on the Phuthiatsana River, some 35 km from Maseru, this will be a 73 m high roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dam. The coffer dam was completed at the end of February 2013, allied with the earlier construction of a 4.4 m x 5.5 m high deviation tunnel measuring 248 m in length and drilled through solid rock. Once fully constructed, the dam will have a designed capacity of 53 million cubic litres with a 210 m crest length and a reservoir with an upstream reach of approximately 16 km. Sinohydro’s goal is to have around 80% of the dam wall completed by the end of 2013. Construction of the raw water treatment works,

LEFT Construction in progress on the establishment of the dam wall site RIGHT From left to right: George Mojaje, Maseru depot manager, Barloworld Equipment; Xie Yunhua, deputy project manager, Sinohydro; Vusi Dondolo, aftersales manager, Barloworld Equipment Bloemfontein; and Ivy May, Chinese assistant business development manager, Barloworld Equipment

being carried out by a separate contractor, is now also in progress. Concrete quantities for the dam entail approximately 280 000 m³ of RCC and 40 000 m³ of normal concrete, with Sinohydro having set up batch plant facilities on-site. Concrete aggregates are drilled, blasted and excavated from nearby sources. A global hydropower specialist and construction group based in Beijing, Sinohydro traces its origins back to 1950 and is now ranked 23rd out of 225 international contractors, according to the 2012 poll compiled by US-based magazine Engineering News-Record, and is ranked sixth in terms of Chinese construction companies. Rankings are based on annual revenues generated. In its home country, Sinohydro continues to be a major player in the establishment of China’s modern-day infrastructure and has worked on mega projects that include the world’s largest water scheme: the Three Gorges Dam project on the Yangtze River. Back in Africa, Sinohydro is currently active on a range of hydropower and road projects across the continent, where, as in the rest of the world, its preferred earthmoving requirements are driven by Cat machines. On the Metolong project, these include the deployment of a Cat D8R dozer for general construction and three Cat D3K dozers that are being used for the RCC phase, as well as Cat 966H wheel loaders, Cat backhoe loaders, compactors and a range of Cat hydraulic excavators ranging from Cat 320D L, 330D L to 336D L units. Local support is provided by Barloworld Equipment’s Maseru depot. Approximately 18 tipper trucks have been used during the bulk ear thworks establishment programmes. From a donor perspective, the Metolong Dam is being designed and constructed with funds

provided by the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (collectively KBOS), the Saudi Fund for Development, the OPEC Fund and the Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa. The World Bank funded the Environment and Social Impact Assessment for the dam. The project’s overall scope of works by the various appointed contractors entails the construction of a 75 Mℓ/d water treatment plant and ancillary facilities, which include a raw water transmission main and a high lift pump station for the treated water. Funding for the water treatment works is being provided by the Millennium Challenge Corporation. The water treatment works has three major components, namely a 800 m long, 1 100 mm diameter raw water transmission main (sized for 2035 demands) from the dam to the water treatment plant located on the top of the right bank; a 75 Mℓ/d water treatment plant (WTP) to meet 2020 demands, with a peak capacity of 94 Mℓ/d; and a pump station at the WTP with an average pumping capacity of 859 ℓ/s (75 Mℓ/d) and a peak discharge capacity of 1 088 ℓ/s (94 Mℓ/d) to meet 2020 demands. Then there is the Downstream Conveyance System (DCS), which requires construction of transmission pipelines, reservoirs and other ancillary facilities to convey treated water to Maseru, Morija, Mazenod, Roma and Teyateyaneng. In the initial phase, the installed pipeline system will have the capacity to supply Maseru with around 75 000 m³/d, guaranteeing water on tap for its citizens, as well as for the capital’s thriving industrial base.

IMIESA offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a two-page cover story and a cover picture to promote their products to an appropriate audience. Please call Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223 to secure your booking.

IMIESA June 2013




Afri-Infra AJ Broom Road Products Arup SA Aurecon AECOM Bigen Africa Group Holdings BMK Consulting Bosch Stemele Bosch Munitech BVI Consulting Engineers CBI Consulting Engineers Civilconsult Consulting Engineers Civil & Blasting Solutions Concrete Manufacturers Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa CSIR Built Environment Davies Lynn & Partners Development Bank of SA DPI Plastics EFG Engineers Elster Kent Metering EnviroServ Waste Management GIBB GLS Consulting Hatch Africa Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises I@Consulting Iliso Consulting Infraset Jeffares and Green Johannesburg Water Kgatelopele Consulting Knowledge Base Lektratek Water

Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates Maragela Consulting Engineers Mhiduve Much Asphalt Nyeleti Consulting Odour Engineering Systems PD Naidoo & Associates Consulting Engineers Pumptron Pragma Africa Rocla Royal HaskoningDHV SBS Water Systems Sektor Consulting Sight Lines SiVEST SA SNA Inc Siza Water Company SMEC Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology SRK Consulting Sulzer Pumps Wastewater Syntell Thm Engineers East London TPA Consulting UWP Consulting VIP Consulting Engineers Water Institute of Southern Africa WorleyParsons WSP Group Africa WSSA WRP Zebra Surfacing



The blueprint for our survival The National Planning Commission has paid particular attention to water issues and how they impact and influence our development pathways and opportunities. Compiled by Richard Jansen van Vuuren


ATER HAS A ROLE to play in four out of five of the job drivers identified in the New Growth Path (NGP) and the National Water Resource Strategy 2 (NWRS-2) supports the NGP in the following areas: • Jobs driver 1: Infrastructure for employment and development – The NWRS-2 includes a sub-strategy that focuses on infrastructure development and management, which will create new job opportunities over the next five years. The sub-strategy outlines a plan for funding infrastructure development needed to support economic growth in South Africa. • Jobs driver 2: Improving job creation in economic sectors – The NWRS-2 includes reconciliation strategies for balancing water supply and demand in high growth areas. It also provides a framework for strong sector leadership, streamlined water use authorisation processes and an economic regulator. The NWRS-2 also prioritises water

conservation and water demand management (WC/WDM) in all sectors in order to increase productivity per unit of water. This enables the possibility of the water saved being used in new or expanded enterprises. • Job driver 3: Seizing the potential of new economies – The NWRS-2 makes provision for the recycling and reuse of wastewater, and for water to be used in supporting the green economy and the creation of jobs in this area.

National government outcomes The Cabinet Lekgotla in January 2010 adopted 12 government outcomes, which are the key indicators for the national government’s programme of action for the period 2010 to 2014. The following national government outcomes are intricately linked with availability of water resources: • Outcome 2: A long and healthy life for all South Africans – Water is fundamental requirement for human health. The NWRS-2

makes provision for allocation of water to meet basic human needs and includes a substrategy for protection of water resources. • Outcome 5: A skilled and capable workforce to support an inclusive growth path – The NWRS-2 recognises the importance of a technically competent workforce in the sustainable management of water resources and it includes a sub-strategy for water sector capacity building. • Outcome 6: The NWRS-2 makes provision for investment in water infrastructure to support economic development through a strategy for infrastructure development and management, and the National Water Sector Investment Framework. • Outcome 7: Vibrant, equitable and sustainable rural communities with food security for all – The NWRS-2 adopts the principle of ‘source to tap and back to source’ and maximisation of local water resources to improve access to adequate water for domestic and productive use in rural communities in

IMIESA June 2013



South Africa’s water security has mainly been reliant on surface (fresh) water and its development

National Energy Efficiency Strategy This strategy has set a target for energy efficiency improvement of 12% by 2015 (DE, 2010). This will contribute to a reduction in CO2 and also reduce water use, which is a key input to energy generation. The NWRS-2 addresses water demand management initiatives for the energy sector in the WC/ WDM sub-strategy.

Surface water development potential only exists in a limited few water management areas particular. The equity and redress focus of the NWRS-2 is particularly in line with supporting outcome 7. • Outcome 8: Sustainable human settlements and improved quality of household life, and Outcome 9: A responsive, accountable, effective and efficient local government system – The NWRS-2 provides options for water resource development to meet water supply and sanitation services for a growing population and for the provision of higher levels of service. • Outcome 10: Environmental assets and natural resources that are well protected and continually enhanced – Protection of water resources and associated aquatic ecosystems is one of the strategic goals of the NWRS-2 and a sub-strategy for protection of water resources and regulatory framework for water resources are included.

Industrial Policy Action Plan 2 The Industrial Policy Action Plan 2 (IPAP 2) is a central tool in the NGP job creation strategy (DTI, 2011). The NWRS-2 is in line with the IPAP 2 support for job creation through the promotion of rainwater harvesting, water recycling and the production of water and energy efficient appliances. Rural Development Strategy Water availability is a crucial input to the Rural


IMIESA June 2013

Development Strategy. The NWRS-2 makes provision for supporting rural development through the multiple use of dams, investment in appropriate water infrastructure, water allocation reform and a programme of support to small-scale water users.

National Biodiversity Management Strategy This strategy falls under the auspices of the Department of Environmental Affairs, and is aimed, inter alia, at the integrated management of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (DEAT, 2005). Protection of aquatic ecosystems is addressed in a specific strategy in the NWRS-2. Irrigation Strategy The Irrigation Strategy, developed by the Depar tment of Agriculture, Forestr y and Fisheries, aims to increase the contribution of agriculture to the GDP, reduce poverty and create employment (DAFF, 2010). It also aims to increase water use efficiency and redress imbalances in access to irrigated agriculture for historically disadvantaged groups. The NWRS-2 makes provision for infrastructure development to support the implementation of this strategy, sets targets for water use efficiency by the agriculture sector and sets targets for water reallocation to historically disadvantaged water users.

National tourism strategy The National Tourism Sector Strategy (NDT, 2011) has set a growth target of 3.5% in 2015 from a rate of 3.2% in 2009. The NWRS-2 has made provision for infrastructure development in high-growth centres, which will ensure that there is adequate water for meeting the needs of tourists to South Africa. The NWRS-2 also promotes the use of water resources for recreation and the protection of water resources, which will support jobs and income generated from tourism. Mineral Beneficiation Strategy The government objectives with respect to mining focus not only on the mining of primary commodities, but also on significant contribution to the economy through beneficiation (manufacturing) and on mining tourism (services). The NWRS-2 makes provision for infrastructure development to support the implementation of this strategy and it also sets targets for water use efficiency by the mining sector. There is potentially sufficient water available for development To date, South Africa’s water security has mainly been reliant on surface (fresh) water and its development. Based on water reconciliation studies, it is clear that surface water availability and its remaining development potential will be insufficient to support the growing economy and associated needs in full. Surface water development potential only exists in a limited few water management areas, while serious challenges remain in the majority of water management areas. Where additional water is still available, such as in the uThukela, Mzimvubu and Pongola basins, it is located in relatively remote areas, far from existing centres of demand. The limits to the development of surface water sources have almost been reached and the


opportunities for economic siting of new dams are few and far between (DWA, 2010). The costs of transfers per cubic metre to locations where water is needed are also rising with longer distances and escalating energy costs. In addition, the development of new water resources infrastructure is a complex and time-consuming process that typically takes more than a decade from inception to commissioning (DWA, 2010). For larger and more complex projects with environmental and political sensitivities, the lead times may be more than two decades. This highlights the need for careful planning with long time horizons. To meet growing demands, South Africa will therefore need to exploit alternative resources. The good news is that by adopting a more holistic approach towards water management, its availability and its use, water resources can be defined in a much broader context. Despite being a water-scarce country, South Africa faces high levels of water wastage and inefficient use. In municipalities, non-revenue water sits at more than 37% on average, although it is

not measured in many municipalities where losses are estimated to be close to 50%. In many irrigation and domestic schemes it is worse, with losses of up to 60%. In terms of loss in revenue, these losses account for more than R11 billion a year in the municipal sector alone. Many municipalities, water user associations and farmers do not meter water use and are unable to assess their water losses. This is exacerbated by a lack of infrastructure asset management, operation and maintenance. The result is that demand is exceeding supply in many areas. The catchments that supply water to the DurbanPietermaritzburg area for example are already in deficit in terms of water provision. Other large water supply systems will soon face a similar situation. It is essential that such water losses be

accounted for and curtailed, especially in terms of the need to provide for the growing water demands of new socio-economic development.By including water loss reduction, water use efficiency and demand management, improved water governance, optimisation of existing water resources including groundwater, rainwater harvesting and water systems management, reuse of water, resource protection and recharge, as well as desalination in the resource pool, South Africa has adequate water resource potential to

IMIESA June 2013


1FPQMFt&YQFSUJTFt&YDFMMFODF | | +27 11 519 4600



Water has social, economic and ecological value

Groundwater is a significant and underutilised resource in many parts of the country, although local yields are usually quite low serve its requirements for many years to come. Groundwater is a significant and underutilised resource in many parts of the country, although local yields are usually quite low. The most recent estimate of sustainable potential yield of groundwater resources at high assurance is 7 500 million cubic metres per annum, with potentially about 3 500 million cubic metres available for further development. This resource is, however, widely distributed and often far from centres of demand. In ensuring sufficient water, spatial and local challenges remain, where the format (characteristics) of these specific resources, the associated cost of supply, user-specific footprints, competing demand and the critical need for reallocation to marginalised groups, will dictate particular development solutions and allocation criteria.

Water economics and allocation priorities One of the principles that informed the White Paper on a National Water Policy states that the objective for management of water resources is “to achieve optimum, long-term, environmentally sustainable social and economic benefit for society from its use”. This recognises, in essence, that water has social, economic and ecological value. The White Paper also recognises that weighing up the social and/or economic benefits of competing water uses is not easy, and becomes more complex when the ecological costs and benefits


IMIESA June 2013

must be considered as well. This means that the decision on how best to allocate water between competing uses requires a complex and difficult assessment, which includes the ability to assess social, economic and ecological values arising from various water uses. Overall, however, there is an insufficient appreciation of the value of water, the challenges of the water situation and the effort required to make water available on a sustained basis. This is reflected in the way water is wasted, water resources are polluted and aquatic habitats degraded. These same factors reveal weaknesses in the current governance arrangements and the priority accorded to water in the social agenda. The three-dimensional value of water has implications for water financing and how to determine the cost of water. Several elements make up the cost of providing reliable supplies of water, which include: 1. Direct infrastructure and management costs, which include the capital, operation and maintenance costs of infrastructure and the costs of managing water, such as planning, monitoring, regulating and so on. 2. Economic costs, including opportunity costs, reflect the scarcity value of the resource, the cost of depriving a potential user of water and economic externalities. The economic externalities consist of two elements: positive externalities, such as the groundwater recharge benefits from irrigation, and negative externalities, such as downstream pollution impacts from industrial discharge.

3. Full costs. These are the sum of the supply and economic costs, plus environmental and social externalities such as costs to public health and ecosystems arising from, for example, pollution of water resources. This then leads to the questions of who pays the costs of managing and providing water, who pays for aquatic ecosystem protection, and how the price of water is determined. There are three sources of funding for water development and management: taxes, tariffs and transfer of funds from aid agencies and international donors. While there can be no argument that the full costs of developing, managing and providing water must be covered, the question is how best to utilise the options of taxes, tariffs and transfers of funds to cover these costs. In consideration of this, issues of equity and affordability must be taken into account, as well as using pricing as a tool for driving water use efficiency and pollution reduction. A sustainable water price in South Africa is one that will: • reflect true costs (including infrastructure, management and environmental costs) and incentivise efficient water use and reduced pollution • promote least-cost solutions to providing water • achieve equity in terms of incorporating costsharing practices as needed, to enhance affordability for poor water users • enhance the long-term viability of water institutions.

Allocation priorities Equally important is how an understanding of the social, economic and ecological value of water influences the allocation of water. Based on the limited availability of fresh water for further development, and the need therefore to choose between competing uses for water, it is necessary to put in place clear priorities for allocation of water, whether by the DWA or Catchment Management Agencies. In line with the Constitution and the National Water Act, the highest allocation priority is afforded water for the purposes of the reserve. The first objective is to ensure that sufficient quantities of raw water are available to provide for the basic water needs of people who do not yet have access to potable water. In terms of current policy, a quantity of 25 litres per person per day has been incorporated in the reserve determination.


