Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal • April / May 2017
RESPECT THE COLLECT: Program Conquers Risks to Waste Management Workers Also in this issue: Disposal Bans Drywall Recycling Trash to Treasure Bin Sensor Technology Landfill Gas Capture
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APRIL / MAY 2017 â€˘ VOLUME 22 | NUMBER 2
Feature 10 Respect the Collect: Program Conquers Risks to Waste Management Workers Peterborough, ONâ€™s successful program to boost respect and care for collectors and minimize risks.
Disposal 16 Disposal Bans Imposed fees and all-out bans work to improve diversion rates. 18 Drywall Recycling: Keeping Gypsum Out of the Landfill New West Gypsum innovations keep gypsum out of the landfill.
Departments & Columns 4 From the Editor 5 Op-Ed 7 PPEC Speaks
8 Waste Watch
20 From Trash to Treasure: Thinking Outside the Blue Box
27 Policy and Law
Robert Bosch and Region of Peel turn trash to treasure using material exchange platform.
22 Bin Sensor Technology: Maximize Efficiency, Save Money
Sensors and monitoring program optimizes efficiency and reduces costs.
Landfill Gas 24 Upgrade and Rehabilitation of Landfill Gas Systems
Optimize LFG systems to improve capture and performance.
28 Technology 29 Mergers 30 Around the World 31 Advertiser Index
FROM THE EDITOR Jessica Kirby, Editor Solid Waste & Recycling
The SW&R team Lara Perraton, Group Publisher email@example.com Jessica Kirby, Editor 877.755.2762 • firstname.lastname@example.org Christina Tranberg, Advertising Sales 877.755.2762 • email@example.com
Back to the Future for Collectors
In tribute to this issue’s look at front lines workers, we step back in time for the abridged version of the history of waste management. Of course, the earliest hunters and gatherers were history’s best composters because they produced negligible waste that was 100 per cent natural. As far back as the Mayans, sizeable human populations have created systems to deal with waste—these tribespeople gathered as a community on a set monthly schedule to burn any waste that wasn’t naturally returned to the earth.
The first landfill was developed in 3000 BC in Knossos, Crete—it comprised a number of holes filled with trash and filled to various levels. China was working on composting and recycling efforts as far back as 2000 BC, and in 500 BC, Athens, Greece mandated garbage must be dumped at least one mile from the city. The first collectors, called rakers, appeared in London during the Black Plague in the early 1300s—they would gather trash into carts once a week while trying (often unsuccessfully) to stay alive. In 1350 Britain tried to legislate “a clean front yard,” but people more or less continued to burn garbage in piles until 1388 when the English parliament finally banned dumping into ditches and waterways and just a few years later a law came into effect mandating trash must be left outside until rakers came to collect it. The industrial revolution brought more machinery, more trash, and a lust for opportunity. Toshers, mudlarks, and dustmen were slang names for the men who collected and sold industrial 4 » Solid Waste & Recycling
garbage, including dog feces for its ability to purify leather and ash, used to strengthen mortar. Between 1900 and 1920, organized waste collection was booming in North America with around 70 per cent of major centres using a waste management system, the most common of which was using collectors. Trash was collected in horsedrawn, open vehicles and dumped into local waterways, wetlands, or other areas deemed uninhabited until covered, motorized trucks came on the scene in 1914. Not long after, the rear loader made its debut. Soon war efforts made recycling and repurposing the norm, and North America never went back. Private hauling was born in the 60s, and not long after, the transfer station concept was born. Throughout the next decades, regulations and legislation governing waste management technique, safety, scheduling, ownership, and responsibility have evolved almost as fast as the types of waste produced. Throughout the entire process the nature of the work for collectors has slowly evolved, but it still remains a difficult, under-appreciated, and often dangerous job. Associations in both Canada and the US are working with government and industry to create safer, more supportive environments for the men and women working the front lines in waste management. Check out David McRobert’s case study on the Respect the Collect program (page 10) as just one example. If you know of other instances and initiatives aimed at improving worker safety, please drop me a line. Until next time ...
contributing writers Helmut Blanken Mark Borkowski Shane Buckingham Timothy Byrne Rosalind H. Cooper Maria Kelleher Catherine Leighton Brock Macdonald David McRobert John Mullinder John Pahulje
cover photo Charles Jaffe
Published bi-monthly by Point One Media, Inc. Solid Waste & Recycling P.O. Box 11, Station A Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K4 CANADA t: 877.755.2762 • www.solidwastemag.com Solid Waste & Recycling provides strategic information and perspectives on all aspects of Canadian solid waste collection, hauling, processing, and disposal to waste managers, haulers, recycling co-ordinators, landfill and compost facility operators, and other waste industry professionals. While information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources deemed to be reliable, the publisher may not be held liable for omissions or errors. Contents ©2017 by Point One Media Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or duplicated without prior written permission from the publisher. Printed in Canada. Postage paid at Simcoe, ON. Return postage guaranteed. Canada Post Canadian Publications Mail Sales Product Agreement #40719512. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Solid Waste & Recycling Circulation Department P.O. Box 11, Station A Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K4 e: firstname.lastname@example.org From time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us by email at email@example.com or by phone at 1.877.755.2762 Solid Waste & Recycling is a registered trademark of Point One Media Inc.
