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IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT • MAINTENANCE • SERVICE DELIVERY

Pipe Deterioration

Asset Management

Dam Construction

SA’s ageing infrastructure

A critical municipal function

PIMPing your earth dam

LEKWA

Sustainable township development ISSN 0257 1978

V o l u m e 4 1 N o . 0 7 • J u l y 2 0 1 6 • R 5 0 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT )


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CONTENTS www.infrastruc

turene.ws

IMESA The officia l magaz ine of the Institu te of Munici pal Engine ering rn Africa Southe of

INFRA STRUC TURE

Pipe deterioratio

DEVELOPME NT •

n

ture Agei ng infra struc

MAIN TENAN CE •

Asset managemen A critical municipal

10

MUNICIPAL REVIEW A city that delivers on its commitments

t

ASSET MANAGEMENT Mismanagement of assets

Earth dam walls PIMPing your earth

dam

Regulars

LEKWA

8 ISSN 0257 197

40

SERVI CE DELIV ERY

function

Sustainable township development

VOLUME 41 NO. 7 JULY 2016

i n c l . VAT ) 6 • R50.00 ( .07 • July 201 Vo l u m e 4 1 N o

Editorial Comment

3

IMESA Infrastructure Management System

President’s Comment

5

In-line’s inside scoop

8

Africa Round-up Index to Advertisers

Having started, figuratively speaking, on shaky ground, the development of Nellmapius Ext 22 Township is now on firm footing, with the appointment of a second and new professional resource team headed by Lekwa Consulting Engineers. P6

70

6

Lekwa – A place of melodies

Municipal Review City of Johannesburg: A city that delivers on its commitments

INFRASTRUCTURE

Landfills – an untapped energy resource

53

Energy-efficient LED retrofit

55

5 reasons to buy local 17

57

Geosynthetics Perfecting geomembrane welding

PANEL DISCUSSION

Ageing water & sanitation

Energy

Construction

Analysis of pipe deterioration

P17

49

10

Ageing Water & Sanitation Infrastructure

DIVISIONAL FOCUS

46

Technical Article PIMP your earth dam wall

Cover Story

43

58

Saint Gobain

23

Project Management

APE Pumps

25

Planning for procurement

Sizabantu Piping Systems

27

Ultra Control Valves

29

Cement & Concrete

Rare Group

31

Keeping cool with concrete

63

Hall Longmore

33

Eliminating bottlenecks

65

Robor

35

New vibrating system aims big

67

Bambanani Pipes and Fittings

37

Water, South Africa’s oxymoron

38

Industry Insight

61

Construction Vehicles & Equipment Polishing your concrete prep fleet

68

A lifeline for repair

69

SAFCEC – Summing up the industry 39

Awards

Asset Management IMIESA July 2016

49

13

TECHNICAL ARTICLE PIMP your earth dam wall

Mismanagement of assets

57

40

CONSTRUCTION 5 reasons to buy local

CESA and Aon to celebrate engineering excellence

63

70

CEMENT & CONCRETE Keeping cool with concrete


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EDITORIAL COMMENT PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Tony Stone SENIOR JOURNALIST Danielle Petterson HEAD OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister DESIGNER Ramon Chinian CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders SUB-EDITOR Morgan Carter CONTRIBUTORS D Daries, W Mfebe, J van Rijn CLIENT SERVICES & PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban MARKETING MANAGER Philip Rosenberg ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS subs@3smedia.co.za PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________

Water, the

burning issue

W

ITH EIGHT OF South Africa’s nine provinces declared disaster areas because of the prevailing drought, water is a key issue. Maximising the societal and economic benefits from existing water sources is a top priority. But, besides the lack of rain, water loss – through ageing infrastructure – and water pollution – through irresponsible water management – are the main culprits in reducing the availability of water. In this issue of IMIESA, we look at pipe deterioration and the causes thereof in the different pipe technologies. The useful article gives a few good pointers. Even so, complacency and incompetence can no longer be tolerated because, in some instances, such as Kroonstad, it’s a matter of life and death, of agriculture, industry, fauna and flora. If ever there were a time to step up to the plate and work together, it’s now. And, we need to be smart about it too. Awareness of South Africa’s ageing infrastructure is nothing new. Commentators have been speaking about this for a long time – SAPPMA for one. Puzzling, though, is the SABS’s failure to reissue licences to plastic pipe manufacturers. This flies in the face of the Department of Water and Sanitation’s National Water Resource Strategy, a vision and set of strategic actions for effective water management, which says all the right things. As they say in the classics, prevention is better than cure. Given that district municipalities are concerned about the welfare of farmers, a strategy to build earth dams needs to be carefully considered, given that global warming is here to stay, at least for a while. However, in the design and

ADVERTISING SALES Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 Email: jennymiller@lantic.net ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 9, 3rd Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 Email: nicholas@3smedia.co.za www.3smedia.co.za ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R550.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2016. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: King Singh P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: admin@imesa.org.za Website: www.imesa.org.za BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 Email: celestev@buffalocity.gov.za EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 1066 Email: imesa.easterncape@gmail.com KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Penny Pietersen Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: imesakzn@imesa.org.za NORTHERN PROVINCE Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0)82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0)86 634 5644 Email: imesanorth@vodamail.co.za SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Fax: +27 (0)86 629 7490 Email: imesa.southcape@gmail.com WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: Michelle.Ackerman@capetown.gov.za FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Fax: +27 (0)86 628 0468 Email: imesa.fsnc@gmail.com All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

construction of earth dam walls, the imperviousness of the dam floor and wall is critical; if this is not correctly computed, it may result in the dam failing. We delve into this critical factor on page 49. Generally speaking, things are tough in the civil engineering industry at the moment. The South African Forum of Civil Engineering Contractors looks at key issues affecting the current confidence levels in the industry. Nonetheless, with all the electioneering going on at the moment and the promises being made, especially one made by the ruling party – of six million houses being built by 2019, and considering the roads and stormwater, water and wastewater, electricity and waste management that will need to go along with houses – civil engineers should be quite busy for the next three years… if the promises hold up. Last, but not least, asset management is an issue that many in the industr y have been hammering on about for years. IMIESA, along with IMESA, does so again. To drive the point home, South Africa has the 10th longest road network and 18th longest paved road network in the world. Nationally, our roads are generally in good condition. But, from there on in, provincially and by municipality, we fall below par. This is such an important issue that, through IMESA, municipalities can enjoy free asset management software, which leverages the wealth of experience and the skills that IMESA has to offer, particularly to those municipalities with few or no technical skills.

Tony Stone Contributing editor

To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

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Infrastructure News

The official ine

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INFRA STRUC

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INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT • MAINTENANCE • SERVICE DELIVERY

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Asset management

Earth dam walls

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PIMPing your earth dam

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Pipe deterioration Ageing infrastructure

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Cover opportunity In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings, contact Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223.

VAT )

Sustainable township development

ISSN 0257 1978

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IMIESA July 2016

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PRESIDENT’S COMMENT IMESA

Drought relief

A double-edged sword

Duncan Daries, president, IMESA

The first real winter rains have arrived in the Western Cape and will hopefully star t providing relief to the drought-stricken farming community and the water ser vices authorities responsible for bulk water provision.

T

HE COMBINED storage levels of dams serving the Cape Town metropolitan area on 13 June 2016 stood at 29.8%, which is the lowest level in over five years. This percentage represents 277 776 Mℓ of a total capacity of 898 221 Mℓ . The dam storage will probably take a couple of winter seasons to recover and Level 2 water restrictions will still be applicable for a long while.

Informal settlements The onset of the winter season, however, brings with it the perennial issue of flooding of vulnerable communities living in informal settlements. For these communities, the drought relief provided by the rain is a secondary issue in their pursuit of shelter from the elements. From a historical perspective, the location of land for housing low-income families has mostly been on the Cape Flats. This area, as the name implies, is relatively flat and sandy, with a high water table that manifests in a number of vleis. Drainage of this area to make it suitable for any development including housing can only occur with the installation of underground pipes and culverts, among others. Quite a number of informal settlements occur in marginal areas next to formal housing areas. Such marginal areas include river floodplains, stormwater detention ponds, old refuse dump sites, road reserves and privately owned property. Temporary structures are dug into the ground for added stability but the floors are then prone to localised flooding when it rains, as well as being affected by a rising groundwater table in the later winter months. National government’s commitment to eradicating informal settlements is presently a pipe

dream, if we take into consideration the following factors: • existing backlogs in housing provision • rate of housing delivery, as well as the budget made available for new housing • rapid urbanisation, which is a worldwide phenomenon • lack of suitable and affordable land for lowcost housing. The ultimate solution is to develop new low-cost housing areas and relocate informal settlers to such developments. However, this is not going to resolve all the informal settlements in the near future. The in situ upgrading of these areas as well as the development of serviced erven, be they for temporary or permanent relocation, are the only viable short-term options to enable the provision of basic services and access, free of flooding.

Challenges The in situ upgrading of informal settlements brings with it a load of challenges: • Re-blocking (demarcation of er ven and road reser ves for access and ser vices) requires decanting and the rearrangement of existing structures. • R eshaping of the land to allow for natural stormwater drainage as far as

Informal settlements in the Western Cape are especially susceptible to flooding during winter

possible requires the temporar y relocation of most structures. Most informal settlers are fearful of being relocated to a temporary area, as they believe that the final housing opportunity will not be forthcoming or will be delayed. As with all affordable housing provision in the local or provincial government sphere, politically, this is a highly contested area. Negotiations between housing authorities and beneficiaries are sometimes undermined by factional groups within an area, resulting in projects that are unnecessarily delayed, put on hold or have seen their budgets diverted to projects to be implemented in a more stable political area. As a result, I fear that the advent of winter will remain a huge threat to our informal settlements into the foreseeable future. With the current housing typology and budgets, only increased budgets to purchase more expensive land and roll out more housing projects will reduce the backlog. Alternative densification and high-rise rental accommodation will need to be pursued in future to ensure sustainability within this sector.

IMIESA July 2016

5


COVER STORY

A place of melodies Having started, figuratively speaking, on shaky ground, the development of Nellmapius Ext 22 Township is now on firm footing, with the appointment of a second and new Professional Resource Team (PRT) headed by Lekwa Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd. LEFT Kibiti Ntshumaelo, Pr.Eng, managing director, Lekwa Consulting Engineers

W

ITH GAUTENG urbanising at a rate of 3.18% per annum, planning new townships is a complex task with far-reaching consequences. Of necessity, most new developments must cater for impoverished communities who are no less human than the more privileged. As such, new townships must offer a unique urban environment that reflects the unique local flavours of their respective landscapes and cultural settings, while aspiring for universal qualities of accessibility, liveability, safety and modernity. With a thorough understanding derived from extensive experience in what makes large-scale suburban developments successful in the long term, Lekwa Consulting Engineers has, with a consortium of diversely skilled companies, planned and designed the sustainable, new Nellmapius Ext 22 Township that embodies the spatial qualities of a well-organised suburban environment designed around people and a community. At the same time, sustainable solutions for the spatial and infrastructural requirements of public transport and other vehicular

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IMIESA July 2016

traffic have been carefully integrated into the urban fabric. The Nellmapius Ext 22 project, east of Pretoria and just north of Silverlakes, falls within the greater Mamelodi (which means the Mother of Melodies) Township and the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. It is a greenfield project that involves the construction of 1 232 low-cost units, 98 military veteran units and 550 rental units. Bounded by the M10 (Solomon Mahlangu Drive) and the R104, which is adjacent to the N4, this new township, designed by Metroplan, has two public open areas, a business area, ostensibly for shopping centres, a primar y school and provision for four churches. The actual construction of the project, which commenced at the end of July 2014, is due for completion at the end of December 2016. As a truly empowered South African civil engineering consultancy, a joining of African and Afrikaner, Lekwa Consulting Engineers is committed to world-class service delivery within the rich diversity of the local South African context and is dedicated to promoting value-added services and technical skills

development in the broader Southern African and African sphere of civil engineering discipline. Why is this important? Lekwa, as the principal appointed to head the professional team behind the development of Nellmapius Ext 22, which includes Vharanani Properties as the contractor, is not the first team on this project. This is a reflection of the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements and the City of Tshwane’s commitment to building quality housing for the people.

Project background The Nellmapius Ext 22 development is a flagship project initiated as part of the Comprehensive Human Settlement Plan (Breaking New Ground) in 2007. This development is a turnkey project, involving the construction of housing, roads and stormwater, water and sewer reticulation, and electrical reticulation. The project is divided into the following contracts: • construction of roads and stormwater • electrification of units • construction of low-cost houses, military veterans' and rental units. The project plans to address the high demand for housing and infrastructure services involving the low- and middle-income housing market. A total of 1 880 units are to be built, including 550 units contained in


COVERY COVER STORY

Technical facts

Detail Bulk earthworks (m3) Roads and stormwater (m) Stormwater pipe lenghts Total housing units Contrete (m3) Steel (tonnage) Bricks (quantity)

Qty 67 000 11 727 6 958 1 880 21 230 2 760 6 305 000

Roof tiles (m2)

97 938

Floor tiles (m2)

26 900

Cement (50 kg bags) Paving (m2)

235 921 37 404

30 three-storey blocks of flats and one twostorey block of flats. The project will go a long way in alleviating the shortage of decent housing in the area. While the project is for the construction of the housing units, as detailed, the construction of the roads and stormwater, and the supply of electricity are being implemented under two other, separate contracts. Lekwa is responsible for the following activities: • overall project management • monitoring of construction, and quality assurance • site supervision • environmental management • occupational health and safety compliance • verification of work and quantities for the issuing of payment certificates

• finalisation of the township proclamation • beneficiary (occupant) administration. There are four types of low-cost houses that will be constructed in the project. The four types are designated as types A, B, C, and G as per the approved house plans. The general specification for the houses includes:

Foundation slab • with 40m2 (RDP’s) and 50m2 (Military Veterans) floor slabs • 15 MPa and 20 MPa concrete strength (differ with different zones that range between 5 mm and 30 mm) • steel sizes are Y6, Y8 and Y10 • 170 micron damp-proof membrane.

Wall superstructure • 290 mm x 140 mm x 90 mm 7 MPa Maxi brick on external walls • 290 mm x 90 mm x 90 mm 7 MPa bricks for internal walls • 220 mm x 110 mm x 75 mm 17 Mpa stock bricks for the three-storey buildings • 2.8 mm brick force laid every fourth course • 7 MPa mortar with a ratio of 5:1 specification • 375 micron damp-proof course under walls

• Clisco® type window frames: Type ND4, ND2, NC1 and NE1.

Completion • • • •

cement roof tiles galvanised roof trusses insulation reinforced membrane underlay 40 m2 RDPs external walls plastered and slurry applied on internal walls • 50 m2 military veterans plastered on external and internal walls • RDPs and military veterans bathrooms: water close with 11 litre cistern, 1 700 mm x 700 mm bathtub, 350 mm diameter wash hand basin • military veteran units will have built-in cupboards, ceramic floor tiles and palisade fencing and a carport. “Through its dedication, integrity and consistency, Lekwa delivers quality through a value-add consulting engineering service that is hallmarked by a high level of technical expertise and professionalism. In applying economically sound engineering and project management processes, in accordance with world-class standards and specifications, our commitment to sustainable projects takes into consideration socio-economic, community-related as well as environmental concerns, job creation and the transfer of skills for a brighter future – for all,” Kibiti Ntshumaelo, managing director, Lekwa Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd, concludes.

www.lekwaconsulting.co.za IMIESA offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a two-page cover story and a cover picture to promote their products to an appropriate audience. Please call Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223 to secure your booking.

IMIESA July 2016

7


INFRASTRUCTURE NEWS

FROM AROUND THE CONTINENT

AFRICA Africa Hub to boost infrastructure projects A new Africa Hub will help realise 16 African infrastructure projects with a combined value of over $20 billion. The creation of the new hub was announced at the World Economic Forum by the Sustainable Development Investment Partnership (SDIP). The SDIP Africa Hub will coordinate the African regional activities of the initiative, which has been set up with a mandate to support financing of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals through blended finance – an innovative approach to development finance that combines funding from private investors and lenders, governments and philanthropic funds. “The SDIP Africa Hub is an important first step to accelerate the engagement of SDIP members on the continent. We envision the hub building local capacity to advance blended finance best practices for infrastructure investment and ensure a consistent pipeline of projects for the initiative from Africa,” said Terri Toyota, head: Foundations Community and Development Finance and member: Executive Committee, World Economic Forum. SDIP’s membership has grown from 20 institutions, when it began in September 2015, to 30 today. African members of the SDIP include the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA), the Senegal Strategic Investment Fund and the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa. Worldwide, SDIP has reviewed projects representing $30 billion in value, over half of which are located in Africa. African projects assessed by SDIP have a combined value of over $20 billion.

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IMIESA July 2016

In addition to supporting blended finance for the 16 projects, the African hub of SDIP will also facilitate the exchange of best practices across its network of institutions. “The DBSA believes that the SDIP initiative, and its goal of delivering $100 billion in infrastructure projects within the next five years, will make a meaningful contribution and also help build local capacity and solutions by bringing together African and global private and public sector organisations,” said Mohan Vivekanandan, group executive: Strategy, DBSA.