The three-dimensional value of water has implications for water financing and how to determine the cost of water

There is a general trend to increase the basic human needs provision above this, with 50 litres per person per day considered by some as a more appropriate amount. However, the total amount required to provide for this remains insignificant in the context of water resource allocation and can be readily provided for. The second objective is ensuring sufficient water of an appropriate quality to sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems. Comprehensive work is continuing in this regard, but challenges remain in the implementation of the reserve requirements. South Africa is committed to managing shared river basins in line with the revised Protocol on Shared Watercourses in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and in terms of specific agreements with riparian states. The second highest priority, therefore, is the meeting of international water requirements in

terms of the agreements with riparian states. The third highest priority is the allocation of water for poverty eradication, the improvement of livelihoods of the poor and the marginalised, and uses that will contribute to greater racial and gender equity.

The fourth highest priority is the allocation of water for uses that are strategically important to the national economy. Application of these priorities requires the development of advanced tools and criteria to guide and enable effective and consistent decision-making.

IMIESA June 2013




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HE COMPANY gears its activities to the needs and requirements of its customers. “No matter the type or the number of projects that our customers have, with our broad range of products and our drive towards customer service, we aim to be one step ahead of our competitors,” says Rocco Lehman, general manager of Ammann South Africa. “As with our products, our customer range is also broad and we know very well that every time our asphalt plants and machines prove their quality under tough conditions, we earn another point in the competitive edge race. Although our main activity is in the construction industry, we like to consider ourselves in

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IMIESA June 2013


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the service industry as well. It is never right to make a sale and then disappear. We provide a well-structured customer service, which is one of our core responsibilities.” Ammann’s constant improvements ensure it offers the latest technologies and the “partnership”. “By doing so, we create an additional value for our customers” adds Lehman. It should be pointed out that Ammann is the only manufacturer of asphalt mixing plants to develop and produce all the systems components (including controls, screens, dr yers, burners, mixers and filters) in-house. This feature

enables Ammann to offer the best solutions to its customers. Ammann’s comprehensive range of compaction and road building equipment services the needs of customers in the road building, construction, plant hire and mining industries. Also in this range are the specialist trench compactor and the add-on compactor range. In addition, these products will service the pipe laying and special compaction application customers. Ammann Compaction Expert (ACE) has put the company at the forefront of intelligent compaction of soil and asphalt with both the ACE Force and ACE Pro systems. “The Ammann system is the only system that can change amplitude and frequency automatically, which makes this system extremely user-friendly,” points out Lehman. Ammann Construction Machinery South Africa has been operational for more than two years, although Ammann has been in existence for more than 140 years and involved in the South African market for the past 25 years. The company prides itself as being the leader in asphalt technology and is a leading global supplier of mixing plants, machines and services to the construction industry, with core expertise in road building. Ammann offers products and services that meet customer expectations and distinguishes itself from the competition through greater customer benefit.

“We provide a well-structured customer service, which is one of our core responsibilities.” Rocco Lehman, general manager of Ammann South Africa

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The impressive design of the Ammann stand at Bauma 2013 in Munich, held from 15 to 21 April, attracted a pleasing number of visitors. The presentation included the extensive product portfolio with many new developments in the area of compaction machines, asphalt pavers and mixing plants. The focus was on the market launch of the Euro 3B (Tier4) motorised compaction machines in the field of heavy ride-on rollers, the presentation of the new paver AFT 800 as well as completely new mixing plant concepts for high proportions of reclaimed asphalt or highly mobile applications. The longestablished company displayed a selection of these latest developments and innovations across the product range along the “Road of Innovation” on the largest ever Ammann stand of 4 000 m2. The mixing tower of the Universal HRT with its visitor platform of 38 m in height and the Ammann marquee were the special attractions.

IMIESA June 2013




The need for six pillars According to Prof Reiko Nakamura of the International Lake Environment Committee (2011), the management and conservation of the world lakes and reservoirs are at a crisis point. By Simon Takawira Muserere


UMAN POPULATION is steadily increasing, with more than seven billion people already inhabiting the planet, but the ability of the world lakes and reservoirs to meet the needs of the world’s population is rapidly decreasing, he argues. The global water challenge is not simply about a lack of access to clean sources, it is, in fact, a complex problem that is related to competing demands, climate change and variability, public education and resource management (Columbia Water Center, 2011). It is estimated that by 2015 nearly 3 billion inhabitants, mainly from developing countries, are expected to face water stress to satisfy their food, irrigation, industrial and domestic needs (Ujang and Buckley, 2002). Conclusions were made that the hydrological, engineering and social sciences have


IMIESA June 2013

important roles to play in enabling African economies to overcome the acute and often devastating water problems confronting them now and in future decades (Oyebande, 2001). The SADC region has prioritised water pollution as it is a pressing issue and the challenge has always been to see how best environmental education can help resolve water pollution among other pressing issues such as HIV and waste management (SADC, 2009). Only 50% of the Zimbabwean urban population drink appropriately treated water while only 9.25% from rural areas access safe water (UNICEF, 2012). The current water management challenges in Harare are that wastewater is discharged untreated into Lake Chivero, the city’s raw water source, which is contributing to the lake eutrophication (Nhapi, 2004). According to the National Water Quality Laboratory, wastewater effluent results of

2012 show that Firle sewage works normally operates in the high environmental hazard range in terms of the Environmental Management Act, chapter 20:27 effluent discharge standards. It is believed that Firle sewage works, the largest sewage treatment plant in Harare with a design capacity of 144 000 m3/d and approximately 10 km upstream of the lake, is the major single polluter of Lake Chivero (JICA, 2006). The lake’s total nitrogen load is 190 tpa and the total phosphorus load is 80 tpa and this has caused hypereutrophic Anaerobic digesters at Firle sewage works in Harare, Zimbabwe, in 2012


Firle works biological nutrient removal plant filled with sand before rehabilitation (2011)

conditions in Lake Chivero (ILEC, 2009). In this way the lake serves as a sink for pollutants that are not effectively removed via wastewater treatment or reuse (Nhapi et al., 2006).

Drinking water deterioration The water treatment chemical requirements have increased in number and levels of dosage since mid-1990s and the ity of Harare currently uses eight water treatment chemicals compared to the two to three generally used by other urban centres in Zimbabwe (Hoko and Makado, 2011). Recent reports from the City of Harare have indicated that US$2 million to US$3 million is now required to procure the eight water treatment chemicals to treat water at Morton Jaffray Water Works, which is the city’s major water treatment plant. Drinking water quality has deteriorated over time, resulting in customers no longer being satisfied with the quality of water, which has affected customer perceptions and could be contributing to low willingness to pay; the city’s revenue collection efficiency is approximately 60% of the billed amount. Furthermore, due to the poor raw water quality, the water treatment residues have increased in quantity over years. These residues are discharged directly into Manyame River without treatment at a total rate of approximately 108 800 m3/d, which is about 80 to 90% of the 60 to 70 t of alum used each day (Muisa et al., 2011). These residues have affected downstream users and also aquatic life downstream, with the levels of aluminium in fish found to be over 100 times the threshold for human consumption suggested by the World Health Organisation (Muisa et al., 2011). Some of the challenges are caused by poor institutional set and lack of capacity of Harare to handle the ver y expensive BNR operational and maintenance costs considering the inappropriate water and wastewater tariff structure, which are more cost needs approach than a cost recover y based ad disregard return on capital, interest on loan and depreciation costs. The major spike in 2008 caused infrastructure collapse and triggered cholera epidemic as people were drinking water from contaminated shallow wells due to inadequate water from water treatment plants.

It is estimated that by 2015 nearly 3 billion inhabitants, mainly from developing countries, are expected to face water stress Funding Water resources development, management and utilisation have been par t of the Zimbabwean government’s priorities. Huge funding has been pumped into the Harare water system annually through the Public Sector Investment Programme and bilateral arrangements with other countries (South Africa, Japan, China, Germany, World Bank, European Investment Bank, African Development Bank, etc.) to rehabilitate and develop water resources infrastructure. Despite all these inter ventions, Harare has been affected with serious challenges in water management, especially considering the underlying principles surrounding recycling of water as being practised and unavoidable. It was established that without recycling wastewater to recharge Lake Chivero – and hence yield an additional 219 Mℓ/d – Harare would not last more than eight months with adequate drinking water supply. In its effort to increase water supply to Harare, JICA conducted the 2000 Upper Manyame pollution study and established that it was more critical to minimise pollution upstream of Lake Chivero than to expand or rehabilitate Morton Jaffray Water Works. More recently, the use

of chemical fertilisers by informal cultivators has decreased raw water pH from 9.5 to between 8.5 and 9.0. Historically, water development for Harare started upstream with Cleveland dam (1913, 1 x 106 m3), followed by Seke (1929, 4 x 106 m3) and Harava dams (1973, 9 x 106 m3). When supply from the upstream dams was no longer adequate to meet the water needs of the city, Lake Chivero (1952, 215 x 106 m3) was constructed, this time downstream of the city, resulting in effluent from the city entering Lake Chivero. The dilution factor was deemed to deal with the effluent quality. At the United Nations World Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1995, the problems surrounding fresh water featured prominently. The summit talked about “fresh water as a finite and vulnerable natural resource, on which all social and economic activities are highly dependent”. Zimbabwe’s population is approximately 12.97 million (Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency, 2012), with approximately 2.2 million (20%) living in greater Harare (City of Harare, Chitungwiza, Ruwa, Nor ton and Epwor th). According to John Robertson (2011), only 850 000 people out of the 12 million people are

IMIESA June 2013



Firle works biological nutrient removal plant during rehabilitation

formally employed; the economic analyst argues that the number of formally employed Zimbabweans in 2011 equals that of 1970 (Chiriga, 2011). He goes on to argue that 450 000 of the employed population are civil ser vants, considering that Zimbabwean

set a dissolved concentration of 1 mg/ℓ as the maximum permissible phosphorous discharge. A study of zooplankton phenology during the recover y period indicated the lake could rapidly revert to hypereutrophic condition if control of nutrient loading was not sustained in the lake basin. Lake Chivero studies in 2010 concluded that conductivity and reactive phosphorous

The pillars are technology, governance, finance, participation, institutional and communication industr y has no employment capacity due to low production and poor economic situation. According to Prof Chris Magadza of University of Zimbabwe, by the mid-1960s the lake was invaded by water hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes, and by late 1960s floating scum of decomposing Anabaenopsis imparted an unpleasant odour to the lake. Concern for the situation was documented in research done by the University of Zimbabwe in collaboration with city authorities. This collaborative research identified phosphorous in sewage effluent as the cause of the lake’s deteriorating condition. This led to the enactment of the 1975 Rhodesia Water Act, which


IMIESA June 2013

were high; ammonium poisoning of fish continued to increase. The government strategy since 1980 was to seek more funding to construct biological nutrient removal (BNR) plants to stop nutrient discharge as population continued to expand; however, research has shown that BNR alone cannot cope with the current phosphate loads, which average 15 mg/ℓ. On the other hand, it has been shown that the non-point source of nutrients (300 t of phosphorus and >1 000 t of nitrogen) can maintain the lake in a hypereutrophic state as sum total of non-point nutrient sources exceeds 1967 levels when the lake was hypereutrophic.

Current thinking is calling for the recognition of the issues, needs, and challenges regarding the six key pillars and integrated ways and means to meet these challenges. The pillars are technology, governance, finance, participation, institutional and communication. Nakamura set up a Lake Chivero Basin Management Committee in 2010 with members from Harare, the Zimbabwe National Water Authority, Environmental Management Agency, Ministr y of Water, University of Zimbabwe and Mukuvisi Woodlands to coordinate and integrate strategies within a structured platform.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Simon Takawira Muserere Simon Takawira Muserere received his BSc Hons Civil Engineering from the University of Zimbabwe in 1995 and is currently enrolled in an MPhil at the university, focusing on wastewater treatment modelling of the Firle Sewage Works. He is a Cooperate Member Zimbabwe Institution of Engineers and is employed as wastewater manager and coordinator of the 24/7 Water Support Unit for the City of Harare.

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Understanding the effect of distance by P Crous, University of Johannesburg; J Haarhoff, University of Johannesburg; CA Buckley, University of KwaZuluNatal; L Tavener-Smith, University of Stellenbosch; E Roma, University of KwaZulu-Natal

Sanitation provision has significant impacts on the surrounding environment and users’ health, with subsequent socio-economic benefits. The eThekwini Municipality has been providing interim sanitation and water services to informal settlements through the provision of community ablution blocks.


HESE FACILITIES provide showers, washing basins and toilet facilities to unserved dwellers of densely populated settlements in eThekwini urban and peri-urban areas. They are designed to serve a population of between 50 and 75 households situated at a maximum distance of 200 m from the facility. Analysis of results of a recent comprehensive survey on 900 households using community ablution blocks (CAB) in eThekwini Municipality revealed that there were high usage rates, but that the distance of the households from the CAB is an important factor affecting beneficiaries’ behaviours and patterns of use. This contribution, built on both these results and on previous literature, discusses the development and testing of a household survey sampling method based on the assumption that distance plays an important role in the sustained use of water and sanitation facilities. Among others, the baseline survey suggests that the distance to a CAB should be carefully considered when selecting future household samples for survey purposes, as distance might be an important factor to ensure the desired use and acceptance of CABs. This article illustrates and discusses the methodology adopted for investigating the effect of distance on communal sanitation usage. Practical suggestions are made for the incorporation of distance into further planning of water and sanitation facilities serving communities in informal settlements.

The need for sanitation Sanitation is a basic need, and the lack of adequate improved facilities has significant impacts on the environment and human health, which has detrimental knock-on socio-economic impacts. In South Africa, national legislation gives every person a right to basic water and sanitation services (DWAF, 1994). The government of South Africa has a mandate to upgrade informal settlements by 2014 through the process of in-situ upgrading or relocation to greenfield sites. However, local authorities have had difficulty in providing sustained sanitation services that are effective, dignified and affordable from both a capital and an operation and maintenance (O&M) perspective. The selection of appropriate sanitation services to informal settlements is influenced by some important factors. These include the presence of a high backlog of basic infrastructure, including water, sanitation, electricity and roads, worsened by rapid urbanisation and population growth, along with physical constraints, namely high population densities, lack of available space and poor environmental conditions. There are an estimated 1 million informal settlement dwellers in eThekwini, with population densities as high as 1 437

people per square kilometre (Roma et al 2010). The most appropriate sanitation technology for an informal settlement must provide a socially and environmentally acceptable level of service with full health benefits, while being financially viable (Schouten & Mathenge 2010). The minimum sanitation standards in South Africa have been provided by the national government (see DWAF 2001). These standards are broadly defined, enabling local authorities to choose the implementation technology based on local conditions and institutional capacity. The technology choices range from dry sanitation and low-flush to full waterborne sanitation. However, waterborne sanitation is

FIGURE 1 Typical community ablution block found within one of the many informal settlements within the eThekwini municipal district (Photo taken October 2011)

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the aspiration of poor informal settlements inhabitants (Roma & Buckley 2011). Communal sanitation facilities are not recognised as a form of improved sanitation by the United Nations (Schouten & Mathenge 2010). These facilities are notorious for poor maintenance, low usage rates and poor ownership from the users. However, communal sanitation has been successful in informal settlements where they have been argued to be the only appropriate technology within the financial, high population densities and land tenure constraints (Schouten & Mathenge 2010).

