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Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal • December 2016 / January 2016

2017 Looking Up for Waste Management & Recycling

This issue: Facility Innovations Non-profits & Textile Collection Waste Industry Future - 2030 Industrial Waste Diversion

Publications Mail / Agreement # 40719512

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Contents Features

8 Cover Story: 2017 Looking up for Waste Management & Recycling The sector has never been so busy, or faced this much uncertainty.

10 Facility Innovations 2016 - 2017

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal


Keep an eye on these innovations to increase productivity and cost savings.


13 Non-Profit Textile Diversion

Non-profits create social change thanks to strong municipal partnerships.

16 Waste & Recycling Expo Canada 2017 Off to Niagara Falls

The time is now for big change at Canada’s premier industry show.



18 How Demographics and Technology Explain The Evolving Tonne, Why Blue Box Materials are Changing, and What Technology has to Do About It  illennials, retirees, and hard working families are changing the future of M packaging.

20  RightCycle Diverts Industrial Waste

From gloves, masks, and shoe covers to planters and garden furniture.


Communities 22 Taking Back the Tundra

Large item reclamation is alive and well in Northern communities.

Great Reads 24 Product Stewardship in Action: The Business Case for Lifecycle Thinking

Corporate responsibility explained in Helen Lewis’ new book.

24 Are you Prepared for Global Deflation?

The forces of inflation and deflation are in an eternal tug-of-war.

25 Lightweight, Recycled, Sustainable: the Story of Canada’s Packaging Grades

Departments & Columns 4 From the Editor 5 Op-Ed 26 Technology

27 Organic Matters 29 Policy and Law 30 Around the World

32 Waste Watch 34 Advertiser Index

Next issue: Hauling / Transportation • Fuel and Maintenance • Natural Gas Vehicles



The SW&R team

Jessica Kirby, Editor Solid Waste & Recycling

Lara Perraton, Group Publisher Jessica Kirby, Editor 877.755.2762 •

Marching on into 2017 It is hard to believe a year has passed since we hit the ground running on taking on publication of Solid Waste & Recycling magazine. This isn’t, technically, the anniversary of our first issue, but it does mark the one-year point from the last time the previous publishers’ incarnation of the magazine hit your desks. Like our company owner Joe Perraton always says, “Time marches on ...” and it certainly has—at lightening speed. In the news, the details of Canada’s new pan-Canadian climate deal, which fundamentally changes the way our country produces and consumes energy, are causing commotion as business and industry speculate on the future of Canada’s economy as it breaks into the global clean energy market. Like most things related to the current federal government, the argument over the deal’s validity comes down to cost and whether we are more concerned about the short-term costs and blossoming deficit or the long-term investment into planetary health and a greener global economy. Supporters say the move, which includes carbon pricing, efforts to eliminate coal-fired fuel, reduction of carbon content of motor fuels, support for clean technology, targeted energy efficiency strategies, and investment in renewable energy and electricity infrastructure, puts Canada ahead of the game. The prime minister says Canadians will benefit from an ambitious climate policy, job growth, and leadership in technology development that will

eventually dominate the energy industry worldwide. “Businesses across Canada have said to put a price on pollution,” Environment Minister Catherine McKenna told CTV’s Question Period. “That will make us innovate, it will significantly reduce emissions and it will make us more competitive.” Those opposed say the price tag is too high, carbon taxing is ludacris, and President Elect Trump’s plans to perk up the US’s trade economy make this a bad time to compromise Canada’s competitive advantage. Premiers in Saskatchewan and Manitoba flat out rejected the deal, which requires provinces to enact a carbon price by 2018 or face federal penalty, and conservative environment critic Ed Fast says the Liberals aren’t even being forthright about the total cost of the program, which promises to cost Canadians billions in the interim. For an industry like solid waste and recycling, subject to commodity pricing and a cyclical global economy, it is no secret only the strong and smart survive, and part of that is knowing when to innovate and try something new, and when to hunker down in the tried and true and weather yet another storm. Whether individual provinces choose a cap and trade or carbon tax system, they are finding themselves at this very important crossroads as we speak and the feds are holding the map. Sometimes it pays to take a leap, even if it means treading water for a while until newness feels right again. Continued on page 34

4 » Solid Waste & Recycling

Christina Tranberg, Advertising Sales 877.755.2762 •

contributing writers Mark Borkowski Shane Buckingham Timothy Byrne Rosalind H. Cooper Blake Desaulniers Camille Hegwood Maria Kelleher Shelby Kerbel Helen Lewis Samantha Millette John Mullinder John Nicholson Usman Valiante Paul van der Werf

cover photo Charles Jaffe

Published bi-monthly by Point One Media, Inc. Solid Waste & Recycling P.O. Box 11, Station A Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K4 CANADA t: 877.755.2762 • Solid Waste & Recycling provides strategic information and perspectives on all aspects of Canadian solid waste collection, hauling, processing, and disposal to waste managers, haulers, recycling co-ordinators, landfill and compost facility operators, and other waste industry professionals. While information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources deemed to be reliable, the publisher may not be held liable for omissions or errors. Contents ©2016 by Point One Media Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or duplicated without prior written permission from the publisher. Printed in Canada. Postage paid at Simcoe, ON. Return postage guaranteed. Canada Post Canadian Publications Mail Sales Product Agreement #40719512. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Solid Waste & Recycling Circulation Department P.O. Box 11, Station A Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K4 e: From time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us by email at or by phone at 1.877.755.2762 Solid Waste & Recycling is a registered trademark of Point One Media Inc. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Periodical Fund of the De­part­ment of Canadian Heritage.


Setting a New Standard in the Waste Management Sector

CSA guideline could serve as model for new reporting system in Ontario The waste management sector is undergoing a period of rapid change. New technology is transforming the way businesses and municipalities collect, sort, and recycle materials. Competition among waste haulers and processors is leading to more efficient production systems and practices. And provincial governments across the country are developing policies to move Canada toward a more circular economy.

detailed information to their customers to assist in making more effective decisions on recycling and organics diversion.

But significant challenges persist. Customers requiring waste collection and recycling services are often unable to verify how their materials are being managed while governments continue to struggle with gathering and verifying the data needed to track the sector’s progress. Ontario, in particular, has been ambitious in advancing new recycling policies, including its recently proclaimed waste diversion law, the Resource Recovery and Circular Economy Act. But the province must still overcome its “data collection gap.”

We are now hearing from our members that certain customers in the market for collection and recycling services are specifically looking for businesses that meet the requirements in the CSA guideline. They want greater accountability and transparency, and they know they’ll get that working with a business that has received verification.

To help address this issue, the Ontario Waste Management Association (OWMA) worked with the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) to develop a new guideline in 2015 to improve the collection of data and ensure the sustainable management of waste. Organizations that receive verification under SPE-890: A Guideline for Accountable Management of Endof-Life Materials must adhere to a common set of definitions, report performance rates, and undergo thirdparty data audits to ensure accuracy. Meeting these requirements strengthens the reputation of verified businesses while giving them the ability to provide

OWMA members recognize the value of this rigorous environmental and reporting guideline. To date, Countrywide Recycling and ElectroShred have received their verification, and TRY Recycling and Pnewko Brothers are working toward theirs.

Of course, as some companies lead the way, there will be many businesses that do the bare minimum, or even ignore existing laws and provincial rules. In fact, Ontario’s Auditor General found, in her 2016 report, that many companies are even operating without an Environmental Compliance Approval.

By / Shane Buckingham, OWMA Director of Communications

been transformed into the Resource Productivity and Recovery Authority, and the province’s industry-funding organizations, such as Stewardship Ontario, have been accumulating large stores of data on producers, waste haulers, and processors, but these organizations’ definitions, metrics and data-sets are fragmented. That will need to change now that Ontario’s new waste diversion law is in effect. The government intends to wind up the province’s existing recycling programs and put new regulations in place under the Resource Recovery and Circular Economy Act that will establish individual obligations for producers to collect and recycle e-waste, used tires, household hazardous materials, and Blue Box waste. To ensure each individual producer meets its obligations and service providers’ results are tracked and verified, it will be critical for the government to create a clear, consistent set of standards for reporting and record-keeping that can be used by the Authority to monitor compliance.

To bring everyone up to the same level, the government must continue its work on establishing environmental standards that are properly enforced. Otherwise, companies that have made investments to maintain a high level of environmental protection will be put at a competitive disadvantage with those that either ignore or flout the rules.

The OWMA believes the Guideline for Accountable Management of Endof-Life Materials provides a good starting point. This guideline remains voluntary, but its rigorous tracking and reporting requirements, along with its independent analysis and verification process, could serve as a model for the Authority’s new reporting system.

Providing more effective enforcement in Ontario will require consistent data collection.

The OWMA has been in discussions with the government to highlight how using this approach would create the coherence needed to collect and

For the last 14 years, Waste Diversion Ontario, which has now

Continued on page 34


Transitioning Ontario’s Blue Box to Extended Producer Responsibility By 2014, 4.9 million Ontario households were receiving Blue Box collection of paper products and packaging (PPP) and a further 209,000 households had access to recycling depots. The Blue Box and PPP recycling in general are cherished Ontario institutions.

For the past 14 years, Ontario’s Waste Diversion Act 2002 (WDA) has required producers to support the Blue Box through “shared responsibility”— that is, producers whose products result in PPP must fund 50 per cent of net municipal recycling costs of delivering Blue Box PPP recycling. Consistent with the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR), the recently enacted Resource Recovery and Circular Economy Act will shift the onus for delivering Blue Box recycling from Ontario municipalities to producers. As producers attempt to comply with regulated recycling targets, the commercial relationships between municipalities and service providers (private collectors and material recycling facilities) will now be reformed (and in some cases assumed by producers). This policy shift comes with a caution. As stated in the most recent mandate letter issued by the Premier of Ontario to the Honourable Glen Murray, Minister of Environment and Climate Change, “the transition of the Blue Box program and the revised role of municipalities will not negatively impact Ontarians’ experience with and access to Blue Box services.” As such, the success of EPR for PPP in Ontario will require achieving four key objectives: • Seamless transition to full EPR: Ensure uninterrupted collection services for Ontario residents; 6 » Solid Waste & Recycling

• Minimize marketplace disruption: Avoid disruption of existing municipal contracts and ensure a continued open and competitive market; • Minimize disruption to management of municipal and private sector capital assets: Provide a pathway to transition that allows reasonable management of assets over a defined horizon; • Afford producers with selfdeterminacy consistent with their increased responsibility and consistent with the provincial interests as described in the Resource Recovery and Circular Economy Act 2016. In 2015, more than 90 per cent of the 852,000 tonnes of residential Blue Box waste recovered was collected and/or processed by private companies. These private companies are retained through dozens upon dozens of contracts with Ontario local governments. In addition to contracts there is a significant amount of capital deployed in Ontario dedicated to processing PPP. Consider that of the 56 processing facilities that recycled collected blue box PPP in 2015, 29 were owned and operated by private companies, 16 were owned by local governments and operated by private companies, and 11 were owned and operated by local government staff. Municipalities often define the term of their contracts with private companies to allow for capital depreciation. For example, collection contracts often have seven-year terms because collection vehicles are generally amortized over seven years. Where processing contracts are separate from collection contracts, processing contracts can have a longer term (in some cases 10 years) to reflect the longer amortization periods for processing equipment.