NIGERIA/BENIN US$1.9 million grant for Interconnector Reinforcement Project The West Africa Power Pool (WAPP) and the African Development Bank (AfDB) have signed a grant agreement worth over $1.9 million to support the Nigeria-Benin Interconnector Reinforcement Project. The grant will help the construction of a 330 kV double-circuit, high-voltage transmission line from Erukan in Nigeria to Sakete in Benin, and help meet the needs of the Ecowas (Economic Community of West African States) region, supplying reliable electricity at an affordable cost. The project, a WAPP key priority, will ensure stable integration of the national electricity networks in the Ecowas region and facilitate the accessibility to economic energy resources to all member states of the region. Speaking at the signing event,

A $1.9 million grant will facilitate the construction of a 330 kV double-circuit, highvoltage transmission line between Nigeria and Benin

Stefan Nalletamby, acting vicepresident, AfDB, said: “Energy is one of the most essential requirements for Africa’s development and a key pillar of AfDB’s High 5s vision. The project will allow for the inclusive economic growth needed to transform the lives and livelihoods of many in the West African region.” The realisation of the 330 kV WAPP Nigeria-Benin project will facilitate optimal power exchanges and trading between the member states. It seeks to establish a robust transmission link from the Ivory Coast to Nigeria, passing through Prestea, Aboadze and Volta in Ghana, Lomé in Togo, and Sakete in Benin. The project will involve the construction of approximately 200 km of 330 kV high-voltage transmission line and the installation of Scada and fibre-optic systems. It will also include the extension or construction of a new 330 kV highvoltage substation in Erunkan, and a new 330 kV high-voltage substation in Sakete.

NIGERIA New Jalingo roads opened Two new roads have been constructed in Jalingo, Nigeria,

to the tune of N1.6 billion (R127 million). According to Darius Ishaku, governor of Taraba, the roads will be maintained by the contractor for 12 months and an arrangement has been concluded for the installation of street lights on the roads. He added that the 3.74 km of roads would boost economic activities in the state. The 1.34 km road, Palace Way, is a dual carriageway with reinforced concrete side drains that runs from the Ministry of Works roundabout to Karofi Road roundabout. The second road, Jolly Nyame Way, is a 2.4 km single-carriageway road with reinforced block work side drains from the SSS office roundabout to the Specialists Hospital gate. “The project will definitely advance WAPP’s goal to establish more secure, reliable transmission corridors for power exchange and help catalyse the development of energy resources, and the transfer of low-cost energy supply,” the West African Power Pool said. “The increased volumes of power derived from the project will boost the region’s economies and contribute to poverty reduction efforts,” the body added.


AFRICA ROUND-UP

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RWANDA Rwanda inaugurates methanegas-to-power project The 25 MW first phase of the KivuWatt methane-gas-to-power complex, located at Lake Kivu in Western Rwanda, 130 kilometres from the capital Kigali, was launched recently. Lake Kivu, at the boundary of Rwanda and the DRC, is one of the world's three known “exploding lakes”, presenting a threat as well as an opportunity for local communities. Volcanic and bacterial activity in the lake generates substantial methane deposits that, if unmanaged, could erupt violently with disastrous effects on local lives, wildlife and the environment. The project comprises two main

The 25 MW first phase of the KivuWatt methanegas-to-power complex is complete

components: an innovative methane gas extraction and purification facility located on a floating barge 13 km off the coast of Lake Kivu to harvest methanerich gas from 320 m below the lake surface, and a 25 MW capacity power plant on the lake shore at Kibuye to convert the methane gas to electrical energy. After several years of technical challenges, it has now been proven possible to exploit the Lake Kivu methane gas for large-scale energy production, to light up and power millions of Rwandese homes. The project has been developed by American company Contour Global, on a 25-year concession, with financing from the African Development Bank (AfDB) Private Sector Window, Emerging Africa Infrastructure Fund, the Netherlands Development Finance Company, and the

Belgium Investment Company. AfDB contributed US$25 million. In a statement on behalf of the financiers, Negatu Makonnen, resident representative: Rwanda, AfDB, highlighted KivuWatt's contribution to Rwanda's energy sector goals, and underscored the importance of collaboration among the key players, namely government, private sector and financiers, for the success of the project. He also emphasised the need to ensure that lessons learnt from the implementation of Phase 1 are to be incorporated in Phase 2 of the project. President Paul Kagame of Rwanda thanked all those involved in the realisation of the KivuWatt project for not giving up, despite the many challenges the project faced. He also welcomed Rwanda's neighbour, the DRC, for joint exploitation of the Lake Kivu resources, especially for the production of electricity.

SIERRA LEONE Mega road projects launched President Ernest Bai Koroma recently launched the 103 km Bandajuma-Gendema highway project in Bandajuma Sowa, Pujehun District. The project, which will link Sierra Leone and Liberia, is the largest European Union project ever commissioned in the country. Koroma also launched the 32.8 km Moyamba – which includes Moyamba township road, and four bridges – and the Magbele, Mabang, Gbangbama and Moyamba bridges. Speaking on the occasion, Koroma said the government takes infrastructure seriously and thanked the EU for its partnership. He went on to say that the EU, African Development Bank, World Bank and other development partners are confident in,

and always ready to support, his government. Tanzanian president John Magufuli

TANZANIA President warns against corruption in construction President John Magufuli has warned that the Tanzanian government will not tolerate corruption in the construction industry. Speaking at the opening of the Annual Contractors Registration Board (CRB) consultative meetings and exhibitions, Magufuli said corruption in the industry has reached unprecedented levels and expressed his determination to step up methods to combat it. According to the president, many local contractors are forced to quote high prices when bidding for government tenders so that they can afford to pay 10% kickbacks to government officials. He urged contractors to report officials who ask for bribes so that the government can take action against them. “If you help us send, say, 50 of these corrupt leaders to prison, then no one will dare to demand a bribe. Then you will not have to have intimate connections to win a tender,” he said. Magufuli has spoken out against corruption in all sectors of government, stating that he will sack corrupt leaders if necessary.

IMIESA July 2016

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MUNICIPAL FOCUS: CITY OF JOHANNESBURG

A city that delivers on its commitments Johannesburg’s Growth and Development Strategy 2040 is working and opening up new corridors of economic freedom, with R54.8 billion allocated for 2016/17. BY ALASTAIR CURRIE

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IMIESA July 2016


MUNICIPAL FOCUS: CITY OF JOHANNESBURG

T

RANSPORTATION, POWER, water, housing, information and communication technology are just some of the burning issues being addressed by the City of Johannesburg as it spearheads the Gauteng Provincial Government’s macroand micro-economic growth strategies. The key emphasis is on service and delivery. South Africa’s evolving public sector blueprint is a vital one, since National Treasury’s ability to help fund these and other initiatives has a direct impact on local and international confidence at a time when the global economy is still climbing out of the 2008 slump. In future, South Africa will have to compete far more assertively against other emerging markets for direct foreign investment and funding. On an upbeat note, South Africa’s recent BBBand BBB ratings for long-term foreign and local currency debt was reaffirmed by Fitch Ratings in June 2016, following a worse than expected Q1 decline in the country’s GDP outlook to around 1.2% (annualised). Responding to the latest rating, a National Treasury media statement reported, “The foreign currency bond rating remains one notch above sub-investment grade, whereas the domestic currency bond rating remains two notches about sub-investment grade.”

OPPOSITE PAGE Construction in progress on Johannesburg’s M1 highway ABOVE The Rea Vaya BRT extension in Sandton will form part of an expanding network across the city

This still places South Africa in positive territory to move forward. More cooperation between private and public entities is seen as the key to removing stumbling blocks, aligned to which is the need to focus on sectors such as manufacturing and technology, which will attract investors and create much-needed growth opportunities. Gauteng will be the main catalyst for change since it is the largest contributor to South Africa’s GDP, currently estimated at around 33.9% or some R811 billion. This equates to around 10% of Africa’s entire GDP output. Gauteng’s two main GDP contributors are manufacturing (40.6%) and construction (41.9%). Ahead of the new financial year, Gauteng City Region’s Economic Plan was extensively debated during a two-day indaba in June 2016. Attending the summit were leading stakeholders from government, business, labour and academia. Skills and infrastructure development were high on the agenda.

City budget up by R2.2 billion Within this context, the City of Johannesburg, as one of Gauteng’s major metropolitan zones, has a key role to play in driving change. Allocated for the city’s new financial year, starting 1 July 2016, is a R54.8 billion budget, some R2.2 billion up on the previous period. For 2016/17, R45.3 billion has been allocated for operating expenditure and R9.5 billion for capital expenditure. The operating budget runs for the 2016/17 financial year, with capital budget allocations spread over three years up to 2018/19,

in accordance with the Municipal Finance Management Act. Approximately 71% of the R9.5 billion capital spend earmarked for 2016/17 will be funded through city loans. During the 2016 Budget Speech on 24 May 2016, Councillor Geoffrey Makhubo, member of the city’s Mayoral Committee for Finance, opened by saying, “In 2011, we committed to strengthen our finances. We committed to increase our financial capacity. We committed to be responsive to communities. We committed to invest in infrastructure. Today, I can confidently say we have delivered.” Certainly a positive response and one reinforced by Johannesburg’s 2016 theme, ‘A city that delivers on its commitments’. Johannesburg is now believed to be the largest per capita infrastructure spender after national government, which underscores its strategic importance to the economy. During the 2014/15 period, the city delivered capital expenditure of around R10.1 billion, more than triple the figure for the 2011/12 financial year. In the process, sustainable debt levels were maintained and Johannesburg attained three consecutive unqualified audits, with six entities receiving clean audit options in 2014/15. The city’s ability to fund a higher percentage of its expenditure via cash has reduced the debt burden exposure in accordance with the Financial Development Plan. In 2013/14, Johannesburg was the first municipality to implement multiyear capital

IMIESA July 2016

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MUNICIPAL FOCUS: CITY OF JOHANNESBURG

budgets, a step that has improved forward planning. It also takes into account the needs of investors, alignment with credit ratings agency reviews, and the cost of credit.

IDP on track Back in 2012, Johannesburg embarked on its 10-year Infrastructure Development Plan to support a R100 billion capital expenditure programme. By June 2016, an estimated R30 billion had been spent on various infrastructure projects during the current five-year municipal term. Examples include major repairs to the M1 highway, the construction of the Naledi Bridge, the resurfacing of some 1 900 km of road and the upgrading of a further 107 km of gravel roads in areas like Ivory Park and Diepsloot, and in excess of R3.5 billion spent on the Rea Vaya bus rapid transit (BRT) system infrastructure. The city also reports that some 94% of households in informal settlements have access to basic water services. Makhubo says Johannesburg is “investing in a more compact and efficient city through

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mixed-use, high-density developments along mass transit corridors.” Around R3.1 billion has been set aside for capital investments at Johannesburg Water over the next three years for projects that include the ongoing upgrade of bulk water treatment plants, reservoirs and water infrastructure. Electrification is another priority focus, with R3.9 billion on the table to tackle the challenges faced by the city’s estimated 181 informal settlements. For 2016/17, R1.1 billion has been set aside for housing, and R3.4 billion for capital projects, while environment and infrastructure projects will receive R195 million and a multiyear capital allocation of R155 million. The city repor ts fur ther that the Economic Development Cluster will receive R4.5 billion for its operating expenditure and R11.6 billion for its rolling capital budget. Project activities include the Johannesburg Roads Agency’s construction project and the expansion of the Rea Vaya BRT along the Louis Botha Corridor, extending to

Sandton, Alexandra and Midrand. Inner city renewal initiatives will be led by the Johannesburg Development Agency, which has a R1.2 billion capital budget allocation. Projects planned include the regeneration of the Randburg central business district, which will help inject renewed commercial interest. Another positive initiative is the reestablishment of the Metropolitan Trading Company, tasked with managing the city’s broadband business following the laying of over 1 100 km of fibre-optic cable. Some R292 million has been set aside for continued capital infrastructure investment as Johannesburg transitions to a smart city. These and other medium- and longerterm strategies are aimed at creating a dynamic and evolving urban environment that will truly make Johannesburg a ‘world class African city’. However, this is an incremental process, said Makhubo: “In this current economic environment, ‘business as usual’ is not an option. Gamechanging initiatives are required.”

IMIESA July 2016

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fdp.tnirP LANIF tpo trevdA MAP

contents C

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Analysis of pipe deterioration MC

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Panel Discussion YMC

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Saint Gobain APE Pumps Sizabantu Ultra Control Valves Rare Group Hall Longmore Robor Bambanani Pipes and Fittings

23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37

Water, South Africa’s oxymoron

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IMIESA July 2016

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE

Analysis of pipe deterioration Many municipalities have serious water loss problems. This concern is not just about losing large quantities of water. It’s also about losing a substantial amount of revenue. So, how do we determine the types of pipes likely to be problematic? BY TONY STONE

I

N A REPORT, ‘Benchmarking of Leakage from Water Reticulation Systems in South Africa’, the Water Supply Commission states that the South African water supply industr y is generally lagging behind best international practices with respect to leakage management in potable water distribution systems. And, if water supply systems are not maintained properly, due to a lack of resources, sheer incompetence or a lack of capacity, these will quickly deteriorate and the infrastructure leakage index will steadily increase to unacceptable levels, which is where South Africa is right now. According to the Department of Water and Sanitation, the current level of non-revenue water is estimated at 36.7%, of which 25.4% is considered to be losses through physical leakages. The CSIR, in publishing the paper ‘The State of Municipal Infrastructure in South Africa and its Operation and Maintenance’, has found that many municipalities do not possess knowledge of the extent and capacity of the infrastructure assets in their possession. The CSIR also states that South Africa, particularly in the older centres, not only has many instances of inadequate municipal infrastructure and ser vice deliver y, but also an increasing proportion of

deteriorating infrastructure, together with poor and often unacceptable quality of maintenance ser vices. The research body concludes that the great majority of municipalities are not making adequate provision for the longterm preventive maintenance, refurbishment and eventual replacement of their infrastructure. As early as two years ago, the Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (Sappma) issued a warning that the existing steel and asbestos cement (AC) pipe infrastructure in South Africa has undoubtedly corroded since its installation 50 years ago. “The majority of old water pipes were installed in the early 1960s, or earlier, and have unquestionably reached the end of their effective lifespan. Unless urgent attention is given to the replacement and maintenance of the water infrastructure, the end result is predictable – daily bursts will occur, followed by catastrophic component failure and regular and prolonged disruptions in ser vice deliver y,” says Jan Venter, chairman, Sappma. He also stresses that municipalities should follow eThekwini Municipality’s example, where a R1.6 billion AC pipe replacement project was completed, in

ABOVE A water leak at Port Elizabeth's main water pipeline at Maitlands River Mouth caused thousands of litres of water to go to waste. Dean Biddulph (left) and Retief Odendaal at the burst water pipe LEFT A leaking pipe joint

Durban, in June 2010. The municipality replaced 1 750 km of ageing AC water pipes with 160 mm or modified polyvinyl chloride (mPVC) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The relevance of the CSIR’s research and eThekwini’s example is driven home when we appreciate the reality that nothing lasts forever! This is true of pipe systems, which are exposed to friction, corrosion and wear over time. Even so, if properly installed, galvanised steel pipes have a

IMIESA July 2016

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE

life expectancy of 30 to 50 years, copper lasts 40 to 75 years, and cast iron, 50 to 75 years. But these are just generalities. It is not unusual to see pipes failing at 30 to 40 years, or even earlier. Even with a financial forecast horizon of 30 years, it is rare for South African municipalities and building owners to plan for pipe replacement. Of course, the best time to replace pipes is just before they fail, avoiding water damage to infrastructure, buildings and personal property, and also the loss of water and concomitant revenue. In Emfuleni, the causalities of pipes failing are detailed below.

Pipe deterioration, distress indicators and failure modes Pipe condition is the cumulative effect of many factors acting on the pipe. Al-Barqawi and Zayed (2006) classify these factors into three categories: physical, environmental and operational, as depicted in Table 1. The factors in the first two classes can be fur ther divided into static and dynamic (or time-dependent). Static factors include pipe material, pipe geometr y and soil type, while dynamic factors include pipe age, climate and seismic activity. Operational factors are inherently dynamic.

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TABLE 1 Factors contributing to water system deterioration

Physical factors Pipe age and material Pipe wall thickness Pipe vintage Pipe diameter Type of joints Thrust restraint Pipe lining and coating Dissimilar metals Pipe installation Pipe manufacture

Environmental factors Pipe bedding Trench backfill Soil type Groundwater Climate Pipe location Disturbances Stray electrical currents Seismic activity

Rajani et al. (2006) define distress indicators as the obser vable/measurable physical manifestations of the ageing and deterioration process. Distress indicators are a result of some or all of the factors listed above. Each distress indicator provides partial evidence for the condition of specific pipe components. It is practical to refer to distress indicators by the respective pipe material, as detailed further in this article, for CI and DI pipes, PCCP, AC, and PVC pipes, respectively. It is noted that leakage could also be considered a universal distress indicator, regardless of pipe type (although the presence of a leak often indicates that failure has already occurred). Leakage out of pressurised

Operational factors Internal water/transient pressure Leakage Water quality Flow velocity Backflow potential Operation and maintenance practices

water mains is not an acceptable public health risk and short-term pressure surges may pull contaminants into the pipe. The Department of Water and Sanitation, as part of its effort to implement water conser vation and demand management, introduced No Drop criteria in the current Blue Drop audit cycle. After an initial assessment in 2013/14, it was found that 30 (2.8%) systems were 100% No Drop compliant while 191 (18%) were rated as delivering “good per formance”, which left 940 as operating at a substandard level.