Slow Down, Move Over Law Needed in Ontario for Waste Collection Workers Waste collection workers have one of the most dangerous jobs. Every day on the road they face the risk of being seriously injured or even killed by a distracted or impatient driver. Last December, a Wisconsin city mourned the loss of a sanitation worker and local pastor who was struck by a Mustang that crashed into the back of a municipal garbage truck while he was collecting recyclables. According to FOX6 Now, the worker was found pinned between the car and the back of the truck before being taken to a local hospital where he later died from his injuries. Closer to home, a worker in 2012 was struck by an SUV while collecting garbage in Ottawa and later died from his injuries. According to CTV News, the worker, who was 46 years old at the time of the accident, had just gotten engaged before he lost his life. Incidents like these are tragically part of a larger problem. The Bureau of Labor Statistics in the United States found in its 2015 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary that refuse and recyclable material collection, as an occupation, had the fifth highest fatal work injury rate. In 2015, 33 waste collectors were killed on the job—a 22% increase from the previous year.
The risk is real. That’s why it has been addressed by many jurisdictions across North America, including British Columbia, with new laws to require drivers to slow down and move over for waste collection workers and vehicles. Ontario, however, has not yet taken action. It’s been a decade and a half since the Ontario government passed legislation to make it mandatory to slow down and move over for emergency vehicles. The Highway Traffic Act was amended again in 2015 to extend the same protections to tow-truck drivers in the province. The penalties for breaking this law are serious. Drivers can receive a fine of $400 to $2,000 and three demerit points for their first infraction. While enforcement remains essential, this legal change has sent a clear message to drivers that the safety of roadside workers must take priority. Unfortunately, waste collectors still do not enjoy the same protections in Ontario. British Columbia, by contrast, protects all roadside workers. In 2014, the BC government strengthened its Motor Vehicle Act to require drivers to slow down and move over for “all vehicles stopped alongside the road that have flashing red, blue, or yellow lights.” This legislative update not only improved
By / Shane Buckingham, OWMA Director of Communications safety but also simplified traffic rules for drivers. South of the border, more states continue to move forward on this issue. Last September, according to Waste Dive, New York became the 12th state to pass a law to require drivers to slow down and get around garbage trucks, and Connecticut may soon become the 13th if a bill with similar requirements is passed by the state’s legislature. With so many jurisdictions adopting this sensible reform, there’s no reason that Ontario should be any different. We believe roadside workers deserve the same protections no matter where they live or what uniform they wear. That is why the OWMA is calling for Ontario to bring its traffic laws into line with what is becoming the standard for roadside safety in North America. The time has now come for our province to pass a slow down, move over law for waste collection workers. These changes will provide a safer working environment for waste collectors and help ensure they can safely go home to their families after a long day on the job. ●●
EDITOR’S PICK Brad Moss, chair of the Lions Club District N4 Sight Conservation Committee in St. John's, NL wasn't exactly sure what he was going to do with 25,000 pairs of donated eye glasses he inherited when he took over the position.
and in Moss' predecessor's garage. Moss did some thinking and some research and developed a life-changing plan involving the glasses, visually impaired in Third World countries, and inmates at Bishop's Falls Correctional Centre.
The Lions Club used to truck the donations to its recycling centre in Calgary, but after a problem with the hauler's contract, a stockpile grew in the club's basement
Seven inmates work seven days a week sanitizing and polishing the glasses, which are then transported to Nova Scotia for repair. Each individual pair is run through
a machine to read its lens and record its prescription before it is packaged and sent for distribution by Lions Club groups working on global vision programs. Glasses that can't be used in one of the program's 75 recipient countries are sold to an American company for recycling into asphalt and road paint material. To discover more about this amazing program visit the Lions Club at http://lionsn4.ca. ●● solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 5
Circular Economy Crucial in Long-term Sustainability The basic principle that populations and economic output tend to grow in tandem has been the cornerstone of government economic policies for decades. In such a linear economy, only a rising population, combined with increased use of production resources and energy, results in economic growth. It is the nature of a take, make, and dispose linear system in which we currently operate. But as populations rise, and resources dwindle or become depleted altogether, the obvious conclusion is the linear economic system is not sustainable in the long term. What if we applied a different system? What if we created sustainable economic policies that transition conventional thinking to a framework that supports circular economic growth? The circular economy (CE) is not tied to an ever-expanding supply of consumers. CE’s growth comes from within the system, realized through new opportunities. These opportunities include innovation, flexible and expandable business models, and focus on activities that loop materials back into the industrial process at a variety of levels. That certainly means more recycling. However, CE also moves focus up the waste prevention hierarchy to the reuse loop that includes repair, refurbishing, remanufacturing, repurposing, etc. It’s within those latter groups of categories the presents the greatest potential for CE growth. Let’s look at some of the reuse loops within the CE system. In the business-to-business (B2B) world, circularity is replacing linear models in some unconventional ways. In the linear model, burnt out lightbulbs are replaced by purchasing new bulbs. But in Phillips’ recently applied circular model, they no longer just sell light bulbs. Phillips now sells light in the form of service contracts. 6 » Solid Waste & Recycling
By / Brock Macdonald
Another well known company, Rolls Royce, no longer just sells jet engines. It sells power-by-the-hour jet engine performance contracts. These CE transactions are not buying product. The purchase is a set standard of performance result. Performance contracts extend beyond B2B to business to consumer (B2C). Do you wants to own a washing machine or do you want clean clothes? By changing the focus of the B2C model users lease a washer to provide so many washing cycles. At the end of those cycles, the machine is removed, rebuilt, and replaced in another consumer’s home. The machine is delivered, maintained, supplied with soaps, picked up at the end of the contract creating jobs in transportation, maintenance, repair, and service contract sales. Even personal transportation is shifting to a model that reflects access over ownership. In the linear system there are three options for personal transportation: buy, lease, or rent. However, applied CE business models now see companies providing access on demand for personal transportation: in Vancouver, Car-to-Go, Evo, Modo, and Zip Car provide vehicles to users whose needs vary by circumstance. Massachusetts’ right-to-repair legislation focused on the automotive industry has led to manufacturers making repair manuals openly available rather than go through a similar legislative process in the remaining 49 states. This approach is now being expanded to electronics so independent repair shops or consumer themselves have access to parts and information to effect repairs and extend the useful life of products. This has the potential to breath new life into repair-and-resell sector.