By / Usman Valiante These existing contracts cannot simply be assumed by producers because they are not sufficient to meet the obligations that will undoubtedly be set forth for producers under a PPP regulation under the RRCEA. Such a regulation will likely introduce a much wider standard list of PPP to be accepted in blue box collection systems. As a result producers will likely require modifications to how certain materials are collected and recycled and will require measures to reduce contamination of collected PPP. Introducing these new requirements is not be feasible under existing contracts without significant contractual amendments (and associated cost adjustments) irrespective of whether the contracts are assigned to producers or whether producers’ new requirements are layered over municipal administration of the contracts. Accordingly, the most efficient means to transition to EPR is for producers to assume responsibility to deliver PPP collection (either through contracts with municipalities or directly with private companies) and recycling as existing municipal contracts expire. In the interim, producers would continue to fund municipalities whose contracts have not yet expired based on shared responsibility. Having producers assume full responsibility as existing contracts expire is a practical, predictable, stepwise approach to transitioning from shared to full producer responsibility that: • Allows contracts between municipalities and private companies to continue without disruption, financial penalties, or risk of litigation until their natural expiry; Continued on page 34

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2017 Looking Up

for Waste Management and Recycling New Programs and Technology to Make a Mark by / Blake Desaulniers Artist: Charles Jaffe


futurist Ray Kurzweil’s world, people underestimate the rate at which society changes. We tend to think of change as moving at a constant rate, Kurzweil observes, but in reality change looks more like a series of “S” curves—the rate of change starting slowly at first, and accelerating until ideas become broadly adopted then slowing as the new ideas become entrenched. It’s useful to keep that in mind when looking forward, as we do each year in January. What changes will 2017 bring for waste management and recycling? How will businesses and everyday life be affected? We asked the experts. Peter Hargreave, director of policy with the Ontario Waste Management Association, says in 14 years he cannot remember the sector so busy, and he expects that to continue this year, driven by legislative and regulatory initiatives. “The major changes will likely come from federal and provincial governments. Jurisdictions will be looking at ways to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions,” Hargreave says. He points to BC’s leadership in carbon tax and Ontario’s cap and trade system as leading examples. “From a waste management perspective there is a direct impact in reduction of energy and fuel use. But the indirect impact of the waste management sector is one of the best kept secrets in driving down emissions,” he says. That’s mainly because recycling and reusing reduces the need for new products. Hargreave says that new, waste diversion legislation in Ontario will be the biggest leg in GHG reduction efforts. 8 » Solid Waste & Recycling

“We’re developing policies that drive a circular economy, and a low carbon economy. Those policies will create opportunities in collection, processing, and marketing,” he says. OWMA is interested in moving those policies forward through innovation. Hargreave also sees a “major push” by government to greater accountability and transparency, and higher standards in reporting requirements. He notes that private sector players show a greater interest than in past in talking about green as part of their profiles. Indeed, at the recent Globe 2016 Conference on Business and the Environment held in Vancouver, a number of high profile investment firms participated in a forum that dealt with ESG factors (environmental, social, and corporate governance) in long-term profitability and sustainability in relation to institutional investment decisions. The billions in funds represented at the table agreed that ESG factors now weigh more heavily within screening systems. “How companies manage resources and waste involves huge value when it comes to reincorporating those resources into their production streams,” Hargreave says. Another key factor in the market going forward, commodity pricing, appears to be improving. Although OWMA doesn’t officially track pricing, anecdotal reports indicate firmer prices for recycled metals and plastics. World copper price, not a bad leading indicator, has recovered from long term lows of $2.00/lb. to current levels of $2.60/lb.—most of that gain coming in the past quarter. No clear uptrend has shown in scrap plastic pricing as yet, with prices flat year over year.

COVER STORY Another major factor, crude oil prices, surged in December after OPEC announced a production cut of 1.2 million barrels per day after two years of producing at full capacity. If production cuts hold then further increases in crude could have an impact on plastic pricing. Hargreave and others see interest in new waste management programs from municipalities spiking up. “We’re seeing more interest in newer technologies and a renewed interest in anaerobic digesters,” he says. Operating efficiencies will also continue to be critical at the municipal level. Some of those efficiencies could come through innovation, according to Will Burrows at Coastal Waste Management Association. “The City of Surrey is looking at processing organics using anaerobic technology to produce fuels to run their fleet,” he says. He also points to the use of natural gas and to the potential introduction of electric power, although battery technology may not be sufficiently advanced at this time. He also notes that a continued focus on behavioural economics will drive more efforts to evolve consumer behaviour. “It’s a constant battle to educate consumers about what can and can’t be recycled. Right now, food waste is a big issue for us,” Burrows says. “We also have capacity issues when it comes to organics,” he says. Educating people, he says, can be a big part of the solution. “Limiting food waste has a lot to do with showing people how to buy more efficiently,” Burrows says. Food waste is also a big issue for the Prairies. “I think it is cool that instead of a recycling organization, when the Saskatchewan Waste Reduction Council formed 25 years ago, they chose ‘Reduction’ instead of ‘recycling’ for heir name—and it is finally getting attention,” says Sheri Praski, executive director of SWANA Northern Lights.

While 2017 looks to be a busy year for waste management and recycling, the sector still faces massive challenges. “We have a challenge in being a small population over a large land mass. But, regionally, we are among the leaders when it comes to certifying people for landfill operations, and Alberta and Manitoba are winning international awards against the likes of Florida and California,” Praski says. Saskatchewan, however, does not currently require certification for landfill operators. That being the case, Saskatchewan has realized that the cost of operating 500 landfills is prohibitive, and she expects to see an ongoing movement to rationalize efforts among regional and private interests. While 2017 looks to be a busy year for waste management and recycling, supported by growing consumer and corporate awareness, and by improving economics, the sector still faces massive challenges. “I think our biggest challenge is uncertainty,” says OWMA’s Peter Hargreave. The pace of change is tremendous. It’s difficult to plan. There are lots of opportunities, but some may come with unintended consequences,” he says. Hargeave, it appears, has been reading Ray Kurzweil. ●●

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Raising awareness through new communications channels is also important in Ontario, where diverse ethnic and cultural groups don’t necessarily respond to established messaging. Ontario is now moving to reach those groups through community and church associations. Across the country, Blue Box and Green Bin programs look to be of growing importance. Both associations in Ontario and BC cite a need for expanded funding to accelerate programs. Saskatchewan now appears prepared to consolidate their landfill program. Sheri Praski points out that the province has 500 (unofficially 700) of Canada’s 2,200 landfills. With a population of only 1.25 million people, the province is clearly an outlier.

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By / Jessica Kirby


the wake of a downturn, 2016 was a year of remarkable facility innovations aimed at improving cost savings, productivity, and recovery rates. Check out the following innovations to keep an eye on in the coming year as the need for advancements continues and suppliers meet demand for cutting edge technologies. Company: Tricentris Supplier: Machinex Innovation: Replacing rubber star discs screens with ballistic separators Tricentris recently replaced its rubber star discs screen separators for fiber and container separation with three Machinex ballistic separators in three MRFs in Quebec: Lachute (2015), Terrebonne (2015), and Gatineau (2016). In total, nine rubber start screens 10 » Solid Waste & Recycling

were replaced with the equivalent number of ballistic separators. Before going forward with this ambitious project, Tricentris calculated its return on investment based on the fact that the ballistic separators would require less maintenance and cleaning and are less prone to jams, thus getting more uptime. Tricentris confirms that uptime is indeed much better but the biggest portion of return on investment was something unexpected. The facilities saw a considerable increase of the fiber product quality, upgrading one quality level higher without additional staff due to the reduction of dense plastics found in the fiber product. Sold HDPE, PET, mixed plastics, and aluminum can volumes all

increased from not being lost in fiber or rejects—a double advantage where landfill costs went down and revenue from containers went up. “This is by far our best investment in terms of payback, especially in such a costly major retrofit type of project,” says Frédéric Potvin, general manager at Tricentris. Company: EBI Environnement Inc. Supplier: Machinex Innovation: Complete MRF upgrade for the Evolving Tonne Already equipped with the proper OCC sorting equipment, EBI revamped the entire screening and sorting process to address ttrends in consumer’s habits towards increased use of single serve containers and disposable items. The

FACILITY INNOVATION light-weighting of these items calls for the addition of Machinex’s scalping screen, which is equipped with high abrasive resistant metal discs to take broken glass, along with a high portion of the single serve stream out early and send to the dedicated finishing screen. The scalping screen (5” minus screen) is taking the single serve and high value containers away from contaminating the newspaper stream while being directed quicker to the containers sorting equipment to insure higher recovery rate and increased profits. To increase product quality, increase recovery, and improve quality of working conditions to the sorters, Machinex installed one high capacity MACH Ballistic to replace both traditional ONP (old newspaper) screens, with the right engineering in strokes, paddles, and system configurations.

Photo courtesy of Machinex

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“The low capacity myth days of ballistic are over,” said David Marcouiller, executive vice-president sales engineering at Machinex. The revolutionary Mach Ballistic, by itself, handles at this facility in Joliette, and the other paper grades of 18 TPH inbound residential single stream.” EBI valued that and also acquired three MACH Hyspec® optical sorting machines. The first unit was implemented to have the flexibility to adapt to evolving tonnes and changing markets. The optical unit cleaning the fiber stream has the ability to see and recognize the box board of any colour separately from the corrugated cardboard grade and sort them together or separately as the operator is so choosing. Two additional MACH Hyspec® also dual eject, assisted by an electro magnet and eddy-current are sorting all the commodities on the containers line leaving only quality control to the workers instead of labour intensive material sorting. ●●

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FACILITY INNOVATIONS: DUST CONTROL O Caption here if we need one

The atomizer is mounted on a towable roadworthy trailer fitted with a 500-gallon (1893 L) water tank. Photo courtesy of Dust Control Technology.

ne of the largest beet sugar processors in the United States is using innovative atomized mist technology to control odors at the largest of its four Michigan plants, helping the facility minimize any objectionable airborne smells and maintain a high level of environmental responsibility. The odor management system at Michigan Sugar’s Bay City facility creates an engineered fog comprised of millions of tiny droplets as small as 15 microns in diameter (approximately twice the size of a human red blood cell), which travel with odor molecules on air currents. The microscopic droplets are an effective delivery system for a powerful family of deodorizing chemicals that actually attack noxious smells on a molecular level. The OdorBoss® equipment has proven successful at managing odor vapor even during the peak production season, when approximately 8,700 tons of sugar beets are processed each day -- typically totaling 1.5 million tons per year -- yielding more than half a billion tons of sugar annually.