Cast and ductile iron pipe distress indicators (Rajani et al., 2006) External coating (poly wrap/tar/zinc) • State of external coating (crack/tear/holiday) will dictate how external corrosion is likely to encourage damage to the pipe. External pipe barrel/bell • Remaining pipe wall thickness is usually obtained from NDE tests or from spot exhumations and sand blasting samples.

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE

A leaking pipe metering connection

Casting defects (voids or inclusions) can be of significant size in CI pipes. • Graphitisation (pit) areal extent where the areal extent is expressed as a percentage of pipe diameter multiplied by the unit length. Severe graphitisation may not always mean the pipe should have failed. In practice, graphitised area can still provide some resistance – it acts as a form of sticky plaster. In CI, graphitisation is typically in the form of graphite flakes, while in DI, it is in the form of nodules. • Crack (pit) type where a pit is a manifestation of an electro-chemical process, while a crack is a mechanical response to stress. Circumferential cracks indicate some type of longitudinal movement, loss of bedding support, or increase in vertical load (frost) has taken place. Longitudinal cracks occur due to low hoop resistance, typically coupled with high internal pressure. • Crack (pit) width is another indicator of corrosion. A wide crack, together with a deep pit, will be more detrimental to the pipe than a narrow, but shallow crack. Inner lining/surface • Cement lining (epoxy) spalling (blistering). Inner lining deterioration is often due to incompatible water chemistr y or abrasion due to the presence of high water velocities and sediments. • Remaining wall thickness. Occasionally, closed circuit television (CCTV) scans can give estimates of internal corrosion

pits when NDE tests are not done to get an overall picture of the pipe wall status. • Tuberculation. Heavy tuberculation (blockage) can significantly reduce water deliver y and produce red water condition. Joint • Change in alignment. Changes in joint alignment (rotation) indicate pipe susceptibility to ground movement. Large changes can lead to leakage and eventually joint failure. • Joint displacement. Joints can displace without undergoing joint misalignment and, hence, is also an indicator of other forces at play.

PCCP water mains distress indicators (Kleiner et al., 2006a) Mortar coating • Spalling. Spalling is often a first indicator of corrosion. Large spalling area may indicate that corrosion is taking place over a significant sur face area of the pipe exterior. • Crack type. Circumferential cracks indicate some type of longitudinal movement has taken place. Longitudinal cracks occur due to low hoop resistance. • Crack width. Crack width is another indicator of severity of spalling. Large widths mean that spalling is imminent. • Crack density (frequency). Closer crack spacing usually means the pipe is under higher stress. • Coloration. Signs of color/stains on

concrete exterior indicate that corrosion is taking place. Often, stains are precursors to spalling, i.e. corrosion products have built up. Prestressed wire • Wire breaks. As the number of wire breaks increase, the factor of safety decreases and eventually leads to pipe failure. Concrete core • Delamination. Delamination occurs when there is poor bonding between concrete/ wire or steel/steel cylinder. This can also occur when prestressing is lost due to wire breaks. • Crack type. Circumferential cracks indicate some type of longitudinal movement has taken place. Longitudinal cracks occur when prestressing is lost due to wire breaks. • Crack width. Crack width is another indicator of severity of delamination. Large width means that delamination is imminent. • Crack density (frequency). Closer crack spacing usually means the pipe is under higher stress. • Hammer tapping sound. Hammer tapping sounds can indicate delamination. It can be as simple as tapping a hammer or using the pulse echo method. •Hollow area. Areal extent of hollow sound can give an idea of the seriousness of the delamination (in comparison to pipe surface area). Pipe geometry • Out-of-roundness. Out-of-roundness is

IMIESA July 2016

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE

another indicator of wire loss that may not be evident from concrete spalling or the presence of corrosion products, etc. Joint • Change in alignment. Changes in joint alignment (rotation) indicate pipe susceptibility to ground movement. Eventually, it can lead to weld failures and joint failure. • J oint (internal) displacement. Joints can displace without undergoing joint misalignment and, hence, this is also an indicator of other forces at play. • Joint diaper crack size. Crack of external diaper can give an idea of joint quality. • Joint ring degradation. Joint failure due to microbial degradation of the natural rubber joint rings.

AC pipes distress indicators External coating (tar or bitumen) • Holiday. State of external coating will indicate how external soil proper ties encourage damage to the pipe. External pipe barrel • Remaining wall thickness. Remaining pipe wall thickness (includes both external and internal walls) is usually obtained from spot test samples and per forming phenolphthalein test (to measure cement softening) or on-site measurements using the georadar technique. • Corrosion areal extent. Areal extent, as a percentage of pipe diameter multiplied by pipe segment length, indicates the size of affected area. Severe corrosion may not always mean the pipe should have failed. • Crack type. Circumferential cracks indicate bending or significant longitudinal movement has taken place. Longitudinal cracks occur due to exceedance of hoop resistance, due to occurrence of ver y high operational loads or due to low remaining wall thickness as a result of sulfate attack. • Crack width. Crack width is another indicator of corrosion. A wide crack together with a deep softening of asbestos cement matrix will be more detrimental to the pipe than a narrow but shallow crack. Internal pipe surface • Remaining wall thickness. See above for external pipe barrel categor y. • Corrosion areal extent. See above for external pipe barrel categor y.

An in-pipe robot in action. Pipe audits like this are now crucial

Service connection • Split at tap. Inadequate tapping procedure or a thin pipe wall can lead to a split in the PVC mains, usually on the pipe inside. This type of failure is commonly referred to as a fitting failure. Joint • Change in alignment. Changes in joint alignment (rotation) indicate pipe susceptibility to ground movement. Large changes can lead to leakage. • Joint displacement. Joints can displace without undergoing joint misalignment and, hence, this is also an indicator of other forces at play.

Conclusion

Joint • Change in alignment. Changes in joint alignment (rotation) indicate pipe susceptibility to ground movement. Large changes can lead to leakage and eventually joint failure. • Joint displacement. Joints can displace without undergoing joint misalignment (axial movement) and, hence, this is also an indicator of other forces at play. • Joint ring degradation. Joints can displace without undergoing joint misalignment (axial movement) and hence are also an indicator of other forces at play. • Joint ring degradation. Joint failure due to microbial degradation of the natural rubber joint rings.

PVC pipe distress Indicators External pipe barrel surface • Remaining wall thickness. Cavities or unfilled air bubbles introduced during manufacturing (and not detected upon installation) can be of significant size in PVC pipes. • S cratch type. Longitudinal scratches are formed due to improper or rough handling. Circumferential scratches can form if lifted or handled using rough slings (e.g. chains). Also, sharp scratches have more detrimental effects than blunt scratches. Longitudinal scratches can eventually lead to longitudinal split failures. • Scratch depth. Fatigue failure becomes an important consideration for deeper scratches, especially when they exceed 10% of pipe wall thickness.

The Department of Water and Sanitation, in its specifications for the entire Blue Drop standard, states, “In terms of Section 82 of the Water Services Act (No. 108 of 1997), participation in Blue and Green Drop Audits/Assessments is mandatory, which includes No Drop as part of the Blue Drop Assessments. Falsification of data is an offence under the Act.” This means that every water treatment plant, water reticulation system and wastewater treatment plant must be effectively managed and, in the case of No Drop, prevent water loss. This, in turn, means that every municipality needs to know in detail and assess the water assets under their control – which means doing an audit of pipeline networks. Such an audit should include the establishment of a geographical information system (GIS) and an asset register. The audit would specifically answer the following questions: 1 What pipe materials have been used in the past? 2 From what point to what point (by GIS reference)? 3 What is the overall condition of the pipe, with pipe thickness measurements? 4 F rom 3 above, what is the estimated remaining lifespan of the pipe? 5 What leaks are there, and where (by GIS reference)? 6 Are the flange joints of differing pipe materials still intact, and where are they (by GIS reference)? This would empower every municipality, if not done already, to repair, rehabilitate or replace leaking pipes, joints, flanges and valves. And, in so doing, save water, which, in water-scarce South Africa, is a strategic imperative.

IMIESA July 2016

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE | PANEL DISCUSSION

SAINT-GOBAIN PAM SOUTHERN AFRICA Bruno Langlais | General Manager

For water projects, the water companies and municipalities have the possibility to choose from many pipe materials. According to you, how is this choice made? BL The selection of a material is not necessarily rational. In many occasions, the choice of a material for water pipelines is based on tradition. Designers usually look for the hydraulic characteristics needed for the water transmission line or the distribution network and select the material they would normally use in similar circumstances. This decision process leaves little chance to other materials to promote their benefits and, in the case where several options are considered, the main criteria used is the price of 1 m of one material compared to another.

If material unit price has been proven to be the driver of choice on past projects, to what extent do you believe this approach is no longer valid? Price is of course one of the main criteria to consider. But, when it comes to such a large investment supposed to last for decades, the mere comparison of material costs is not enough. Many other parameters should be taken into consideration when selecting the material, such as cost of installation, cost of operation, cost of maintenance and recycling cost. Unfortunately, this analysis – called TCO (total cost of ownership) – is not frequently used in the water sector. This method tends to demonstrate

that the cost of installation (procurement and installation of material) is generally minor compared to the cost of operation over a long period of time. Investments in the water sector are expected to last at least 50 years. It is, therefore, important to measure all costs (capex and opex) over that period of time. The choice of pipe material has a direct impact on operation costs.

Most of the projects are urgent and many water companies do not have the time or the resources to conduct such an in-depth study. What do you suggest to help water companies to decide? New tools (software) have been developed to support this approach: LCA (lifecycle assessment) calculator software analyses life cycles from manufacturing, transport, installation and operation to recycling, and calculates the environmental footprint of a project. The second tool, a TCO calculator, highlights the immediate costs borne by the investor and the deferred costs spent by the operator. The calculation method takes into account the acquisition costs (pipes, laying, financing costs, etc.), the operating costs (maintenance, water losses, pumping energy, etc.) and the end of life cycle (removal, recycling). Particularly, the cost of pumping and water losses during the lifetime of a network is considerably higher than the cost of initial purchase. The per formance of ductile iron pipe systems (mechanical resistance, joint reli-

ability, internal hydraulic diameter, per formance of linings) helps to reduce them. Those tools will work with local data set by the investor/operator so that the calculation made fits a given situation per fectly well. Once those tools’ parameters have been properly set, the calculation can be made easily and the result gives a precise cost comparison between different piping materials.

Are those new tools available? Those tools and methodologies are in compliance with the EN 14044 standard. Saint-Gobain PAM has com-

missioned the firm Quantis, CH (specialised in supporting companies to manage the environmental impacts of their products and ser vice) to develop such a calculator. The software has been duly reviewed by EY Cleantech & Sustainability FR (for the TCO tool) and by the University of California – Berkeley (for TCO and LCA tools). We, of course, encourage investors and operators to make great use of those tools. Saint-Gobain PAM teams are available to explain the calculation structure of the tools and to input parameters provided by investors/operators into the system.

IMIESA July 2016

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE | PANEL DISCUSSION

APE PUMPS Dave Johnson | Marketing & Business Development Manager APE Pumps provides full turnkey projects. Give us an idea of what you offer. DJ We do the complete project, from manufacturing the pumps to installing and commissioning. We also install the pipelines and valves along, with all the electrical control equipment. For example, we have just completed a project in Malawi for Blantyre Water Board, which consisted of six pump units, each extracting water from the Shire River at a rate of 1 350 m3/h at a head of 35 m. After transfer to the purification plant, two further pump stations, each housing three pumps in parallel and one on standby, then transfer the water to the Chileka pump station. The eight pumps installed at Chileka are multistage units manufactured by APE’s sister subsidiary, Mather+Platt, and each has a capacity of 750 m3/h at a head of 550 m. All the pipelines and electrical control panels were installed by APE Pumps, with a total project value of R300 million.

What range of pumps do you supply? We offer a wide range of pumps from small end-suction through to split case, and from multistage to large vertical turbine pumps. The majority of these pumps are manufactured in our Wadeville factory.

APE Pumps, along with Mather+Platt, has been manufacturing and supplying these large pumps in South Africa for a long time. They are now coated internally to give better efficiencies, which reduce the cost of electricity. When you consider that some of these pumps have up to 3 000 kW motors running them, a minor improvement in efficiency can save a lot of money.

Given the state of South Africa’s water networks, how can APE Pumps assist municipalities in ensuring water supply and combatting losses?

What are the challenges in South Africa surrounding bulk water transfer and reticulation?

APE Pumps gives training on the maintenance of pumps, which reduces breakdowns. This, in turn, reduces losses in water supply.

The main challenge is the size of the pumps required to move large amounts of water.

You have a relatively new duplex pump.

What makes this pump unique? The duplex, stainless-steel, horizontal centrifugal pump is manufactured from grades 4A and 4B stainless steel. This type of steel is called duplex because it has a two-phase microstructure consisting of ferritic and austenitic stainless steel grains. Duplex stainless steels have many advantages over regular austenitic or ferritic stainless steels. These include being twice as strong, having significantly better toughness and ductility and, most importantly, they have exceptionally good pitting resistance and stresscorrosion cracking resistance. They also function effectively between -80°C and 300°C. Lastly, duplex stainless steels have a better ability to absorb energy of any dynamic or static state. All of this makes for a near perfect pump.

The duplex stainless steel pumps supplied to the Gansbaai abalone farm

Is there a project where these pumps were used that you are particularly proud of? Duplex pumps were recently installed at a large Gansbaai abalone farm. With its cold temperatures and high-alkalinity seawater, the abalone farm had struggled with pump corrosion in the past. APE Pumps installed five LN-type, split-case, super duplex stainless-steel horizontal centrifugal pumps, each with a capacity of 1 250 m3/hour to draw seawater under negative suction head from the seawater intake gully. Not only do they have greater efficiency but reduced running costs as a bonus.

IMIESA July 2016

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insist on the new Molecor 500 O-PVC!

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE | PANEL DISCUSSION

SIZABANTU PIPING SYSTEMS Sean Harmse | Director What are the advantages of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O pipes over pipes made from conventional materials? SH If we especially think of bulk water pipelines in South Africa, where PVC was very seldom used due to size and pressure handling limitations, the current uses of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O pipe is obvious. Some very clear advantages are seen in the conventional metallic pipes used for bulk water pipelines, like: • the speed of installation due to the familiar push-fit socket system as on all PVC systems,

compared to welding, internal and external coating repair and an x-ray of each joint • no corrosion (around 100-year design life) • zero maintenance.

How does Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O differ from other types of PVC like uPVC and mPVC? First, let’s look at what the abbreviations above stand for: • uPVC – unmodified polyvinyl chloride • mPVC – modified polyvinyl chloride • oPVC (or PVC-O) – orientated polyvinyl chloride

uPVC is a well-known and respected PVC pipe product with the standard advantages and characteristics of a PVC pipe. mPVC, on the other hand, is a chemically changed PVC pipe that is more ductile than uPVC and has thinner walls. PVC-O basically starts as a pure uPVC pipe, after which the molecular structure of the PVC is biaxially orientated without altering the advantages and chemical properties of the original polymer. This orientation then results in the Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O pipe – with unbeatable qualities,

fully in township reticulation, pumping mains and bulk water distribution.

How long have you been supplying PVC-O pipes and how have they been received by industry? Sizabantu Piping Systems, through its national network, introduced Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O to the market in 2012. Due to our extensive market knowledge and relationships, the word spread quite quickly and, to date, the uptake and acceptance of the product have been unbelievable. Consulting

resistance to traction and fatigue, flexibility and fantastic impact resistance. In summary, based on the ISO procedure, the minimum required strength (MRS) at 50 years for Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O is 50 MPa. On uPVC and mPVC the MRS is at 25 MPa. Thus, the long-term (50+ years ) strength of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O is 100% greater than that of uPVC or mPVC.

engineering firms have realised the technical advantages of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O and metros, municipalities and water boards have seen the economic advantages that the product offers.

For what applications are PVC-O pipes best suited?

Being a cost-effective pipeline product, Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O is already combatting losses. This is based on the speed and ease of installation,

Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O is currently being used ver y success-

Given the state of South Africa’s water networks, how can PVC-O pipes assist municipalities in ensuring water supply and combatting losses?

the extreme toughness and durability of the pipe and the fact that zero maintenance is required on Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O once installed.

Sizabantu recently opened a new manufacturing facility in Richards Bay. Tell us about this new development. Sizabantu Piping Systems, together with our Spanish partner Molecor – the developer of the Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O technology – decided right from the start of our venture that we would eventually manufacture in South Africa. The manufacturing decision was fast-tracked due to uptake and expansion of the now established South African market. The dedicated PVC pipe factory is situated within the Richards Bay Industrial Development Zone, which was decided on due to government incentives and after consultation with the DTI and various other stakeholders.

Sizabantu will soon be manufacturing its own PVC-O pipes rather than importing them. How will this benefit your customers? Local manufacturing will put Sizabantu Piping Systems in a position to offer excellent service in a highly demanding, service-oriented market. Stock availability, manufacturing on demand and local content will be the key benefits to our current and new customer base. It has always been a main objective of Sizabantu Piping Systems to be 100% proudly South African.