In Vancouver, a deconstruction bylaw incents the recovery of materials from older homes brought down for new construction. Naturally Crafted, a Vancouver-based specialty company, has developed a CE business model to recover the old lumber from these take-down houses and generate new revenues and jobs through standalone projects and renovations to existing homes. According to CEO Adam Corneil, there are potentially millions of dollars of wood value in homes slated for take down. All of that potential economic activity is lost in the conventional approach of demolished wood disposed to landfill of used for its energy value. No doubt the transition to CE business models requires entrepreneurs to adapt to the emerging applications of circularity in all sectors. Those with the creativity to see those opportunities unfold will be the visionary leaders in this evolution to a more sustainable system. At the Recycling Council of British Columbia we promote and support efforts to develop a sustainable CE at every level. The sooner we get there the better. ●● Brock Macdonald has led RCBC as CEO since 2006. A former educator and journalist, he has worked in the waste reduction sector since 2000.
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Retailers Can’t Duck Food Safety Issues when Pushing Growers to Re-use Crates A third, more extensive testing of plastic crates used to ship fresh produce throughout Canada shows some handling improvements but still found sanitary issues such as high total aerobic and yeast and mould counts, and the presence of E. coli. Studies demonstrating inconsistent washing practices and biofilms surviving common industry cleaning methods had earlier led food scientists to claim that re-using crates for produce was “a recipe for disaster,” and that the live bacteria observed on them was “like a smoking gun.” The latest study, co-ordinated by Dr. Keith Warriner, professor of food microbiology at the University of Guelph, was performed at different locations in British Columbia (with Dr. Siyun Wang at UBC), Ontario, and Quebec. Dr. Warriner was also responsible for earlier Canadian studies in 2013 and 2014. His findings have been replicated and supported by similar US-wide studies by the University of California (Davis) and the Centre for Food Safety at the University of Arkansas. Some improvements were noted in the latest testing: no broken crates, for example, and fewer crates with stickers or labels from previous users. Processors were starting to return unclean crates. The lower incidence of fecal indicators could reflect better handling practices, the study says, but the overall number of crates failing on total aerobic counts had increased. They were unacceptably high and didn’t meet commonly accepted standards for food contact surfaces, said Dr. Warriner.
By / John Mullinder
lasting than biological hazards, and if they were present, would be far more challenging to remove by washing. PPEC represents the corrugated box industry on environmental issues. Unlike the reusable crate system, the corrugated box system for produce provides a fresh and sanitized box for each delivery. Fresh doesn’t mean cutting down trees. In fact, most corrugated boxes made in Canada are 100 per cent recycled content, partly made from those very same produce boxes that Canadian retailers bale up at the back of their stores and for which they receive significant revenue. The boxes are recycled several times over the course of their lives, and meet rigid process control standards in their remanufacture. In a typical mill recycling process the temperature of the paper sheet reaches 220-240 degrees F, well above 100 degrees C, the boiling point of water and the temperature required for sterilization. The converting process also involves high temperatures and other hygiene controls. Having a fresh box every time minimizes the potential for undesirable pathogens and bacteria being carried forward to the consumer. A recent independent study of corrugated produce boxes showed that the corrugation process destroys bacteria. Another study released in February 2015 revealed that every single one of the 720 corrugated boxes from six different box suppliers tested at six different customer locations, in three different regions (the Northwest US, California, and Florida), met acceptable sanitization levels. ●●
Dr Warriner noted that the major crate supplier, IFCO, had declined to release the standards or criteria by which it judged a crate to be sanitary since independent testing of reusable crates had begun in Ontario and Quebec in 2013. Food scientists, retailers, and consumers needed to be confident that sanitization standards were based on appropriate risk assessments, said Warriner.
Corrugated boxes are commonly used to carry heavier products such as appliances, electronic goods, fruit and vegetables, and wine.
There was another issue, he added. Crates were potential carriers for pests or plant pathogens that could devastate growers’ crops and be challenging to irradiate. The relatively free movement of crates across borders was the weak link in our biosecurity system for protecting growers’ crops and livelihoods, he said.