Provision of sanitation in informal settlements in eThekwini The eThekwini Municipality is implementing interim sanitation and water provision to informal settlements through CABs, providing around 1 100 CABs to approximately 800 000 informal settlement residents (Roma & Buckley 2011). The CABs consist of two retrofitted shipping containers, one for male and one for female ablution facilities. Although the layout inside the ablution facilities varies from supplier to supplier, the CABs provide showers, wash basins, laundry facilities and toilets, and urinals in the male facilities. The facilities provide ventilation within the CABs, which keep them cool during the day and rely on natural lighting as electricity is not always readily available. The facilities are sometimes locked at night to prevent vandalism and crime (Roma & Buckley 2011). A study performed by Roma et al (2010) identified the importance of user satisfaction toward CABs to the sustained use and overall success of the facilities. The provision of CABs The placement and site selection of the CAB is an extensive, collaborative procedure performed during the planning and design phase (Gounden & Kee 2012). The associated factors dictating the potential placement of the CAB are identical for other sanitation technologies in informal settlements, as discussed by Schouten & Mathenge (2010), DWAF (n.d.) and Mels et al (2009), include: • availability of land and permission to occupy the land • housing and population density • accessibility of land, both for construction and O&M • environmental conditions – wetlands and hydrogeological conditions, topography, etc • method of disposal and treatment of effluent, either on-site or through conventional sewerage

TABLE 1 The data from Roma & Buckley (2011) indicates that the majority of the surveyed population uses the CABs, with the total number of respondents given in brackets YES


CABs used for toilets

80.8% (727)

19.2% (173)

CABs used for drinking water

75.3% (678)

24.7% (222)

CABs used for showering

83.2% (749)

16.8% (151)

CABs used for laundry

69.6% (626)

30.3% (274)

CABs used at night

42.7% (384)

57.3% (516)

Children using CABs for toilets

67.8% (230)

32.2% (109)

• proximity of sewers and water supply • willingness of the community to relocate dwellings, if land is required. The CABs are designed to serve either a maximum of 50 to 75 households or a maximum distance from household to CAB of 200 m. These design parameters are based on standpipe design parameters (as set out in CSIR 2005). In general, the limiting factor for the spacing of CABs in informal settlements is not the maximum distance of 200 m, but the population density within the settlement (Gounden & Kee 2012). CABs, however, differ from the conventional standpipe, which provides a single tap to the users, by providing showers, toilets, washing facilities and supplying water for household needs. The provision of CABs is accompanied with the removal of standpipes from the settlements, as the standpipes do not dispose of or treat greywater adequately, which have negative public health and environmental implications. Analysis of the results of a recent comprehensive survey for Unilever investigating 900 households using CABs in 31 informal settlements in the eThekwini Municipality revealed that the distance between households and CABs was an important factor affecting their behaviour and patterns of use (Roma & Buckley 2011). The main factors for non-use of CABs were cited to be distance from household to CAB and closure of CABs at night (Roma & Buckley 2011). As CABs not only provide toilet facilities, the patterns of use of each CAB function are illustrated in Table 1. The non-use of CAB facilities was associated with the preference for existing water and

sanitation facilities, such as home-made pit latrines or rudimentary flush toilets for sanitation and public standpipes for water provision. The effect of distance on CAB usage was also determined, as shown in Table 2, and was found to be the main hindrance to CAB usage for the non-users. Long distances especially limited the viability of using CABs for the elderly and disabled people as well as young children, the latter not using the CABs without parental supervision. Other factors contributing to poor CAB usage related to facilities being locked (8.7%), lack of cleanliness (2.9%) and presence of existing toilets (6.9%) (Roma & Buckley 2011). The CABs are locked and opened at the discretion of the caretakers, who are employed by eThekwini Municipality to work four hours per day (Roma & Buckley 2011). The lack of safety and crime episodes at night were often cited as reasons for not using CABs at night (Roma & Buckley 2011). Although the survey provided qualitative evidence that distance had an effect on CAB usage, there was no quantitative data to indicate at what distance users would rather use existing water and sanitation infrastructure over the provided CAB facilities.

Case study: Frasers informal settlement The potential importance of distance was incorporated in a survey of Frasers informal settlement, where CABs were to be provided. Frasers settlement (as shown in Figure 2) is geographically located between Ballito and Tongaat in the northern section of the

TABLE 2 The non-use of CAB components due to distance (Roma & Buckley 2011) RESPONDENTS INDICATED TOTAL NUMBER OF NONNON-USE DUE TO DISTANCE USERS DUE TO DISTANCE Non-use of toilets due to distance


11.3% (102)

Non-use of water supply due to distance


11.5% (104)

Non-use of showers due to distance


10.2% (92)

Non-use at night due to distance


13.3% (120)

IMIESA June 2013


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FIGURE 2 An aerial photograph capturing the layout of Frasers informal settlement (SBA 2010)

eThekwini municipal district and is home to approximately 500 households. The settlement was to be provided with five CAB facilities, and had five existing standpipe facilities for water supply. The Frasers settlement was surveyed through two “before and after” surveys, without a control study, where the second survey has not yet been performed. The study aims at exploring the health, socio-economic and behavioural improvements through the provision of CABs. By comparing and contrasting results from the pre-implementation and postimplementation stage this study investigates: • pre-implementation health, environmental and economic conditions of people living in informal settlements • overall impacts of sanitation improvements into users’ hygiene behaviours, health status and socio-economic conditions • attitudinal constraints towards water conservation and water saving devices • users’ satisfaction and acceptance of implemented CABs • impact of distance from dwelling to CABs on their level of use.

FIGURE 3 This graph indicates the perceived average walking distance between household and existing water supply and point of defecation, and is not necessarily the actual distance. The graph clearly indicates the perception that the water supply is much closer (greater than four times closer) than where defecation takes place. On-site water connections could be due to illegal water connections, but this was not investigated. The distances, although indicated in a metric distance, is the perceived distance (qualitative) and are not absolute (quantitative) (data based on 144 respondents from the preimplementation survey)

The baseline survey was undertaken in August 2011, during the CABs construction phase, while a follow-up survey was scheduled for mid-2012. The survey was administered by trained enumerators on a representative sample of randomly selected 157 households. To facilitate sample selection, enumerators recorded each dwelling number and the relevant GPS coordinates in the week before the survey. Once a list of dwellings was compiled, a sample was randomly selected. The survey identified a number of different toilet facilities being used, with open defecation being the predominant form of defecation (for over 85% of respondents). Other sanitation facilities include pit latrines, chemical toilets, VIPs and flush toilets. The overall satisfaction with these existing facilities was poor to very poor (over 90% of respondents). The main form of water supply was through communal standpipes.

not discussed within this paper, but the questions pertaining to the investigation of distance between the household and both the toilet and water supply facilities is shown in Table 3 and the satisfaction was determined for 10 parameters, with distance being one of the parameters, and was evaluated on a scale from very good, good, average, poor or very poor. These questions sought to understand the current water and sanitation practices within the Frasers settlement, both quantitatively and qualitatively. These questions will be repeated under the follow-up survey to investigate how these practices have changed after the construction of the CABs. However, it was found that the overwhelming majority were not satisfied with their household distance from current point of defecation. The average perceived distances, from the survey, to both water source and place of defecation are indicated in Figure 3. Defecation distance was investigated for both diurnal and nocturnal usage. The results indicate that the place of defecation is perceived to be much further away than standpipes, with the largest portion of the respondents indicating water supply is more than four times closer than where defecation occurs. Diurnal and

Determining “perceptual” distances The survey questions related to health, socioeconomic and behavioural improvements is

TABLE 3 The question pertaining to distance in the survey asked how far the respondents currently had to travel for defecation, before the CABs were constructed. The answered distance was not verified on-site by actually measuring the distance the respondents travelled. The answer is the perceived distance between the dwelling and the defecation point, essentially providing a qualitative, not quantitative, value HOW FAR FROM YOUR DWELLING DO YOU GO TO THE TOILET?


0 m (on-site)

0 m (on-site)

Less than 50 m

Less than 50 m

50 m to 100 m

50 m to 100 m

100 m to 200 m

100 m to 200 m

200 m or more

200 m or more

Current perceived distance travelled f r water supply and defe fo f cation 55% 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

49% 49 %

21% 21 % 15% 15 %

14% 14 %

11% 11 %



0% on site

less than 50m

50m - 100m

Water source distance


100m - 200m 200m or more

DefecĂƟon distance

IMIESA June 2013



TABLE 4 An example of the modelling of distances between the households and existing standpipes. This method was employed in order to rapidly evaluate all of the GPS data mathematically. The final column indicates the minimum distance travelled and is shaded graphically to evaluate which households are further or closer to the standpipes DISTANCE FROM HOUSEHOLD TO STANDPIPE Household no

Standpipe 1 (m)

Standpipe 2 (m)

Standpipe 3 (m)

Standpipe 4 (m)

Standpipe 5 (m)

Minimum (m)











































nocturnal defecation distances differed slightly and it is hypothesised that the main factors affecting user preference at night are safety and visibility, with distances generally shortening at night. There was also an increase in the use of constructed toilets – especially bucket toilets, but also pit latrines – with reduced occurrence of open defecation at night.

Calculated distance to water and sanitation services 56%

60% 50%


40% 30%

24% 24 % 15% 15 %


Determining actual distances Further, the following GPS coordinates were required in order to model, more accurately, the role of distance in the study: • households locations • existing standpipe locations • proposed CAB locations. The GPS coordinates for the surveyed household locations were obtained by the enumerators during the sur vey. In order to rapidly evaluate the location and validity of the household coordinates, the coordinates were exported to Google Earth and visually investigated to identify any invalid data points. The coordinates of the existing standpipes and the future placement of CABs were obtained from the design engineers. However, these coordinates were in xy-coordinates, which had to then be converted into the appropriate GPS coordinates. Although visual mapping of the coordinates is beneficial for preliminary analysis, this method could not be used in analysing the distance between all the households and existing standpipes and future CABs. Thus, the household coordinates were converted to xy-coordinates using an in-house GPS converter and exported into Microsoft Excel. Although not accounting for obstructions (like other dwellings), the model presents the minimum distance between the household and the standpipes and CABs by using a straight line. Determining the distance to all the provided services, standpipes and CABs provides a rapid method to assess which facilities the households would use, i.e. the closest facilities, as the households are not bound to use only one specific facility. The distance to

10% 0%

29% 28%

0% 0%

on site

0% 0%

less than 50m Distance to CABs

50 - 100m

100 - 200m

more than 200m

Distance to standpipes

FIGURE 4 The straight-line, shortest distance between the household and both the existing standpipe and future CABs, based on the GPS coordinates of the households from the surveyed respondents. The data indicates that standpipes are closer than CABs, as would be expected from the limitations associated with CAB placement. It is important to note that these results are based on the sample group and not all of the households in Frasers (data based on 145 respondents from the preimplementation survey) each of the future CABs was investigated in a similar manner. It is conceptualised that until the standpipes are removed from the settlement, they will be used for household water consumption, where the standpipes are closer than the CABs. The results from the analysed GPS coordinates are presented in Figure 4, indicating the straight-line distance

The ability of the respondents to estimate walking distance was not expected to be as accurate as the GPS coordinates. This was verified by comparing the respondents’ perceived distance to the water supply with the actual distance, as shown in Figure 5, indicating a significant variance between the survey results and the analysed GPS data.

The provision of CABs in informal settlements in the eThekwini municipal district has proven to be very successful between the household and the CABs, with the minimum, maximum and average distance to CABs from the surveyed households being 6 m, 181 and 81 m respectively (with a standard deviation of 33 m) and for standpipes, 8 , 165 m and 70 m respectively (with a standard deviation of 42 m). Although there was evidence of pre-existing sanitation facilities in the settlement, these were not considered in the analysis.

The distances indicated by the respondents are thus not based on an absolute metric, such as a metre, but based on their perceived walking distance. Thus, these values, although seemingly quantitative, are qualitative.

Conclusions The lack of access sanitation has negative effects both on public health and the environment. This is acutely felt in informal

IMIESA June 2013



Comparison of perceived and calculated distance to water source 100% 80% 60%

78% 48% 48 %

40% 14%


28% 28 %

24% 5%

3% 0%

0% 0 - 50 m

50 - 100 m Perceived Distance

100 - 200 m

more than 200 m

Actual Distance

FIGURE 5 The perceived distance to water supply was compared to the analysed GPS data for each household. The results indicate a large discrepancy in estimated to actual distances (data based on 145 respondents from the pre-implementation survey) settlements, where improved sanitation services are generally lacking. The provision of CABs in informal settlements in the eThekwini municipal district has proven to be very successful, with the majority of inhabitants using


these communal facilities. The spacing and placement of CABs in an informal settlement is limited by a number of factors, notably the population density, environmental conditions, legal procurement and accessibility of

land, and the method of effluent disposal. This paper presented a method of investigating how the distance from household to water and sanitation facilities impacts the water and sanitation behaviours of the users, by capturing distance – perception (through survey questionnaire) and actual (recording GPS coordinates). Although the comparison of these two types of distance readings is not possible, the perceptual distances provide a comparison between current distances to water supply and place of defecation. Perceptually, points of defecation are more than four times further away than standpipes. Thus, CABs are expected to significantly reduce the travel distance for defecation and are expected to improve public health and the surrounding environment. Socio-economic surveys are an important tool with which to analyse current water and sanitation behaviours, assessing the prevailing health, environmental and economic conditions in a settlement. The potential benefits of any water and sanitation intervention can be monitored with such “before and after�

IMIESA June 2013


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surveys. The results from the follow-up survey will provide data on the socio-economic benefits of CABs. It is important to note that the results presented in this paper represent the distances of the sampled population from both current and future water and sanitation facilities, and not that of the total population in the Frasers informal settlement. Finally, incorporating the household distance from communal water and sanitation facilities into a survey study provides a more detailed understanding of the effect distance has on the users’ satisfaction and usage.

Acknowledgements The authors thank Hering, Borda and the University of Stellenbosch for their contribution toward the pre-implementation survey. The lead author also wishes to acknowledge the NRF for the funding of his research. References • CSIR, “Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design,” CSIR Building and ConstructionTechnology, Pretoria (2005)

• DWAF - Department of Water Affairs and Forestr y, “Water Supply and Sanitation Policy.” White Paper. Cape Town, South Africa. (accessed Januar y 2012) Available at: WSSP.pdf (1994) • DWAF- Department of Water Affairs and Forestr y, “White paper of basic household sanitation,” Cape Town, South Africa. (accessed Januar y 2012) Available at: acts/1998/act36.pdf (2001) • DWAF – Department of Water Affairs and Forestr y, “Guidelines for the Formulation of a Strategy & Implementation Plan for the Provision of Sanitation Ser vices in Informal Settlements.” (accessed October 2011) Available at: www.dwaf. g o v. z a / d i r _ w s / c o n t e n t / l i d s / To o l s / Booklet4Informalsettlements.pdf (n.d.) • T Gounden & A Kee, An inter view at eThekwini Water and Sanitation, Durban, 29 Januar y 2012 (2012) • A Mels, D Castellano, O Braadbaart, S Veenstra, I Dijkstra, B Meulman, A Singels

& J A Wilsenach “Sanitation ser vices for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa,” Desalination. 248.p.330337 (2009) E Roma, C Buckley, B Jefferson & P Jeffrey, “Assessing users’ experience of shared sanitation facilities: A case study of community ablution blocks in Durban, South Africa,” WaterSA 36(5) 589-594 (2010) E Roma & C A Buckley, “Assessing Community Ablution Blocks and exploring sanitation market in informal settlements of eThekwini Municipality – South Africa. Milestone 1,” Unpublished report for Unilever (UK) (2011) SBA – Stemele Bosch Africa, Aerial photography of Frasers informal settlement, internal document dated September 2010 (2010) M A C Schouten & R W Mathenge, “Communal sanitation alternatives for slums: A case study of Kibera, Kenya,” Physics and Chemistr y of the Ear th. 35(13-14) p815-822 (2010)

IMIESA June 2013


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Mini-substation contract awarded Actom MV Switchgear has once again been awarded a substantial portion of City Power’s latest term contracts for miniature substations.