Company officials wanted to enhance their odor management capabilities in a further effort to prevent any objectionable smells from leaving the property. During their search, they 12 » Solid Waste & Recycling

contacted Dust Control Technology®, supplier of the OdorBoss® brand of odor control equipment, and also visited a scrap yard where the equipment was being used to control odor in a large outdoor operation. Impressed by the effectiveness of the method and the company’s deodorizer that was being applied, they decided to rent a model OB-60G for a month when the ponds were being emptied. The OB-60G is designed to run either a pre-mixed solution or use an injection system that precisely meters in odor management additives for maximum effectiveness. Suppression is delivered by a special open-ended barrel design containing a powerful fan on one end and DCT’s Odor X Atomizer nozzle on the other. The device is mounted on a towable roadworthy trailer that is also fitted with a 500-gallon (1893 L) water tank. One of the key benefits for Michigan Sugar is the versatility of the OB-60G, which can be quickly repositioned on its trailer to accommodate changing work locations or shifting wind patterns. That easy mobility is one of the features setting it apart from other types of misting systems. Engineered to be moved and adjusted with changing

conditions by a standard pickup truck or small skid steer, the low-maintenance unit runs for up to 16 hours on a single tank under normal operating conditions. The design can also be set for specific oscillation arcs and aimed precisely to intercept odor vapor where the concentration is highest.

The water / treatment agent mixture is pumped from the tank by an integrated 10 HP air compressor through a single nozzle, which atomizes the pressurized liquid. The cone of fog is propelled by a 25 horsepower electric fan generating 30,000 cubic feet per minute (152.4 CMS), and the unit features a standard 359° built-in electric oscillator. In addition to its side-to-side oscillation, there is also a vertical angle adjustment from 0-50º for expanded reach and precise aiming. A touch screen panel housed in a protective NEMA 3R cabinet attached on the side of the OdorBoss controls the device’s features. Dust Control Technology is a global leader in dust and odor control solutions for wastewater processing, demolition, slag handling, material recycling and other applications. The equipment can be purchased outright or rented from an extensive fleet. ●●


Non-profit Textile Diversion By / Jessica Kirby


he whole country is talking about textile diversion. Leveraging the City of Markham’s successful program in this area (among others) the discussion is reaching a growing number of stakeholders, placing importance on the roles each has to play in diverting this enormous contributor to the waste stream.

Photo courtesy of Canadian Diabetes Association.

Non-profit associations have a vital role to play in diverting textiles and other household items from the waste stream through strategic corporate partnerships and other initiatives. As programs find greater success across Canada, a key component is municipal partnerships that increase reach and community participation while helping achieve diversion goals and environmental objectives. Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) is a key player in the textile diversion market, providing pick-up of discarded textiles and household items and delivering them to resale and recycle streams through its partnership with Value Village Thrift Stores. CDA collects items from drop-off bins, scheduled door-to-door collection, and

community partnerships and is paid by Value Village, which has a sustainability department and sophisticated recycling services. Besides items sold in its stores, specific licenced partners specialize and reprocess certain items. The majority of textiles are not made from organic materials and there is a long list of challenges in how to recycle them and really separate the fabrics and materials,” said Simon Langer, manager, government and strategic partnerships, national diabetes trust, CDA. “There are a number of conferences on the subject and interesting research into this happening overseas and in other places. In the Canadian context, we still need, from the government perspective, to keep an eye on building the infrastructure to recycle in a more meaningful way.” » December 2016 / January 2017 » 13


Bylaws in place to restrict bin placement on private and municipal property have been enacted to combat charity “pretenders” that use certain terminology to misrepresent their causes and identity.

Photos courtesy of Salvation Army Thrift Store.

CDA reaches communities with direct, impactful messaging about the importance of textile recycling and the diabetes epidemic—close to 11 million Canadians live with diabetes or prediabetes, amounting to a third of the population. Eighty-five per cent of textiles – 500,000 tonnes per year in Ontario alone – end up in the landfill. These numbers are meaningful to most Canadians and are hard to ignore. In Canada, CDA has 28 operations in 2,500 communities. Staff and volunteers make calls to millions of households informing people of its services and scheduling pick-ups. “We visit 1.7 million homes a year and have 1.8 million visits a year to our website,” he said. “We have over 100 trucks in circulation and are very proud of the fact we have over 3,500 donation bins across the country.” Collection bins have been the saviour and the bane of organizations like CDA, on the one hand providing convenient, consistent, and branded collection for communities, while on the other, losing favour when clandestine collection bins are left without maintenance. CDA bins are strategically located near schools, with high population areas

14 » Solid Waste & Recycling

and good opportunities to engage the community and talk about fast fashion. “Having opportunities to engage and teach the younger generation about both issues – fast fashion and diabetes – is awesome,” said Langer. “Clothing drives also play into that.” CDA is always looking to collaborate with municipalities directly because doing so provides opportunities to achieve the greatest possible social and environmental benefit, said Langer. “Doing it alone means 85 per cent of textiles are still going to landfill, but with municipal partnerships this can be overcome.” Specialized municipal program structures fit custom diversion programs and meet specific needs. Features include service agreements, insurance coverage, and partnership in creating the communication piece to teach residents about textile diversion, and report back the impact of diversion for the organization and the municipality. The City of Markham is proud of its collaboration with CDA to develop a municipally sponsored textile diversion program in multi-residential sites. Over 120 buildings will have bins placed, and combined with resident education, is an extremely successful program.

“The support of the municipality and residents has been great and we are in conversations with other municipalities as well,” said Langer. By its own efforts, CDA has partnered with various property management firms and subsequently placed bins in over 500 condo and apartment buildings across Canada. Bylaws in place to restrict bin placement on private and municipal property have been enacted to combat charity “pretenders” that use certain terminology to misrepresent their causes and identity. “These companies don’t have the service capability or infrastructure to service these bins so they become dumping grounds, communities don’t look pretty, and residents complain,” said Langer. “Unfortunately because there are misrepresented companies out there, the only way to deal with it is to speak collaboratively with municipalities because in the context of CDA, we are proud of our 3,500 bins we service daily.” Textile recycling can save millions in landfill and transportation costs, and diversion programs also create jobs and improve the lives of people living with diabetes.


“Textiles are no different than other waste streams, meaning it comes down to convenience and accessibility,” he said, pointing to research that says most people want more information about where to recycle textiles and would use a conveniently located service. “What all charities combined take in only accounts for 15 per cent of textile collection across the country,” he said. “How else will we make meaningful impact unless municipalities partner with us?” In terms of community, the key is changing behaviour. CDA works with municipalities to help get the message across to educate people see a pair of jeans as less recyclable than a pop can. “Work with them in making sure the public understands textiles, what is appropriate to recycle, and where drop boxes are location,” said Langer. “For those more technology focused, we have a clothesline app that shows location and ease of convenience. The Salvation Army Thrift Store, which first established stores in 1908, diverts millions of pounds of used items annually (68.8 million pounds in 201516), reselling 99 per cent of them and using the profit to fund social service programs in communities. Through Donor Welcome Centres (DWC) at each of its 108 stores across Canada, Salvation Army Thrift Store provides consistent, recognizable service seven days a week. Its strategic municipal partnerships include customized programs that fit specific municipal needs, said Tonny Colyn, Salvation Army Thrift Store national product acquisition manager. “In the Region of Peel we partnered

to open four DWCs and a Thrift Store in their community recycling centres (CRC) to assist them in reaching their waste diversion goals,” said Colyn. “For the City of Markam, we are working alongside them to reduce their textile waste production through volume sensor donation bins. With this ‘smart’ technology we can more effectively monitor the volume in each bin, notify us when they are close to being full, and give us clear trends for each area.” In the Region of Halton, a Salvation Army Thrift Store Trailer is housed and maintained at the Halton Waste Management Site in Milton for persons to drop off gently used items. Like similar organizations, Salvation Army Thrift Stores rely exclusively on

donations and continuously encourage communities to donate. “We understand that there are numerous organizations asking for donations and that is why through our stores, DWCs, donation drives and bins we have provided a well maintained, convenient, and reputable service for communities,” said Colyn. “There are always people in need and it will always be critical moving forward to assist them in any feasible way possible through supporting Salvation Army programs and services. This includes emergency relief, practical assistance for children and families that often tend to the basic necessities of life, providing shelter for homeless people, and rehabilitation.” ●●


© Can Stock Photo / kadmy

If municipalities are after diversion, said Langer, it is important to realize creating bylaws to restrict bin placement simply encourages textiles in the garbage.

• Every consumer in Canada produces 66-88 lb of textile waste per person per capita, per year. • 36 million Canadians buying 60 new items and seven pairs of shoes each year, which amounts to 2.2 billion garments and 252 million shoes going to landfill each year. • Textiles make up 5 to 11 per cent of garbage in landfills. • A city of $50,000 pays for handling and disposal of 3,000 tonnes of textiles each year. » December 2016 / January 2017 » 15


Waste & Recycling Expo Canada 2017 Off to Niagara Falls Waste & Recycling Expo Canada and the Municipal Equipment Expo Canada are changing the game in 2017, alternating yearly locations between downtown Toronto and Niagara Falls, Ontario. Words and photos by / Jessica Kirby


aste & Recycling Expo Canada 2016 saw an overwhelming success at the International Centre in Toronto, with just over 200 exhibitors from Canada, the US, Netherlands, New Orleans, Austria, Northern Ireland, and Belgium. There were also 2429 industry professionals in attendance. Dennis Smith, president and CEO of Messe Frankfurt USA, said the international tradeshow host is happy to continue its tradition of focusing its energy on a single Canadian show, with several avenues of development opportunity moving forward. “We are celebrating the 19th edition of the show in Canada and throughout the years in acquiring the event we have had experiences in Toronto,Vancouver, and Montreal,” he said. “Moving into 2017, we have decided – after discussing it with

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customers, visitors, the industry, and other suppliers – we should try to identify another destination, and a suggestion identified was the Canadian side of Niagara Falls, where we will organize a show in 2017.” Niagara Falls is an inviting, strategically located city, marketing aggressively to attract tradeshow, conference, and special interest events. “We believe the industry is so close knit we want, every other year, it to be in an environment where it is on a neutral playing field, and where people can come from around the country and the northern US,” said Smith. “It is a neutral location a destination city, with entertainment and casinos—it has all the appeal of similar destinations, but on a more intimate scale.” The 2017 show will include the same robust offering of targeted, high-calibre exhibitors, along with a new section

FEATURE “We are not looking at the industry as “garbage” any more ... It is like a commodity, and becomes about what people can reuse and repurpose.”