Most corrugated boxes manufactured in Canada are 100% recycled content, and some 96% of Canadians now have access to the recycling of old corrugated boxes.
Organic fruit and vegetables, for example, were widely assumed by the public to be pesticide-free. Recent surveys, however, had shown evidence of pesticides on almost half of fresh organic produce. Chemical pesticides were much longer
By law, provinces require harvesters of the commercial forest to regenerate the forest by new tree-planting and direct seeding, and natural regeneration.
Most paper materials, including old corrugated boxes, are compostable. For soiled paper and for the 3% of corrugated that is waxed to keep products fresh, composting is sometimes a better option than recycling. For more information please visit www.ppec-paper.com. solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 7
●● waste watch
Procurement: Advancing the Circular Economy through Buying Power Beyond Policy and into Practice Recycling Council of Ontario Knowledge Session: May 4, 2017
Leveraging buying power and sustainability-driven product or service specifications are direct and effective methods that drive circular economy outcomes. Commercial relationships can shift markets and drive greater innovation in product design and service offerings that are restorative and resource efficient. There is also an on-going shift in consumption models that considers investing in service rather than product (purchasing light instead of light bulbs); sharing resources to maximize utilization (leasing floor cover instead of buying carpet); and incentivizing
Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal • April / May 2017
RESPECT THE COLLECT: Program Conquers Risks to Waste Management Workers Also in this issue: Disposal Bans Drywall Recycling Trash to Treasure Bin Sensor Technology Landfill Gas Capture
innovative partnership (ride sharing instead of car buying). These market responses demonstrate economic, social, and environmental gains while influencing how we buy and consume goods and services. Directly linking procurement and sustainability functions within organizations drives economic and environmental objectives. Specific to waste reduction, purchasing agreements that require suppliers and producers to extend their responsibility and provide consumers/buyers end-of-life product management options while structuring waste/recycling contracts to drive reduction can lead to immediate market responses. As part of the Waste-Free Ontario Act the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change released Strategy for a Waste-Free Ontario: Building the Circular Economy, which includes government commitment to lead by example utilizing sustainable procurement to drive waste reduction outcomes. Recycling Council of Ontario is committed to Ontario’s transition to a circular economy, and is pleased to host a one-day forum that spotlights supply chain efficiency, procurement, and buying power as pivotal instruments to achieving it. Contact Jo-Anne St. Godard, executive director, Recycling Council of Ontario at 416.657.2797, ext. 3 or joanne@rco. on.ca. ●●
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SWANA Launches 2nd Annual Distribution of Slow Down to Get Around Decals
Contact Christina or Sharon at 1.877.755.2762 for more information.
As part of on-going efforts to get solid waste workers off the Federal Government’s “Top 5 Most Dangerous Jobs” list, the Solid Waste Association
8 » Solid Waste & Recycling
of North America (SWANA) will resume distributing Slow Down to Get Around (SDTGA) decals to its members, free, upon request, starting March 14, 2017. SWANA’s SDTGA program, brought to members in part through a generous sponsorship by Heil Environmental and 3rd Eye—part of the Environmental Solutions Group family, is a national safety campaign aimed at reminding motorists to drive carefully near waste and recycling collection vehicles. The campaign, initially created by Larry Stone while he served as Safety Director at Rumpke, has resulted in legislation under the same name in nearly a dozen states. “As the leading association for solid waste professionals in the United States and Canada, SWANA is proud to begin a second year of free SDTGA decal distribution to its members,” said SWANA executive director and CEO, David Biderman. “Slow Down to Get Around decals are just one way that we can get drivers to pay better attention to our workers and collection vehicles to help reduce the number of accidents and injuries in the industry.” Biderman added, “We encourage local governments and haulers to get decals from SWANA to help spread the word about this important worker safety campaign.” SWANA supports efforts at the state, provincial, and local level to enact laws protecting solid waste collection employees. SWANA plans to continue its awardwinning efforts to improve safety in the solid waste industry through the Slow Down to Get Around initiative, its chapter-based Safety Ambassador initiative, and a variety of safety and compliance training workshops and webinars. For more information on SWANA and its Safety Matters program, please visit swana.org/safety. ●●
NRT Introduces New Colour Sorter The ColorPlusTM-R enables opaque colour detection
National Recovery Technologies (NRT) has announced a new addition to the company’s product offering, the ColorPlus-R. Similar to the ColorPlus, the ColorPlus-R uses an advanced image processing system to detect materials based on color analysis and object recognition. Unique to the ColorPlus-R is the ability to color analyze opaque objects, such as black plastics. All ColorPlus models employ transmissive detection, placing the material between the light source and the detection camera. Transmissive detection provides the strongest signal strength and accuracy. NRT In-Flight Sorting® technology, processing up to 50 million pixels per second, is able to detect and immediately target each object in flight. In addition to transmissive detection, the ColorPlus-R has added a second LED light source above the material to facilitate reflective detection. Whereas opaque materials were before only recognized as objects, the ColorPlusR’s simultaneous use of reflective and transmissive detection makes possible color analysis. For more information please visit www.bulkhandlingsystems. com ●●
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Incentives Power Up the Switch to Electric Vehicles on the Job The Province is providing $385,000 to offer incentives for zero-emission specialty-use vehicles, helping businesses and vehicle fleets lower fuel costs and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and supporting the zero-emission vehicle sector in British Columbia. Specialty-use vehicles are used on the job in factories and warehouses, on campuses and city streets, at parks and resorts, malls, airports, and dockyards. Zero-emission specialty-use vehicles include electric or hydrogen fuel cell motorcycles, low-speed utility trucks, heavy duty transport trucks, passenger buses and airport and port service vehicles. Michelle Stilwell, MLA for ParksvilleQualicum announced the program today at Canadian Electric Vehicles in Errington, near Parksville on Vancouver Island, manufacturer of the electric Might-E utility truck. Incentives ranging from $2,000 to $50,000 – depending on the type and retail price of the vehicle – will be provided to eligible applicants who purchase or lease an approved, new, zero-emission specialty-use vehicle. Currently, zero-emission versions of common specialty-use vehicles can be priced from 40% to 600% higher than traditional gas or diesel versions. The incentives will help close the price gap and make zero-emission specialtyuse vehicles a more attractive and economically viable option for fleet operators.