HE CONTRACT, worth an estimated R70 million, applies to the period March 2012 to March 2015. The mini-substations will be utilised by the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality on various new projects and on the upgrading of existing infrastructure. The substations are to be manufactured at the Actom Knights site in batches as required. They are of the 11 kV B-type with power ratings up 1 000 kVA. In addition, these units incorporate the latest requirements of City Power with regard to a low voltage connection point for a standby generator and data acquisition to a central control point. “They conform to City Power’s specifications and are manufactured to the latest international IEC and NRS standards,” commented Alec Duff, ACTOM MV Switchgear’s marketing manager.


Actom MV Switchgear’s technology development specialist, Rhett Kelly, and mini-substation contracts engineer Martin Mqwathi, inspect one of the 11 kV mini-subs

IMIESA June 2013


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MALULEKE LUTHULI DEVELOPMENT DEVELO OPMENT PLANNERS iis a d diversi頭 i i頭ed d professional f i l services i and d development company, focussed on service delivery in the public sector. The company offers the following products to a wide spectrum of clients: Township Establishment for township upgradings and greenfields developments. Development Facilitation in disadvantaged communities. Cadastral and Land Survey Project and Programme Management Strategic Planning and Policy Development Construction and Installation of Engineering Infrastructure Construction of Grant Funded housing products

Key projects related to the above: Planning and establishment of over 200 000 residential stands Facilitation of the Palm Ridge Upgrading Project of 13 224 families Project Management of Infrastructure Projects such as the Palm Ridge Essential Services Programme (13 224 serviced stands) and turnkey projects for Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality and City of Joburg Metropolitan Municipality (R 237 million) Programme Management of the City of Tshwane 2010 upgrading programme which included the upgrading of Loftus Stadium (R1.3 billion) Installation of the infrastructure for the upgrading of the Winterveld Upgrading Project (R163 million) Turnkey development of the Lehae Flagship Project to the value of R912 million

Developing a Nation 37 Empire Road, Parktown 2193 P O Box 291803 Melville 2109 t (011) 482-3666 f (011) 482-9734 Directors: TD Maluleke, P Tokela, JC Potgieter



Local authorities not addressing stormwater issues In an ar ticle published in the Januar y 2011 edition of IMIESA, Dingaan Mahlangu, a par tner at SRK Consulting, emphasised the seriousness of poor stormwater drainage systems in urban areas, par ticularly in areas occupied by previously disadvantaged individuals in Gauteng. What has happened since? By Richard Jansen van Vuuren


AHLANGU STILL maintains that there are local authorities in South Africa that still do not have adequate plans in place for effective stormwater management. “The situation is serious, with the biggest challenges being the funding of planned projects and those in authority who do not perceive the importance of effective stormwater management,” he explains. Following several Soweto floodings in 2010, 2011 and again in 2012, emergency measures were put in place along the Klip River in

both Orlando West and Kliptown. These measures included dredging of silt build-up within the river, which was a temporary measure, as well as the instalment of a new flood protection embankment on the western banks of the river in areas with a high flood risk. “To compound matters, the New Canada Dam had struggled to contain the massive volumes of water passing through it,” adds Mahlangu. There has been very little remedial work on the dam to date. This has caused severe additional damage to the already unstable dam embankment, which again has

released several tonnes of silt into the downstream Klip River. In 2006, four consulting groups, with SRK Consulting as the lead consultant, worked on an R8 million stormwater planning project for the Johannesburg Road Agency (JRA). SRK

Dingaan Mahlangu, partner at SRK Consulting

IMIESA June 2013



Silt accumulation beneath a bridge

Consulting compiled a stormwater master plan for the establishment and implementation of appropriate stormwater control in areas occupied by hundreds of thousands of people such as in Kliptown, Orlando West, Bram Fischerville, Diepsloot, Protea Glen and Orange Farm. “Our brief was to come up with a master plan for the management of stormwater, taking into account watercourse and drainage system hydraulics, as well as socio-economic and environmental aspects during implementation,” explains Mahlangu. “We were required to focus on aspects ranging from flooding of main river courses to local drainage systems, which incorporates the piping networks, canals and culverts in developed areas. The objective is to prevent regional, as well as localised flooding and to comply with existing environmental legislation and council by-laws during implementation “The existing stormwater drainage and control systems we found in these areas are appalling. In the past, poor-quality services were installed, from the perspective of materials used, and the management and construction of such projects. We found cracked piping,

leakages and non-existent or under-capacity drainage networks,” continues Mahlangu. “Our challenge is to provide new systems and to upgrade existing systems – where possible – for work to be done within an existing time frame and budget. The stormwater planning stages have been completed and implementation is under way.” This has enabled the JRA to proactively plan and manage its stormwater systems, which has significantly reduced the risk of flooding in mainly low lying residential areas along portions of the Klip River. This has been a big step forward for the JRA in improving stormwater control and service delivery to its residents. SRK Consulting continued its work for the JRA through 2012, thereby assisting the JRA to further reduce potential damage to urban development as well as reduce the risk in loss of life due to drowning.

place after flooding events. It is especially important for the prevention of disasters,” maintains Mahlangu. “Neglecting effective stormwater management can lead to loss of lives and damage to property, bridges and existing drainage systems. This can cause pollution to wetlands and harm to ecosystem. “In light of the more sporadic and changing weather patterns, local authorities in some of the larger cities are now beginning to seriously consider the need for effective stormwater management and to be proactive with respect to planning and integrating stormwater management ahead of development.” He adds that the greatest challenge at present is to convince those in management positions of the importance and urgency of taking the problem seriously. Acquiring funding is one of the biggest challenges for this work to be done. Local authorities look at the practical challenges, which arise as people protest for housing and other services delivery requirements, not understanding that the focus should first be on integrated planning

“The existing stormwater drainage and control systems we found in these areas are appalling” In an all-too-familiar tale told in infrastructure construction and maintenance circles of late, funding to implement the in-depth findings of the studies has been scarce, but more frustratingly, the lack of a central agency within local government and agency structures has led to insurmountable bureaucratic red tape. “Stormwater management is a critical aspect in flood disaster risk management; it is essential to identify high-risk areas and then implement mitigation measures as well as have proactive recovery plans in

– of which stormwater management is a vital part – before development occurs. If planning is not performed correctly, and effective stormwater management considered, it can cause potential liability claims against a local authority, loss of life and can become very expensive to remedy problems later.

BELOW LEFT Visible effects of soil erosion caused by stormwater run-off BELOW RIGHT Gabion walls are an effective preventive measure to counter river bank and bed erosion

IMIESA June 2013




Solutions for road infrastructure Lafarge South Africa uses its technical strength to provide innovative products and services for customers engaged in bitumen and concrete road construction.


HILE THE REALITIES of budgeting for the lower initial capital outlay of bitumen road paving have to be acknowledged, significant sustainability benefits of concrete pavements are evident when a comprehensive life cycle and carbon footprint assessment is carried out. A concrete pavement is the most sustainable solution because of its long service life and relatively low maintenance and repair requirement. This results in

long-term savings in raw materials, transport and energy. Lafarge products used extensively for soil stabilisation are the specialised cementitious binder, RoadCem, and the general purpose cement, Buildcrete, which are contributing to the stability and longevity of bitumen road surfaces. The company’s Readymix concrete business can also supply any specification of concrete required for construction of road paving and the associated infrastructure. Two Lafarge

products that are commonly used for readymix production are the premium technical cement Powercrete Plus 42.5R and the high early strength cement Rapidcem CEM II 52.5N. Developed in cooperation with road construction contractors to provide the first product on the local market to be designed specifically to meet their needs, RoadCem has been extremely successful. One of Lafarge’s lowercarbon footprint cements, RoadCem is a CEM II 32.5N product formulated from Portland cement, siliceous fly ash and blast furnace slag. The product modifies clay minerals and achieves increased soil strength and bearing capacity, as well as better volume stability by controlling the swell and shrinkage characteristics caused by moisture changes. This also enhances resistance to erosion, weathering or traffic loading.

IMIESA June 2013




Addressing the challenges surrounding bitumen IMIES speaks to Steven Single, managing IMIESA direct director at SprayPave, about the company’s str strategy and implementation measures t ensure the supply of bitumen for to the road construction industry. Given SprayPave’s 30-year history, and its evolution since joining the Basil Read Group in 2006, would you say that the bitumen industry – and by association, road construction industries – has been experiencing some rather unprecedented challenges in recent years? I think the word “unprecedented” is key in that question. While the bitumen and road construction industries by nature constantly present challenges to the key role players within, these challenges are generally brought about through organic growth or evolution within the industry. New technologies, seal designs and products, etc., are constantly being discovered and/or


IMIESA June 2013

developed, and it is these advancements that force those who wish to remain successful within the industry to constantly be on their toes and remain at the forefront of those advancements. Anyone complacent enough to continue to operate with antiquated policies and practices would undoubtedly do so at their own demise. We believe that it is this realisation that has kept SprayPave, along with its reputed competitors, successful in the past and surely well into the future. So I believe the above challenges would not be regarded as unprecedented; however, over the past few years, there have been additional variables thrown into the mix that have presented newer challenges that I would most certainly regard as unprecedented.

ABOVE A view of SprayPave’s storage tanks in the yard of its Bothas Hill facility, demonstrating the company’s culture of immaculate housekeeping BELOW A view of SprayPave’s coastal manufacturing facility, demonstrating the company's ability to replicate its Johannesburg plant in KwaZulu-Natal as well as Cape Town in the near future

Would you care to elaborate on what you believe these unprecedented challenges are? The first that comes to mind, which is not unique to our industry or country, is funding – or lack thereof. However, just because it is a common problem does not mean that it should be disregarded as a challenge. Companies in the industry are facing increasing pressure to meet project demands while being forced to accept that government and its appointed organisations are not likely to pay on time, if at all. Added to this is the current state of the economy, which is resulting in these very same companies being forced to undercut their prices to ridiculously low profit margins in order to try and secure tenders. The late payments then have a devastating effect on these companies’ ability to pay their suppliers. This is where we in particular are severely affected. An example of one such company that became a victim of the above is Sanyati, which did not survive, and consequentially we had to write off a substantial amount of money owed to us. We were fortunate enough to survive that incident, but from what we witnessed at the debtor meetings prior to Sanyati’s demise, there were many companies that possibly did not. So from a monetary point of view, account


and debtor control is a great challenge to us as we constantly have to juggle between accepting business and simply declining it due to the need to mitigate any risk of financial losses. But you need to make money and to do this you can’t turn away business just because there is an increased risk of you not getting paid! Added to this are bitumen shortages, an increasingly regular occurrence that does not seem to have a short term solution. 2011 is a year that many in the industry will not soon forget and one that awakened many to the realisation that drastic ingenuity is needed in order to survive. In order to do this, it was essential to first dissect the problem and then isolate the greatest reasons for its occurrence; from there more definitive and pragmatic solutions could be conceived.

or longer planned shutdowns, which often overlap with other refineries’ shutdowns, whether planned or unplanned, thus creating periods of severe shortages.

engineers requirements or, even worse, not performing as intended, thus opening them up to greater financial losses and potentially placing road users at risk. It is these risks that have contributed, although not solely, to the imminent establishment of our Cape Town plant.

What steps is the industry taking in order to secure a reliable source of quality bitumen? Given the relative speed at which these issues have come about, it is obvious that a massive leap in strategy is required in order to safeguard the industry from depleted product in the near future. So with little time for innovation, R&D, etc., the best way to move ahead is to follow global trends and right now the global bitumen economy is trending towards importation. Take Australia, for example. It has pretty much gone through all that we are currently experiencing and its solution was to secure reliable imported product from the likes of Malaysia and Singapore. However, in order to do this, it had to overcome a number of logistical obstacles, es, such as sufficient import termiminals large enough to satisfy itss industry demand. These obstaacles require not only financiall capital, but also knowledge capi-tal, not to mention the buy-in of the refineries as well as government. So these are some in th he hurdles that Australia seems to have overcome, with pretty much 100% of its bitumen now being imported. A couple off role players within our market have and are still experimenting with importation, but on a much smaller scale than our Australasian counterparts. There have been pros and cons to these exercises, which I am sure are being weighed accordingly. So perhaps importation exercises on a much larger scale are on the horizon for our industry, provided there is a sufficient need to justify the required efforts. When considering importation you also need to consider the obvious financial implications and risks as well as the concern of quality. With regards to quality, it is difficult to ensure that you get what you order as there are many instances where what one expects is not always what one receives. This places importers at great risk of their end product not passing

There has been much talk of your expansion to Cape Town, as well as a new technology that you will be using there, would you care to share any more information on this? Well, with regards to our expansion into the Cape Town market, this was always a natural step to take in our company’s organic growth. We have established ourselves as a true leader in the manufacturing, supply and application of bituminous road binders, emulsions, modified binders, primes and precoats over the years, so it only made sense to expand our footprint to a market that is in desperate need for another option when sourcing related products and services. We believe that this fact alone will ensure we remain successful in our core business model. With regards to the technology that we are establishing, the arrival of this plant has been two years in the making and while its benefits will prove to be vast, we have invested in it for the benefit of the South African road ro construction industry as a whole. A more comprehensive roll-out, including workshops sho and Q&A sessions will take place in the near future to ensure ensu that the industry is well informed of its benefits and how infor it will assist the individual role wil A soon-to-b familiar sig eht players to secure and complete playe the many projects to come. m

The officia l of Munic ipalmagaz ine of the Institu te Engine ering of South ern Africa




What would you say the main reasons for these shortages are? Ultimately, the industry relies on the (ageing) local refineries to supply adequate quantities of bitumen, but of late they seem to be less reliable in their supply. So for us this needs to be the basis of our solution. Given the fact that bitumen has been a readily available resource from our refineries in the past, why would it suddenly become a problem now? The answer to this can be broken down into a number of possibilities, but ultimately it all relates to the age of our refineries. This fact can be viewed from two angles, the first being that these refineries now experience more regular, unplanned mechanical shutdowns and the second is that they require more regular

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Why have h you chosen Cape Town as a base for this plant? After much consideration and research it became evident that Cape Town needed this plant desperately in order to satisfy the requirements of the asphalt contractors, which the CALREF refinery is unable to satisfy. While this is only one of the plant’s benefits, we felt it was the best in which to commence its operations. However, its benefits will be made available throughout South Africa.

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IMIESA June 2013




Acquisition secures bitumen supply Raubex, an integrated road construction and rehabilitation company, has acquired bitumen producer Tosas Holdings from Sasol Oil for R120 million in cash.


HIS FORMS PART of Raubex’s longterm strategy to become more vertically integrated and to also become a supplier along the entire road construction value chain. The acquisition became effective in April 2013. The acquisition provides Raubex with several bitumen processing and storage facilities in inland regions of South Africa and a significant footprint in both Namibia and Botswana. Tosas’s assets included bitumen processing and storage facilities in Germiston, Bloemfontein, Worcester, Cape Town, Vryburg, Namibia and Botswana. Rudolf Fourie, the chief executive of Raubex, reports that the transaction includes all of

Tosas’s assets and properties, as well as its 168 employees and a five-year agreement with Sasol to supply bitumen, which is primarily used for road construction activities. The acquisition follows Raubex’s confirmation in November that it was investing R21 million in storage facilities for asphalt to cushion it from bitumen shortages in the country. The transaction will significantly boost Raubex’s turnover. Tosas posted revenue of R750 million last year. With the persistent bitumen supply shortages in South Africa, this acquisition also secures Raubex’s long-term bitumen supply and adds storage facilities, which are critical

A Raubex road construction project under way

to ensure efficiencies around the necessary imports of bitumen. It is estimated that Tosas will now service in the region of 50% of Raubex’s own bitumen needs. As Tosas previously had the capacity to supply 100 000 tpa of bitumen, half of which is required by Raubex, it will continue to supply value-added bituminous products to the external market and provide Raubex with the ability to “modify” bitumen in-house. Modified bitumen includes rubber or synthetic latex and is a more elastic and durable product with greater temperature stability. “We want to make sure we provide the whole value chain of road construction – that is our business,” explains Fourie. He says in the past Raubex had bought 50% of its bitumen from oil companies, and another 50% from suppliers of modified bitumen. These included Tosas and Colas SA, a maker of bituminous binders and slurries for road surfacing. “The other main reason is because of the bitumen crisis in the country, it secures our supply,” he maintains. Persistent bitumen shortages have seen a rise in imports in recent years. Raubex had brought in product from both Singapore and Spain. Fourie says South Africa’s major oil producers were turning away from bitumen production, mainly because of breakdowns in ageing plants and due to plant maintenance costs. Instead they were now focusing on making and distributing diesel, petrol and kerosene. “Bitumen is probably at the end of that food chain,” Fourie points out. He says companies needed storage facilities for the product and that Raubex now owned these, including for storing imported bitumen. “To avoid the repeat of the chaos that followed the shortage of bitumen in 2011, this acquisition is a good move by Raubex. If Raubex produces its own bitumen, it means that it will have control over the supply of the product, compared with a situation where a third party controls the product,” maintains Fourie.