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE | PANEL DISCUSSION

ULTRA CONTROL VALVES Peter Telle | Managing Member

How important is pressure management and how has it been implemented in South Africa? PT With water scarcity facing users all over the world, water utility companies should be proactive to ensure that pipe leaks are reduced and kept to an absolute minimum. One of the quickest “fast return” innovations, which has been implemented by some municipalities and water boards over the past few years, is pressure management. This involves reducing pressures in networks during low-demand periods (to reduce losses from leaks), which involves electronic equipment connected to pilot-operated pressure reducing valves (POPRVs) that resets pressures to different levels for different flow rates. The problem with this strategy in the South African context is that POPRVs are complicated and little understood (or maintained) by operators. The addition of electronic controllers makes these valves even more complicated and less user-friendly. Ultra Control Valves has entered the market with some

ver y new and simple innovations, which are starting to capture the imagination of users as tremendous water saving devices.

What are the advantages of RRPRVs over POPRVs? Ratio reducing pressure reducing valves (RRPRVs) reduce pressures in a ratio (2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1) and have no adjustments that are easily tampered with. They also are much easier to apply in the field as they do not have delayed reaction times, low flow instability or vulnerability to dirt. Just a simple piston, which is activated by line pressure, will always keep the ratio between inlet and outlet pressure at a constant value. With POPRVs, one has to be ver y careful that the valve is sized correctly to handle low flows, or install valves in series to overcome cavitation damage, all increasing the complexity of the installation and with increased chances of malfunction. In a lot of POPRV installations, valves become unstable at low flows (at night), causing pipe breaks

and leading to huge water losses – exactly the opposite result to what the valve is intended for. The installation of RRPRVs is a lot simpler and does not require much engineering or maintenance. It is truly an African solution to keep pressures low without the accompanying complexities.

Tell us about Maric flow control valves and their applications in Africa. This innovative Australian product has been used to control flow in a lot of applications over the last 40 years since its development. These valves are completely tamperproof and absolutely ideal for African conditions – where simplicity and robustness are key, and maintenance is seldom done. In the right applications – such as consumer end points like taps, showers, stand pipes in rural water supplies – this valve will ensure tremendous savings of water consumption.

It will have the same effect in water supply networks. By placing Maric flow controllers in strategic positions, flows are limited to what is the norm for such a network. If pressure drops to the extent where users complain, it indicates that consumption is too high due to pipe leaks, which then need to be repaired. These products provide pressure and flow control with absolute simplicity, which plays an important role in ensuring correct operation. The end result is huge savings in water losses.

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Ridge bridge: the left abutment of this bridge will be removed and reinstated, and the deck slab extended to accommodate the additional carriageway

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IMIESA July 2016


AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE | PANEL DISCUSSION

RARE GROUP Carl von Graszouw | Pipeline Services Manager

South Africa’s water infrastructure has come under the spotlight recently. How important are pipeline maintenance and rehabilitation, and what is being done in South Africa? CvG One of the main problems with South Africa’s water infrastructure is that the old infrastructure has been put under pressure through urbanisation and can no longer cope with the demand. Maintenance is one focus point that should always be done as a routine. Unfortunately, due to the lack of funding and other related issues, this has been neglected. This not only causes a loss in revenue, but also a loss of our most precious resource, the water itself. The rehabilitation of existing infrastructure, however, should always have 25 to 50 years of life in mind when done. Demand and pressure on water infrastructure will always increase. Another focus point should be the proper management of the rehabilitated assets.

How can trenchless rehabilitation technology be utilised for the rehabilitation of existing pipe infrastructure where leaking pipes or old infrastructure is a problem? The basis of the technology is the fact that pipe systems ABOVE RIGHT Rare currently holds the contract with Sasol to supply all carbon pipes, fittings and flanges for its plants in Sasolburg and Secunda RIGHT Rare Plastics’ coextruded pipe

that deliver ser vices can be rehabilitated without the need to open up ground and excavate trenches to replace existing pipe. New pipe cracking technology (with different processes) now allows pipes to be replaced efficiently, and with minimum disruption to existing infrastructure – a definite advantage when considering cost and time. Given the correct parameters, certain pipe systems can even be upgraded to bigger capacity.

The Rare Plastics Division has a product aimed specifically at the pipe cracking market. Tell us a about it. We are proud to introduce RPC (Rare Plastics Co-extruded) pipe. RPC is a three-layer, co-extruded pipe with outer and inner layers of advanced PE100-RC polymer and a PE100 core. PE100-RC is a specifically developed, advanced polymer that resists the effects of notches,

scores, scratches, grooves and point loads. These types of damage are common when using standard PE100 material for pipe cracking or bursting applications. An additional advantage to RPC pipe is that the pipe can be designed to suit a specific application; the wall thickness of the RC material can be altered and changed to suit different applications and ground conditions. Rapid crack propagation and slow crack growth are prevented when using RPC pipe for trenchless rehabilitation applications like pipe cracking and bursting.

The Rare Group offers a wide range of pipes. What products do you offer and what are the advantages and best applications of these products? Rare Trading sells a comprehensive range of products, combining steel and plastic pipes, fittings, couplings and valves in a complete package to the contractor or end user. All products represented by Rare conform to international and/or national quality standards. To enhance quality and traceability of products, Rare also offers a cut-to-length, hard stamping and colourcoding ser vice to the market. Rare’s ser vices also include in-house fabrication of spools, closures and fittings. Rare Trading customers include the petrochemical, mining, water and engineering industries. Major contracts are based on solid relationships with Sasol and large mining groups.

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE | PANEL DISCUSSION

HALL LONGMORE Kenny van Rooyen | Managing Director What are the challenges surrounding South Africa’s water infrastructure? KvR It is the right of every South African to have access to water, according to the Constitution. It is, therefore, a priority that South Africa has an adequate source of potable water and an efficient manner to divert the water to where it is required. It goes without saying that it must be of a world-class standard. The funding of such activities is part of a complex implementation matrix. Starting from the planning and design desk through to the laying of new pipes and maintenance of existing water pipelines – challenges exist for each facet of the value chain.

Given the state of South Africa’s ageing water networks, how can Hall Longmore assist municipalities in ensuring water supply and combatting losses? The products offered by Hall Longmore are of an international quality standard, underpinned by a pedigree of more than 90 years. The experience gained over this period in the manufacture of pipes for the water, petrochemicals, gas, construction and mining industries positions Hall Longmore as an ideal partner in water supply solutions. For example, we offer protective coatings and linings for steel pipes that could increase pipeline longevity to beyond the expected 50 years. When it comes to jointing systems, the rubber ring joint provides a working pressure rating of 42 bar – an adequate pressure for most water pipeline systems. However, a 1.5 built-in factor of safety provides a test pressure rating of about

63 bar. In-house test pressures in excess of 70 bar have been recorded and this jointing system will undoubtedly minimise leaks and resultant water loss.

Hall Longmore has an easy-to-use pipe jointing system. How does it work and what are the advantages? This product falls nicely within government’s Expanded Public Works Programme. The jointing system empowers up-and-coming contractors to be able to lay steel pipelines with minimal investment in plant and training. Known as a rubber ring joint, this patented system (Sintajoint) consists of a specially formed spigot and socket, which, when pulled together, compress a natural rubber O-ring between them, providing

ABOVE 3.2 km City of Cape Town water pipeline – 1 500 mm NB (internal diameter) Hall Longmore spiral-welded pipe; external coating: cement mortar; internal lining: cement mortar lining

a highly effective seal. The jointing system is suitable for both buried and aboveground installations carrying pressurised potable water. Unlike other systems, there is no need to make good the joint afterwards and no risk of contamination of the internal lining.

Provide an overview of the products you supply. Hall Longmore is recognised internationally as one of the leading manufacturers of quality large-bore welded steel pipe and attendant coatings and linings for the conveyance of water, petrochemicals and gas. The company manufactures line pipe to API specification 5L (PSL 1 & PSL 2) and 5CT. The electric resistance welding and submerged arc welding technologies are used in the

service excellence is accredited through ISO 9001:2008.

What are the benefits of using steel pipes for water infrastructure?

BELOW RIGHT 3 km Northern Nsikazi water pipeline – 914 mm OD Hall Longmore spiralwelded pipe, X42 steel grade; external coating: Sintakote (medium-density polyethylene); internal lining: cement mortar lining; jointing system: rubber ring joint

The design flexibility of steel and its predictable mechanical properties allow the engineer to design a pipeline that will withstand surge pressures, vacuum conditions, water hammer, heavy traffic loads and whatever conditions might occur during the life of the pipeline. Being metallic, steel pipes are easy to locate should alterations to the pipeline be necessary during its lifespan. Such alterations are inexpensive and fast – no pipes need to be removed as connections are simply welded to the existing line. As with other pipe materials, corrosion protection is required

manufacture of pipe that comply with the American Petroleum Institute specifications (API 5L) and quality assurance requirements. A range of specialised protective coatings and linings are available to suit specific specifications and site conditions. Fusion-bonded, medium-density polyethylene (Sintakote) is a popular choice among specifiers for water pipelines, while three-layer polyethylene coatings feature in petrochemical and gas projects. The company’s commitment to

and steel pipes and fittings are generally supplied with a corrosion-resistant lining (cement mortar or liquid epoxy) and an external coating for impact and corrosion resistance. Cathodic protection (CP) of steel pipelines has the unique advantage of preventing corrosion even if the external coating is accidentally damaged. CP is inexpensive and ensures that the pipeline will far exceed its design life and that maintenance and repair costs are minimised.

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Visit us at Stand 30 IMESA CONFERENCE 26-28 October 2016 East London

[ Water Solutions ] [ In Africa, water is a scarce and valuable resource. With over 30 years of experience, Robor delivers exible, efcient and customised steel pipe solutions and products to the water industry. ] Our innovative technology ensures superior water pipeline performance even in the harshest of environments. In addition, Robor offers a variety of value added steel pipe and complete piping systems perfectly suited to the conveyance of water and sewerage. Our range includes but is not restricted to, lined, coated and uncoated steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, as well as ttings and jointing systems.

Value added services for complete water solutions include: • Lining and coating • Jointing systems • Fire protection solutions • Robotic and submerged arc welding facilities • On-site services and training • Technical support

For more information: Tel: +27 (0)11 971 1600 • E-mail: watersolutions@robor.co.za • www.robor.co.za


AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE | PANEL DISCUSSION

ROBOR Francois Human | Commercial Manager: Water & Mining What are the challenges surrounding South Africa’s water infrastructure? FH There are various challenges facing our water infrastructure, one major issue being the funding of water projects at municipal and water authority levels. With a lack of urban development and the already ageing pipeline infrastructure, the annual budget allocated to finance water projects is well below the actual funding required. Once funding is allocated to a water project, the next challenge is to ensure that the project is executed on time and within the approved funding. We note that more and more projects that have been allocated to contractors are delayed for various reasons, with the result being that the projects’ actual costs far exceed the budgeted cost.

What steps should government be taking to develop a sustainable approach to rehabilitating pipeline infrastructure and combatting water leaks? At municipal level, the lack of planning to maintain the ageing water infrastructure is largely due to the shortage of funding and the lack of resources. A large portion of the current pipeline infrastructure is older than 40 years, meaning more maintenance is required and more frequently. A key focus to improve the sustainable approach should be placed on skills development at a municipal level and the promotion of partnerships with the private sector with the required skills to facilitate a skills transfer.

Given the state of South Africa’s ageing water networks, how can Robor’s products assist

ABOVE Bloemwater ductile iron pipeline for the Rustfontein Water Treatment Plant to Lesaka Reservoirs RIGHT Pipe rehabilitation project with HDPE liner

municipalities and utilities in ensuring water supply and combatting losses? Robor has supplied steel pipes and fittings and ductile iron pipes to various water projects in Southern Africa. In consultation with project engineers in the design phase of water projects, we are able to ensure that the correct pipe is used, by taking into account factors such as soil resistivity conditions, temperature exposure/levels and the working pressure of the pipeline. Robor also has the capability to supply steel pipes with different coatings and linings, to ensure that corrosion factors are fully taken into account.

What are the benefits of using steel and ductile iron pipes for water infrastructure? Generally, steel pipes and ductile iron pipes are used when the operating water pressure of the pipeline is high. Steel pipes are more resistant to high temperatures and both steel pipes and ductile iron pipes are easy to

install, as installation can be done by semi-skilled labour.

Robor supplies a range of products that add a longer lifespan and functionality to pipelines. Tell us about these products and their benefits. Robor manufactures and supplies a range of customised steel and ductile iron pipe solutions and products to the water reticulation market, including innovative joining systems and all pipeline accessories. These include fittings, flanges and couplings for the successful installation of water pipelines. As part of our complete piping solutions for water, Robor offers coatings and linings, corrosion protection, abrasion and pipe rehabilitation, as well as additional products that add a longer lifespan and functionality to pipelines. Robor has the capability to manufacture specialised items suited to the unique requirements of many markets, such as: • complete pipe systems, including fittings for water conveyance

• corrosive and abrasive slurries and sewerage pipelines • pipe rehabilitation • water irrigation • borehole casings.

Are there any big projects that you have been involved in that you would like to highlight? Robor was recently involved in a pipe rehabilitation project in Johannesburg where an existing 400 mm diameter steel pipeline was successfully lined with a HDPE liner. The total length of the rehabilitated pipeline was 5.6 km and it consisted of straight sections and sweep bends. The team was able to line straight sections of 720 m with a single pull and the project was completed in six weeks. By lining the existing steel pipe with an HDPE liner, our clients are now able to use the pipeline again for conveyance purposes.

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• Detail & Design • Pipe Manufacturing (DSAW) • Fittings & Specials Manufacturing • ERW Pipe Supply • Ducting, Piling & Vessels • General Fabrication • Corrosion Protection Coatings & Linings • Quality Testing • Assurance & Control

RESPECTED MANUFACTURER OF STEEL PIPES AND FITTINGS

+27 11 769 2221 +27 11 769 2244 info@bampipe.co.za

www.bampipe.co.za c/n Nick Toomey Blv & Penny Road | Roodepoort P O Box 4029 | Luipaardsvlei | 1743 | South Africa


AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE | PANEL DISCUSSION

BAMBANANI PIPES AND FITTINGS Derek Cloete | Senior Project Manager What are the challenges surrounding South Africa’s water infrastructure and how can Bambanani Pipes and Fittings assist in addressing these challenges? DC From a fabricator’s perspective, one of the challenges in water-related projects is the inability to deliver the duly quality-assured product at the right time, which results in project delays. At Bambanani, each order that is received is projectmanaged by a project specialist. We can deliver to our client’s requirements and specifications in the shortest possible lead times, due to our experience, trained personnel and newly built, state-of-theart facility covering 13 000 m2.

What steps should government be taking to develop a sustainable approach to rehabilitating pipeline infrastructure and combatting water leaks? The first step should be the compilation of a pipeline infrastructure register or asset register. This should also include the age of the pipeline infrastructure as well as the expected useful life. Once this is complete, regular checks using the latest technology to check for leaks and deterioration should be done. Appropriately trained personnel play an equally important role in this regard.

Provide an overview of the products and services you supply. We supply the following: • double submerged arc (DSAW) pipe fabrication, from 650 NB to 3 500 NB, in mild and stainless steel • electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe supply • fittings and specials manufacturing

RIGHT Large spool piece being spark tested BELOW RIGHT Stainless steel spool pieces ready for delivery

• detail and design • c orrosion protection – coating and linings • q uality testing/assurance and control. All of the above is undertaken in our bespoke 13 000 m2 facility. None of our work is outsourced to third parties.

Bambanani offers a range of corrosion-protection products. Tell us more about these and the benefits they offer. We offer coatings and linings on pipes, fittings and special applications. All our products are certified for potable water and we adhere to SANS 1217. Linings (internals) comprise a solvent-free, hot-applied epoxy at a dry film thickness that varies from 400 microns to 600 microns. This product is generally used where the outside diameter of a pipe or fitting is greater than 600 mm. For pipes and fittings smaller than 600 mm, we use a cold-applied, solventfree epoxy. Where specified by our clientele, we also apply solvent-borne epoxies. Our preferred coating (external) is a rigid, solvent-free polyurethane. This involves a twin-feed, hot-application method, resulting in a dry film thickness of between 1 200 microns to 1 800 microns – specification dependent. Bambanani also offers cement mortar lining done to C602-83: AWWA standard as well as pickle and passivating of stainless steel. Hot-dip galvanising is undertaken on our behalf by an ISO 9001accredited company.

You offer a series of quality-testing options on all of your products. What tests do you conduct and why is it important to offer these tests? Our quality testing is done in terms of the requirement of our clientele, but the following are undertaken, in general: • Radiography examination provides substantive proof of the integrity of the weld. • Liquid penetrant examination is used to detect welding surface cracks and/or surface porosity. • Magnetic particle inspection is a process used to detect surface and slightly subsurface deficiencies in ferrous metals. • Ultrasonic examination is a technique using ultrasonic waves to detect internal flaws or to characterise materials. • Hydrostatic (hydrotesting) is a process used to test for leaks and strength. It involves filling a pipe with water that usually contains a dye, and pressurisation of the pipe to the required pressure.