●● waste watch utility truck can save approximately four tonnes of GHG emissions per year, while switching a diesel bus to an electric bus can save approximately 160 tonnes of GHG emissions per year. The incentives will also provide a boost to British Columbia-based companies and workers who are designing, manufacturing and selling zero-emission specialty-use vehicles like Canadian Electric Vehicles, and GreenPower Motor Company of Vancouver. Funding for the Specialty-Use Vehicle Incentive Program comes from the Clean Energy Vehicle (CEV) Program. The Province introduced the CEV Program in 2011 and has since committed more than $31 million to encourage British Columbians to choose clean, green vehicles and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Specialty-Use Vehicle Incentive Program supports actions under the Climate Leadership Plan to expand the CEV Program, encourage electrification, reduce harmful emissions and enable the development of a new low-carbon economy. The #BCTECH Strategy is a key component of the BC Jobs Plan to support the growth of B.C.’s vibrant technology sector and strengthen British Columbia’s diverse innovation economy. The multi-year strategy includes a $100-million BC Tech Fund and initiatives to increase talent development and market access for tech companies that will drive innovation and productivity throughout the province. For more information visit www.gov. bc.ca/cleanenergyvehicleprogram. ●●
Switching from gas-powered to zeroemission specialty-use vehicles will reduce GHG emissions. For example, switching a gasoline pickup used on a university campus to a battery-electric solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 9
Respect the Collect: Program conquers risks to waste management workers
Photo courtesy of the City of Edmonton.
By / David McRobert
IMAGINE a job where every work day there was a good chance a large vehicle such as a truck or a bus might attempt to swing by you, missing you by inches, as you manoeuver an awkward 15 or 25 kg container into the back of a large vehicle. The vehicle has dozens of moving parts and could crush your limbs if you became entangled. You have to work whether it is -20 degrees C or a sweltering 30 degrees C, and the bags or boxes you pick up may contain broken glass or other harmful sharps. You are exposed to loud noises, dusts, bioaerosols, and powerful odours. Sometimes the bags and boxes are jammed full and weigh more than 50 kg, straining your back and limbs. And you get to dance with oncoming vehicles, often driven by impatient drivers, while avoid devastating cuts to your hands, and tussles with mechanical apparatusesâ€”35 or 40 hours a week. 10 Âť Solid Waste & Recycling
Welcome to the world of some of the heroes of our urban streets, our waste management and recycling workers. For decades, solid waste haulers and recycling workers have been ranked in the top six on the list of most dangerous jobs in Canada, alongside occupations such as loggers, fisheries workers, roofers, electrical power line workers, and farmers. Global Trends International and Canadian studies indicate that occupational health and safety injuries/illnesses are more common among waste management and recycling workers than the rest of the workforce. In March 2000, the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management reported that the injury rates for municipal solid waste (MSW) workers in Florida and Denmark were six to seven times greater than those for the general workforce. According to Danish research, MSW workers in Denmark
Collectors, on average, are injured five to seven times more than the average worker. Photos: Left courtesy of David McRobert. Right courtesy of Waste Management and Environmental Services Dept, City of Markham, Ontario.
face a 50 per cent higher illness rate, with infectious diseases being six times that of other workers. A 1999 US study indicated 39 fatalities to refuse collectors, as well as 17 to truck drivers and six to labourers in the five-year period between 1992 and 1997. Canada/Ontario Worker injury rates arising from recycling and waste management sectors have been increasing steadily in Ontario since the introduction of Blue Box programs in the 1980s. Data collected by the Ontario Workers’ Compensation Board (Worker Safety and Insurance Board) said garbage workers collecting municipal wastes, compostables, and recyclables sustain serious and repeated back injuries among other shocks, partly due to people overloading their garbage and recycling containers. Data collected by the Ontario Ministry of Labour indicated that there was a 13 per cent increase in injury in these sectors between 2010 and 2011. Types of Hazards Environmental occupational hazards in the MSW sector include improperly operating machinery/equipment, injuries involving motor vehicles and traffic, and lacerations from sharps during the processing of secondary materials. Chemical hazards like exposure to vehicular emissions, process chemicals and residues, and improperly disposed industrial waste are also a concern. Biological hazards involve exposure to sewage, contaminated waste, or medical wastes; physical hazards look like noise, vibration, and temperature extremes; and ergonomic hazards affect musculoskeletal health—repetitive strain, for example. Health symptoms and illnesses associated with outdoor work include upper respiratory, dermatological, upper and lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries, electrical shock and electrocution, cardiovascular system disorders, central nervous system and visual problems, lacerations, heat exhaustion, stroke, and death.