IMIESA June 2013




Accolades for Bell at Premier Business Awards The inaugural South African Premier Business Awards, hosted in March by the Department of Trade and Industry, Proudly South African and Brand South Africa, saw Bell Equipment share the Manufacturer of the Year Award with PowerTech.


N ADDITION, Bell was runner-up in two other categories in which it was entered, namely the Innovation Award and the Proudly South African Award. The awards were presented during a gala evening held in Sandton, Johannesburg, and were attended by business leaders, captains of industry and senior government ministers and officials. The awards aim to provide a platform for acknowledging achievement in business by showing recognition for local companies that invest in human and technical resources as well as stimulate job creation and broader participation in the economy. Commenting on the accolades, the managing director of Bell Equipment South Africa, André McDuling said: “We are immensely


IMIESA June 2013

proud of our achievements as a South African company and it is rewarding when our efforts are recognised in this way. We hope that by participating in these awards we can increase the awareness of the role that we play as an employer and a contributor to the country’s economy. We want to encourage others to be proud and excited by what South African companies have achieved and understand the real value of supporting local manufacturers. “Sharing the manufacturing award is particularly important to us because we have worked tirelessly to earn recognition globally for our South African designed and manufactured range of products. We have emerged as one of the global leaders in the articulated dump truck (ADT) market and our engineering expertise and product quality are comparable with other global players in the industry. Bell has developed much groundbreaking technological advancement on South African soil with our team of local engineers.”

McDuling also acknowledged the 500-strong South African suppliers that play a pivotal role in the company’s manufacturing success by providing support through the efficient delivery of quality components and services.

Bell returns to US market with new dealer network Bell Equipment is returning to the American market after more than a decade, with a new distribution network and the forthcoming launch of its new E-series range. A joint venture between Bell and several renowned US construction investors will see the creation of a new business – Bell Trucks America (BTA) – which will provide a robust, nationwide foundation for the re-entry to North America of the next generation of Bell articulated haulers. Safe and fast hauling operations are just as important for the company’s business. Bell ADTs support this by preventing unsafe action and accelerating the routine through automated bin manipulation and gear-shifting



Advocate Leslie Sedibe, CEO of Proudly South African (left) and director general of DTI, Dr Lionel October, present the Premier Business Award for Manufacture to Bruce Ndlela (centre), Bell Equipment’s director of Business and Public Sector Development

The return of Bell to the US comes after the ending of a licensing arrangement with John Deere, which saw Bell providing ADT technology to the American market under the Deere brand. Through BTA, the comprehensive range of Bell ADTs, including the world’s largest ADT, will now be developed throughout the US and backed up with first-class support. The range being launched by BTA includes its four largest ADTs: the B35D, B40D, B45D and B50D. The formidable B50D is Bell Equipment’s flagship machine, with a 50-tonne capacity that makes it the largest available production ADT on the planet. Bell will further cement its brand reputation in North America with the forthcoming introduction of its new E-series range, the next generation in ADT design and technology. The first machines in the E-series – the B25E and B35E – will be available in Europe in June 2013 and introduced into the North American market in January 2014. BTA will be based in Houston and immediate plans are in place to expand the dealer network into strategically recognised territories.

Gary Bell (CEO of Bell Equipment), Mitch Nevins (CEO of Bell Trucks America) and Neville Paynter (MD of Bell Equipment North America) created excitement among American visitors to Bauma 2013 by announcing the formation of Bell Trucks America to lead the return of Bell to the US

It was back in 2009, with the introduction of the D-series Mark VI ADT, that Bell Equipment took huge strides in ADT safety, positioning the company as an industry benchmark and cementing its position as an ADT specialist. Bell Equipment’s product marketing manager: ADTs, Llewellyn Roux, recalls: “At that time there was an increased awareness of site safety, particularly on mine sites. By listening to our customers and reacting quicker to a changing workplace, we were able to provide innovative safety features to exceed application safety standards. We’ve made safety our business and are always looking to incorporate safety improvements into our machine upgrades and designs.” At the heart of many safety features is the CANbus language protocol used by all Bell ADTs to communicate between a truck’s CPU, 15 system controllers and 57 sensors. This allows instantaneous feedback on ADT health and production data. The electrical system also uses a current feedback loop, which allows the CPU to determine whether the ADT is working optimally and provides immediate feedback to the operator. The operator’s display contains over 100 diagnostics screens that are easily viewed from the driver seat. Importantly, Bell uses intuitive operator interface design throughout all ADT models, thereby reducing training and risk usually associated when operators change machines. Bell ADT cabs are also

Mitch Nevins, one of the construction investors involved in the joint venture and CEO of BTA, confirms the scale of the company’s plans. “We are delighted to be forming this exciting alliance with Bell and we are confident that BTA will quickly become a force in the industry. We share the same customerfocused ethos in terms of after-sales and service, as well as the engineering know-how to meet the requirements of Bell Equipment’s customers across the quarrying, mining and other construction sectors.” Bell will use its own company, Bell Equipment North America (BENA), to provide factory sales, technical and after-sales support across the whole North American distribution network. In addition to BTA, this includes Canada, where Bell has already forged an alliance with leading equipment manufacturer Wajax to operate Bell’s dealership, servicing and parts network north of the US border. BENA is wholly owned by Bell Equipment South Africa and will be managed by Neville Paynter, who previously ran the company’s operations in the UK. “The Bell brand is founded on providing strong reliable machines,

standard with ROPS/FOPS certification and an air suspension operator seat. Both the operator and trainer seat have safety belts and the new E-series Bell will feature a multi-point safety harness for the operator seat. In addition, high convex mirrors reduce machine blind spots to improve visibility and safety. Roux adds: “Today, safety features are a major consideration for most customers when they buy an ADT and our engineers have incorporated many of our safety improvements as standard features. For example, the park brake application is automatic when selecting neutral and neutral cannot be selected at speed. Improper use of the park brake is often identified as the root cause for on-site accidents, by automating the application the possibility of operator error is greatly reduced.”

backed up by strong reliable support,” explains Paynter. “We believe we have the right team and business model in place to deliver these qualities to the North American market.” BTA is excited to announce the appointment of its first US dealer, Four Seasons Equipment, which will represent Bell Equipment’s ADTs in Texas, Louisiana and North Dakota. Bell Equipment has built its global reputation on supplying the lowest cost-per-tonne dump trucks in terms of fuel efficiency and long-term performance. Its technical innovation in terms of combining engine performance, on-board electronics and GPS-based fleet management software has led the field for many years. Bell believes that the new relationships with BTA and Wajax will provide a robust foundation for its ongoing success and growth in the American markets, particularly in quarrying, mining and civil operations.

t: +27 (0)35 907 9111 •

IMIESA June 2013




Capacitating municipalities to deliver clean audits The South African Institute of Chartered Accountants has developed a programme aimed at capacitating municipal finance officials to enable them to meet minimum competencies.


T IS ENVISAGED that this project will help municipalities achieve clean audits. The project also upskills unemployed graduates, thus assisting them to find employment. South African Institute of Char tered Accountants (SAICA) development manager, Natalie Zimmelman, says the institute has undertaken various programmes aimed at addressing the financial skills shortage within municipalities.


“These programmes have previously been aimed at two levels, namely the chief financial officer (CFO) and the financial clerk. However, the SAICA Municipalities Programme aims to address the level between these i.e. that of the financial manager as well as other associated financial management positions, such as supply chain manager. The programme is funded by the National Skills Fund of the Department of Higher Education and Training to the tune of

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Isando 011 392 1242 | Cape Town 021 531 9071 | Durban 031 705 6355 Port Elizabeth 041 486 3674 | Bloemfontein 051 432 0707 Web:

Natalie Zimmelman, SAICA development manager

R72 million. National Treasury, the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) and Deloitte Learning Alliance, which conducts training, are all part of the project. Phase 1 of the project focused on the three provinces of Gauteng, North West and KwaZulu-Natal, and enrolled unemployed graduates and employed officials, while Phase 2 is being rolled out nationally and includes employed municipal officials as well as National Treasury interns.



Crucial need for township development


LECTRICAL WIRES strung from trees and running across streets, the daily trek to water pumps, poorly planned and constructed sewerage systems – these are just some of the challenges facing township residents. Despite their origins in apartheid South Africa, townships today carry no racial connotations and have given rise to some of the country’s most prominent leaders. But despite the many years of democracy, township communities still face serious infrastructure issues ranging from deteriorated roads and inadequate water and sanitation facilities to a backlog of housing and poor basic service delivery (water and electricity) – no doubt that there is a dire need to address township development and the way forward. This exclusive panel discussion focuses on the latest industry products, trends, equipment and technology available to the local housing and roads sector, with a particular focus on rural upgrade. What are the recent rural development projects? What are the significant challenges facing township development? What could government do differently? What products and services are widely used in rural development?

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2. PC and tablets

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africaa

Winn Winner of the 2011 PICA Non-p Non-professional writer of the year

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The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africaa


Winner of the 2011 PICA Winn Non-p Non-professional writer of the year


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IMESA CESA Excellence Awards 2012

SAGI Tracking ng growth


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“For me passion, perseverance, hard work and integrity are kkey ey to aachieving chieving anything one puts their mind to� Gwendolyn Mahuma, executive directorr of Capital Caapital Star Sttar Steel (Pty) (Pt ) Ltd


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MERCEDES-BENZ Powers pothole solution in th he h e


Water in Africa Sustainable operations

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“We provide a complete service for precast reinforced hollow core slabs� Melinda Esterhuizen, Echo Group marketing director



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UTILIT TIES MANA AGE EMENT Garth James | Marketing Director | KAYTECH Q. With regard to township development, what products and services can you offer to enhance the built environment? GJ Kaytech is world renowned for its polyester bidim geotextiles, which are used extensively in drainage and separation applications. In terms of applications, bidim offers five main applications: drainage, erosion control, soil stabilisation, road building and waste containment (such as landfill construction). Our prefabricated drainage systems are as quick and easy to install as they are popular and have been used with great success since 1985. In terms of rural development, a definite cause for concern is the escalating cost of paved roads and the need for cost-effective solutions for our rapidly deteriorating network. Kaytech is also well-known for its road maintenance systems: the Sealmac Paving Fabric, GlasGrid

asphalt reinforcement geogrid and the Sealgrid Composite asphalt reinforcement fabric. Many municipal roads departments have used GlasGrid to save on pavement reconstruction costs. Often rural township roads are inaccessible due to inadequate reinforcement or sub-standard construction. Our Multi-Cell product can be used in the construction of rural roads, especially those on steep grades. In addition, Multi-Cell is great for use in the construction of stormwater side channels and drains.

Where and how are your products utilised in the built environment? Since 1971, the company has been pioneering and developing geosynthetic products and applications for use in drainage and filtration, separation and reinforcement, road maintenance and rehabilitation, water and waste containment, erosion protection, hydraulic construction, liner protection and

CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT Repair and maintenance of roads using SealGrid; the Infiltrator Chamber system used in septic tank and stormwater soak aways; Multi-Cell used in rural roads; drainage around a stormwater pipeline

waterproofing for building and civil construction. We are supported by Geosynthetic Laboratory, an independent dedicated geosynthetics laboratory that has the most advanced geosynthetic testing equipment in Africa and is SANAS accredited for a number of geosynthetic specific tests under the EN ISO/IEC 17025 international standard for accredited laboratories. Kaytech has established strong links with a global network of reputable geosynthetic suppliers in Europe, Australia, UK, US, Canada, South America, India and South East Asia.

What do you think are the significant challenges facing development in townships? What could government do differently? Despite the Municipal Infrastructure Grant allocations to the different municipalities and local authorities, many of the roads and services departments of these different cities, towns and townships tend to be lacking in adequate civil and roads engineering skills to ensure proper delivery of infrastructure for the rate paying residents. Also the funds received are not always utilised for the intended purpose – roads, stormwater, etc. The dearth of skills presents a huge challenge to the industry where design consultants are usually called in and tasked with the job of ensuring service delivery within the constraints of time and costs. Sometimes consultants are appointed who have limitations in terms of resources and experience, thus compounding the problems facing the owner of the infrastructure.

What gives your products a competitive advantage? Bidim and Sealmac: We are the only company in South Africa that manufactures bidim and Sealmac by converting ‘green’ PET pellets and flake (100% recycled polyester cool drink bottles) into extruded fibre via a continuous filament spun bonding process, which is then needle punched to give the finished geotextile its structural integrity. Multi-Cell: The concrete-filled Multi-Cell geocell system is best suited for labour-intensive construction methods, thereby providing training and local work opportunities for the community. Multi-Cell also offers durability and low maintenance and thus is more cost effective. Infiltrator Chambers: Quick and easy to install, this product has the advantage of being 100% environmentally friendly as it is produced from recycled plastic waste material. The many benefits (compared with conventional stone and pipe systems) include a guaranteed 140 ℓ volume capacity, ensuring an extended soak-away lifespan; conventional aggregate backfill is expensive, which makes using in situ soil as a backfill in Infiltrator more cost effective. Other benefits are a small footprint with equal or better performance allowing less site disruption, larger effective infiltrative area per linear metre allows installation on limited area sites, and a maximum infiltrative soil interface area.

Kaytech is an African pioneer in geotextiles and has established a remarkable reputation as a reliable, low-cost supplier to the mining, civil engineering infrastructure and building sectors. The company has been providing Africa and other export regions with geosynthetic solutions for over 40 years.

IMIESA June 2013



UTILIT TIES MANA AGE EMENT Pierre Blaauw | Manager | ASLA DEVCO Q. With regard to township development, what products and services can you offer to enhance the built environment? PB ASLA Devco is a turnkey implementing agent. We provide a total solution for the delivery of human settlements within a municipality, utilising the various subsidy programmes available in accordance with municipal prioritisation and taking bulk infrastructure planning into consideration. Municipalities are looking for a single service provider that can get projects implementation ready and construct the internal- and associated bulk services as well as top structures within the available subsidy quantum. We use a multi-year approach to ensure that there is continuity in delivery. A comprehensive plan is developed for each municipality to enhance the feasibility of smaller projects through cross-subsidisation.

What specialised technology do you offer to ensure effective and efficient housing models? We incorporate a patented construction approach in the delivery of houses. Housing within the subsidy environment must be done: • efficiently, since projects normally require a large number of units to be constructed • in accordance with a high structural standard to prevent potential future rectification costs • in a manner that will maximise the utilisation of local labour. The ASLA patented system entails a reinforced in situ-cast concrete frame structure integrated with the foundation. The frame provides the structural integrity to the house. Various options can be used to enclose the modules within the frame structure.

The Waenhuiskrans/Arniston Housing Project where 67 low-income houses and 13 gap-market erven are being developed

Concrete blocks are used in most instances since it is cost effective and creates many employment opportunities. The frame also allows for the use of unskilled labour to enclose the structure without compromising on quality.

How do your products fare in terms of purchase price and warranty? The company prides itself in the delivery of human settlements within the specified subsidy quantum. There is therefore peace of mind for the municipality since there is no risk of financial burden on the municipality if the project cost exceeds the subsidy income. In this regard we deliver a product that complies with the requirements of the Housing Code. All ASLA housing products are covered for latent and patent defects related to the structure as well as the roof construction. The period for which the house is covered for latent and patent defects is agreed within a memorandum of agreement. In addition, the company is a registered contractor with the National Home Builder Registration Council (NHBRC) and all housing units are covered for structural faults by the NHBRC; ASLA is also as a Level 9 CIDB graded construction enterprise.