on maintenance, where chiefs of maintenance can learn how to repair, maintain, and extend the service life of fleets and equipment. The show also entertains has a close relationship with Ontario Waste Management Association (OWMA), which is in its seventh year of producing the concurrent Canadian Waste to Resource Conference. The two groups enjoy a long-term agreement to cross-promote each event. Show director Arnie Gess has worked with Messe Frankfurt for 13 years, organizing the show and acting as the larger company’s industry liaison with exhibitors and other attendees. He said Waste & Recycling Expo Canada is a natural fit with the environmental technologies group of shows Messe Frankfurt produces globally, including EcoExpo Asia and Water Expo in China. “We are not looking at the industry as “garbage” any more,” he said. “It is like a commodity, and becomes about what people can reuse and repurpose.” In 2018, the show will return to Toronto, moving away from the airport location to the Enercare Centre downtown. “We love this city, and have received great service at this location,” said Smith. “However, downtown is more desirable for this type of event.” Pre-registration numbers are up 25 per cent, indicating a strong return customer base, and Messe Frankfurt it working on sector-specific invitations and programs to entice exhibitors. “People believe in these events,” said Smith, “and they come to Toronto with high expectations—the goal is to exceed them. “This event crosses over into solid waste, technology, recycling, industrial, and municipal management—there are a lot of areas this show touches and it is closely related to the economic conditions of local markets,” he said. “Many municipalities in Ontario and other provinces had their budgets slashed in the downturn, causing worries for heavy duty vehicle distribution, and there has been a lot of

consolidation, too,” he said. “We had some people saying they were sitting out for a couple of years to get their finances back in order, but we are starting to see people coming back. In growing its offering, the show has placed additional focus on international cross-promotion and continually promotes the show abroad to help be a part of bringing direct investment into Canada. In aiming for a balanced platform, show managers are reaching out to different and specific visitor profiles, ensuring a robust offering for buyers. “This is something we are trying to look at, re-evaluate, and use experience from other conferences,” said Smith. “We want the best products possible at the show, and to make sure we get great brands and companies. We are happy we have a lot of support from heavy equipment and trucks and transport manufacturers, and the equipment that goes with that.” With municipalities on the look out for technologies and solutions that help structure their approach to solid waste removal or facilities, this is another area of focus for Waste & Recycling Expo Canada. “For every city in Canada, for every city in northeast US, the focus on solid waste and removal is only becoming greater because as pollution grows, we have to take care of cities and keep them clean and healthy,” said Smith. Messe Frankfurt USA is located in Atlanta, Georgia, and currently employs just over 40 personnel organizing nine events in the US, Canada, and Mexico. It is celebrating 25 years as a subsidiary of Messe Frankfurt, which is based in Frankfurt in the state of Hessen in Germany. For more information about Waste & Recycling Expo Canada please visit ●● » December 2016 / January 2017 » 17

How Demographics and Technology Explain the Evolving Tonne, Why Blue Box Materials are Changing, and What Technology has to Do About It By / Maria Kelleher and Samantha Millette


lue Box materials are changing, and have been since 2008 or earlier—on that we all agree. We even have a name for what is going on: The Evolving Tonne. This term refers to the fact that the Blue Box mix has less paper and more plastic than it used to and this changing mix is causing havoc for collection and processing systems, and well as for markets where it is increasingly hard to meet market specifications.

The reasons for The Evolving Tonne? A combination of: • Demographics • The Internet/smart/handheld devices • Our changing lifestyles and demand for convenience • Millennials, which combine all three. First, let’s recap on what is happening to Canadian demographics, and how these influence what is in the Blue Box: Canadians are getting older, living longer, and more are living alone. Over 65s currently account for 11 per cent of the Canadian population and this is expected to double over the next 20 years as Baby Boomers (those born 1945 to 1963) get older. An older

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© Can Stock Photo / mflippo


person living alone wants convenient packaging, re-sealable packaging, and products in small portion packaging. This leads to higher volumes of smaller packaging in MRFs. Re-sealable packaging is typically in standup pouches (SUPs), which are not recyclable. And smaller packages are a nuisance in MRFs. One MRF operator told me he used to get 20,000 rejects an hour. Now he gets 120,000. This means a lot more material he receives ends up in residue rather than as valuable recyclables sent into the market. Canadian households are smaller for a host of reasons—fewer children, first marriage later, divorce, voluntarily single, more Canadians are living alone or with one other person, 61 per cent of Canadian households are one or twoperson households. This means people

RECYCLING don’t spend time cooking big family meals (no one there to eat with), so Canadians eat a lot more take-out food and prepared meals than they used to. Two-worker families. Two-worker families mean no one has time to shop and cook, again leading to an increased demand for take-out food and preprepared meals, all of which come in extensive packaging. Millennials. Millennials are the demographic born between 1980 and 2000, so are 16 to 36 now. We all know lots of them. In fact, we have 9.5 million millennials in Canada alone. Collectively, Millennials are the largest global demographic, and they get a lot of attention from marketers. Millennials love convenience, love their smart devices, and are digital natives. They feel a personal connection to their preferred brands—“what does my brand say about me?” Millennials live with (sleep with) their smart devices and get their news online, but not from newsprint newspapers. They are snackers (average four snacks per day) and like individualized, individually packaged snacks. They don’t cook. They like mostly good quality take-out food. Predictions are that over time 10 to 30 per cent of meals will be hand-delivered rather than cooked at home. They purchase a lot online (which leads to more packaging). They live with their parents but seek high quality reliable products that speak to their goals for social economic status.

We are in the midst of the most fundamental technology change of our time—the Internet.

The Internet (has changed everything). We are in the midst of the most fundamental technology change of our time—the Internet, which has effectively changed everything. We can order goods online. They are delivered to our home in cardboard boxes. We can read news online and not buy a paper newspaper. We can order food online and it will be delivered to our home… yes, again, in lots of packaging. The growth in pouches. The standup pouch has been a very successful package that has really taken off in the last few years. It has great barrier properties, is re-sealable, and can display beautiful graphics. It is lighter for transportation and takes up less space than traditional packaging for some products. The growth rate for this package is anticipated to be 4 to 5 per cent per year. The problem is, it is not yet recyclable as it is a multilayer package that combines different materials. How the Blue Box mix is changing When you put all this together – technology change, demographics, lifestyle trends and a demand for convenience – it leads to a world where newsprint newspapers are in decline, although online versions of newspapers survive, convenient single serve or re-

sealable packaging use is increasing rapidly, and there is a significant increase in packaging from Internet shopping deliveries. This combination presents significant challenges for MRF operators. How MRF Operators Adapt to Evolving Tonne MRF operators have been watching as printed paper declines and multilayer packaging increases over the last seven or eight years. As each new trend emerges, MRF processing equipment evolves to address the challenge— more optical sorters, screens, and other technologies to separate one material from another and clean up material mixes for market, but there is a lag of a few years between the time material mix changes are noticed and equipment design catches up. All we know for sure is that the Blue Box mix is changing constantly, and will continue to change, and we need to learn to adapt rapidly to these on-going changes. ●● Maria Kelleher is principal of Kelleher Environmental, a consulting company based in Toronto Canada. She can be reached at maria@ Samantha Millette is principal of SAMI Environmental based in Timmins, Ontario.

Editor’s Pick A group of children in Cateura, Paraguay are making music – and headlines – with their inspirational story of making beauty from trash.

goods. Youth are often at risk of drug and gang involvement, so orchestra director Szaran and music teacher Favio set up a music program for the kids of Cateura.

The town is located more or less on op of a landfill, and garbage collectors make a hearty living browsing the trash for sellable

Having more children than instruments meant innovation was on its way and the group – appropriately named the The Recycled

Orchestra – began fabricating fully functioning and lovely instruments out of items found in the trash. Learn more about this amazing story at or www. » December 2016 / January 2017 » 19


RightCycle Diverts Industrial Waste Innovative recycling program helps two midwestern universities turn used gloves into eco-responsible durable goods

By / Camille Hegwood Photos courtesy of RightCycle


he Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC) at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and Purdue University have diverted almost six tons of waste from landfills through an innovative recycling program that turns used lab gloves and garments into shelving, flowerpots, and lawn and garden furniture. Both institutions were looking for ways to reduce their solid waste streams and enhance their sustainability efforts. They found it in a program called RightCycle by Kimberly-Clark Professional, the first large-scale recycling program for nonhazardous lab and industrial waste. Since its inception in 2011, RightCycle has diverted more than 350 metric tons of waste from landfills. In its first year, it diverted two tons of waste. The number of customers participating in the program has significantly increased, from just a handful at the start to almost 200 as of July 2016. Kimberly-Clark Professional is continuing to expand the program, bringing it to Western Europe and exploring expansion into other regions.

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“We pioneered this program because we recognized that the sustainability goals of our university and pharmaceutical customers included reducing landfill waste, and single-use gloves accounted for a large percentage of that waste,” said Randy Kates, director of the Kimberly-Clark Professional Global Scientific Business. “We needed to find a recycling solution that helped them achieve their goals and enabled their people to be positively engaged in the process.”

Photo courtesy of University of Illinois.

RECYCLING “We conducted a waste audit to see how we could go to zero waste in our own building and realized that gloves were about 10 per cent of our total waste by weight.” RightCycle removes gloves, masks, garments, shoe covers, and other apparel accessories from the waste stream and turns them into plastic pellets. These are then used to create ecoresponsible consumer products and durable goods, such as lawn furniture, flowerpots and planters, shelving, totes, and storage bins. Illinois Success Story The Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC) is a division of the Prairie Research Institute at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Its mission is to drive statewide economic growth through sustainability. To fulfill that mission, ISTC conducts scientific research and, in the process, uses a lot of gloves. “We conducted a waste audit to see how we could go to zero waste in our own building and realized that gloves were about 10 per cent of our total waste by weight,” said Shantanu Pai, ISTC assistant sustainability researcher. “We were already effectively recycling other items—glass, aluminum, paper, and cardboard.” With RightCycle, ISTC was able to reach 89 per cent compliance for gloves in its labs—even higher than the rate for paper and cardboard recycling. It then decided to take the program a step further, piloting it in the university’s main dining hall and achieving an estimated diversion rate of 90 per cent. It is in the process of expanding the effort to all dining facilities and campus labs. In fact, the university has purchased a storage container to house the gloves, so that shipments can be made just once a year. Since implementing the RightCycle program in 2013, the Center and the University have diverted 4,945 pounds, or approximately 320,480 gloves, from landfills. “RightCycle has had a huge impact on our activities and our sustainability metrics,” said Kevin O’Brien, Ph.D., director of the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center. “If you ever used gloves as part of your laboratory work, you quickly appreciate the value this program brings from a sustainability perspective.” Purdue University Across its campus in the course of a year, Purdue University uses approximately 360,000 disposable gloves. That’s a lot of trash – 3.5 tons to be exact – all of which would normally wind up in a landfill.