Hazardous Technologies and Processes The waste management processes and technologies most hazardous to workers include: • curbside collection of solid waste, white goods (e.g. fridges, stoves), recyclables, and compostables • landfilling operations, including compacting • anaerobic digestion composting • high temperature thermal treatments • materials recovery facilities (MRFs) • mechanical biological treatment (MBT) • transfer stations and waste recycling centres (HWRCs) • glass, plastic, and wood separation • recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) • metal crushing and aluminum separation • paper and cardboard baling.
Collection Injuries Some of the greatest threats to the health and safety of employees in the MSW sector are sustained in the nonautomated parts of the collection processes. Collectors, on average, are injured five to seven times more than the average worker. Most common injuries include fractures, sprains, wounds, soft tissue injuries, chemical burns, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, shoulders, and arms, and coronary related disease. solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 11
FEATURE How Much Waste do our Workers Collect and Handle? In Peterborough, Ontario, garbage collectors stopped and picked up multiple waste containers from an average of 1,200 locations each day in 2016. City by-laws stipulate a maximum weight of 50 pounds (23 kilograms) per lift or per container of garbage but residents do not always comply. Most homeowners are allowed to put out two bags or containers and this means each collector can pick up and throw as much as 120,000 pounds of waste a day into collection. There are five garbage collectors, three green waste collectors, and eight recyclable materials collectors for the City of Peterborough. City staff estimate that each year, these workers pick up approximately 14,000 tonnes of garbage, 5,600 tonnes of green waste, and 7,400 tonnes of recyclables, which adds up to 27,000 tonnes of waste—about the same weight as the Statue of Liberty or the equivalent of roughly 15,000 cars.
Source: Respect the Collect, a campaign to raise awareness of waste collection by the City of Peterborough, County of Peterborough and Progressive Waste Solutions. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Eighty-six respondents to an online survey about safety issues in the industry revealed 91 per cent of Canadian waste collectors, drivers, MRF operators, and supervisors believe the major problem for collection crews is failure to comply with established safety procedures. A large number of respondents were rear-loading truck operators, who also gave poor weather and visibility, and poor training and vehicle maintenance as contributing factors to waste vehicle accidents. Causes of Collection Injuries Perhaps the greatest threats to the health and safety of collectors are posed by vehicular traffic and equipment. To avoid accidents, truck operators and curbside handlers need to be vigilant and observant of other road users, aware of the risks that exist if the equipment is used inappropriately, and maintain highly visibility by wearing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). Riding on the steps of trucks from one pick-up location to another can be unavoidable in some rural settings but may be less appropriate in urban centres. Some OHS experts argue it may take longer for collection workers to walk on a pavement/sidewalk or to jump into the cab but these are the only safe ways of progressing along the collection route. Solid waste collection equipment and integrated facilities have become increasingly regulated to minimize work-related risks. By the mid 2000s, most waste collection in developed nations involved vehicles with low loading heights and easyto-lift plastic containers or bags. Waste sorting at materials recovery facilities involves dust suppression, conveyance enclosure, and ventilation-controlled work environments, and workers are required to wear personal respiratory protection if working spaces do not meet air standards set for occupational safety and health. Transfer Station Injuries Transfer stations are often crowded and space can be at a premium. This means while manoeuvering vehicles, visibility from on-site control areas, and even from those equipped with rear-facing, closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras, is often limited, making the risk of an accident high. Floors are often wet and greasy, which can reduce vehicles’ braking efficiency. Materials Recovery Injuries MRF injuries include those related to noise, hazards from treated material, machinery and handling equipment, manual sorting operations, and maintenance and repair tasks. These include contamination by biological or gaseous agents, and exposure to dust, noise, thermal stress, and inadequate lighting conditions, musculoskeletal injuries mainly due to repetitive movements and awkward working positions, hazardous waste including syringes, and fire hazards.
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FEATURE Importance of Training Workers
Some of the specific goals of the program include educating residents and users about:
Training workers is essential to their health and safety. In November 2011, BFI Canada Inc. was fined $150,000 violating the Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) after a worker’s foot was run over by a collection truck. In its court submissions, the Ontario MOL noted the worker from a temporary help agency was assigned to haul recyclable material from the curb and put it into a waste collection truck.
• the need for them to drive slowly around garbage workers and pass trucks and workers with care
While performing his duties on May 28, 2009, the injured worker got out of the truck while it was still moving and the truck ran over his foot. An MOL investigation found the company had safety procedures prohibiting workers from exiting a moving vehicle but the temporary worker was not properly trained.