Where and how are your products utilised in the

built environment? ASLA Devco has been appointed as the Implementing Agent in 14 municipalities in the Western Cape and three municipalities in the Northern Cape. Our housing products are extensively used in the subsidy housing market, within small projects as well as mega projects, e.g. N2 Gateway. There are various housing typologies consisting of single residential, semi-detached, row houses and walk-up duplex units.

What do you think are the significant challenges facing the low-cost township development industry? What could government do differently? The low-cost housing development industry is being frustrated by red tape and legislative processes, but this is not dissimilar to other commercial developments. More unique to the low-cost environment are the many questions pertaining to the sustainability of the low-cost housing market, in particular the provision of a fully subsidised housing opportunity. It is proposed that government expand the traditional below R3 500 market to R7 500. In conjunction with the expansion of the income bracket, a range of products should be implemented that will leverage private sector funding. The premise being to

provide a dignified basic shelter as a basis across a larger income bracket. Thereafter the beneficiary must realise housing in an incremental/organic manner based on affordability. We developed a basic shelter concept that will allow such incremental realisation of a housing opportunity.

What gives your company a competitive advantage? ASLA has been providing a one-stop service to client municipalities and beneficiary communities since 1994, establishing human settlements in numerous towns. In total, 40 000 houses of various types have been built through input from municipalities, local stakeholders and communities. The ability to implement projects in different topographical and geotechnical environments on a continuous basis within the subsidy quantum provides the peace of mind municipalities are looking for. Over and above the implementing agent role, ASLA provides a product tested to withstand the most challenging geotechnical conditions and which maximises the utilisation of local labour. We pride ourselves on the relationship we have with our clients. Ultimately it is this partnership that enables thriving communities.

ASLA Devco specialises in complete implementation of human settlement developments, utilising the various subsidy programmes available in the Housing Code.

IMIESA June 2013



UTILIT TIES MANA AGE EMENT Pascal Garrioch | Strategic Business Development Consultant | NATIONAL COLD ASPHALT

Q. What is National Cold Asphalt’s involvement in township/rural development? PG We have two technologies applicable to township/ rural development and a unique, genuinely holistic SMME initiative that truly incubates and supports the individual SMMEs during the period of their contract. We do have an exit strategy relative to each programme as we firmly believe that proper empowerment will enable and ensure that the SMME and individuals therein can stand alone and contribute to our economy as a whole. Our latest partnership programme is with Ekurhuleni Metro and the local SMMEs that have been appointed there for the two-year pothole repairs and minor patchwork tender for the entire region.

Is the company only involved in road infrastructure? Primarily yes; Raubex, our mother company, is arguably the strongest, successfully vertically integrated road construction company in South Africa.

In your opinion, how would you describe the state of South Africa’s road network, paying particular attention to rural infrastructure? South Africa’s national road networks are world-class. Unfortunately, as you move from provincial to primary to local to feeder to rural road networks, they become increasingly and substantially worse and, in many cases, inac-

cessible. From a rural perspective, our roads networks should be the life blood of our economy. Without good roads and the continuous maintenance thereof, accessibility to market for our rural communities will never fully develop and be truly optimised.

patchworks before serious damage is caused to the underlying base course. The initial capex required is minimal relative to the potential output of the repair team created. This ensures long-term skills transfer, sustainability and profitability for all parties concerned.

What do you think government can do better in terms of township development? Undertake all

Overall, what makes the company a cut above its competitors? Our core busi-

infrastructural development using local community members. The resultant local skills transfer will ensure long-term sustainability and a genuine development and upliftment of the community itself. Optimising labour in construction should be a prerequisite for all development programmes – this, of course, without compromising the end result of any work done. I refer specifically here to material used, productivity and – inevitably – the time and cost to deliver.

Does National Cold Asphalt have any unique product and/or new technology available to the local industry? Our 'Chippy' hand operated chip has won numerous accolades over the past few years (including the SABITA award for excellence in Asphalt Technology), and has positioned itself as one of the most labour intensive, efficient and costeffective simple mechanical device to black top and seal rural roads. We take great pride that in using this technology, one can employ over 60 locally trained people at a time to surface a quality prepared gravel road – without compromising either productivity or price. Our ‘Hot mix in a bag oven trailer’ is the latest innovative, simple maintenance mechanism to fix any future potholes or minor

ness objectives go far beyond just the supply of world-class asphalt materials. Our organisation has

a national and international footprint, which enables us to give quality service before and after the actual sale. This allows our entire customer base access to our multinational, diverse infrastructure and expert human resources. We also focus on a total turnkey SMME delivery model from supply of material, product and application training to unlocking access to private and public sector finance, funding and grants.

ABOVE LEFT Ekurhuleni SMME Infrastructure Development Programme – Bell Equipment Bomag Corporate Social Investment Launch (November 2012) RIGHT National Cold Asphalt’s latest innovative oven trailer, hot mix in bag pothole repair system

National Cold Asphalt is a division of National Asphalt, which is a member of the JSE-listed company Raubex and commenced operations in 1988. Specialising in the manufacture and laying of all types of asphalt, the company has grown exponentially and operates throughout all regions of South Africa. National Asphalt is currently represented at six centres where permanent plants are deployed; these are augmented by a further eight mobile plants on contract sites and this number is soon to be increased by a further two when delivery of the 40% recycled asphalt plants is taken. The state-of-the-art mobile units are used to service contacts and clients in more remote regions. The company employs more than 300 people and prides itself on the fact that staff turnover has been less than 5% for the past 10 years.

The Chippy Chip spreader is the most qualified, cost-effective, labour-intensive sealing methodology available. National Cold Asphalt aspires, through both the asphalt materials it manufactures along with the innovative application technologies used to focus on key government policies, to create genuine skills transfer and optimise labour in construction to provide sustainable employment opportunities at all levels and for all members of our society

IMIESA June 2013




Distributor for exclusively assigned territories chosen Pilot Crushtec has signed a distributor agreement for exclusively assigned territories, for Sandvik Construction’s mobile range of products: crushers and screens.


HE AGREEMENT, which came into effect on 1 October 2012, forges a strategic partnership between Pilot Crushtec and Sandvik Construction. It is expected that this alignment will be of significant benefit to local operators. The alliance follows an approach by Sandvik Construction – which offers the world’s widest range of rock drilling, rock excavation, processing, demolition and bulk materials-handling equipment – for Pilot Crushtec to take over the regional distribution of its full range of mobile crushing and screening products. “There are a number of sound reasons why Sandvik Construction considered Pilot Crushtec as a business partner. Pilot Crushtec has a reputation for being a dynamic and successful company, an independent business that is a major player in local and Southern African markets. The company has the technical expertise and field service capabilities to support the Sandvik brand and we share similar values,” says Duncan McGregor, product area president: mobile crushers and screens. There were some compelling reasons for Pilot Crushtec to take the proposal forward. These were: • It is in perfect alignment with the company’s policy of associating itself with world-class brands. • Sandvik is an engin e e r i n g


IMIESA June 2013

company with more than 150 years of experience. Through various acquisitions, including companies like Svedala and Allis Minerals, it is now one of the world’s two largest suppliers of crushing and screening equipment. • The Sandvik product range includes large capacity mobile products for hard rock mining and quarrying applications. These incorporate heavy and extra-heavy duty crushers. This provides Pilot Crushtec customers with an enhanced product selection, which at the top end offers far higher productivity than was previously available. • The relationship with Sandvik Construction means that Pilot Crushtec will have full access to Sandvik’s entire mobile range of crushing and screening equipment. This will facilitate the entry of Pilot Crushtec customers into valuable new markets. • The combination of Sandvik quality products, backed by Pilot Crushtec’s expertise in distribution and after-sales service, will benefit all parties. Customers will now buy world-class branded products from a world-class distributor. “This is without doubt an onwards and upwards decision. Some of our customers are looking for a larger range of equipment, including increased crushing capacities, and we are giving them exactly that. Pilot Crushtec is constantly evolving, and this new association with Sandvik is consistent with our own forward thinking,” says Sandro Scherf, CEO of Pilot Crushtec.

Pilot Crushtec will now supply its customer base with products from the Sandvik Construction mobile range. By sizing up its range in terms of products and increased output capacities, the new agreement means that the strategic alliance that existed between Pilot Crushtec and Terex Finlay has now run its course. It would be functionally impossible for the company to carry both ranges; however, Scherf emphasises that strategies are already in place to cater for current users of Terex Finlay products: • Pilot Crushtec will continue to sell Terex Finlay equipment until its stock is depleted. • The company will do its utmost to have a constructive and proactive termination with Terex Finlay. • All Terex Finlay machine warranties will be honoured. • Pilot Crushtec will continue to offer full support on all of its products, to all its customers. • Terex Finlay spare parts represent a significant part of Pilot Crushtec’s business, and the company will continue to grow its spares offering and support. • Pilot Crushtec remains committed to maintaining its levels of service and support to all customers, irrespective of the products they may operate, now and in the future. Sandvik’s QJ331 mobile jaw crusher



Solving a railway drainage problem When planning the construction of two new Transnet railway lines adjacent to an existing line in Ermelo, Mpumalanga, problems of drainage and limited space were incurred.


HE REHABILITATION of the formation structure necessitated an effective drainage system to prevent the ingress of water into the layer works. To facilitate subsoil drainage, rail line manufacturers Tubular Track specified the construction of a blanket drain with a lateral geocomposite drain. For numerous reasons, Kaytech’s high-quality bidim A10 and Flo-Drain were the immediate products of choice for this project. In the past, sand blanket drains were constructed for subsoil drainage on rail lines but proved problematic as the sand layer was easily contaminated by the fill and the thickness was difficult to control under heavy traffic. On consultation, Kaytech proposed the use of its heavy geotextile, which has since become standard practice for all blanket drains on railway lines. Kaytech’s bidim A10 is the heaviest grade of bidim geotextile, and when used for drainage, filtration and separation, as in this application, maintains the integrity of selected fill material over very low CBR subgrades, while allowing the dissipation of pore water pressure, resulting in accelerated consolidation. In comparison to the original sand blanket drain, bidim A10 was technically proven to be more effective. Flo-Drain, a geocomposite drainage system consisting of a Flownet geospacer wrapped in a bidim filter jacket, is supplied preassembled and may be used to lower the water table and to intercept seepage in a wide range of applications such as sports fields, golf courses, agricultural lands and road and rail drainage, to name a few. A separately supplied geopipe is simply attached at the base of the fin with the solid channel of the pipe downwards and the geotextile flap secured around it. This lightweight, flexible system is easy to transport and easy to install in reduced trench widths, a particularly important factor in this project. The bidim in Kaytech’s FloDrain system is manufactured from recycled

polyester material, which provides an added benefit by being 100% environmentally friendly. On this project the total bidim content, including the bidim A10 plus the bidim filter jacket of the Flo-Drain system, equated to 286 486 2 ℓ recycled cool drink bottles – which otherwise would have been relegated to a landfill site. Alzette Construction, which was awarded the contract, commenced work in May 2012 with completion in November 2012, by which time 4 000 m of Flo-Drain and 10 000 m2 of bidim A10 had been installed. The company, which has previous experience using these products, is highly impressed with the quality, ease of installation and huge time saving benefits. Kaytech’s unique products are all produced according to internationally renowned

ABOVE Flo-Drain placed at sidewalls of box cut BELOW Cover soil being placed over bidim A10 blanket drain

technology and, with ever increasing costs of transport, labour and suitable aggregate, its Flo-Drain system has certainly proved an effective and economical drainage option for Transnet’s vast rail network.

IMIESA June 2013




Surveying for municipalities The South African Geomatics Institute (SAGI) is represented in South Africa through a system of five branches that cover the nine provinces. This provides members, clients and the public with the best possible service and access to SAGI members at a relatively local level.


AGI IS A voluntary public benefit organisation of statutory registered persons working in the domain of land surveying, engineering surveying, photogrammetry and geographical information systems (GIS), and land management, including the associated aspects of planning and remote sensing. SAGI was formed in 2004, but its foundations are built on much older institutes such as the various provincial land survey institutes and ITESSA (Institute of Topographical and Engineering Surveyors of South Africa), which represented the technical surveyors. Over the decades, various changes have developed at an organisational level so that today it has (through the amalgamation of the above institutes) one body that represents the interests of all geomaticians – the modern term for surveyors. Sur veying is a specialised field and there are not many sur veyors in South Africa; the branches thus reflect equilibrium between surveyors in all provinces. The structure of SAGI is such that these regional branches are administered by committees, which are elected by the local members. The national council is drawn from representatives from these branch committees.


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Everybody needs a surveyor at some point, so it’s hard to distinguish the main entities since SAGI services a wide sector of the economy. From a public spend perspective, the main industries for surveyors are municipalities, provincial and national government departments, engineers, architects and construction companies. From a private sector perspective, it would be developers, homeowners, mines and private business. South African surveyors (geomaticians) are recognised the world

over as being among the best, a trait they maintain through SAGI activities and membership requirements. SAGI only admits persons registered in terms of the PLATO Act (Professional and Technical Surveyors Act 40 of 1984), which covers students, newly qualified candidates, fully registered technologists and professional surveyors; only the latter two categories are entitled to consult with clients and work for their own account. As in most professions, geomaticians are facing challenges with this aspect as well as from people operating outside of the provisions of the PLATO Act. In addition to this, SAGI has very strict conduct rules and only attracts members that are passionate about geomatics. Through this the public is protected and enhancing the reputation of a SAGI surveyor. SAGI runs workshops from time to time on new technologies. It also has Facebook and LinkedIn accounts where information is debated and disseminated for the public at large. SAGI is also embarking on a programme of publishing to better inform engineers on advances in processes, best practice and technology. While unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology is available, there are some regulatory issues still to be finalised, which SAGI is


addressing. Some technologies are extremely expensive (such as aerial and mobile lidar mapping systems) and in this regard SAGI encourages networking among members so that professionals can offer the most appropriate solution to their clients. There are massive prospects for growth in both the private and

accountable to any organisation. Surveyors are governed under PLATO. As a government mandated structure, PLATO has four broad categories of registration. Each registration category has certain subspecialisations such as land surveying, engineering surveying or GIS, for example.

SAGI has very strict conduct rules and only attracts members that are passionate about geomatics, ensuring that the public is protected and enhancing the reputation of a SAGI surveyor public sectors. Such growth is also dependant on SAGI informing officials and the public at large on what’s technologically possible – it’s amazing how many people don’t see the benefits of getting a registered surveyor to recommend the best method and solution. SAGI is embarking on a programme of informing other professionals and state entities about the distinction between registered and unregistered surveyors. This drive is as a result of an alarming trend where state funds are being wasted and service delivery delayed, due to faulty survey work being carried out by unregistered surveyors. Increasingly, clients are asking SAGI members to fix the mistakes of unregistered surveyors who are not

The registration categories with their subspecialisations are as follows: • professional surveyors – land (cadastral), engineering, GIS, photogrametry, mining and hydrographic • technologist (engineering, GIS, photogrammetry, mining and mine certified) • technicians (engineering, GIS, photogrammetry and mining) • in training (students). Technicians and people in training are only permitted to work under the control and direction of a professional surveyor or a survey technologist. It is also important to note that, by law, when dealing with matters relating to property boundaries or property beacons, only a professional

A BRIEF OUTLINE OF SAGI SAGI is a voluntary organisation for registered persons working in land surveying, engineering surveying, town planning, photogrammetry, remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and land management. Surveyors have been around since the earliest recorded times and undertook small- to large-scale projects, some with the most extreme engineering of its day. SAGI epitomises this most noble profession and its constantly evolving dynamics in the industry. South African surveyors are recognised the world over as being of the highest standard, a trait we continue through our SAGI activities and membership requirements. All SAGI members are committed to providing a good professional service and we welcome your input.