Our quality control plan, which is agreed upon upfront with our customer, outlines the various quality assurance testing required of our pipe and fittings. All testing is undertaken by appropriately qualified personnel. Each pipe and fitting delivered to our customer is accompanied by a data book, which documents the origin and make-up of this item. This ensures traceability of materials used as well as the integrity of the item in terms of the agreed-upon tests carried out on it.

Are there any big projects Bambanani has been involved in that you would like to highlight? •O  lifants River Water Resources Development Scheme • TCTA VRESAP project • Nwamitwa Phase 1 • Northern Sewerage Works • Lebalelo Amplats Water Supply • Braamhoek Eskom pump storage scheme.

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AGEING WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE

Water, South Africa’s oxymoron As wizened old men and women will tell you, you go nowhere fast when ever yone pulls in different directions. When this happens, it’s either a failure of leadership or an alternate agenda playing out behind the scenes. BY TONY STONE

T

HE DEPARTMENT OF Water and Sanitation (DWS) is on public record in stating that water has a critical function in the South African economy. That is absolutely correct. With our Q1 2016 GDP coming in at -1.2%, we need everything and everyone working together to turn this negative around. In looking at the DWS’s National Water Resource Strategy, a vision and set of strategic actions for effective water management, it speaks the right language. This strategy includes the security of water supply, the prevention of environmental degradation and resource pollution prevention. It goes on to say that a further component of the strategy is the Strategic Water Partners Network of South Africa, which is one of South Africa’s most innovative public-private-civil-society sector partnerships. This all makes for good reading, but we need a dose of reality to bring things back into perspective. The World Resources Institute ranks South Africa among the world’s 30 driest countries. Currently facing serious water challenges – with ageing water infrastructure, a short supply of technical skills, shifting demand patterns, changing rainfall patterns and the worst drought in 30 years – South Africa is in a pickle. Add to this vandalism and the theft of public infrastructure, non-payment of bills, water loss through a lack of maintenance, poor water services planning and prioritisation at many municipalities, as well as increasing pollution, and the pickle gets a little sharper. It’s not a good situation at all.

In crisis One of the key players in the water equation, the plastic pipe industry – a key infrastructure product/service provider and a critical asset to South Africa – is in a crisis. This crisis is not only threatening the industry, but South Africa’s precarious water situation, which will impact other key industries such as mining and industry. The cause of the crisis, according to the Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers’ Association (Sappma), is solely a result of the SABS failing to perform in terms of its mandate, as well as its obligations prescribed in the Standards Act (No. 8 of 2008). The obvious question is why? Being such a prestigious organisation, this is totally out of character. The SABS has failed to:

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IMIESA July 2016

Jan Venter, CEO, Sappma

• r enew licenses that have expired, and provide any indication to pipe manufacturers as to when the licences would be renewed • unilaterally, and without any consultation, decided in July 2015 to disallow partial testing of products manufactured by industry participants • failed to ensure that the testing facilities, laboratories and personnel needed to conduct testing on products are adequate and that those persons responsible for testing are competent. Sappma is a voluntary, non-profit organisation that represents almost 90% of all certified manufacturers of HDPE and PVC plastic pipes being made in Southern Africa. One of its primary objectives is to improve product quality in the whole value chain of the plastic pipe industry in order to ensure the long-term viability of piping systems used in infrastructure through its representatives. As Jan Venter, CEO, Sappma, says, “Directly, and as a result of the SABS’s failure to perform in terms of its mandate, local manufacturers of plastic pipes are no longer able to use the SABS Certification Mark. “The consequences this has, and will continue to have, are dire for local manufacturers, the industry and the country as a whole. The industry’s reputation has been negatively affected and client confidence in its products has diminished.” Locally manufactured products will be disqualified when submitting tenders without the SABS mark of approval. Several years ago, and as early as May 2006, Sappma warned the SABS about the potential of this happening and had attempted to address the matter, on numerous occasions, with the statutory body, particularly in regards to its testing facilities. Despite the numerous warnings, the SABS has failed to take heed of these warnings, or implement any programme to avoid the present crisis. An urgent meeting, through Sappma’s legal representatives, to resolve the matter has been requested, and granted by the SABS, but a date and time for the meeting remains elusive. One can only speculate as to what is going on. All the while, South Africa’s water crisis deepens. A clear schism in the purpose and objectives of the DWS, and the needs of the people.


INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVE

Summing up

the industry

The South African Forum of Civil Engineering Contractors (Safcec) looks at key issues affecting the current confidence levels in the industry. BY WEBSTER MFEBE

Webster Mfebe, CEO, Safcec

T

HE GLOBAL ECONOMIC turmoil, affecting par ticularly emerging and developing economies, continues to depress South Africa’s economy. Domestic economic woes have intensified. This, along with the coming municipal elections, has elevated political instability and triggered violent and disruptive protest action. This could lead to delays in project implementation. While credit ratings agencies have stopped short of a further downgrade, the looming recession, propelled by the mining sector, will have a more profound impact on an already ailing construction sector. Currency volatility and depreciation of the rand mean that any gains from the lower oil price are eroded. The slow roll-out of public sector infrastructure projects, including the delays to implement the targets as set out in the National Development Plan, aggravated by

Building RDP houses for the disadvantaged

cuts in projected infrastructure expenditure allocations, which were announced in the 2015/16 Budget, has resulted in negative industry growth projected over the mediumterm expenditure framework period (2016/17 to 2018/19).

Knock-on effects Skills shortages in procurement, which also include government’s ability to implement proper project planning and implementation procedures, lengthen the adjudication process, with the awarding of tenders taking as long as one year. Engineering skills are also becoming an increasingly serious constraint, largely aggravated by continued client interference, where agents are being disempowered. This leads to project implementation delays and is a contributing factor to the increase in payment delays, through delays in certification. Award delays are also becoming more significant. Contractors have a quarter of the time to prepare and submit tender documents, compared to the time taken by clients to adjudicate.

The inability of certain local and district municipalities to spend budgetary allocations also suggests inadequate skills in planning and budgetary management. Low confidence in the mining sector and policy uncertainty are delaying private capital expenditure in this area. The tendency by government to break what should be larger Grade 9 projects into smaller, lower-grade projects, referred to as project fragmentation, is affecting some of the bigger companies. Pricing, by contractors, remains a concern. Some contractors tender on projects that fall outside the scope of the prescribed CIDB grade, leading to unnecessary delays in the procurement process. Prices can also vary to the extent that they can almost be deemed irresponsible, or below cost with little or no regard to operational efficiency or the impact of (negative) escalation on contracts. As the industry continues to shed jobs, these and other challenges will impact on the industry’s future capacity to respond effectively to increased demand when the industry starts to recover.

IMIESA July 2016

39


ASSET MANAGEMENT

Mismanagement

of assets

South Africa has the 10th longest road network and 18th longest paved road network in the world. Nationally, our roads are mostly in a good condition. From there on in, provincially and by municipality, we fall below par. BY TONY STONE

T

HE PROBLEM WITH road infrastructure is that it is often not seen as a financial asset for society and the economy, largely due to the lack of awareness of its value, and appreciation of its importance as a driver of economic prosperity. The consequence of not fully valuing these assets is similar to increasing one’s debt, and everyone becomes poorer. So says Stefan Gerwens, chairman: Road Asset Management Working Group, European Road Forum. In South

Africa, this is quite apparent at provincial and municipal levels. Culture and leadership should be recognised as the root cause preventing asset owners, the people of South Africa, from making the best decisions for themselves. However, and to be fair, societal priorities and regulatory pressures are a distraction from long-term thinking and management. As a result, the recognition and application of good asset management by regulators is generally absent.

Sunny Hill in Despatch, Eastern Cape

South Africa’s road networks are managed by three different authorities. Most, but a few, are the responsibility of Sanral – at national level – provincial governments, and municipalities at local government level. They are in charge of planning, construction, supervision, operation and maintenance, and road safety. Sanral does an excellent job maintaining South Africa’s national roads. Potholes are repaired, properly, within 48 hours of being reported. Provincial and municipal roads, on the other hand, have been sadly neglected, in the Free State in particular.

Legal guidelines In terms of the Municipal Finance Management Act (No. 56 of 2003) and the ‘Local Government Capital Asset

TABLE 1 Transport estimates of national expenditure as at 24 February 2016, as per the MTEF (Medium Term Expenditure Framework) (million ZAR)

Moloto Road upgrade Strengthening national non-toll road network Provincial roads maintenance grant: funding of key performing provinces South African National Roads Agency Limited: Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project Compensation of employees: 2015 public sector wage agreement Upgrading of the satellite tracking system for ships National Ports Regulator: independent evaluation of the regulatory asset base

2017/18

564

1 955

2018/19 MTEF total 2 889

5 408

200

800

1 300

2 300

960

1 300

2 260

65

798

1 002

1 864

425

463

505

1 394

27

38

52

117

100

100 10

10

Maritime Safety Authority: development of maritime policy and new funding model

2

2

2

6

Interim rail economic regulator: capacity

2

2

2

5

Road safety awareness

2

2

3

Compensation of employees: reduction

-34

-54

-88

Goods and services: cost containment measures South African National Roads Agency Limited: reduction Provincial Roads Maintenance Grant: funds for coal haulage not required

40

2016/17

IMIESA July 2016

-65

-71

-80

-216

-200

-153

-240

-593

-852

-901

-1 753


ASSET MANAGEMENT

Management Guideline’, which is a key component of the broader legislative framework governing municipalities, and which aims to strengthen financial management, as well as support municipalities in moving towards an even more sustainable future, municipalities are required to develop and maintain a comprehensive asset management register – of all road, water treatment, electrical/ electronic equipment, waste management and property assets. In accordance with this responsibility, National Treasury says, “The division of revenue between the national, provincial and local governments takes into account the powers and functions assigned to each, as well as their ability to raise revenue. As far as roads are concerned, provincial governments are responsible for implementing nationally determined policies. Local governments are responsible for providing basic services, including roads. Municipalities fund a significant portion of the costs of providing roads from user charges and property rates within their own tax base.” Cat Pothole Repair kit-IMIESA 210x148.pdf

1

Using the latest data provided by L Kannemeyer of the CSIR, and based on the length of roads classified as being in “Poor” to “Ver y Poor” condition, the last estimated backlog of R197.45 billion is needed to bring these roads up to spec. This excludes backlogs related to periodic resur facing of the network, the upgrading of gravel roads to sur faced standard, and additional lanes to alleviate congestion and the construction of new roads, and assuming that each road in such a condition will be economically viable to strengthen/regravel. As is apparent from Table 1, only a fraction of what is actually needed will be spent on maintenance. “Poor road conditions are a significant contributor to the costs of moving people and goods within South Africa and across the Southern African region, increasing travel time and vehicle operating costs,” Lungisa Fuzile, director-general: National Treasur y, acknowledges. In this regard, and to improve the national non-toll road network, which makes up 2016/06/02

85% of the national network, Sanral will receive an additional R1.7 billion over the medium term. The agency will also receive R3.7 billion for upgrading the R573 Moloto Road. And, to improve the efficiency of spending on road maintenance in provinces, the allocations in the Provincial Roads Maintenance Grant (PRMG) for the coal haulage network will be reprioritised in 2017/18 to create a new per formance component in the grant. This component is expected to be R1.9 billion over the MTEF period, and will include a new per formance measure to ensure that investments are made in a manner that reduces the costs of transport in the economy. The rehabilitation of 5 390 lane km of provincially managed roads and the resealing of 11 976 lane km are projected to cost R32.5 billion via the PRMG. Without question, it is a lot of money, but way below what is needed. Added to this, and perhaps even more worr ying, is what Kannemeyer quite rightly asks: “If the extent and condition of your network is not

14:45

IMIESA July 2016

41

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ASSET MANAGEMENT

TABLE 2 Road transport: selected performance indicators

Performance indicator Lane kilometres of surfaced roads rehabilitated per year Lane kilometres of roads resealed per year Square kilometres of blacktop patching on roads (including pothole repairs) per year road (km2) known, how do you make sound road investment decisions?” The rate of deterioration in the condition of the provincial and municipal road network is determined largely by the level of maintenance provided. The level of maintenance required depends on the age and condition of the roads. As noted by the South African Institution of Civil Engineers’ Report Card, provincial road networks are deteriorating, with 30% in poor or very poor condition. The municipal road network is somewhat worse off. Of our national roads, the condition of 100% is known and 98% of the maintenance need is

42

Past

Current

Projections

2012/13

2013/14

2014/15

2015/16

2016/17

2017/18

2018/19

365

392

1 650

2 248

2 360

1 478

1 552

3 000

3 618

3 799

3 989

4 188

1 367 293 1 050 988

810 000

1 163 779

1 221 968

1 283 066

1 347 219

to be spent on maintaining these roads. Of the provincial roads, the condition of 83% is known but, of this, only 34% of the maintenance need is to be spent. The situation is far worse when we get to municipalities. Only 16.9% of the maintenance need is known, and only 67% of the maintenance need for this small percentage is to be spent. Clearly, we are not managing our road assets very well. It’s much like buying a brand-new car and ignoring the service plan. South Africa has an estimated 750 000 km of roads, of which 618 081 km are proclaimed roads. These roads are valued at more than R2 trillion. It’s time we followed Sanral’s lead – and the service plan.

The road to Newcastle in KZN

IMIESA July 2016

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ASSET MANAGEMENT

IMESA Infrastructure Management System

Municipalities can enjoy free asset management software, hosted by IMESA, that leverages the wealth of experience and the skills IMESA has to offer, particularly to those municipalities with few or no technical skills.

P

ROBABLY THE GREATEST challenge facing municipalities in South Africa is that of asset management. The effective and methodical recording of all accumulated assets with a view to managing and maintaining these assets today, and for the future, in the most cost-effective manner is now possible as the IMESA Infrastructure Management System (IIMS) enables municipalities to: • standardise asset repor ting and componentisation • determine and quantify asset conditions and impairment of infrastructure assets • develop asset maintenance budgets for a five-year cycle • carry out long-term planning relating to the cost of replacement of civil infrastructure • prioritise the maintenance of infrastructure

• generate their own asset management plans. With this in mind, IMESA has developed an innovative and comprehensive asset management methodology that will not only help municipalities to ensure GRAP17 compliance by capturing the data required to generate GRAP17 registers, but to apply this information to improving longterm municipal asset management and maintenance planning. The ultimate goal, of course, is to enable municipalities to use this new-found knowledge to provide improved service delivery to their communities. IMESA believes that the system is very accessible to the user and uncomplicated in terms of its general implementation. It is ideal for use across all sizes of municipalities.

Asset management specifics By standardising data collection, the system will provide municipalities with a means to monitor the following in terms of infrastructure assets (immovable) and movable assets, and to generate a GRAP17 asset register: • location • componentisation • asset impairment (based on the condition of each asset) • remaining useful life • maintenance backlogs and maintenance costs and cash flow for the next five years • future asset replacement cash flow and replacement requirements • asset life-cycle replacement costs. Municipalities will have standardised records of the condition of their infrastructure at their fingertips, enabling them to determine, on an ongoing basis, the impairment and

IMIESA July 2016

43


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ASSET MANAGEMENT

maintenance needs of the infrastructure, thus providing opportunities for informed planning.

Document management The system further provides for the storage and access of useful and important documentation relating to: • the calculation of asset valuations • policies that support asset management processes.

Budgetary issues resolved Through the implementation of the IIMS, IMESA will prepare a simple and standard method for determining the current replacement cost of infrastructure assets, which will assist the municipalities with the allocation of budgets and prioritisation of maintenance and, furthermore, enable them to determine immediate and long-term financial requirements. Methodical planning will also undoubtedly improve productivity and enhance cooperation between technical and financial staff, which, in turn should improve service delivery.

Advantages of IIMS The infrastructure data is loaded on to the database and hosted on a dedicated secure ser ver with daily data backup. Municipalities will have access to their data 24/7. IMESA believes that a centralised approach to software provision and data hosting will prove more costeffective to municipalities than similar products, because IMESA would provide the specialised ser ver and IT staff required. Fur thermore, municipalities would have access to IMESA leverage and be able to utilise the wealth of experience within IMESA (which is of particular value to municipalities with few or no technical skills).

What information would municipalities have to provide? In order to implement the IIMS, municipalities would be required to provide the following information: • existing infrastructure (immovable) and/ or movable asset register

• • • •

asset number in the financial system type of asset acquisition date of asset asset location (preferably in GIS shape file format) • asset dimension/size (not essential if shape file is provided) • asset condition (if available, but not essential for the initial data upload).

Cost to the municipality The software is offered free of charge, with no limit to the number of individual user licences within each municipality. In order to recover the costs of support, as well as hosting of the asset data, IMESA will charge a nominal monthly maintenance fee.

MORE INFO & UPLOAD

In order to obtain more information regarding the implementation of the above IIMS, and to upload asset and infrastructure information to the asset databases for each municipality, please contact IMESA on +27 (0)31 266 3263.