• ensuring materials are not placed on the road
• municipal by-law weight restrictions for garbage set-outs • ensuring that materials can be easily seen and are not hidden behind parked cars or snow banks by keeping sight lines of drivers in mind during set-out
• wrapping sharp objects like broken mirrors or glass windows in newspaper or cardboard and placing them in the garbage • returning needles to the pharmacy for disposal
BFI Canada Inc. was found guilty of failing to provide information, instruction, and supervision to the worker with respect to safe operating procedures as required by the Provincial Offences Act. A 25% victim fine surcharge was also imposed.
Respect the Collect: An Effort to Address the Problems One of the most innovative initiatives addressing worker risks through education is Respect the Collect, a program in Peterborough, Ontario. Virginia Swinson, waste diversion section manager for the City of Peterborough, said Respect the Collect is intended to, “encourage residents to set out their waste and recycling properly, promote safer driving behaviours, and generally, increase respect for the workers.” Partners in Respect the Collect are the City of Peterborough (Waste Diversion Division and Public Works Division), County of Peterborough, and Progressive Waste Solutions—a private sector waste services provider serving the region. Some similar educational projects have been tried in Markham and the City of Edmonton, but to date Peterborough’s program is the best co-ordinated and most comprehensive. To date, the program has been funded from existing City and County budgets.
• sorting recyclables into applicable source separation categories such as papers, paperboards, glass, plastic, and metal containers • not placing broken glass such as Pyrex, light bulbs, etc. in Blue Boxes. Mayor of Peterborough, Daryl Bennett, explained in a widely distributed letter, the items workers pick up can be wet and heavy or broken with sharp edges, and each collector can pick up and throw as much as 120,000 pounds of waste a day. “This is why it’s important for us to restrict the weight of the waste that we put to the curbside,” he said. “Think of the worker doing that job. “The workers are collecting this waste in heat waves and deep freezes; they deal with icy conditions, towering snowbanks, parked cars blocking the way, and impatient drivers looking to swerve around the waste collection trucks. We all face challenges in our workplaces. Please take a moment to consider the people who collect your waste.” The summer 2016 campaign resulted in many positive quantitative and qualitative outcomes. The City’s Public Works office received 40% fewer complaints from residents and businesses about problems with collection of their
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FEATURE Frontline worker buy-in meant creating a clear message about the program’s aim to improve working conditions and make a very difficult, risky job a bit less so. garbage and green waste. Truck drivers reported residents and businesses significantly improved their set-outs and Progressive Waste feels the program could provide benefits in other communities it serves. Other positive impacts included 47 positive telephone messages, 27 positive emails, 55 thank-you notes left for City staff collectors, and 42 instances of drinks/snacks being left out for drivers and workers. The winter 2017 campaign was on-going at the time this article went to press. The launch of the campaign took place at an elementary school where children were educated about the importance of the program and wrote letters of support to the drivers and workers and received good coverage in local media. Adrian Joosse, district manager for Progressive Waste Solutions summed up the benefits of the respect campaign. “I believe the campaign was unique in several aspects: it was a collaboration between public/private interests designed to raise awareness in our community to help protect our workers and the pubic whom we all serve,” he said. “We all agreed raising awareness would be the primary goal and by all measurable accounts it has done this.
“They were excited as each month rolled by where we had no incidents and we celebrated those successes together,” said Joosse. “This ranged from recognizing drivers who received positive feedback via the website with Tim Horton’s cards to having group breakfasts prior to starting a shift. The front line workers will always be most responsible for this success.” Based on research and information available, many occupational health and injury problems could be minimized by implementing simple safety procedures and public education that cost little. Respect the Collect, and similar initiatives across Canada, are examples of low-cost education programs that can make a difference as we strive to promote environmental and social sustainability and healthier, more prosperous communities. ●● David McRobert is an Ontario-based environmental and energy lawyer and a blogger for HMM and SWR magazines. Between October 1994 and June 2010, he was InHouse Counsel at the Environmental Commissioner of Ontario and was involved in the establishment of the office. David has a B.Sc. in Biology from Trent University (1980), a Master’s degree, and an LL.B. degree from Osgoode Hall Law School (1987). He taught environmental law at York University between 1994 and 2009 and has numerous previous publications. If you want to reach David, contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org. or you can purchase David’s new book or visit his website for more information. http://www.amazon.com/Municipal-Recycling-Programmade-environmentalists/dp/1470127466/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1342614471 &sr=8-1&keywords=My+Municipal+Recycling+program+made+me+fat
“We have realized a large decrease in annual incident rates in Peterborough and Peterborough County. This includes a reduction in accidents as well as injuries. The public has become more aware and I believe we will see further changes to the way people think about setting out their materials for easy access.” Joosse also said driver buy-in was enthusiastic and essential to the program’s success. “Our drivers were excited to be involved,” he said. “We asked them to help us to identify key issues and how we could develop the message that would be most useful. “We were pleasantly surprised at the amount they wanted to contribute. Several of them took pride in appearing in the ads – one even spent several hours on his day off to go to the local radio station to record an advertisement, which aired during the campaign last summer.” Frontline worker buy-in meant creating a clear message about the program’s aim to improve working conditions and make a very difficult, risky job a bit less so.