The university, based in West Lafayette, Ind., has won numerous awards for sustainability. Its efforts extend to many different areas—recycling, planning management, landscaping, and green construction. With a diversion rate goal of 85 per cent, the university is always seeking new and different ways to reduce its solid waste stream. In 2014, Purdue University added glove recycling to its list of sustainability accomplishments, when it adopted the RightCycle program. Since November 2014, the chemistry department at Purdue University has diverted 6,862 pounds of lab gloves from landfills, or approximately 444,718 gloves. Michael Gulich, director of campus master planning and sustainability, is looking to expand the program to other campus labs as well as food preparation areas. “Once you address cans, bottles, paper, and cardboard recycling, you get into smaller niche streams,” he said. “We have some addressed very well, such as electronics waste and landscape debris. Previously, gloves didn’t have a solution. Anything that increases our diversion rate is good.” To learn more about the RightCycle program, visit www. ●● Camille Hegwood is channel marketing manager for the Kimberly-Clark Professional Scientific business. For more information, visit www.kimtech. com/rightcycle. » December 2016 / January 2017 » 21


Taking Back

the Tundra

by / Shelby Kerbel Photos courtesy of Scout Environmental


here are significant challenges to recycling bulky end-oflife products, such as vehicles and appliances, in Canada’s North. To address these challenges, Scout Environmental has designed and developed the Tundra Take-Back program, which focuses on the depollution and recycling of end-of-life products and the management of the harmful pollutants these products contain. Building on the success of projects in 2014 and 2015, Scout Environmental delivered the Tundra Take-Back program in five communities this past summer. These projects, located in the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, the Nunavik region of Quebec, and on the coast of British Columbia, focused on the sustainable management of a significant amount of endof-life vehicles (ELVs), appliances, heavy equipment, and environmentally hazardous pollutants, and addressed the goal of maximizing the use of existing dump space and diverting significant amounts of waste through scrap metal collection and hazardous waste disposal. As well, the projects fed into the regional waste management planning process, and the training component increased depollution capacity within each community. “2016 was a great year for Tundra Take-Back,” said Jennifer Court, senior director, Scout Environmental. “We were proud to return to the Nunatsiavut region to complete the work in the remaining three communities, and have now successfully delivered the program in all of the communities in the region.

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“We were also very pleased to expand to new regions, in Nunavik and coastal BC, and to broaden the scope of the program by piloting heavy equipment depollution. We couldn’t have done it without the support of our program funders, partners and industry volunteers.” Projects were executed in three communities in Nunatsiavut, Labrador—Postville, Makkovik, and Rigolet. The successful execution of these projects was possible thanks to financial support provided by Nunatsiavut government’s Sustainable Communities Initiative, Inuit Pathways, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada’s Land and Economic Development Services Program (LEDSP), and the Automotive Recyclers of Canada (ARC), and in-kind support provided by Postville, Makkovik, and Rigolet Inuit community governments.

COMMUNITIES The Scout team tackled ELV depollution and appliance decommissioning, and piloted techniques for a heavy equipment depollution. Nunatsiavut Program Results Decommissioning Estimates: • 179 ELVs • 115 fridges/freezers • 566 other appliances • 26 drums drained and crushed • 67 diesel tanks drained and crushed Estimated Pollutants Recovered: • 51 208-litre drums of oil, spent gasoline, and antifreeze • 1 ¼ full tanks mixed refrigerants • 277 batteries • 72 tires • Approximately 2 small buckets of lead wheel weights • Approximately 1 ½ small buckets of mercury switches Tundra Take-Back was also executed in the Northern Village of Kangirsuk in the Nunavik region of Quebec. This project was funded by the Kativik Regional Government (KRG) and received additional financial support from ARC, and in-kind support from the Fédération des coopératives du NouveauQuébec (FCNQ). The KRG is preparing to open a new landfill site in Kangirsuk, and wanted to begin the process of clearing the waste from their old site, as well as several other stockpiles around the community. With the support of the local community, the Scout team tackled ELV depollution and appliance decommissioning, and piloted techniques for a heavy equipment depollution. Nunavik Program Results Decommissioning Estimates: • 72 ELVs • 15 pieces of heavy equipment (loaders, bulldozers, fuel trucks, dump trucks, buses) • 15 fridges/freezers Estimated Pollutants Recovered: • 7 drums of used oil • 7 drums of fuel • 2 drums of antifreeze • 1 drum of windshield washer fluid • Approximately 20lbs of lead • Approximately 12 mercury switches The Tundra Take-Back BC Training Initiative was executed in Kitkatla (Gitxaala) BC, on a remote island off the coast

of Prince Rupert, accessible only by float plane or boat. The project focused on capacity building, by training the local waste management team to depollute ELVs and decommission appliances in order to support their waste management efforts. They have moved from a landfill to a transfer station, but are still having issues addressing bulky metal waste. This project is a pilot to adapt the Tundra Take-Back model to the BC context. This project was supported by the Naut’sa mawt Tribal Council and with funding from Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada’s Land and Economic Development Services Program (LEDSP), with additional financial support from ARC, the Major Appliance Recycling Roundtable (MARR), and Tire Stewardship BC, with additional in-kind support from ABC Recycling. Kitkatla Program Results Decommissioning Estimates: • Approximately 4 ELVs • 17 fridges/freezers • 1 ATV These projects would not have been possible without the auto and appliance recyclers who generously volunteered their time to help train and support the local hires, and assist with the depollution and management of the above-mentioned products and substances. The Tundra Take-Back model was designed and developed by Scout Environmental, a national not-for-profit organization that specializes in the development, delivery and management of creative programs that engage people on issues related to the environment. Scout continues to provide program delivery expertise for all Tundra Take-Back projects and is always looking for opportunities to collaborate with new partners. ●● » December 2016 / January 2017 » 23


Product Stewardship in Action: The Business Case for Lifecycle Thinking by Helen Lewis Product Stewardship in Action describes how and why leading companies are taking responsibility for the environmental impact of their products and packaging. Product stewardship, often referred to as extended producer responsibility (EPR), is the idea that everyone that benefits commercially from a product, including manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, has a shared responsibility to minimize its environmental impacts. Written primarily for a business audience, it the book draws on the knowledge and experience of industry practitioners and other experts to provide a structured approach to product responsibility within firms. This will help those new to the field, as well as more experienced practitioners, to develop an effective response to stakeholder concerns about the

environmental impacts of their products and packaging. The author, Helen Lewis, highlights the business case for action. She argues that companies can achieve shared value – both public and commercial value – when they take a proactive and knowledge-based approach to the lifecycle management of their products. Scott Cassel, chief executive officer and founder, Product Stewardship Institute, said the book is a must-read for anyone engaged in the responsible use and management of materials. “It documents the historical roots of product stewardship and extended producer responsibility, and offers an impressive array of voluntary and regulatory concepts, strategies, and tangible case studies,” he said. “Helen’s book is a great resource for the practitioner and academic alike, and is

destined to spark ideas for innovations that will conserve natural resources and propel us ever forward toward the global circular economy.” For more information, please visit Greenleaf Publishing online at www. ●●

Are you Prepared for Global Deflation? By / Mark Borkowski Imagine if you could put on a pair of magic sunglasses and immediately see the future price of products and services, globally. In his stimulating new book, Global Deflation and the Next Great American Decade to Come (available on Amazon), Mike Verge, managing director of Ontario Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Contractors Association (ORAC), shows a unique ability to simplify and explain today’s complex economic challenges. He does this by developing new models and paradigms he calls ‘deflation sunglasses’. You put them on and everything becomes clear. You will be able to see prices into the future... what will go up, and what will come down.

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Most of us have trouble understanding the current global economic situation. That may be because there is one piece of the equation missing from the discussion. That is deflation. Since the time of the Romans, citizens and governments have depended on inflation to get them out of economic jams. Governments have always spent more money on programs than they have in their coffers. They borrow the dollars today, with the intent of paying them back later with cheaper “future dollars”. This historic phenomenon has created a whole ‘inflation industry’. Business schools, politicians, and economists seem to always focus on inflation and don’t even discuss deflation. However, deflation is just as important a part in the business cycle, like breathing in and breathing out. Verge suggests that

only when you understand this does the global economic situation begin to finally make sense. The book begins by showing how the opposing forces of inflation and deflation are at an eternal tug-ofwar. On the deflation side are ageing demographics, overcapacity of almost all commodities, and global debt levels. On the inflation side we have money printing and government infrastructure spending. And, after 30 years of inflation, it now appears as though the deflationary forces are taking over. To see this battle as it is happening, you have to adopt a few new models. Firstly, deflation is global. International governments are trying to devalue their currencies so they can increase exports. This has the effect of “exporting

GREAT READS deflation and importing inflation.” Secondly, deflation can only be understood on a global basis when the US dollar is used as the global measuring stick. (So if a country shows a 10 per cent devaluation of its currency, and then has three per cent inflation, in reality it is experiencing seven per cent deflation.) Thirdly, the Internet is “the greatest deflator of all time.” By allowing global competition for almost every product and service, the Internet can increase the number of competitors to infinity, thereby continually reducing the prices for almost everything.

Verge goes on to show us a counterintuitive vision of the future where oil prices tend to $20 per barrel, retailers are reduced to showrooms and phones, banks are formed where nobody pays, and asset taxes replace income taxes. In this new topsy-turvy world, wages begin to slow, home prices begin to drop, except perhaps, in “global gateway cities,” and gold takes over as the global currency. At first all of this seems very strange; however, with your new sunglasses, it all seems to make sense.

In his book, Verge does suggest some disturbing economic scenarios. If you are not prepared for them, they can be quite disruptive. However if you are prepared, they could offer the greatest opportunity of all time. Knowing how to read these “tea leaves of change” is the key to success. So I recommend you put on Verge’s sunglasses now, and enjoy the view. You will begin to profit in the blink of an eye. ●● Mark Borkowski is president of Mercantile Mergers & Acquisitions Corp. He can be contacted at

Lightweight, Recycled, Sustainable: the Story of Canada’s corrugated box industry of the 1980s has been one Packaging Grades By / John Mullinder Executive director, PPEC The last 100 years of packaging in Canada have seen the replacement of heavy wooden crates with lighter corrugated boxes, and the rise of plastic and composite packaging, mainly at the expense of glass. While not immune to attacks from both inside and outside the industry, the paper packaging sector has chugged along, with the recent growth in e-commerce giving the corrugated box a timely boost. The period has witnessed major shifts in product delivery: the decline in movement of goods by rail in favour of more “just-in-time” shipping by road; and changing demographic and consumption patterns: more people in towns and cities, an ageing population with different packaging requirements, more and smaller households (independent servings), and the rapid growth of the fast-food industry and convenience packaging in general. Technological changes have forced their way in. Many products were previously shipped by rail in corrugated boxes that were deliberately overdesigned (using more fibre than necessary) to reduce insurance claims for goods damaged in transit. This made no sense to the

and 1990s when lightweight or high performance board was first introduced to the North American marketplace. The new board, and the proliferation of the multiple flute types that followed it, promised to slash the amount of fibre required by up to 10 per cent, with no loss in strength.