IMIESA July 2016

45


ASSET MANAGEMENT

In-line’s

inside scoop

The collection and analysis of relevant data is an important first step to detect, prevent or mitigate pipe failures. In-line pipe surveying technologies offer a non-destructive and simplistic method of conducting a condition assessment. BY DANIELLE PETTERSON

M

ANAGEMENT OF AGEING assets has become a high priority in countries across the world. Effective management of these assets requires condition assessment. This involves the collection of information about the pipes’ condition, analysis of this information and, ultimately, action. In-pipe inspections have become an integral part of risk management and maintenance in the world’s oil and gas sector. In fact, many of these pipes have been designed with internal inspection in mind. Although there are fundamental differences between the systems of oil and gas operators and water system operators, the concept of a risk-based approach to asset management is still applicable. South Africa, in particular, is faced with the challenge of ageing water infrastructure. Coupled with the current water shortages, there is increasing pressure on utilities to have a clear understanding of how their assets are performing in order to prioritise rehabilitation or replacement programmes. Data on the current and predicted future condition of pipelines is crucial and can give utilities vital time to address problems where failure is imminent. This data can be collected using a variety of in-line pipe surveying tools,

which are built to travel inside a pipeline and collect information.

Remote field eddy current Remote field eddy current (RFEC) technology allows for the inspection of metallic water distribution pipes. This non-destructive method uses low-frequency alternating current (AC) and through-wall transmission to inspect pipes and tubes from the inside. It is able to provide the location and magnitude of corrosion defects in inspected pipes. The RFEC tool consists of an exciter coil that is pumped with an AC current and emits a magnetic field. The field travels outwards from the exciter coil, through the pipe wall, and along the pipe to a detector. A detector is placed near the inside of the pipe wall, two to three pipe diameters away from the exciter. This detects the magnetic field that has travelled back in from the outside of the pipe wall. Anomalies, such as metal loss, cause changes in the magnitude and phase of the received signal, and can be used to detect defects.

CCTV

The use of closed-circuit television camera systems is fairly standard in the water and wastewater industries, and allows for a visual inspection of the pipe’s inner surface. A CCTV system comprises a CCTV camera and lighting apparatus mounted on a carrier, which is moved through the pipe by a winch and pulley system. The camera captures and FIGURE 1 Remote field eddy current diagram

(Source: www.physics.queensu.ca)

46

IMIESA July 2016

transmits video to a ground station where a survey can be done. According to Liu and Kleiner, in ‘State of the art review of inspection technologies for condition assessment of water pipes’, the traditional CCTV technique has limitations. The device carrier needs to pan and tilt to see sides and laterals. To ensure acceptable video quality, the carrier speed is limited to 15 cm/s and has to stop at each location to identify defects. To overcome these limitations, side-scanning evaluation technology (SSET) was developed to provide both frontal and 360-degree images of the interior surface of the pipe wall through the use of two cameras. The SSET system can travel through a pipeline at a constant speed without stopping to observe defects and a pan or tilt camera is not needed.

SmartBalls SmartBalls are made up of a range of acoustic sensors, as well as an accelerometer, magnetometer, ultrasonic transmitter and temperature sensors, which all work to identify leaks. The SmartBall is deployed into the water flow of a pipeline and travels with the water flow to detect, locate and estimate the magnitude of leaks. As it rolls, it records acoustic data and emits an acoustic pulse every three seconds for tracking purposes. According to Liu and Kleiner, all the SmartBall’s sensors are encased in an aluminium alloy core with a power source and other electronic components. The core is encapsulated inside a protective outer foam shell or sphere that provides additional surface area to propel the device.

Magnetic flux leakage The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method is used in ferrous pipes. Large magnets are


ASSET MANAGEMENT

TABLE 1 Summary of condition assessment technologies applicable to different pipe materials a, b, c (Source: Liu and Kleiner)

Technology

Metallic pipes CI, DI, WS

Concrete pipes CPP/PCCP, AC

Poly pipes GRP, PVC/uPVC, PE

Pit depth measurement Visual inspection

R

T

T

R

?

Electromagnetic inspection Acoustic inspection

R

R

T

R

R

Ultrasonic testing

R

Radiographic testing Thermographic testing Pipe condition assessment from soil properties Other sensor technologies OPPOSITE PAGE Visual inspection can be done using CCTV technology (Source: Tonkin Plumbing)

R

R

T

?

T

T

T

T

?

?

R

?

R: available; ?: may/may not work; T: does not work. CI: cast iron, DI: ductile iron, WS: welded steel, CPP/PCCP: concrete pressure/ pre-stressed concrete cylinder, AC: asbestos cement, GRP: glass-fibre-reinforced polyester, PVC/uPVC: polyvinyl chloride/unplasticised PVC, PE: polyethylene. c More detailed information about the applicability of each type of sensor for different pipes is not available. a

b

ABOVE SmartBalls use acoustic sensors to detect leaks (Source: Enbridge)

used to induce a saturated magnetic field around the wall of a pipe. If the pipe is in good condition, there is a homogeneous distribution of magnetic flux. Similar to RFEC, any anomalies, such as metal loss, will alter the distribution of the magnetic flux because the damaged areas cannot support as much magnetic flux as undamaged areas. However, the use of MFL in the water industry is limited to cleaned, unlined pipes and also requires accessibility to the pipes’ exterior, report Liu and Kleiner.

Specialists in the manufacturing of domestic and industrial water storage

Other methods In their paper, Liu and Kleiner cite several more direct methods of pipe condition assessment. These include: • Visual inspection - laser scan • Electromagnetic methods - broadband electromagnetic (BEM) - pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing - ground-penetrating radar (GPR) - ultra-wideband (UWB) pulsed radar system: P-Scan • Acoustic methods - sonar profiling system - impact echo • Ultrasound methods - guided wave ultrasound - discrete ultrasound - phased array technology - combined UT inspection. While there are numerous methods available for pipe inspection, not all methods are suitable for all pipe materials. Table 1 shows the potential to apply an inspection technology to various pipe materials.

IMIESA July 2016

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TECHNICAL ARTICLE

PIMP your earth dam wall

W

ITH SOUTH AFRICA’S drought being the worst in 30 years, and TV showing footage of failed crops, dead cows and thirsty towns, many a district municipality, and farmer, without a doubt, is wishing they’d been proactive and built dams while rain was still plentiful. In concept, earth dams are relatively easy to build. But, there’s more to it than meets the eye. The ideal site is where gently sloping ground on two sides converges to take on a V-like form. The dam is best located at the narrowest point of convergence, where the depth of the proposed dam will be maximised and the width of its earthen dam wall minimised. Of critical importance, the floor of the dam and the dam wall foundation should consist of impervious material such as unfissured rock or clay subsoil. So, before any earthwork begins, an analysis of the soil to assess its constituents, mineral content, compaction characteristics and to check for other factors – such as mica, fine silt, sodicity, etc. – that make apparently good soil unsuitable, should be carried out. A comparison of the samples taken against recommended standards will show what earth fill is available, what overburden needs to be removed and which unsuitable areas need to be avoided.

Seepage and evaporation The percentage imperviousness, often referred to as PIMP in calculations, is an important factor when considering the construction of a dam. It is calculated by expressing the sum total of the area of the proposed dam, which is made up of impervious materials, as a percentage of the total area of the dam. Seepage, generally speaking, is determined by percentage of pervious materials and the rate of flow through

the material. However, more accurate data can be obtained from the soil test results coming back from the laboratory. Regardless of how well constructed, materially sound and how well compacted, some water will seep through the dam. Seepage, unfortunately, reduces the strength of the dam and needs to be minimised. Nelson recommends the crest width and slopes shown in Figure 1 to provide a stable, 3 m high embankment, making extra seepage protection unnecessary. A safer, but technically difficult, solution is to include a rock-toe drain (as shown), to collect seepage water. This should extend up to a third of the height of the dam, and a graded sand and gravel filter must be placed between the dam fill material and the drain to prevent fine clay particles being washed out. The filter must be designed according to the particle size of the dam material and the drain. However, a less complicated solution is the inclusion and use of sodium bentonite – a clay formed from the weathering of volcanic ash, which expands when wet, absorbing as much as several times its dry mass in water – in the construction of the wall. The process of swelling on contact with water makes sodium bentonite

In the design and construction of earth dam walls, the imperviousness of the dam floor and wall, often referred to as PIMP in calculations, is critical. If not correctly computed, it may result in the dam failing. BY TONY STONE

useful as a sealant, since it provides a selfsealing, low-permeability barrier. A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), using sodium bentonite, is a woven, fabric-like material, primarily used for the lining of, inter alia, earth dam walls. It is a kind of geomembrane and geosynthetic, which incorporates a bentonite or other clay such as tonstein, which has a very low hydraulic conductivity. The resulting lower permeability slows the rate of seepage out of the landfill. The rate of evaporation depends on the surface area of the dam, solar radiation, air temperature, wind and the temperature of the

TABLE 1 Geosynthetic clay liners (GCL)

Material Construction Thickness Hydraulic conductivity of clay Speed and ease of construction Installed cost Experience

Bentonite clay for geotextiles and/or geomembranes Factory manufactured and then installed in the field ~6 mm 10−10 m/s to 10−12 m/s Rapid, simple installation POA (between R0.80/m2 and R1.60/m2 in the USA (April 2015)) Construction quality assurance and quality control are critical

IMIESA July 2016

49


TECHNICAL ARTICLE

FIGURE 1 Section through a small earth dam (Source: Nelson et al., 1985)

This image of the rather large Kingsley Dam illustrates the wall coverings perfectly

water surface. The smaller the surface area is, and the deeper the dam, the less evaporation.

Determining the capacity of the dam The height and span of the dam wall, slope gradient and shape of the dam are determining factors in calculating the storage capacity of the dam. However, critical to the entire equation is the flow rate into the dam. Once the dam is full, and if there is no take-off, the outflow rate, theoretically, should be equal to the inflow rate. However, seepage and evaporation will need to be taken into account and will be reduction factors in determining the outflow rate. The outflow rate is vitally important in determining the size of the spillway.

will force air and water from voids. Under flood conditions, which will invariably happen, the water depth will increase to 2.5 m, with a 0.5 m depth of flow over the spillway. As a safety margin, the top 0.5 m (minimum) is required to allow water, rising on the dam due to wind and waves, to flow over the crest. FIGURE 2 Plan of the spillway (Source: Nelson et al., 1985)

Building the earth wall A cut-off trench, down into the impervious layer (bedrock if possible) to reduce seepage and improve stability, should be excavated. The wall of the earth dam must be built by properly compacting (critically important) successive layers, of a maximum 150 mm per layer, of impervious earth materials (clay or a soil/clay mixture) in the form of an inverted V mound and then placing layers of more permeable materials, first of crushed stone and then rocks, on the upstream and downstream sides of the dam wall. This will prevent erosion by water motion, rain or wind, and a suitable ungated spillway, usually of concrete, to protect against the catastrophic overflow of the dam. In designing the dam, a 3 m wall height would allow a 2 m depth of water when full. But, to achieve a design height of 3 m, settlement of the dam wall must be taken into account. Depending on the soil test results, an additional height allowance of between 0.15Â m (5%) and 0.3 m (10%) must be made when constructing the wall. Even with compaction, as the earth dam wall settles, the sheer weight of the materials used in its construction

50

IMIESA July 2016

Spillways A spillway is required to protect the dam from over-topping, for example, during high flows. It passes surplus water downstream safely, preventing both the failure of the dam and damage downstream. Surplus water flows over a spillway crest at the top water level and into an open channel around the side of the dam, discharging safely into the stream below the dam. It may be made from reinforced concrete, but a cheaper solution is a grassed spillway with a vegetated earth channel, protected crest at reservoir top-water level, giving a maximum velocity of 2.5 m/s. A grassed spillway requires regular inspection and maintenance, so that erosion can be repaired and a good grass cover is maintained. It is often used together with a trickle-pipe spillway so that small inflows into a full reservoir flow through the trickle pipe, and do not erode the grass spillway. Figure 2

can be used to find the minimum inlet width for a given flood flow. These widths apply to well-grassed spillways. Poorly grassed spillways should be wider.

Other considerations In constructing a dam, the first and constant consideration is to pay attention to people's safety, and avoid hazardous practices by using dangerous earthmoving equipment responsibly. Earth dams should be constructed during the dry season. If there is a stream, this will need to be diverted (through a culvert, which could become part of the outlet works or spillway later). Top soil should always be stripped because it contains organic matter (such as roots), which prevents proper compaction and may provide seepage routes (piping) once the organic matter has decayed. When placing impervious (clay, etc.) material in a dam, this should be at the correct moisture content, without clogging the roller, and in layers of no more than 150 mm deep, in order to obtain the best compaction results. Once the dam wall is completed, cover the entire top and downstream side of the wall with topsoil, plant strong grass (such as kikuyu, star or Bermuda grass) to protect against erosion. Maintain the grass and water in the dry season, if necessary. Prevent trees taking root and keep animals and insects such as rats and termites off the wall, as these pests will compromise the integrity of the wall if allowed free rein. And, as already mentioned, protect the upstream slope with a layer of impervious crushed stone, followed by a layer of rock. Secure a floating timber beam 2 m from the dam wall to catch any floating debris. These will need replacing every 10 years or so. By all accounts, and by doing a lot more reading, and brushing up on your mathematics, you will have a productive and very safe dam.


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ENERGY

Landfills AN UNTAPPED ENERGY RESOURCE An estimated 95% of South Africa’s solid waste ends up at landfill. With only a handful of landfill gas-to-energy projects currently running in the country, the electricity generating potential of these landfills is largely untapped. BY DANIELLE PETTERSON

T

HE MOST RECENT National Waste Information Baseline Repor t (2012) shows that South Africa generated 108 million tonnes of waste in 2011. Some 97 million tonnes of this was disposed of at landfill. A rule of thumb calculation is that landfills that receive roughly 25 000 tonnes of solid waste a month should be able to produce about 1 MW by converting landfill gas (LFG) to energy. This means that South Africa could potentially produce up to 3 880 MW of electricity from landfills alone. Despite this great potential, there have only been a handful of LFG-to-energy projects in South Africa, and only a fraction of these are run by municipalities, despite the fact that eThekwini Municipality established South Africa’s first LFG-to-energy project, which now produces 45 000 MWh/year. In her foreword to the 2015 National Biogas Conference Report, Minister of Energy Tina Joemat-Pettersson stated that biogas was identified and prioritised in the 2003 White Paper on Renewable Energy Policy to contribute to the 2013 target of 10 000 GWh alongside solar, wind,

small-scale hydro and other biomass technologies (including waste energy). “Today, we are proud to say that, through our efforts, the wind and solar energy sector is being firmly mainstreamed into the national electricity supply. However, small-scale technologies such as biogas and small-scale hydro have not yet taken off on a significant scale,” she said. “It is of concern that the adoption of biogas projects, even for commercial purposes, in South Africa has been very slow, even though the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement programme allocated 12.5 MW to small-scale biogas and 5 MW to small-scale hydro technology,” the minister continued.

Speaking at the National Biogas Conference, David Cornish from SABIA noted that biogas generation is not a core municipal function and that legislation and limits to funding constrain municipalities from developing projects. Cornish believes that, in order to drive more biogas projects, senior municipal managers need a clear vision of what they want to achieve in their municipalities. This commitment will, in turn, flow into the rest of the organisation and the community that it serves.

Tackling emissions South Africa has committed to attaining substantial reductions in CO2 emissions by 2025, and several municipalities have committed to a target of 10% renewable energy supply by 2020. LFG-to-energy projects offer municipalities an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while taking steps towards meeting their targets. Ekurhuleni Municipality is using its LFG recovery project as a step towards attaining its 10% renewable energy

DID YOU KNOW?

• Methane is the second most concerning greenhouse gas after CO2 • Methane is a potent greenhouse gas considered to be 21 times more harmful than CO2 • Biogas was identified and prioritised in the 2003 White Paper on Renewable Energy Policy to contribute to the 2013 target of 10 000 GWh alongside solar, wind, small-scale hydro and other biomass technologies

IMIESA July 2016

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ENERGY supply target. In addition to this, landfill gas recovery has an on-line reliability of more than 90%. Unlike other renewable energy generators, it is not dependent on environmental factors such as the amount of sunlight or wind. Moreover, LFG-to-energy projects can be registered with the CDM and, if approved, can earn carbon credits by reducing the amount of methane entering the atmosphere. A carbon credit is a financial instrument that represents a tonne of CO2 or carbon-dioxideequivalent gases (CO2e) removed or reduced from the atmosphere from an emission reduction project. These credits can be sold on the mandatory or voluntary carbon markets. Selling carbon credits from LFG-to-energy projects has, over the past few years, become an increasingly popular financing option that can boost a landfill’s overall revenue stream. eThekwini Municipality’s project has been very successful in this regard.

South African success stories The Durban Landfill Gas to Electricity project is the first of its kind to be registered in Africa under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In addition to contributing to the

54

LEFT The Bisasar LFG-to-energy site in eThekwini BELOW LEFT The Mariannhill LFG-toenergy site in eThekwini

respectively. Bisasar stopped receiving waste from 2015 but it is estimated to continue producing gas and generating electricity for another 15 years. Mariannhill landfill will close in 2022. The sites have resulted in reduced emissions of 7.2 million tonnes of CO2 and the project is successfully producing 45 000 MWh/year. As of April 2015, the project has issued roughly 181 000 carbon credits.