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land surveyor can advise on or undertake such work. Land surveyors also undertake engineering and other related survey work. By contrast, unregistered surveyors are people who either have little or no academic training

Three variations of a street view using 2D, 3D computer aided road models and design drawings as well as a mobile scan image

in surveying, or for one reason or another choose not to register with the government’s statutory survey council – PLATO. The details of all registered surveyors are available on the PLATO website: Clients should take cognisance of the categories of surveyors when appointing a surveyor to undertake a task. If clients are unsure about the registration status of a surveyor, they are perfectly entitled to consult the PLATO

website or simply ask the surveyor for current proof of registration in the form of a letter of good standing from PLATO. Indeed, it would be prudent when calling for quotes or tenders to insist on the following documents as part of the tender document: • proof of registration with PLATO – as a professional or technologist – in the form of a letter of current good standing • proof of current good standing with SAGI • proof of current professional indemnity cover. SAGI’s main purpose is to promote excellence and reliability in the survey profession, address matters of concern to surveyors and to facilitate peer discipline in order to maintain high standards. SAGI represents approximately 700 members spread across the country and some neighbouring countries. Membership of SAGI is restricted to those who are registered with PLATO. Additionally, SAGI members hold themselves to a higher set of conduct rules than required by PLATO. Our membership base is approximately 60% of all PLATO registered surveyors. SAGI, like PLATO, has various categories of membership. Only SAGI members who are entitled to run their own businesses and engage with the public are listed on the SAGI website. This assists in protecting the public and other professionals against the accidental use of a surveyor who is either unlicensed to practise, or who is unregistered and therefore unaccountable to the public and government through PLATO. SAGI offers a value-added service to the public with its “find a surveyor” feature on the SAGI website ( This feature allows a user to geographically obtain a list of surveyors in a particular area of interest. Government departments and other professional firms are most welcome to place their tenders or survey requirements with our institute secretariat for notification to members, either as a group, regionally or even locally. In conclusion, SAGI encourages all government departments and professional firms that require survey services for developmental projects to ensure that the survey firms they appoint are members in good standing with both PLATO and SAGI.

t +27 (0)31 563 9481 •


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Distribution of groundwater in south-west Egypt Two studies carried out by the author over southwest Egypt used C-band Radarsat-1 SAR images and topographic data to understand groundwater distributions in the Nubian aquifer, which underlies the study area. By Cordula Robinson, Centre for Remote Sensing at Boston University


N THESE studies, areas with enhanced groundwater represent the best locations for groundwater development in order to address the water and food pressures that exist in the region. In the East Oweinat area, a small-scale agricultural development is already under way, while in Tushka there are plans for development in the near future. Radar waves are uniquely able to image beneath the desert sand in the eastern Sahara to reveal groundwater-related near-surface features – that is, the courses of ancient rivers and streams as well as faults and fractures. The depth of near-surface imaging for

the datasets used is in the order of half a metre. The distribution of groundwater-recharge nearsurface features was analysed and the variation in groundwater storage was appraised. Three new areas have been identified as promising sites for agricultural development. The need for water in south-west Egypt and in all parts of the eastern Sahara is paramount – it is the basis for life. Accessibility to fresh water directly impacts the economy and the well-being of the local population. The ability to assess water availability and location attributes has considerable impact in resource management decisions, including what water is available

The presence of water in Egypt is clearly defined by the surroundings

for use and reuse. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is able to assist with this pursuit as it can be used to identify areas that received enhanced groundwater recharge in the past. The objectives of the studies were to analyse the distribution of palaeo-drainage features beneath the desert sand and the influence of structures on drainage, to identify those structures that were potentially recharged by groundwater and in which groundwater resides or is transmitted, and to determine locations with enhanced groundwater accumulation. These operations are performed within a GIS database, supplemented with a slope map derived from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data set and correlated with REGWA (General Company for Research and Groundwater) groundwater data and geophysical profiling from Egypt’s National Research Centre. The scale transformations are simply resolvable within a GIS. Fluvial and structural

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An aerial view of the expansive Egyptian landscape

interpretations were carried out within a GIS database. The SRTM digital elevation model was also used for this research to establish slopes and confirm flow directions of the drainage. Since the models are C-band data, like Radarsat-1, it would be expected that penetration depths are the same – that is, no greater than half a metre. With respect to flow direction, the SAR images and vector layers were overlain onto the DEM so that the topography that influenced the independent drainage systems could be confirmed. This approach is preferred to automatic drainage extraction from a DEM in low gradient or flat terrain, which is less reliable. Further, the derived slope map allows infiltration rates to be appraised where gentle slopes (1 to 5%) have the best recharge potential for run-off, while building a certain hydraulic gradient for water to continue flowing downwards. Areas with optimal slope conditions and high drainagestructure intersections and densities are considered to have been most favourable for groundwater recharge in the past. Results of the remote sensing interpretations are as follows: First, structural interpretations show structures trend east-west in the north, compared with (newly mapped) east-northeast and north-east trending structures in south-easterly locations. The east-west structures have been discussed in earlier work and are considered to represent a structural high of the Neoproterozoic crystalline basement and Palaeozoic sediments. With respect to fluvial interpretations, the first (complete) fluvial map of the study area emphasized that the desert landscape is one produced by substantial fluvial action. Examples include gullied escarpments around the Gilf Kebir plateau, large and newly mapped alluvial fans at the foothills of Gilf Kebir, structurally controlled fluvial passageways that suggest preferential water flow paths (the principal one draining from Wadi Arid to Wadi Safsaf and into the Tushka depression area), dendritic drainage in the highlands, braided drainage in the plains, and independent endorheic systems in Oweinat and Tushka. In central locations, some drainage lines terminate in kankar lake deposits, the latter having been mapped. The alluvial fans and structurally enclosed channels coincide with gentle slopes and optimal recharge conditions, thus indicating that they have high groundwater potential. Agricultural development of these areas then will improve the chances of more sustainable development. Groundwater data was provided from two farms in the study area that are separated by a distance of approximately 91 km. The easterly farm lies in the structurally controlled fluvial passageway leading to Wadi Safsaf and the westerly farm abuts the alluvial fan deposits below Gilf Kebir. Data correlations in the GIS database suggest a relationship exists between the spatial organisation and structural features and the occurrence of low-salinity groundwater: lower-salinity water exists adjacent to the alluvial fans and also in the south-west reaches of the structurally enclosed channels. Further, wells in the vicinity of the newly mapped structures were found to contain lower-salinity water than those removed

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from structures, emphasising that knowledge of structural features is essential to understand groundwater flow paths. This concept has been studied further by using geophysical techniques where results show a positive correlation between structures mapped using remote sensing data and those identified by ground penetrating radar. Similarly, VES readings confirmed near-surface water at an area identified as such by remote sensing. Recently, the author participated in a field trip in the desert, south-west of the Tushka lakes. As guided by the remote sensing observations, the field team visited a previously undocumented playa, referred to here the Alaa playa and centred around 22°46’3” N, 31°3’43” E. Radar interpretations indicate that an internal drainage basin existed at this location and that there is some structural control on the peripheral drainage, enhancing percolation of originally surface water into the ground at these locations. When these interpretations were overlain on an optical 742 Landsat image, a playa signature could be discerned. Upon approaching this location in the field, the field team began to enter terrain with shrubs in a fine-grained material that appear to have been laid down in quiet environments and seem cultivatable. The clayey lake deposits included fine traces of gypsum that filled the cracks of the clay. The presence of shrubs suggests that water may be as close as 15 m to the surface. Finally, the surface of this area is flat and firm, and since the dunes that exist here are small, the area would be easy to develop. The complexity feature morphologies and structural feature distributions have been examined for the study areas and the results have improved the understanding of the heterogeneity of the local aquifers there.


• GeospaƟal Data Management • GeospaƟal and Business Data IntegraƟon • GeospaƟal Data Analysis and Modelling • GeospaƟal Mapping • GeospaƟal Technology ImplementaƟon • Database Management • GIS ApplicaƟon Development • GeospaƟal Training and Support

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The way forward on waste management The negative impact of waste on the environment and on people’s health is of ongoing concern. Poor waste management places significant, and at times overwhelming, pressure on the capability of municipalities to manage waste. In this article, Nick Mannie, Aurecon technical director: waste, relates how Gauteng’s Merafong City Local Municipality (MCLM) took bold steps towards ensuring sustainable waste management solutions, and shares lessons that can be learnt from its actions.


N ORDER TO address this issue, waste management strategies that are advanced, yet easy to implement and have measurable outcomes, are required. Aurecon has a multidisciplinar y team of waste specialists able to develop and manage appropriate waste management strategies. Local knowledge, combined with the group’s global expertise, produces innovative, best-in-industr y solutions. Each phase of the waste management process is analysed and evaluated in order to produce the best possible solution tailored to the specific needs of a client.

Identifying low-hanging fruits In 2011, the MCLM was faced with the task of disposing of over 150 000 t of waste, collected from 36 000 households and businesses. After assessing the situation, Aurecon identified numerous problems, in many cases due solely to the use of plastic bags for the storing and disposing of waste. Key issues were: • Frequent spillages from torn or open bags resulting in unhygienic conditions, such as exposure to noxious streams of waste, flies and unpleasant odours. • Workers risked sprains from handling heavy bags and cuts from sharp objects in bags. • The collection process was time consuming as workers needed to pick up individual bags one at a time. • The bags were unsightly and were frequently the source of windblown litter on residential streets. This was environmentally poor practice as the bags introduced a secondar y waste problem. A simple solution In order to address the problem quickly and efficiently, Aurecon recommended a switch to 240 ℓ trolley (wheelie) bins to replace the use of plastic bags. “Sometimes, when faced with massive challenges, it is best practice to identify easy actions that deliver big gains,” explains Mannie. “We found this to be true of the MCLM.” Apart from solving the problems listed above, the municipality benefitted through a significant reduction in health and safety costs among employees, as well as the creation of revenue from selling additional wheelie bins to members

The system developed governs waste collection in order to make it optimal, through the calculation of factors like waste generation per suburb and the number of the rubbish trucks required


IMIESA June 2013

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of the community. Discontinuing the use of plastic bags also raised awareness among residents about the need for responsible waste management. In addition, reducing the quantity of plastics in the landfill resulted in a reduced carbon footprint, demonstrating the municipality’s commitment to the National Waste Management Strategy (2011) of South Africa.

Optimisation of waste collection service delivery A major problem many local municipalities face is the issue of ser vice deliver y. “The MCLM was challenged by one ser vice

been to randomly designate certain days for collecting waste in certain areas. With this newly developed system, Aurecon was able to assess factors such as risk areas, inefficiencies and costs that were incurred daily during the waste collection process, and report back to the MCLM on its findings with innovative and practical recommendations. The latest information on all the solid waste sites and ser vices within the jurisdiction of the municipality was also incorporated into a database, allowing for the comprehensive compilation of best waste management practices. “The system we developed can now govern

The solution lay in an effective information system that could measure service delivery at any given time area in particular – that of its waste collection process,” says Mannie. “Once the municipality had addressed the immediate challenge of replacing plastic bags with waste collection bins, it needed to arrive at a holistic solution to its broader waste collection challenges.” In dire need of a tool to optimise the allocation of resources and improve efficiency, the municipality engaged Aurecon to investigate and develop a management system for the improved collection of waste in the local municipality area. Aurecon’s team, made up of Nick Mannie; Kobie Pretorius (project manager), and Hentie Viviers (geographic information system (GIS) and data management professional) undertook to completely review the municipality’s waste management procedures, and implement a sustainable scheme with substantial benefits for all the stakeholders.

A holistic solution The solution lay in an effective information system that could measure service delivery at any given time. The new collection system was based on customised GIS modelling according to the MCLM’s specific requirements. The system was designed to take into account various factors such as the geographical area (location, population size and distance to the landfill or transfer station), future developments in the city, potential population growth, the timing and frequency of waste collection and, of course, the client’s resource allocation. The GIS modelling for optimal route planning is a considerable improvement on the municipality’s existing approach, which had

waste collection in order to make it optimal, through the calculation of factors like waste generation per suburb and the number of the rubbish trucks required,” explains Mannie. GIS mapping and database also assisted the municipality strategically in terms of long-term planning to ensure that resources, equipment and personnel will be efficiently utilised. Some of the wide-ranging benefits of the system’s optimised route planning were: • The MCLM’s collection backlog was eradicated. • The risk of drivers missing areas or collection points was eliminated. • Travelling distances were lowered, reducing chances of truck breakdowns and significantly reducing fuel costs, which in turn effectively lessens the MCLM’s overall carbon footprint. • Productivity improved: the revised time scheduling demonstrated that the waste collection ser vice could be maximised by implementing an additional shift per day. The use of equipment and personnel more efficiently neutralised the amount of overtime taken by municipal workers and the new system motivated them by allowing them to leave work early if they had completed their routing for the shift. • Customer satisfaction improved with the well-organised collection of waste, reflecting in minimised complaints from the 36 000 residents. • The MCLM is now better equipped to identify potential problems in advance and take timely preventative measures by reoptimising the routes.

TOP Recyclable household waste ABOVE Mixed recyclables being sorted at a drop-off facility in Richards Bay

Lessons learnt When reviewing the way in which the MCLM handled its waste collection challenges, two important lessons emerge: • Making small, simple changes (such as replacing plastic bags with bins) all the way through to a complete redesign of the current working system (as with a new waste collection route planning system) has a place in the adoption of a holistic view of waste management. • Instead of incorporating waste management only as a means of cleaning up a messy and unhygienic situation, it is far smarter and more cost-effective to avoid the situation by integrating an effective waste management plan from the start. “We ensure we understand a client’s precise needs and consider all the relevant factors in order to develop the most suitable combination of infrastructure and ser vices. This approach results in solutions that are comprehensive, realistic, effective and sustainable,” maintains Mannie.

IMIESA June 2013




Soweto ‘superblock’ development


PARTNERSHIP between WK Construction and the local Soweto SMME Contractors Forum – the Water wise III Partnership – has been awarded the infrastructure upgrading project for Superblock 13B in Soweto. The superblock includes Braam Fischer ville and Tshepisong, and consist of some 15 500 stands. The work entails the retrofitting of the houses to eliminate all possible leaks before new prepaid water meters are installed on the properties. Secondar y water mains will also be upgraded in Tshepisong to increase capacity. The contract start date was 20 March 2013. WK Construction has


IMIESA June 2013

completed its establishment on-site as well as employing local SMMEs from the areas that are being worked in. Stands are being sur veyed to determine the extent of the leaks to be repaired, the data is captured into a civil engineer support management information system and then job cards are generated per stand. The completion date of the project is scheduled for May 2014. The project is based on the Extended Public Works Programme and being under taken using labour-intensive methods. All work is measured as “tasks” and labourers are paid accordingly. A total of 35 km PVC pipes will be laid as secondary mains and some 95 km HDPE pipes as yard connections on the project. The 15 500 stands will be retrofitted and metered. Each stand will generally receive new cisterns, taps and piping, as well as some pans and mixers to ensure a “leak-free” condition before the meter is installed.




Construction of Kazungula Bridge to begin next year The construction of the US$248 million (R2.32 billion) Kazungula Bridge will infinitely improve the quality of life for the thousands of people who are currently reliant on a ferry to travel between Zambia and Botswana.


CHOOLCHILDREN AND breadwinners are forced to wait a minimum of four hours to get across the bridge, but the development of the new bridge will drastically improve access to and from both countries, highlights GIBB’s director: electrical engineering, Dr Willem Sprong. The Kazungula Bridge is a pact between Botswana and Zambia – a bilateral trade tie. The bridge will be instrumental in aiding Botswana and Zambia to work together, increase trade and assist citizens working in either country without work permits. The project will see leading South African consulting engineering company GIBB earn at least R40 million, through a joint venture with Nippon Koei, managing the review of the preconstruction phase and detailed designs, and ultimately the construction. According to Sprong, the Kazungula Bridge is a 960 m bridge to be built over the next five years. The start of construction is planned for March 2014 with completion expected in early 2018. This new bridge will accommodate both road and rail.