Canada’s newly minted environmental council (The Paper & Paperboard Packaging Environmental Council PPEC) wasted no time in persuading the Railways Association to amend its box specifications, scoring a major breakthrough in the first of the “Three Rs” (reduction at source). High performance micro-flutes have also displaced some traditional boxboard applications. Who would have thought that a fast-food hamburger would one day be served in a corrugated box! Light-weighting, of course, is nothing new to the industry. Its entire history

of reducing production costs and increasing competitiveness by designing out flaps, layers, and the airspace between the product and its packaging. Today this is called “rightsizing.” At the mill level, several Canadian companies are leading a North American charge to lower basis weights in linerboard. The development of high-end graphics has also played a key role in transforming what was once a humble brown shipping container into an extremely effective marketing billboard for use in retail and point-of-purchase sales. Another significant change in Canadian paper packaging over the years has been its almost complete conversion to recycled board. In 1988, the average recycled content of domestic board was a respectable 45 per cent. By 2014, this had jumped to an average of 76 per cent, with most Canadian packaging mills producing a 100% recycled content product. Continued on page 33

The CompuWeigh System: Software that Outweighs the Competition


The Standard in Weighing and Routing Software 410.329.1300 • » December 2016 / January 2017 » 25

●● technology

Waste Industry Future - 2030 Watching sci-fi movies for insight into the future of waste management would yield one to believe that cars run on food scraps (Back to the Future) and every household is equipped with its own incinerator (Gattaca). How accurate are these movies as glimpses of waste management in the future? What will the waste management look like in 2030?

For all of Canada, data from Statistics Canada show (see table below) that over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014, Canadians managed to lower per capita waste output from 0.79 tonnes down to 0.69 tonnes. Based on the Stats Can data, there are still lots of municipal solid waste to be redirected from landfill before Canada gets anywhere close to zero waste.

Waiting for Zero Waste Spoiler alert for those who haven’t seen the play “Waiting for Godot”: he never shows up. Similarly, zero waste has been a buzz word in waste management since the early 2000s and it seems that it will never arrive.

Organics Waste as Fuel The Professor Emmett Brown’s DeLorean in Back to the Future has sort of arrived. There is a growing number of Canadian companies that can turn organic waste into transportation fuel. The most notable waste-to-fuel company in Canada is Quebec-based Enerkem. Phase II of the $100 million commercial-scale facility in Edmonton was recently completed. The company is producing and selling biomethanol. The final phase of construction, expected to be completed by mid-2017, will enable the plant to produce bioethanol, used as a transportation fuel.

A 2010 documentary film, The Clean Bin Project, showed just how hard it is to achieve zero waste. In the documentary two competitors try to live waste-free for one year. In the six years since the film’s release, could one honestly say that it is easier to live waste free now? I think not. There are no shortage of municipalities and companies that have a goal of zero waste. For example, Proctor and Gamble (P&G), Nestle, and Ford have some of their operations that are zero waste to landfill operations. Two municipalities in Canada, the Regional District of Nanaimo in BC (population 146,000) and the City of Victoriaville, Quebec (Population 41,316), have achieved 64 per cent diversion of waste from landfill.

The Canadian Federal Renewable Fuel Regulation requires an annual volumeweighted average of five per cent renewable fuel (ethanol) in gasoline. Chemically, ethanol and bioethanol are the same. Bioethanol is ethanol from renewable sources. Thermal The Gattaca solution of an incinerator in every household is arguably not as practical as the cost of thermal treatment

By /John Nicholson, M.Sc., P.Eng. decreases with scale as seen in Europe and Asia where it is very popular. The popularity of thermal treatment, considered the 4th R (“Energy Recovery”), in Europe and Asia but it may be more to the fact that land is scarcer in those regions and populations more dense. North America, by contrast, has less dense populations and far more available land. Any municipal counsel in Canada making the hard financial decision of landfilling or thermal treatment for the residuals not captured by the 3Rs is currently looking at a gap of at least $25 per tonne between the two options. For argument sake, let’s take a municipality of 100,000 people generating 0.70 tonnes of waste annually per capita. The annual cost difference between thermal treatment and landfilling is roughly $1.75 million or more in favour of landfilling. For a politician, the cheaper price tag for landfilling means there is a considerable sum of money that could be spent on voters in other ways. Conclusion The year 2030 is only fifteen years away. That’s not too far off when one considers it can take 5 to 10 years to get landfill or incinerator approved in this country. For waste management to look significantly different than it does today I believe tough decisions Continued on page 34

Table 1: Stats Canada Waste Statistics Year 2014 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004

Quantity of waste (tonnes) 25,103,034 24,681,474 24,883,546 25,907,467 27,249,178 25,226,765

26 » Solid Waste & Recycling

Population Annual per capita waste disposed (tonnes) 36,286,400 0.692 35,544,600 0.694 34,750,500 0.716 33,245,773 0.779 32,570,505 0.837 31,938,004 0.790

How to Measure Progress

Creating accurate data to solve a real problem Gustavsson et al. (2011) estimated that one third of the food produced for human consumption, or about 1.3 billion tons/year is lost or wasted annually, but because many assumptions had to be made to develop these estimates, they note that the results must be interpreted with great caution. They estimated that developed regions (Europe and North America) generate 95-115 kg/ capita/year of food waste. Abdulla et al., (2013) using Statistics Canada and World Bank data (1961-2009), estimated that the amount of food waste in Canada averaged 40 per cent of food available for consumption, and that in 2009, approximately 7.3 million tonnes (217 kg/capita/year) was wasted in Canada. Agriculture and Agrifood Canada in 2015 reported there was approximately 6 million tonnes/year (172 kg/capita/year) of food waste from retail and household consumption. In Canada it has been estimated that $31 billion of food is wasted annually. This number has been repeated so many times, it is accepted as the truth. We don’t ask or query how the estimate was developed. That said, whether the actual number is $20 billion or $40 billion doesn’t really matter. We throw out lots of food. However, this highlights one of the key issues with food waste and that is the inconsistency in terms of how it is being measured and reported. Quite frankly, it is all over the map. Measurement styles are divided between indirect (i.e. using datasets and inferring food waste) and direct (i.e. gathering, sorting, and weighing samples) methods. Data is presented side by side and it is difficult to determine if the resultant variability

●● organic matters By / Paul van der Werf

is in fact variability or that it reflects the inconsistency of measurement methods. Policy makers are almost certainly making decisions using inaccurate data. Langley et al., (2009) concluded that calculating and estimating the amount of food waste is a difficult issue due to a lack of real and meaningful data. The key issue with current food waste estimates is that most of them have been made indirectly. This entails estimating total food production and availability and applying “waste factors” per food type to estimate food waste. Parfitt et al., (2010) suggests there is no consensus on the amount of food waste due to data gaps and uncertainties. Furthermore, and compounding the problem, they note that many indirect estimates link back to the same data sets and waste factors. These data sets are largely compiled from data collected in the 1970s and 1980s. As an example, Abdulla et al., (2013), used reports published from Statistics Canada and the World Bank to calculate food waste from food available for consumption. Statistics Canada used waste factors provided by the USDA to develop their estimates. So how does a nation, province, or city go about developing an accurate estimate of food waste so that goals can be set, interventions developed and implemented, and progress monitored? The recently released Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard FLW Protocol (2016), developed by a number of groups such as the United Nations Environment Programme, World Resources Institute and the Waste and Resources Action

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Programme (WRAP), tries to solve this issue through the presentation of a systematic approach to measure food waste. At its loftiest it is trying to set out an internationally recognized global standard that will be adopted by the spectrum of food waste generators as it measures the various inventories of food waste. More simply what is presented is data collection and reporting “101” framework that is scoped towards developing results that are accurate and actionable; comparable to future measurement iterations; and potentially comparable to others measuring the same thing. The protocol sets out a generic approach on how to measure food waste, that could be adopted by a nation or a restauranteur. Considerable detail is presented on how to go about measuring a food waste inventory. Figure 1 highlights the series of steps that should be taken. In essence it is about uniform organization, but, also importantly about the extent of rigour (i.e. boxes 2-4) that will be imparted into any given study. Rigour is further imparted by the overarching principles of relevance, completeness, consistency, transparency and accuracy and by the more specific principles of defining timeframes (when is it measured?), material types (what part of food is measured?), destination (where does the food waste end up?), boundary (where does its measurement stop and start?). The point is that the protocol is flexible so long as everything is clearly and transparently laid out. » December 2016 / January 2017 » 27

●● organic matters Figure 1 Overview of Steps in Food Waste Measurement and Reporting

(adapted from page 25 of document )

Define goals


accounting and reporting principles

Establish scope

While the generic and flexible approach taken by this protocol is its strength it is also its most critical weakness. While it presents a spectrum of approaches to quantify food waste, and makes some noises about direct measurement, it is essentially agnostic about the measurement approach an entity would take. While the protocol comes with an Excel tool to help entities decide what measurement approach they should take it is too hands off and not prescriptive enough. It does not steer us far enough away from the mish mash of data we now have. While this may well be my own bias I think that any protocol should be built on the direct measurement of food waste at the inflection point where food is considered a waste. The other quibble I have with the protocol, and this is subtler, is its focus on food waste destination (e.g. landfill, composting etc.). This means that the protocol is focused on waste not food. This is literally correct but subliminally wrong. Food follows a path and at some point crosses what I call the green line between food as food and food as waste. We need to measure food waste within the context of determining how to prevent it from reaching those destinations. We want to measure food waste as the food it should have been



how to quantify FLW

This protocol is good and necessary and everyone involved in preventing or least reducing food from becoming waste should read it. The authors call this “Version 1” and recognize that this is an important first step in the evolution of developing accurate and more actionable food waste data. ●● References Abdulla, M., Martin, R. C., Gooch, M., & Jovel, E. (2013). The importance of quantifying food waste in Canada. J. Agric., Food Syst., Community Dev., 3 ((2)), 137–151.



review (optional)

Set target

FLW inventory

(optional) and track over time

D., . . . Leech, B. (2009). The use of uncertainty analysis as a food waste estimation tool. Waste Management and Research, 27(3), 199-206. doi:10.1177/0734242X08095231 Parfitt, J., Barthel, M., & MacNaughton, S. (2010). Food waste within food supply chains: Quantification and potential for change to 2050. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1554), 3065-3081. doi:10.1098/ rstb.2010.0126.

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal • December 2016 / January 2016

FLW Protocol. (2016). Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard, Version 1. Retrieved from REP_FLW_Standard.pdf Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., Van Otterdijk, R., & Meybeck, A. (2011). Global food losses and food waste: extent, causes and prevention. . Retrieved from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.: docrep/014/mb060e/mb060e.pdf Langley, J., Yoxall, A., Manson, G., Lewis, W., Waterhouse, A., Thelwall,

Waste Audits • Waste Diversion Planning • Stewardship Organics • Food Waste Reduction

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not the waste that it has become.