Mounting landfills

metro’s electricity supply, the project generates revenue from methane destruction in the form of Certified Emission Reductions as well as electricity sales. The gas-to-electricity projects located at two landfill sites – Mariannhill and Bisasar – were commissioned in 2006 and 2008,

Disposal of waste by landfill is the most cost-effective and widely used method of waste disposal in the country. Recycling rates are low in South Africa and it is estimated that over 95% of the country’s waste is deposited in landfills. With volumes of waste mounting, it makes sense to utilise this waste to address South Africa’s electricity challenges.

IMIESA July 2016

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ENERGY

Energy-efficient LED retrofit

A

HIGH MAST floodlight retrofit project has been undertaken in Mdantsane, Dimbaza and Duncan Village – all suburbs in the Buffalo City area of the Eastern Cape. With this project, the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality is leading the way in municipal energy efficiency. A total of 150 high masts with 1 000 W HPS (high-pressure sodium) floodlights were retrofitted with 470 W OMNIstar LED floodlights, resulting in a significant energy saving in excess of 50% per high mast. Because of this, the project qualified for 100% Energy Efficiency Funding by the Department of Energy. The Mdantsane, Dimbaza and Duncan Village suburbs are located within the Buffalo City metro boundary. Mdantsane suburb is historically the

second largest township in South Africa run by a single metro. Through this project, local residents not only benefit from their municipality’s energy and, therefore, fiscal savings, but also through job creation. The contractor who did the installation is an empowered local company carrying out the municipality’s street-lighting maintenance and employs a wide spectrum of local employees, from electrical artisans to artisan’s assistants, machine operators, general workers, storemen and administration staff.

OMNIstar BEKA Schréder’s OMNIstar, a high-power LED floodlight, was used for the project. This

floodlight has been designed to provide an unrivalled combination of performance and flexibility for lighting areas where high lumen packages are needed, while offering maximum savings in energy and maintenance costs with a short payback time. With on-site photometric adjustment, the OMNIstar guarantees the perfect lighting to ensure safety and comfort. It offers a real alternative to luminaires equipped with highpower traditional sources, with the added advantages of an LED solution: low energy consumption, improved visibility with white light, limited maintenance and longer life. The OMNIstar can be fitted with the Owlet range of control solutions to enable further maximised energy savings by adapting the light levels according to the real needs of the installation. The residents’ response to the new lighting installation was overwhelmingly positive. BEKA Schréder is proud to be associated with the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in providing a successful and highly energy-efficient lighting solution for this significant project. IMIESA July 2016

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CONSTRUCTION | PROFILE

5

reasons to buy local

T

HERE ARE certain products where mega production in foreign countries carries high risks. These include products that: • relate to safety and security • are bulky, fragile or difficult to transport • are expected to have a long life • need to be produced sustainably with consideration for human rights and the global environment • m ust suit South African conditions and culture. Clay brick is one product that ticks all these boxes. We want our homes and schools to protect our families for at least our lifetime, and preferably longer. We want our social infrastructure to be energy efficient and low maintenance in a country that experiences extreme heat in summer, corrosive coastal storms and frosty winters across the interior. “Buy local” usually means “buy South African”, but when it comes to clay brick, local is a lot closer to home – often less than 100 km.

1

Price

Clay bricks are dense construction materials, which is what makes them so energy efficient and safe. But that also makes them expensive to transport. You will usually get the best price close to the point of manufacture. Competitively priced, accredited brick suppliers can be found in every region, providing

South Africans often underestimate our local level of skills, technology and innovation. In many fields – especially engineering – South Africa leads the world.

consistent-quality stock in hand and short transport distances. The website www.claybrick.org has an interactive map that allows you to select your construction site and identify contact and product information for suppliers in your area.

2

Convenience

Unlike many other construction materials, bricks are modular and easy to transport. Bricks can be moved in a small bakkie and relocated on-site by hand, so they can cope with rural roads and restricted space on-site. Buy as fast as you can build. Modular clay brick walling allows construction teams to quickly adapt to the client’s change requests, respond to unexpected site conditions and implement complex architectural designs. Many manufacturers supply bricks in nonstandard, large sizes to lower material cost, use less mortar and have fewer joins per square metre. With bricks that are 140 mm wide, one can build a single-leaf wall that meets SABS 10400-XA.

3

Low risk

Bricks are manufactured to SABS specifications and their use is controlled by strict national building regulations to protect homeowners and property

Brick manufacturing provides stimulus for economic transformation and job creation in rural areas

investors. There is a well-established knowledge base of technical information for use with different foundations, soils and climate zones, ensuring consistent strength, timing and costs.

4

Sustainability

Clay Brick Association of South Africa members are expected to conform to legislation regarding air pollution and environmental protection, as well as a strict code of conduct with regard to how bricks are manufactured.

5

Economic growth in rural areas

Creating and suppor ting local industries that add value to our natural resources is a critical turnaround strategy for South Africa. Brick production plants are found outside urban centres and provide stimulus for economic transformation, local job creation and skills development. No matter where the construction site is located, there will be trained, local bricklayers to complete the project. It is estimated that over 200 000 workers are directly employed across the building industry as brickmakers, bricklayers and plasterers.

IMIESA July 2016

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CONSTRUCTION

Perfecting geomembrane welding Barrier protection is a complex field best left to the specialists. BY ALASTAIR CURRIE

I

T IS ESTIMATED that some 71% of all geomembrane installation defects are caused by stones left within the protection layer and a further 16% by heavy equipment during capping installation. In the hands of an inexperienced installer, the end result is geomembrane failure and ensuing contamination, with potentially severe downstream environmental implications. However, expert installation is only one factor to consider, comments Piet Meyer, managing director, Aquatan, “Of equal importance is the adoption of the right membrane welding techniques: seemingly a simple process (overlapping the geomembranes and running the welding machine between the sheets), but one that requires an expert design and application approach when sealing a dam or toxic waste facility. Modernday geosynthetic materials are now well advanced and so are the welding methods.”

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IMIESA July 2016

Industry leader Based in Gauteng, Aquatan is the industry leader when it comes to geomembrane installation and is a member of the International Association of Geosynthetics Installers (IAGI). “We are the only IAGI Approved Installation Contractor (AIC) on the African continent and invest extensively in training to keep up to date with international best practice,” he explains. A portion of the AIC requirement is that member companies must employ certified welding technicians. AIC contractors must also meet requirements in the following areas: corporate history and business practices, insurance verification, safety training,

ISO accreditation and professional competence and experience. The IAGI Certified Welding Technician (CWT) programmes for installers of HDPE and reinforced geomembranes are rigorous. They test technicians on their skill in welding geomembranes by wedge and extrusion. Candidates must take a written exam and conduct physical welds of various geomembranes with different thicknesses. These welds are tested at a third-party lab to determine whether they pass or not. Since 2012, the majority of Aquatan’s supervisors and technicians have qualified as IAGI CWTs – a first for the company, South Africa and Africa.

Variable factors to consider ABOVE Wedge welding in progress BELOW By their nature, geomembranes are designed to contain the most harmful chemicals and aggressive effluents, and are highly effective when it comes to containment of landfills and toxic disposal facilities

Apart from Aquatan’s comprehensive, cloudbased electronic QC system and AIMS management system, the two basic welding systems pioneered and employed by the company are electric double-wedge welding and extrusion welding. Both use welding


CONSTRUCTION

machines that produce truly homogeneous seams under the most challenging conditions. As a further plus, Aquatan’s extrusion welding machines are unique: they have a dynamic mixer and controlled nozzle heating mechanism at the point of polymer fusion and, therefore, exclude the very unreliable, aggressive, difficult-to-control hot air preheating that can be influenced by environmental variations regularly experienced on a site. As Meyer points out, there is much more to installing a containment system than just welding the liner. Many containment systems consist of multiple layers, including multiple composite liners, and the installers need to understand how to be site-specific when installing components such as geomembranes, geotextiles, geogrids, geosynthetic drains and geosynthetic clay liners in conjunction with other components. The installation of geomembranes can be adversely influenced by changing weather, soil conditions, diurnal temperature variations and, most importantly, subsequent activities over the installed membrane. “That’s why having

the controls in place is vital to ensuring that not only the welding machines, but also the welding operators and management team are able to produce reliable seams, applying installation processes that are designed to meet the geomembrane’s limitations within the engineer’s specification over the long term and that do not leak despite the many challenges they may encounter on-site.” Destructive and non-destructive testing of welds is one way to ensure this.

Brownfield remediation specialists Mistakes are costly and sometimes irreversible, which is when remediation becomes necessar y aside from the legal non-compliance issues. In addition to new projects, Aquatan has a division that specialises in brownfield remediation contracts where membranes have failed for various reasons, using dipole electric leak detection (ELD) techniques to pinpoint the source of the leaks. In a recent liner example completed by a non-IAGI member, ELD scanning identified a

1.5 m long cut in the membrane, 23 penetrations and several deep scratches – mainly as a result of inexperienced application procedures and workmanship. The liner system comprised a 20 000 m2 2.0 mm HDPE geomembrane covered by a stone drainage layer over a 1 000 g/m2 protection geotextile. Excluding the scratches, this equated to one hole per 833 m2. “Protecting people and the environment in the long term is the first prize,” adds Meyer. "Then there’s the obligation to meet statutory regulations, and the need to manage cost and reputation for contractors involved in the construction of barrier systems installations in the water, waste and mining sectors. Perhaps a good place to start is for owners and engineers to demand professional and experienced geomembrane contractors, and conduct the due diligence necessary to verify that experience. This will avoid situations where intensely engineered, carefully selected and costly geosynthetics are rendered dysfunctional.” IMIESA July 2016

59

Professional Geomembrane Installations 

Quality Control

Electric Leak Detection in Progress

Approved Installation Contractor (AIC)

Electric Leak Detection

AQUATAN is a member of the International Association of Geosynthetics Installers (IAGI) and the only Approved Installation Contractor (AIC) on the African continent.

It has been shown that 71% of defects in geomembranes are as a result of stones within the protection layer and 16% due to heavy equipment when placing a capping layer on the geomembrane.

By being an Approved Installation Contractor we guarantee competent, top quality and professional installations to all our clients from a variety of sectors.

AQUATAN is the only Geomembrane installer in South Africa equipped to find discontinuities in a geomembrane lined facility below a capping layer.

Tel: +27(0)11 974 5271 Fax: +27(0)11 974 4111 E-Mail: aqua@aquatan.com www.aquatan.com


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PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Plan to procure resources Part of planning your project is determining what resources are required and then allocating these resources. The trick, so to speak, is coordinating people and resources so that the plan is executed as intended. BY JOHN VAN RIJN, INDEVELOPMENT

I

N PROJECT MANAGEMENT terminology, resources are required to carry out the project (work) tasks. These can be people, equipment, facilities, funding, or anything else required for the completion of a project activity or activities. So, after all activities and tasks have been determined, the project manager may start allocating resources to those activities and specific tasks.

Historical data He or she may obtain the historical data from a manual, but an update from other historical resources is always highly recommended to adjust the duration information to the specific circumstances. Professional organisations collect historical information from old project files, databases and

from people who have worked on similar projects on regular intervals. Smaller, more pioneering organisations may try to review any available post-mortem information from previous projects. Project managers should, in particular, search for information on the types and numbers of resources used.

Refine duration estimates It goes without saying that the duration estimates should be upgraded, when more accurate information comes forward or when the allocation of resources is changed.

Resource graphs Resource graphs show what resources are needed and when. They also show when certain resources are over-allocated. Typical resource graphs are labour, plant,

transport and materials schedules. A typical resource graph is presented in Graph 1.

Labour schedules The construction of infrastructure requires – besides flexible, unskilled labourers – many specialised labourers. Those labourers with the same qualifications are positioned in the same labour pool. To avoid reduction in productivity, due to reduced motivation and start and finish periods, it is advisable to aim for an even workload for each of the labour pools. This is of even more interest for those organisations that have employed their labour force on a permanent basis. This is achieved by a continuing exchange between the labour schedule and the Gantt chart or network plan. The labour schedules are drawn up using the charts already IMIESA July 2016

61


GRAPH 1 A typical resource graph

prepared. For each activity, the number of workers from each labour pool is recorded.

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Plant and transport schedules Expensive plant and transport vehicles are generally planned to be 100% utilised. Cheaper plant and transport vehicles are generally planned to fit in with the prepared plan. Other than aiming at constant utilisation of the different resource pools, the project manager (during the implementation phase, in particular) wants to avoid a succeeding activity overtaking a preceding activity. The project manager prefers, therefore, for all activities to run at the same speed.

Material schedule Material schedules act as a guide for ordering materials, but also serve as a checklist of materials needed. It is usually minor items that are forgotten and cause temporarily delays.

Meeting deadlines Changing the duration is one method to help meet deadlines, and resolve resource over-allocations and budget cuts. Another option to meet the deadlines is the creation of subprojects. If a big project contains a number of outputs, or an output that can be segmented, it may be advisable to use this technique. Segmenting of road works will result in many production gangs undertaking the same activity at the same time.

Specify resource availability Availability of resources refers to the availability of resources to work on the project; that is, whether the resource is working half time or full time on the project, whether there are two or three of the same resource, and whether the resource's availability changes at any point. Infrastructure projects may compete with the agricultural sector to attract workers during the harvest seasons. The more familiar project managers are with resource capabilities, the more efficiently and effectively these resources can be assigned to the different tasks. Project managers should also be familiar with equipment preventive maintenance schedules, especially when equipment is not rented. A special plan should be developed to present the rate of consumption for materials, their costs and, specifically, when they need to be purchased. If the project does not purchase from regular suppliers, time should be allocated for the selection of these suppliers. In the next issue, we will take a look at risk management plans.

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IMIESA July 2016


CEMENT & CONCRETE

Keeping cool with concrete Concrete's relatively light colour has several important environmental benefits, particularly in urban areas.

T

HE TWO PRIMARY benefits of concrete's light colour are reduced lighting energy consumption, and a decrease in the 'heat island' effect in cities and built-up areas, both of which help to combat global warming,” says Br yan Perrie, managing director, The Concrete Institute. In the first instance, the light colour of concrete provides a safer environment and enables lighting requirements in a town or city to be reduced, both internally and externally. “For concrete roads or parking areas, research in the US has shown that sur face reflection readings on concrete pavements and other sur faces are four to five times higher than other road sur face materials. This means increased visibility for drivers and increased security in urban areas. Similar research has shown that the increased reflectance of concrete roads calls for fewer lighting masts and up to 24% lower energy requirements. This principle also applies to urban areas and car parks,” says Perrie. Explaining the benefits of the light colour of concrete in reducing the heat island effect, Perrie says that on hot summer days, ambient conditions in urban areas

can be up to 2°C to 6°C warmer than the adjacent countr yside, thus making the built-up areas “heat islands”.

Concrete's relatively light colour has several environmental benefits, says Bryan Perrie of The Concrete Institute

Albedo effect These urban heat islands can influence rainfall patterns, with higher rainfall downwind of cities compared to the upwind areas. The reflectance ratio – called the albedo effect – of reflected solar radiation to the amount that falls on the sur face, rates from 0, when no incoming radiation is reflected, to 1, when all incoming radiation is reflected. The lighter the sur face colour, the more solar radiation it will reflect and the less heat it will absorb. The solar reflectance of concrete varies between 0.2 and 0.4, compared with asphalt's much lower reflectance that ranges between 0.05 and 0.2. “Exposed building materials with a high albedo reflect more heat, and lead to cooler cities. The average albedo of normal concrete is about 0.35, with reflectance values as high as 0.7 to 0.8 for white concrete made with white cement. In contrast, dark materials, such as new asphalt, can have an albedo or reflectance capacity as low as 0.05.

“The incorporation of high albedo concrete products in exposed sur faces, such as roads and parking areas, can significantly reduce the heat island effect and lead to cooler urban areas. In Arizona, for example, the summer temperatures of adjacent concrete and asphalt roads were measured: concrete was a staggering 11°C cooler,” Perrie adds. He says using concrete, with its high heat reflectance ability, can lower average summer afternoon temperatures in surrounding buildings by as much as 3°C, cutting airconditioning usage by as much as 18%. “The potential increase in cost during the design and construction phases in providing a green structure will generally be more than offset by the savings from reduced energy usage when concrete structures are used. Life-cycle cost analyses have shown that, because of concrete's durability, the whole-life cost of many projects is lower when concrete is used as the major construction material,” Perrie concludes.

IMIESA July 2016

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Eliminating

a strong foundation for infrastructure success

bottlenecks

W

HILE ACHIEVING A dense, cohesive concrete mix with sufficient paste volume will enable the correct level of workability of the concrete, contractors must also pay attention to avoiding practices that will result in risky segregation during concrete pumping on construction sites. "Where material segregates and the water separates out of the mix – in other words, where water washes out of the paste – there is a strong possibility of blockages occurring in the pipeline,” says Eddie Correia, executive vice-president, Chryso Southern Africa – a leading producer of superplasticisers. These water-reducing agents enable good aggregate coating by dispersing the cement grains, thereby minimising agglomeration of the mix and increasing the plasticity and, therefore, the workability of the concrete.