ABOVE The ferry linking Zambia and Botswana in operation RIGHT GIBB’s director: electrical engineering, Dr Willem Sprong

“We are responsible for the design review, tender documentation and supervision of the construction of the Kazungula Bridge project,” says Sprong. He adds that the bridge will be unique in that it will consist of two one-stop border posts on either side, which will prevent queues of motorists on the bridge itself. Other players in the JV working on the project include Bothakga Burrow Botswana, CPP Botswana and Zulu Burrow Development Consultants. “One of the challenges on this project is that there is an annual three-month flooding season on the area and this will potentially hinder the construction during this period. The team will have to ensure that they maximise the period before flooding season starts to meet the appropriate deadlines,” states Sprong.

IMIESA June 2013

Born and bred right here - Bell is Africa’s very own global equipment supplier. With Bell you get machines built tough for our harsh environment and support from Africa’s most comprehensive network of people dedicated to your success. Best of all, while you are creating infrastructure and jobs, so are we. Choose Bell as your equipment partner and enjoy the pride of knowing you’re not just boosting your business but helping make Africa a better place too.




Africa’s best fast-track power project The Aggreko Shanduka cross-border power project, located at Ressano Garcia in Mozambique, has been awarded Africa’s Best Fast Track Power Project for 2012 at the Africa Energy Awards.


OMMISSIONED IN July 2012, the Ressano Garcia project is recognised as the world’s first interim cross-border IPP (independent power producer) project. Utilising natural gas from Mozambique’s Temane gas fields, the output of the plant is being injected directly into the national grid of Mozambique on-site via a purpose-built substation. The project saw the generation and supply of 110 MW of power to Electricidade de Moçambique (EDM), the national utility of Mozambique, and cross-border to Eskom, the South African national utility. While being a highly innovative project in terms of delivering much needed power to both countries, the judges where impressed by the truly fast-track nature of the project. Commissioning the project, from first breaking


IMIESA June 2013

ground to being fully operational, took less than four months. This included a substantial civil infrastructure programme involving the building of access roads, a 1.2 km high pressure gas pipeline, gas processing and de-pressurising infrastructure, a major substation and 1.5 km of 275 kV transmission line. The project is connected to the Southern African Power Pool, which links the power grids of nine Southern African countries. Taking advantage of this exceptional transmission infrastructure and the flexible nature of Aggreko’s power installations, Aggreko announced on 14 March that it would extend the Ressano Garcia facility to add an additional 122 MW. Coming online within the second quarter of 2013, this additional power will be shared between EDM and NamPower, the Namibian national utility, and

bring the total generating capacity of Ressano Garcia to 232 MW. “To realise a project of this scale and complexity, the global resources of Aggreko were mobilised to project manage and engineer the installation of Ressano Garcia. This capability, coupled with the expertise of our partnering contractors and customers working together as one team, resulted in the successful delivery of this remarkable project,” comments Ron Sams, global operations and technology director at Aggreko. “We are thrilled to receive this award in conjunction with our partner Aggreko,” adds Phuti Mahanyele, CEO of the Shanduka Group. “Access to sufficient and stable power supplies creates tremendous value for the development of the region. This project has also brought


LEFT The substation at the Aggreko Power Plant at Ressano Garcia, Mozambique ABOVE The Aggreko Power Plant at Ressano Garcia, Mozambique BELOW Local Mozambican workers on-site at the Aggreko Power Plant

significant benefits to the local population, providing increased employment opportunities, stimulating wider economic activity and, through Shanduka’s Adopt-a-School Foundation, assisting in the development of a local primary school, Escola Primaria Completa De Ressano Garcia.” James Shepherd, managing director of Aggreko Southern and East Africa, commented on the award: “I am delighted that what is indeed a unique and groundbreaking project has been recognised as such by our industry peers. Building a power plant of such size and complexity, on a completely greenfield site, in less than four months is truly remarkable. This award recognises the vision and hard work of the project team from Aggreko and Shanduka, our customers EDM and Eskom, and all the partners that made this project such a resounding success.”

IMIESA June 2013


SALGA / WRC National Municipal Benchmarking Initiative Workshop IMESA Conference 2013 st


21 and 22 October 2013 – The Boardwalk Hotel & Conference Centre, Port Elizabeth

Programme and Content DAY ONE: MONDAY, 21 OCTOBER 2013 08:30 – 09:00 Registration and Tea/Coffee 09:00 – 09:30 Opening Session: Welcome and Introduction 09:00 – 09:10 Welcome remarks by IMESA 09:10 – 09:20 Remarks by SALGA 09:20 – 09:30 Remarks by Benchmarking Ambassador 09:30 – 10:00 Overview of the National Municipal Benchmarking Initiative –update on key progress to-date 10:00 – 11:00 Session 1: Water Conservation and Demand Management 10:00 – 10:30 The two things you need to know to start constructing an IWA Water Balance 10:30– 11:00

Current status, key findings and emerging trends

11:00 – 11:15 Tea/Coffee Break 11:15 – 12:00 Session 1: Water Conservation and Demand Management (cont) 11:15 – 11:45Group facilitated discussion: Water Conservation & Demand Management What do I currently know? What do I need to know to move forward? How can my peer group help me? What PIs can I track? 11:45 – 12:00 Report back by groups 12:00 – 13:00 Session 2: Human Resources and Skills Development 12:00– 12:30

Which is my “real” organogram: the ideal, funded or filled organogram? Does my organogram meet my service delivery needs?

12:30 – 13:00 Current status, key findings and emerging trends 13:00 – 13:45 Lunch 13:45 – 14:30 Session 2: Human Resources and Skills Development (cont) 13:45 – 14:15Group facilitated discussion: Human Resources & Skills Development What do I currently know? What do I need to know to move forward? How can my peer group help me? What PIs can I track? 14:15 – 14:30 Report back by groups 14:30 – 15:30 Session 3: Service Delivery and Backlogs 14:30 – 15:00 How does scheme functionality impact your service delivery? 15:00 – 15:30 Current status, key findings and emerging trends 15:30 – 15:45 Tea/Coffee Break 15:45 – 16:30 Session 3: Service Delivery and Backlogs (Cont) 15:45 – 16:15Group facilitated discussion: Service Delivery & Backlogs What do I currently know? What do I need to know to move forward? How can my peer group help me? What PIs can I track? 16:15 – 16:30 Report back by groups 16:30

Closure: Day One

16:30 – 18:00 Sponsored Cocktail Networking Session Brought to you by SALGA/WRC’s Municipal Benchmarking Initiative: For Municipalities, By Municipalities, to the Benefit of Municipalities

DAY TWO: TUESDAY, 22 OCTOBER 2013 08:30 – 09:00 Registration and Tea/Coffee 09:00 – 10:00 Session 4: Operations and Maintenance 09:00– 09:30

Strategies and tactics to curb theft and vandalism

09:30 – 10:00 Current status, key findings and emerging trends 10:00 – 10:30 Group facilitated discussion: Operations & Maintenance What do I currently know? What do I need to know to move forward? How can my peer group help me? What PIs can I track? 10:30 – 10:45 Report back by groups 10:45 – 11:00 Tea/Coffee Break 11:00 – 12:45 Session 5: Product Quality 11:00 – 11:30 How sustainable is my Blue Drop status? Will I ever achieve Green Drop status for all my schemes? 11:30 – 12:00Current status, key findings and emerging trends 12:00 – 12:30Group facilitated discussion: Product Quality What do I currently know? What do I need to know to move forward? How can my peer group help me? What PIs can I track? 12:30 – 12:45 Report back by groups 12:45 – 13:30 Lunch 13:30 – 12:45 Session 6: Financial Management 13:30 – 14:00 What are meaningful targets for O&M and asset rehabilitation expenditure? 14:00 – 14:30Current status, key findings and emerging trends 14:30 – 15:00Group facilitated discussion: Financial Management What do I currently know? What do I need to know to move forward? How can my peer group help me? What PIs can I track? 15:00 – 15:15 Report back by groups 15:15 – 15:30 Tea/Coffee Break 15:30 – 16:00 Session 7: Munibench 15:30 – 15:45Overview of benchmarking web-based system: Munibench 15:45 – 16:00Facilitated discussion: Munibench needs analysis – New or amended features/functions 16:00 – 16:30 Closing Session: Wrap Up and Evaluation 16:00 – 16:15Wrap up and way forward 16:15 – 16:30Workshop evaluation and lucky draw 16:30

Closure: Day Two Brought to you by SALGA/WRC’s Municipal Benchmarking Initiative: For Municipalities, By Municipalities, to the Benefit of Municipalities


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Total solutions for the wind industry

Offering a total solution for everything from foundation to rotor tip allows Sika to keep pace with the ever-increasing demands of the wind market.


OR OVER 100 years now, Sika has been at the forefront of providing solutions in the areas of sealing, bonding, damping, protecting and reinforcing. Sika is a globally integrated company supplying speciality chemicals and application knowledge, with more than 120 production and marketing subsidiaries in 76 countries. It is therefore no coincidence that today so many of the world’s leading wind turbine producers rely on Sika, with over 25% of the total accumulated global wind power in operation today bonded with Sika products. Since the development of the first utilityscale wind turbines in the early 1990s, Sika has been supplying solutions for blade manufacturing. From that point, there has been an exponential increase in turbine size and blade length, and Sika’s solutions continue to evolve to meet these needs. The two fundamentally different blade design concepts in the market have led to mainly epoxy and polyurethane adhesives being used to meet the design demands. Using experience gained from developments in the automotive market, Sika has adapted these to the wind market requirements and has specifically developed toughened epoxy formulations and GL-approved polyurethane adhesives for blade bonding to reinforce its existing range of high-performance epoxy and polyurethane adhesives.

Additionally, Sika offers a range of resins, model boards, pastes and gel coats for mould and model-making as well as GL-approved high-performance infusion resins for blade and part manufacture. The increasing hub height needed for larger turbines has led to higher-performance foundations and hybrid towers to be constructed. For concrete towers and foundations, Sika has developed super plasticisers to improve strength and casting, as well as epoxy adhesives for presetting concrete elements and fast- strength-gain grouts for sealing the vertical joints in the concrete tower sections. Wind turbines operate in some of the harshest working environments possible. Sika has formulated corrosion protection coating systems for steel tower sections that cover the full range of defined corrosion categories to protect onshore and offshore steel towers and foundations. Similarly, the cast iron parts of the hub, generator and gearbox are also protected using Sika’s protective coating systems. It is essential to protect sensitive electrical equipment housed in the nacelle from loss and damage caused by water ingress. Sika has pioneered the development of hybrid sealant/adhesives selected for their UV and weather-resistant characteristics, and proven through their in-service performance over many years. To ensure the long-term performance of the blades, Sika has developed a range

A wind farm of 40 wind turbines in Dorobantu, Constanta in Romania contributes to environmental-friendly production of power for the Romanian market by making use of renewable energy resources

of surface-finishing and repair products to allow rapid and reliable repairs to wind turbine blades to minimise downtime and maximise generation efficiency. Demands to reduce the cost of energy from wind power will largely shape the way the market develops. More powerful turbines to maximise the generation potential per site will place increasing demands on the materials used to withstand the extra loads. With onshore and near-coast shallow-water sites diminishing, more challenging sites will also add further complexity. As the rate of turbine changes stabilizers, repair and maintenance will become more important to maximise the service life of wind turbines. The remotest wind farm in the world is also Germany’s first commercial wind farm – Bard Offshore 1, located 125 km off the German coast in international waters. This high-sea wind power plant with 80 windmills has a nominal capacity of 400 MW, which is enough to cover the energy requirements of about 400 000 four-person households. The energy produced is transported through a 125-km long direct current sea cable to the mainland and then another 75 km inland.

IMIESA June 2013



Increasing productivity of construction machines Until now, fleet managers had little option but to hope that machinery was being used as efficiently as possible at a given location, and to accept any downtimes that arose.


HANKS TO NEW technology now fitted to all compact machinery from the Wacker Neuson group, ideal logistics and easy handling are now closely combined. Wacker Neuson Telematic is the fastest connection between the machinery in the field and its owner. Information on current location, operating times and much more can be accessed at any time from a computer or smartphone. To schedule maintenance times more easily, Telematic will automatically remind you by e-mail or SMS when the next service is due. Geofence is an especially simple and easy-to-use function that notifies you immediately of any unauthorised use of your machines. It functions like a virtual fence by which you can restrict equipment

to a specific area. The system then alerts you as soon as the machine leaves this area. Wacker Neuson Telematic is the fastest connection between the machinery in the field and its owner

The biggest benefit of Telematic technology is undoubtedly increased productivity and therefore profitability. The resale value is increased, because the machine’s history can be rapidly accessed, and better monitoring also means a longer service life.

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Aquadam Armco Superlite ASLA Devco Aveng Manufacturing Infraset Babcock Barloworld Equipment Bell Equipment Corobrik


13 44 48 22 32 & 36 OFC 65 26

Gemini GIS and Environmental Services 59


GIBB Engineering & Science


Southern Mapping

Jan Palm Consulting





Maluleke Luthuli Development Planners 31 Model Maker Systems


Murray & Roberts Building Products


58 38 & 39





Trenchless Technologies


Wacker Neuson



WK Construction


Nyeleti Administration Trust


WRP Consulting Engineers


Precision Meters


ELB Equipment


National Asphalt


Elster Kent Metering


National Cold Asphalt





IMIESA June 2013

54 - 56

Supported by the International Water Association

Midrand, 20 & 21 August 2013 & Cape Town, 22 & 23 August 2013


Dear Colleague, WRP Consulting Engineers is pleased to announce the dates for the 2013 annual Water Leakage Summit which will be held this year at the DBSA Vulindlela Auditorium in Midrand on 20 and 21 August 2013 and at the The Bay Hotel in Camps Bay on 22 and 23 August 2013. Places for the Summit will be limited to 150 at each venue and will be allocated on a first come first serve basis. Please diarise the dates and ensure that you book your place at this year's event early to avoid disappointment. Tim Waldron from Australia, who is the chairperson of the International Water Association’s Water Losses Specialist Group will present a key-note paper at the event on behalf of the IWA on the latest international trends on Water Loss Reduction. Dr Guenter Hauber Davidson from Australia - a specialist on Industrial Water Auditing and Water Demand Management in the Industrial Sector will also present at the summit. Feedback from the 2012 Summit was extremely positive thanks to the tremendous support from DWA, WRC, DBSA, SASOL and the City of Tshwane and the numerous specialists who kindly presented at the events. Based on the feedback we have received we therefore plan to tailor the content of all future Water Loss Summits to reflect the latest developments in Water Loss Control as well as the specific needs as suggested by the delegates. Each annual event will therefore provide new and useful information that will assist all Municipal Water Loss personnel to reduce their losses. The events are aimed at Municipal personnel and those in government organisations who have an interest in understanding water loss management. The summit will carry 2 CPD points. The cost of this year's event will again be held at the 2010 rates namely R3420 (including VAT) per person for the 2-day event. All WISA and International Water Association members attending the summit, will receive a discount on the summit.(Discounted rates for IWA/WISA members: Summit - R2736 (including VAT)). Please note that special room rates (B & B) have been negotiated with the Bay Hotel for the duration of the Cape Town event and have also been extended to the following week for those wishing to stay on in Cape Town. Please contact us for further details. For further information and to register your interest in attending this event as a delegate, sponsor or exhibitor, please email: or call + 27 (12)346 3496 (Constance Makola or Zama Siqalaba). We look forward to seeing you at the African Water Leakage Summit again this year!

Ronnie McKenzie Willem Wegelin Conference Directors, 3rd REGIONAL IWA AFRICAN WATER LEAKAGE SUMMIT 2013 Participating organisations :

A Miya Group Company

4Water Supplies (Pty) Ltd

300 000 metres of

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