Let’s talk trash! Paul van der Werf, M.Sc. 519-645-7733


inventory results

@2cg @allfoodisfood


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Waste Management Penalties from British Columbia to Ontario Different provinces across Canada have differing levels of enforcement when it comes to waste management and recycling activities. In reviewing penalties assessed over the past year in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario, it appears that Ontario has, by far, been the most active when it comes to prosecutions. Alberta has issued numerous tickets and orders in relation to waste management matters, preferring a different approach to managing these matters. Saskatchewan A review of available information relating to enforcement activities over the past year in Saskatchewan revealed a few matters involving burning of waste contrary to The Clean Air Act. One logging company pleaded guilty to two counts of burning industrial waste and was assessed $14,000 in fines and surcharges. Another logging company pleaded guilty to one count of the same offence and was assessed a $5,600 penalty. Both companies admitted to illegally burning waste from their commercial logging operations, including used oil filters, plastic product containers, oils, hydraulic hoses, and aerosol cans. A Saskatchewan company was also fined for unlawfully establishing a waste disposal ground without a permit. The charge stemmed from the company burying all of its garbage, which included used oil, oil filters, batteries, metal cones, and various other items. The charge was laid under The Municipal Refuse Management Regulations of the Environmental Management and Protection Act. The company incurred a $18,900 fine in relation to the offence and was ordered to pay approximately $65,000 to clean

●● policy and law By / Rosalind H. Cooper

up the garbage and properly dispose of it. British Columbia A company in Abbotsford was issued a $5,000 administrative penalty for contravening a requirement under the Recycling Regulation. The company was a producer of packaging and printed paper and was required to have an approved stewardship plan in place or have a stewardship agent appointed to oversee the plan on its behalf, and was found to have failed to do so and issued an administrative penalty. Ontario There have been numerous convictions relating to waste management offences over the past year in Ontario. Significant Penalty In one of the most significant penalties imposed last year, 1449817 Ontario Inc. and its president were convicted of eight offences each and fined $1,520,000 for failing to comply with a court order relating to the removal of waste contrary to the Environmental Protection Act. The fine was a result of non-compliance with a court order as part of a previous conviction in 2015. 1449817 Ontario Inc. had operated an approved waste disposal processing facility and on April 22, 2015, the company and its president were each convicted of five counts for noncompliance with a court order under the Environmental Protection Act. As a part of the 2015 conviction, the company and its president were issued a court order requiring them to do eight things including process, remove and dispose of all copper and silver bearing materials stored at the site to a licensed facility; remove and dispose of all waste at the site including used filter bags, laboratory chemicals, waste oils, and

lubricants to a licensed facility; and, retain a qualified person to undertake a full inventory of the site to the satisfaction of the Ministry and provide a final report of the inventory to the Ministry. 1449817 Ontario Inc. and its president did not comply with the order by the respective deadlines and, as of October 21, 2015, all eight ordered items remained in non-compliance and charges were laid. The president was convicted of eight offences, fined $320,000 plus a victim fine surcharge of $80,000, and 1449817 Ontario Inc. was convicted of eight offences, fined $1,200,000 plus a victim fine surcharge of $300,000. Illegal Deposit of Waste In two other cases, there were convictions for illegal deposit of waste. An individual pleaded guilty to one offence and was fined $10,000 for causing or arranging for the deposit of demolition waste at a property which was not approved by the Ministry as a waste disposal site, contrary to the Environmental Protection Act. Approximately 120 tonnes of construction and demolition waste were deposited including lumber, lathe, plaster, drywall, and insulation. The waste was later removed from the site. In the second case, two companies pleaded guilty to one offence and were each fined $5,000 for delivering and depositing demolition waste at an unapproved site, an aggregate pit, contrary to the Environmental Protection Act. The demolition waste included concrete, rebar, brick, cinder Continued on page 34 » December 2016 / January 2017 » 29

●● around the world

Waste Management System in Lepe, Islantilla, and La Antilla

By / Timothy Byrne

Before the economic crisis started across EU Member States in 2008

The tourist town of Lepe, along with the resorts of Islantilla and La Antilla, are on Spain’s Costa de la Luz in the province of Huelva. Lepe, Islantilla, and La Antilla are on the Gulf of Cádiz a sunspot in the summer for holidaymakers where golfers are attracted by nearby golf ranges. Waste Collection Due to rising numbers of tourists in these three coastal resorts, volumes of waste have increased over the last 10 years. In the early 2000s, Urbaser S.A., Spain’s second largest waste management contractor (owned by Dragados S.A. at the time) was given a seasonal, four-month waste collection contract from June 1 to the middle of September every year to collect waste in Lepe, Islantilla, and La Antilla. This helped the Gestión Integral del Agua de Huelva S.A. (GIAHSA), the public company who has responsibility for collecting municipal waste from all of the coastal towns along Huelva’s coastline. Urbaser S.A. supplied three rear-loading waste collection vehicles for the operation. These had Geesinknorba GPM II, GPMII or Geesinknorba ‘N’ Series, Ros Roca Cross or Faun Rotopress or Variopress type compaction bodies of varying sizes from 16 cubic metres up to 22 cubic metres in capacity. The types of chassis used were Iveco Eurocargo, Iveco Eurotech, Iveco Stralis, Renault Midlum, Renault Manager, Renault Premium, Mercedes Benz SK, and Mercedes Benz Atego types in both two- and three-axle configurations. The two-axle collection vehicles were of 18 tonnes gross vehicle weight while the three-axle collection vehicles were of 26 tonnes gross vehicle weight with a rear steer axle. The chassis had a mixture of Allison automatic and conventional manual transmissions.

Urbaser S.A. provided the three collection vehicles as well as nine members of staff, three drivers and six loaders, to man the collection vehicles. Urbaser also had three additional spare staff, one driver and two loaders, to cover holiday entitlement, sickness, and absence. The collection of municipal waste began at midnight, seven days a week by Urbaser S.A. under GIAHSA instructions. Urbaser’s collection vehicles were manned with a driver and two loaders. Their operatives would empty the 1100-litre containers of municipal waste at the communal collection points situated along the streets in Lepe, Islantilla, and La Antilla. The containers’ contents would be emptied into the hopper of the waste collection vehicle using its bin lifting equipment. Each collection vehicle would collect two loads of waste each night. The first load would be full by 02.00hrs and the last load at 06 - 07.00 hrs. Any excess waste placed by the 1100-litre containers was also collected by the collection crews to reduce the build-up of odours in the warm climate. Urbaser’s collection crews were paid to work an eight-hour shift. If one collection crew had completed their collection round first, they would go and help one of the other two collection vehicles working in either Lepe or one of the other coastal resorts. This shows that Spain’s private contractors employ best practice by not having their operatives working on a ‘Task and Finish’ basis but instead adopting a ‘Joint Finish’ policy with the three collection vehicles finishing at 08.00 hrs. This reduces the possibilities of accidents and gives a far higher standard of waste collection service. Waste Transfer and Waste Treatment When the waste collection vehicles were full, they made their way to the transfer station at La Redondela, situated between Lepe and the resort of Isla Cristina. The waste transfer station was operational each evening until mid morning seven days a week. This gave adequate time for the hook lift vehicles to load full hermetically sealed roll-on-off containers at the waste transfer station, and time for the empty containers to be returned ready to receive the next night’s waste.

30 » Solid Waste & Recycling

●● around the world On arrival, all collection vehicles were weighed and reweighed again after discharging their loads and before they left the plant so that, their tare weight could also be recorded. Once weighed, the collection vehicles proceeded to a single Kiggen static compactor to discharge their load. The collection vehicles reversed up to the unloading aperture and discharged their load into it. The waste was compressed into hermetically sealed roll-on-off containers. Due to there being only one compactor for the collection vehicles to discharge into, there was normally a large queue of waste collection vehicles waiting to discharge their loads. Once the waste had been compacted into hermitically sealed roll-on-off containers, it was transported using a hook lift roll-on-off semi-trailer vehicle operated by Reciclados del Tinto y del Odiel, S.L. (RETINOD) to the Villarrasa waste treatment plant in Huelva province. The plant had a dirty materials recycling facility (MRF). Incoming waste was deposited into a waste storage bunker which had an overhand travelling crane with a cactus grab. The cactus grab lifted the waste out of the waste storage bunker and placed it onto a conveyor where it was transported first into a series of trommels then onto a conveyor belt where recyclables were extracted by manual labour. The recyclable materials extracted from the process such as paper and cardboard, glass, ferrous and non ferrous metals, plastics, TETRAPACK, PET, and HDPE were stored to await collection for further processing at manufacturing plants across the Iberian Peninsula. The organic fraction of the waste recovered was sent for composting, while the reject fraction was land filled in an engineered cell next to the waste treatment plant. Politics and Change Since June 2010, GIAHSA terminated the waste collection contracts in Lepe and La Antilla due to the financial crisis and Lepe and La Antilla not signing up to MAS the commonwealth of Andalucia.

GIAHSA continued to provide waste collection services to the neighbouring tourist resort of Islantilla. Lepe and La Antilla went without a waste collection service for 24 hours. Because of this, the town of Lepe awarded an emergency waste collection contract to Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas (FCC) with immediate effect to provide waste collection services to Lepe and the coastal resort of La Antilla. In April 2012, Lepe terminated the temporary waste collection contract with FCC and instead signed a 10-year contract with FCC to provide waste collection services for Lepe and La Antilla. FCC has since then invested in four new vehicles for the new contract—two Scania 6x2 rear steer 26 tonne chassis with Ros Roca Cross 20 cubic metre rear loaders with binlift for emptying 1100-litre containers containing municipal waste, an 18-tonne two-axle tipper truck with crane for emptying of glass and paper banks (recyclables), and a truck for washing and disinfecting the interior and exterior of the 1100 litre containers installed at communal collection points for the storage of municipal waste once they had been emptied. ●●

Our thanks to all our readers and advertisers who help to make Solid Waste & Recycling such a fantastic magazine. We wish you a very happy holiday season and a successful 2017.

Lara, Jessica, and Christina » December 2016 / January 2017 » 31

●● waste watch of Progressive Waste Solutions Canada Inc.  