Superplasticisers from the Chryso Fluid range will assist in creating a favourable water-cement ratio by reducing the amount of water, which also prevents shrinking, cracking and porous concrete. Significantly, the company has developed Fill Free technology, which assists contractors to produce concrete that is cohesive yet still has a moderate viscosity. This modified PCE-technology was developed to have non-thixotropic properties and makes use of the brand’s superplasticisers. “When being pumped, concrete moves in the form of a cylinder and is separated from the pipeline wall by a lubricating layer made up of water, cement and fine aggregate or sand. It is essential that this lubricating film is achieved on all sides of the pipe and that the requisite workability is attained so the concrete can be pushed or transported through this channel,” he says.

I15056

Getting the ratio right

Invaluable products and expertise Fill Free technology facilitates a cohesive concrete paste that is less sticky. This is important as stickiness can hinder cleaning efforts in the pipeline and also increase the resistance of the flow of concrete in the pipeline. A paste that is too sticky will also make it difficult to maintain a constant rate of pumping. Again, this is where the company’s superplasticisers are invaluable in achieving the plasticity and workability needed for the concrete paste to pass easily through reducers and move through bends in the pump and pipeline without causing blockages. Buildings are getting taller, a global trend in response to growing urbanisation. The correct solutions and advice on how to use admixtures from a reputable producer, such as Chryso Southern Africa, have become requisite for successfully tackling these projects.

IMIESA July 2016

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DELEGATE ONLINE REGISTRATION HAS OPENED Visit www.imesa.org.za

26 - 28 OCTOBER 2016 THEME: “Siyaphambili – Engineering the Future’’ The 2016 IMESA Conference will be hosted at the East London International Convention Centre (ELICC)

Register and pay BEFORE 31 July 2016 • Early Bird Registration for IMESA Members – R4900.00 • Early Bird Registration for Non IMESA Members – R5400.00

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Register and pay BEFORE 31 August 2016

Register and pay AFTER 31 August 2016

• Late Registration for IMESA Members – R5100.00 • Late Registration for Non IMESA Members – R5700.00

• Last Minute Registration for IMESA Members – R5650.00 • Last Minute Registration for Non IMESA Members – R6250.00

Special rates have been negotiated with the Hotels listed below for IMESA Delegates. Book NOW and quote the unique booking code found on the IMESA Conference website. FROM R1100

Premier Hotel Regent FROM R1450

Garden Court

FROM R925

Kennaway Hotel FROM R1377

FROM R1000

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Southern Sun Hemingways Blue Lagoon Hotel

IMESA will provide an airport shuttle, transport to and from social functions, as well as a daily conference shuttle to and from the Hotels listed above.

TRANSPORT

ORGANISER THE INSTITUTE OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (IMESA)

t +27 (031) 266 3263 email conference@imesa.org.za


New vibrating system

aims big

A new range of Ultravibe vibrators aims to help customers increase productivity and efficiency.

T

HE NEW TECHNOLOGY from PMSA, a manufacturer of brick, block and paving machines, was unveiled at Totally Concrete 2016, held at Gallagher Convention Centre in May this year. The Ultravibe vibrators can be retrofitted to the company’s range of existing machines, but will also form the basis of a brand-new machine under development. “This will be a large-pallet, 1 400 mm by 1 100 mm, production-board machine incorporating all of our latest advances in its design,” Walter Ebeling, managing director, PMSA, reveals. “We undertook these latest developments in order to allow our customers to be more productive. The best means of achieving this is if your equipment is more reliable.”

Easy care The new vibrators have been designed specifically to run maintenance-free for up to three years. The aim is that customers will not have to service, replace bearings or oil and grease daily – all tasks that impact on productivity and cost-efficiency. In addition, the new vibrators will have the capacity to produce 170 kN of vibration force on PMSA’s flagship RE1400 machine. This will allow for the production of extra-large concrete elements, from 300 mm to 500 mm

TOP LEFT PMSA unveiled its Ultravibe vibrator at Totally Concrete 2016 TOP RIGHT The control panel of the Ultravibe vibration system ABOVE Ultravibe can produce up to 170 kN of vibration force

in height. The new vibrators have also been designed to function as a two- or four-vibrator system, with the latter providing control over both the frequency and force of the vibration produced. “This gives our customers enormous flexibility in their product range, as they can apply a frequency and force setting particular to the raw materials they use in their concrete,” Ebeling points out. Achieving such flexibility meant that PMSA also had to redesign its vibrating table, in addition to the development of the new vibrators. Ultravibe can be retrofitted to PMSA’s range of VB1X, VB4X and RE1400 machines. “There are other improvements in our machine designs that have been incorporated already, and which continue to be incorporated,” Ebeling concludes.

IMIESA July 2016

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CONSTRUCTION VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

Polishing your concrete prep fleet

L

AMBSON’S HIRE operates a fleet of fit-for-purpose concrete preparation equipment that caters to the needs of this specific sector of the market. The new grinding and polishing machine will join this fleet and offers several important features to hirers. The lightweight machine combines high diamond speed with balanced weight, placing it in a class of its own when compared to other machines with a 650 mm width. This, coupled with the variable-speed controller, which facilitates grinding and polishing at the optimal speed, ensures high productivity. It is capable of efficiently flattening or levelling a floor and can also be used to grind a surface with a shallow indentation or dish effect.

Quick and easy work Powered by a reliable 7.5 kW three-phase motor, the Satellite 650 MkII incorporates

68

patented SP drive technology, which drives the diamond discs in the same rotation direction as the main head – directing more power to the disc head and ensuring easier and quicker grinding and polishing. Taking operator comfort into account, the Satellite 650 MkII offers easy axle-height adjustment, thereby reducing operator fatigue. This is accomplished easily, with just one hand. In addition, the machine is equipped with a robust handle-locking mechanism and it can be placed in three different positions for different purposes. The controls on the machine include an overload function, which protects both operator and machine. Disc changeover is quick and simple with the machine’s magnetic plug system

and can be accomplished within a few seconds. The machine can be used with three discs (250 mm) or six discs (175 mm).

Easy to transport and environmentally friendly The machine is fitted with a 50 mm dust collection port facilitating dust-free operation, an important consideration given the increased focus on environmental conditions on sites. It is also equipped with a floating dust shroud for effective dust control. A foldable handle makes it easy to transport and store the machine, while the single lifting point makes lifting a breeze. The Satellite 650 MkII is available directly from Lambson’s Hire’s specialist Concrete Surface Preparation Division.

IMIESA July 2016

A R C H I T E C T U R E • H O U S I N G • C E M E N T • C O N S T R U C T I O N • P R O P E R T Y D E V E LO P M E N T

COMMERCIAL PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT EAST AFRICA BRIEFING

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WATER Water Supply | Water Treatment | Industrial Water Management Minesite Water Management | Water Reuse & Recycling Chemistry and Geochemistry | Numerical Modelling

A lifeline for repair

Water management

A

WELL-MAINTAINED COOLING tower is essential for optimal system performance. Leading rope access specialist Skyriders is demonstrating the most efficient way of achieving this result in a project to repair a 140 m high cooling tower at a petrochemical plant in Secunda, Mpumalanga. The petrochemical plant engaged the services of Aveng GrinakerLTA, a specialist in concrete repairs, to execute the project. Aveng Grinaker LTA, in turn, saw the need to utilise rope access in order to reduce the downtime incurred and increase the overall safety of the project. “We have been assisting Aveng Grinaker-LTA with rope-accessrelated services for a few years,” Mike Zinn, marketing manager, Skyriders, comments. Rope access allowed the team to move freely, while affording a great deal of flexibility on the massive cooling towers, thereby accelerating the project’s progress.

for sustainable business

Scope of works Skyriders’ scope of work on the project comprised installing lifelines, assisting with the installation of access systems, removing loose concrete that posed a risk to maintenance, acting as a standby rescue team, as well as assisting with the maintenance and inspection of the temporary access systems supplied by the other subcontractor, Riggers Steeplejacks. According to Zinn, one of the company’s main focus areas is that of standby rescue in the event of any emergency situation. A 9 m high structural scaffold was installed for such rescue purposes, and also used to familiarise the project team with the site conditions. “Working at height poses many challenges. For this project, we were faced with a total height of 140 m, in addition to the dangers posed by loose concrete, the wet and slippery conditions, plus the shape of the cooling tower, along with ensuring that we adhered to the project time frame,” Zinn elaborates.

Training and on-site technicians The Skyriders team on-site consisted of rope access technicians with temporary suspended platform supervisor's training, who boast solid rope access and concrete skills. The company adheres to strict ISO rope-access standards, in addition to complying with Aveng GrinakerLTA’s own safety requirements, as well as providing additional training for the project teams. The company is not only accredited by the Institute of Work at Heights, but all of its technicians are trained in accordance with its regulations. “Delivering a quality service while adhering to a strict deadline, all against the background of 100% compliance with all safety requirements and standards, is our motto,” Zinn concludes.

IMIESA July 2016

69

WorleyParsons has a strong track record in delivering innovative solutions utilising pipelines, groundwater and membrane technologies and sustainability modelling for cost-effective water solutions. - Over 30 years’ experience - Deep local knowledge - Global expertise - BBBEE Level 2

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AWARDS

T

HE CESA AON Engineering Awards has been dubbed “a feast of engineering talent” and rewards an explosion of engineering plans and projects that provide the economic growth that leads to better lives. Sponsored by one of the leading global risk advisors and insurance brokers, Aon South Africa, the awards are a platform to showcase the important role that infrastructure plays in the sustainable development of our countr y. The awards focus on engineers and the excellence in ser vice they offer their clients in providing buildings, structures and infrastructure that lasts. According to Aon, “CESA members play a pivotal role in South African society and in the greater South African economy. The

70

CESA and Aon to celebrate

engineering excellence progress of this country and its sustainability are touched, on a daily basis, by some facet of engineering. Without this application of the sciences, the vast majority of development and upliftment we need would not happen. The role that engineers play in terms of the well-being of our citizens is immense.” An adjudicator once commented that it was a privilege to be on the judging panel of the awards and be exposed to the creativity, tenacity, skill and sometimes sheer determination of this industry. Engineers solved the cholera

problem related to contaminated water in the 19th century, designed and built intricate highway interchanges in the tightest of spaces, suspended bridges from cables, converted sunlight into electrical power and sometimes indulged in a round or two of snakes and ladders. No challenge seems too big or too complex for this talented group of people who, like magicians, make the impossible possible. This year’s CESA Aon Awards Gala Dinner will be held at Vodacom World in Midrand on 17 August 2016.

IMIESA July 2016

HO W I M P ORTA N T I S G E N DE R E M P O W E R M E N T I N Y O U R O R G A N I S AT I O N ? T E L L S O U T H A F R I C A Y O U R S U C C E S S S T O R Y.

ENTER NOW!

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SPONSORS:

Contact Sheri Morgan

S T R AT E G I C PA R T N E R :

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sheri.morgan@topco.co.za

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086 000 9590


PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATES AECOM siphokuhle.dlamini@aecom.com Afri-Infra Group (Pty) Ltd banie@afri-infra.com AJ Broom Road Products ajbroom@icon.co.za Arup SA rob.lamb@arup.com Aurecon Fani.Xaba@aurecongroup.com Aveng Manufacturing Infraset cgroenewald@infraset.com Bigen Africa Group Holdings otto.scharfetter@bigenafrica.com BMK Consulting brian@bmkconsulting.co.za Bosch Munitech info@boschmunitech.co.za Bosch Stemele bsdbn@boschstemele.co.za Brubin Pumps sales@brubin.co.za BVI Consulting Engineers marketing@bviho.co.za Civilconsult Consulting Engineers mail@civilconsult.co.za Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa secretary@corrosioninstitute.org.za CSIR Built Environment rbapela@csir.co.za Development Bank of SA divb@dbsa.org.za DPI Plastics mgoodchild@dpiplastics.co.za EFG Engineers eric@efgeng.co.za Elster Kent Metering leon.basson@elster.com Engcor Engineers masham@engcorengineers.co.za Fibertex South Africa (Pty) Ltd rcl@fibertex.com GIBB yvanrooyen@gibb.co.za GLS Consulting nicky@gls.co.za Gudunkomo Investments & Consulting info@gudunkomo.co.za Hatch Goba (Pty) Ltd info@hatch.co.za Henwood & Nxumalo Consulting Engineers cc pmboffice@hn.co.za Herrenknecht schiewe.helene@herrenknecht.de Huber Technology cs@hubersa.com Hydro-comp Enterprises dan@edams.co.za I@Consulting louis_icon@mics.co.za ILISO Consulting hans@iliso.com INGEROP mravjee@ingerop.co.za Integrity Environment info@integrityafrica.co.za Jeffares and Green dennyc@jgi.co.za Johannesburg Water rtaljaard@jwater.co.za KABE Consulting Engineers info@kabe.co.za Kago Consulting Engineers kagocon@kago.co.za Kantey & Templer (K&T) Consulting Engineers info@kanteys.co.za Kitso Botlhale Consulting Engineers zimema.jere@gmail.com Knowledge Base info@knowbase.co.za Lektratek Water general@lwt.co.za Lithon Project Consultants (Pty) Ltd info@lithon.com Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates mmakhaotse@mna-sa.co.za Malani Padayachee & Associates (Pty) Ltd admin@mpa.co.za Maragela Consulting Engineers admin@maragelaconsulting.co.za

Marley Pipe Systems info@marleypipesystems.co.za Martin & East gbyron@martin-east.co.za Masithu Consulting & Project Management info@mcpm.co.za Mhiduve adminpotch@mhiduve.co.za Moedi Wa Batho Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd info@wabatho.co.za Mott Macdonald Africa (Pty) Ltd mahomed.soobader@mottmac.com Much Asphalt leon.alberts@muchasphalt.com Nyeleti Consulting ppienaar@nyeleti.co.za Odour Engineering Systems mathewc@oes.co.za PMA Consulting pragasen@pmaconsultingsa.co.za Pumptron info@pumptron.co.za Pragma nicojobe.mabaso@pragmaworld.net francisg@rhdv.com Royal HaskoningDHV SABITA info@sabita.co.za SALGA info@salga.org.za SARF administrator@sarf.org.za.co.za SBS Water Systems desere@sbstanks.co.za Sembcorp Siza Water info-sizawater@sembcorp.com Servotech (Pty) Ltd finance@servotech.co.za Sight Lines sales@sightlines.co.za SiVEST SA garths@sivest.co.za SKYV Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd kamesh@skyv.co.za SMEC capetown@smec.com SNA stolz.j@sna.co.za Sobek Engineering gen@sobek.co.za Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology director@sasst.org.za SRK Consulting jomar@srk.co.za Syntell julia@syntell.co.za Thm Engineers East London thmel@mweb.co.za TPA Consulting roger@tpa.co.za UWP Consulting craign@uwp.co.za Vetasi south-africa@vetasi.com VIP Consulting Engineers esme@vipconsulting.co.za VOMM commerciale@vomm.it VUKA Africa Consulting Engineers info@vukaafrica.co.za Water Institute of Southern Africa wisa@wisa.org.za Water Solutions Southern Africa ecoetzer@wssa.co.za Wilo South Africa marketingsa@wilo.co.za WorleyParsons hans.karemaker@worleyparsons.com WRP ronniem@wrp.co.za WRNA washy@wrnyabeze.com WSP Group Africa dirk.hattingh@mbs-wsp.co.za

I M E S A A F F I L I AT E M E M B E R S

IMESA


INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Standard Bank Top Women Awards 70

IMESA 80th Celebration

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Rocla

APE Pumps

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IMESA Bursary Scheme

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Saint-Gobain Construction Products 22

Aquatan

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IMESA Registration

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SBS Water Systems

16

Interbuild

72

Sizabantu Piping Systems

26

SMEC

61

Structa Group

47

Technicrete

42

The Concrete Institute

64

Tosas

45 28

IBC

Aveng Infraset Bambanani Pipes and Fittings

36

Jan Palm Consulting Engineers

54

Babcock

12

Krohne

62

Barloworld Equipment

41

KSB

52

Clay Brick Association

56

Lekwa Consulting Engineers

DPI Plastics

18

Maccaferri Southern Africa

frastruc

turene.w

INFRA STRUC

ELB Hidromek

48

National Asphalt

IFC

Ultra Control Valves

ELB Sumitomo

60

PMSA

67

Water & Sanitation Services SA

Erwat

14

Rare Group

30

WorleyParsons

69

Hall Longmore

32

Robor

34

Zest WEG Group

51

The official magaz ine e of the Institut pal of Munici Engine ering rn Africa of Southe

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• MAINT

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DELIV SERVIC E

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www.infrastructurene.ws

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

Deputy Economic l Regiona sburg City of Johanne

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT • MAINTENANCE • SERVICE DELIVERY

MEN T

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VOIC

Essential

ewal Urban Ren the future Securing

ive l Imperat Municiparemediation

Asset management

Earth dam walls

A critical municipal function

PIMPing your earth dam

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Atlas future and g d in the n drillin way forwar ream moder to be the in mainst is going runner Copco (incl. techno logy be the front er, Atlas R50.00 “Smar t like to 16 • ss line manag une 20 06 • J Copco would y Bernie Busine 41 No. olume Hedle 78 V 257 19 ISSN 0 techno logy.”

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HOT SEA

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Advertising opportunity

In each issue, IMIESA offers companies a number of opportunities to advertise or promote their brand, projects, services or products. Contact us now to discuss how we can help you to maximise your brand exposure in the municipal engineering and affiliated industries.

For more information on bookings, contact Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223.

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