Twentieth Anniversary New Brunswick Tire Recycling Program New Brunswick Environment and local government Minister Serge Rousselle, Q.C, presented Darla Richardson, co-owner TRACC, with a certificate of appreciation for its contribution to the success of New Brunswick’s tire recycling program. TRACC manufactures New Brunswick’s scrap tires into value added products. Since the program began in 1996, TRACC has recycled 300 million pounds of rubber from scrap tires into high quality products such as cattle mats, snowplow blades, and garden mulch. For more information please visit ●●

Ontario Waste Management Association names new CEO The Ontario Waste Management Association’s board of directors has announced its appointment of Gord White to serve as the organization’s next chief executive officer. “On behalf of the OWMA board of directors, I am pleased to announce that Gord White will join us as our new CEO on December 12,” said Dan Pio, vice-chair of the board and president 32 » Solid Waste & Recycling

“Gord brings more than 30 years of insight and experience to the OWMA both in association management and membership development,” he said. “His extensive background working with government and regulatory agencies, as well as his excellent media relations and board governance skills, will help to build a stronger association and further elevate the OWMA as the voice of the province’s waste management and resource recovery sectors.” Gord joins the OWMA after serving as the CEO of the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO) since 2012. He has also served in leadership positions at the Ontario Retirement Communities Association (ORCA), the Association of Local Public Health Agencies (ALPHA), and the Ontario March of Dimes. “Gord has the right skill set and the experience to lead our association as Ontario advances toward a more circular economy and a low-carbon future,” said Norm Lee, OWMA board chair and director of waste management at the Region of Peel. “We know all members will join in welcoming Gord to his new role, and we are looking forward to working with him to strengthen the position of our association with the public, the media, and the government.” Gord is a graduate of Brock University, and holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology and business administration. He is currently completing the Directors Education Program (ICD) at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management. Gord lives with his wife in Mississauga and has two adult daughters. Effective December 12, Gord can be reached at the OWMA office, (905) 791-9500. ●●

Brands for Canada, TSB, and P&G Kick Off United Hearts Program Revolutionizing the way large corporations shift towards conscious capitalism, North America’s largest retail product producers now have a solution to ensure their overproduced goods don’t wind up in landfills. Landfill sites account for about 38% of Canada’s total methane emissions (Environment Canada). Annually, Brands For Canada and its various programs results in staggering figures that illustrate their commitment to environmental sustainability and assisting retail companies in shrinking environmental footprints. Their initiatives keep 200 tons of unsold clothing from entering landfills, saves 1.2 billion litres of water used to produce clothing, and 1.2 million pounds of CO2 stopped from being emitted into our atmosphere. Brands for Canada announced the newest first-of-its-kind sustainability focused program United Hearts to take their mission one step further. Now in partnership with Canada’s largest school district, the Toronto District School Board (TDSB), the new program provides necessities for students living below the poverty line. “Brands For Canada’s United Hearts initiative will impact thousands of TDSB students and their families by providing them with basic essential items to help meet their needs. At the TDSB, we are committed to ensuring that every student achieves success and this initiative will help do just that,” stated Robin Pilkey, chair, Toronto District School Board. Brands For Canada’s new United Hearts program creates care packages of new clothing, personal care goods and

other basic-needs items for students, and their families and delivers them to TDSB schools. The United Hearts care packages are purposefully created to alleviate the stress many students live with on a daily basis, so they can focus on prospering intellectually, emotionally, socially and physically. Joyce Law, senior communications manager, P&G Canada said, “We are honoured to partner with Brands for Canada and the TDSB to support families in need with everyday essentials.” “By engaging individuals, corporations and organizations in conversations about how they can make a direct impact on the lives of those in need, we are creating a circular economy as we bridge the gap between surplus production and meeting the immediate needs of communities dealing with poverty,” says Helen Harakas, Executive Director, Brands For Canada. For more information please visit www. ●●

BHS to Build Oman Mixed Waste Recycling Systems Al Ramooz National LLC has selected Bulk Handling Systems (BHS) to provide two mixed waste processing facilities. The 220 ton per day (tpd) (Ibri, Oman) and 150 tpd (Buraimi, Oman) systems will treat municipal solid waste from the governorates of Al Dhahirah and Al Buraimi in northwest Oman. Both systems will startup in 2017. In 2016 French company Veolia and partner Al Ramooz were awarded a seven-year waste management contract tendered by Oman Environmental Services Holding Company (Be’ah). To fulfill this contract, Al Ramooz National LLC takes charge of collection, material processing and recovery. To maximize recovery and product quality, Al Ramooz National LL selected BHS’ patented MSW process, combining screen, air and optical separation technologies to

The Story of Canada’s Packaging Grades The increase in recycled content paralleled greater access to a nearby feedstock, the “urban forest,” those old corrugated boxes that could be picked up from the back of factories and supermarkets and recycled again and again. As corrugated recovery from industrial sources deepened, however, some Canadian packaging mills saw an opportunity to extract more used fibre from the then relatively untapped residential sector. PPEC led the way, pioneering the first recovery in North America of old boxboard from curbside. This was recycled back into new boxboard and corrugating medium, and marked the beginning of a trend to collect all mixed household paper together for later separation by grade, depending on the market. This practice is now commonplace.

The mills’ constant demand for recovered fibre has led PPEC to lobby provincial governments to ban old corrugated (and potentially other paper fibres) from landfill. Nova Scotia and PEI currently have bans in place, and Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta are discussing the measure. The development of wax alternatives has meant less corrugated ending up in landfill, and many customers have readily accepted suggestions that more recycled content be included in their packaging specifications. Occasionally the distribution chain has been slow to adapt. The Ontario provincial liquor monopoly, the LCBO, for example, for many years only allowed board that met the Mullen (burst strength) test to be used, essentially precluding the use

●● waste watch capture recyclable commodities and to produce fuel. Featured is the BHS Metering Bin Liberator Class to open bags and provide the system a steady flow of material. BHS Tri-Disc™ screens extract organics and separate containers from fiber while Nihot Single Drum Separators segregate dry recyclables from bulkier items, such as wood and rock. NRT’s In-Flight Sorting® optical technology targets PET, HDPE, PP and PVC. Cardboard, mixed paper, ferrous metals and aluminum are also recovered. “Al Ramooz has demonstrated environmental leadership and a commitment to material diversion from landfill in Oman,” said BHS CEO Steve Miller. “Their leadership team was very transparent that the goal here is to recover recyclable commodities first and foremost and the technology is in place to do just that.” Visit Bulk Handling Systems online at ●● Continued from page 25

of recycled board. PPEC established a team, conducted trials, and in 2013 successfully persuaded the LCBO to allow the edge crush test (ECT) as an alternative to Mullen. The council had effectively opened a major market to recycled board for the first time. In addition to these practical and technical challenges, the industry remains very active in promoting its environmental credentials through both social and other media: made from a renewable resource, often using renewable energy, high in recycled content, widely recovered, and compostable. A sustainable resource. ●● » December 2016 / January 2017 » 33

●● advertiser index Marching on into 2017

Continued from page 4

Not that we at Point One Media know anything about running the country, but we do know a thing or two about being subject to market swings, waiting out commodity shifts, and diving head first into new and exciting challenges. In some cases we have taken the leap and on others we have held fast to the familiar and as a result, sometimes we’ve won and sometimes we’ve learned, but we’ve always come out stronger and better informed moving forward. I know however the feds and the provinces ink the final deal, they and we and you will all come out wiser and more experienced moving forward. In celebration of 2016 as a year we dove in, took some risks, won a great deal and learned even more, I want to thank you, as an industry, for your endless support and unbridled enthusiasm, which have guided us into new frontiers. We look forward to a bright and optimistic 2017 and wish you all a warm, peaceful holiday full of joy and all things inspiring. ●●

Setting a New Standard in the Waste Management Sector

on how to manage record-keeping and reporting. But if they chose to follow the example of the CSA guideline, Ontario could establish a level-playing field for the waste management sector and ensure that all companies competing and collaborating to recover, haul, or process materials can operate within a fair, open market that prioritizes increased recycling and environmental protection. ●●

Transitioning Ontario’s Blue Box to Extended Producer Responsibility

Continued from page 6

• Provides an increase in producer selfdeterminacy commensurate with an increase in producer responsibility; • Provides predictability for management of municipal and private sector assets; • Provides predictability for both municipalities and producers when developing budgets, planning activities, and making necessary preparations for the pending changes; • Continues household collection without interruption; and,

analyze data while strengthening the Authority’s ability to effectively monitor compliance.

• Incrementally moves Ontario’s Blue Box waste management system to full producer responsibility and a circular economy while minimizing the turmoil that would result from implementing EPR abruptly.

Of course, it will be up to the Authority’s new board and the government to decide

This is a very general outline of a proposed approach to transitioning

Continued from page 5

from shared responsibility to EPR for PPP. Before the province could regulate such an approach many operational details would need to be collaboratively resolved by producers and Ontario municipalities. 2017 is going to be a very interesting year for EPR in Ontario. ●●

Waste Industry Future 2030

Continued from page 26

on extended producer responsibility, life cycle analysis and management, landfill bans, and taxes would need to be made. Technologies aren’t holding us back from a bright future; it’s the tough decisions. ●●

Waste Management Penalties from British Columbia to Ontario Continued from page 29

blocks, plastic and metal tubing, piping, drywall foam insulation, and other miscellaneous scraps of plastic, metal, and wood. In another case, an individual found to have been burning a pile of debris (including vinyl siding and rigid Styrofoam) pleaded guilty to one offence and was fined $1,200 for establishing and operating a waste disposal site without approval, contrary to the Environmental Protection Act. ●●

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Van Dyk Recycling Solutions




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Aenean volutpat, For details and to reserve space erat today contact Christina Tranberg gravida, convallis metus nec, egestas tempus,your et elementum vestibulum. orci vitae tincidunt malesuada, ex nulla. Morbi Tel: venenatis pharetra • Phasellus finibus, sapien eu aliquam 877.755.2762 250.667.0401 • turpis commodo orci, at sodales arcu eleifend. Phasellus at justo aliquet, aliquet, leo risus consequat ante, vitae quam condimentum enim. Suspendisse feugiat massa non, sollicitudin dui. malesuada tortor justo quis magna. Sed blandit, lectus id porta luctus, odio

it’s simple.



enough said.

Where do business leaders find the best business leads? “There is not a better place than WasteExpo to get a current ‘pulse’ on the industry from all levels of the leading players’ leadership. We’ve come away from WasteExpo many of the past 19 years with an acquisition opportunity we later closed. In our 20th year, we’re looking forward to seeing and celebrating with our friends throughout this great industry.” Ron Mittelstaedt Chairman & CEO Waste Connections

Only at WasteExpo 2017

Don’t overthink it. Ron hasn’t for 19 years. He knows WasteExpo is where the best and brightest converge to meet, exchange ideas and introduce new methodologies that will impact the industry for years to come. Looking for the latest in recycling techniques? WasteExpo offers more than any other event in the industry. It is THE event—with 600+ exhibitors, a comprehensive education program and a venue ideal for doing business. There’s nothing else to think about—you need to be here. Learn more at

Conferences & Special Events: May 8-11, 2017 • Exhibits: May 9-11, 2017 Morial Convention Center New Orleans, LA, USA Associated with:

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Solid Waste & Recycling December 2016 / January 2017  
Solid Waste & Recycling December 2016 / January 2017