WWW.RCBC.CA solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 15
© Can Stock Photo / tobkatrina
DISPOSAL BANS By / Maria Kelleher
DISPOSAL BANS, as the name implies, discourage the disposal of specific materials at landfills and EFW/ WTE facilities. There are a number of reasons why disposal bans are implemented: • To reduce disposed waste volumes • To preserve landfill space • To achieve diversion goals • To encourage or increase recycling and reuse of the banned materials, through economic incentives or disposal restrictions • Bans reduce landfill gas (LFG) production and contribute to GHG reduction goals, for organics or food waste landfill bans, in particular 16 » Solid Waste & Recycling
• Within the context of a circular economy, disposal bans preserve resources and ensure a supply of recyclable or organic material to local businesses. There are two general approaches to disposal bans: an outright ban where loads are turned away if they contain too much of the banned material—this causes a risk of illegal dumping when other options are not available; and, accepting loads with banned materials, but charging a higher fee. In Canada the surcharge on loads with banned materials can be 50 to 100 per cent on top of the regular fee. We have disposal bans in place at many transfer stations, landfills, and EFW
facilities across Canada, including at locations from Metro Vancouver and Nanaimo in BC to the Province of Nova Scotia and PEI in Eastern Canada. Disposal bans are also planned in many locations. The province of Quebec is planning province-wide bans on paper, cardboard (OCC), wood, and organics, phased in between 2020 and 2022. The province of Ontario has listed a number of potential disposal bans on a range of materials, including food waste, phased in as part of the final Provincial Strategy for a Waste Free Ontario Act: Building the Circular Economy, released February 28, 2017. The timing for the food waste ban is potentially 2022. The City of Calgary also has plans in this area.
DISPOSAL Materials that are subject to disposal bans in different locations include tires, OCC, Blue Box materials, wooden pallets or clean wood, various types of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), construction and demolition materials (C&D), gypsum wallboard, food waste, leaf and yard waste, and other specific materials. The Province of Nova Scotia implemented a province wide series of disposal bans starting in the mid1990s. This is the earliest and most comprehensive list of disposal bans in place in Canada at the provincial level, and a great case study for others to learn from. One feature of the Nova Scotia approach was the concept of “dry landfills” where organic waste was source separated as much as possible, thus minimizing biodegradable waste going to landfill where it would generate landfill gas (LFG). The concept was similar to the phased reduction of biodegradable waste permitted to be disposed in landfill in the EU under the EU Landfill Directive. Metro Vancouver is another location with a long history of disposal bans, starting in the 1990s with OCC and gypsum. Metro Vancouver has three categories of disposal bans which are implemented at six transfer stations, the Vancouver Landfill, and the WTE facility:
• Bans work if the rules are clear and they are properly enforced. As an example, the amount of organic waste diverted in Metro Vancouver has increased from 150,000 tonnes in 2008 to 372,000 tonnes in 2016, two years after the food waste ban has been in place
• Unanticipated events happen, so a contingency plan and business continuity plan is needed on how to address banned materials when something unexpected goes wrong. As an example, Metro Vancouver has a ban on mattresses. One of the two mattress recycling facilities was destroyed by fire in May, 2015. Luckily the company was able to quickly start operations again, but the event demonstrated the vulnerability of disposal bans to unexpected events.
• A graduated ban (starting with a higher acceptable rate of banned material, and slowly reducing the acceptable amount over time) is best and allows generators and haulers time to adjust. For instance, the EU Landfill directive used 1995 as a base rate, and had three graduated targets: reduce organic waste in landfill to 75 per cent of 1995 levels by 2006; 50 per cent by 2009, and 35 per cent by 2016.
• It is ideal if there are a number of processing options for banned materials, as well as some spare processing capacity.
• Public education is critical before, during, and after the ban is in place. A spokesperson is needed to explain who, what, when, where and why.
• Product stewardship materials (any materials covered in provincial EPR programs) • Operational impact materials (e.g. gypsum wallboard or mattresses)
• A surcharge is better than an outright ban. It is best that haulers
Enforcement officers can reject a load or accept a load for a higher fee. Loads containing > 5 per cent of the banned material are charged a +50 per cent penalty.
• Capture all waste in the ban. If people have the option to export waste to avoid the ban, then the purpose is lost, so find a way to impose the ban so that exporting waste to other locations is not a solution.
• Enforcement staff need significant training on how to recognize banned materials in loads
• A grace period of six months is a good idea—use this as an opportunity to educate waste generators and haulers, then after six months begin to impose the surcharges.
• Recyclable materials (e.g. OCC, recyclable paper, green waste, and food waste).
have options to dispose of loads with banned materials for a higher price. When it costs more money, the message will soon get through and behaviour will change.
So what have we learned about disposal bans that can be applied as more communities consider implementing them?
As communities across Canada consider disposal bans, it is important to learn from the experience of others, and we have lots of great experience to draw on. ●●
solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 17
Drywall Recycling: Keeping Gypsum out of the Landfill By / John Pahulje Photos courtesy of New West Gypsum Recycling
18 » Solid Waste & Recycling
ALMOST 30 YEARS AGO, the Greater Vancouver
Regional District (GVRD) in British Columbia became one of the first jurisdictions in the world to ban the disposal of gypsum from landfill sites. With this ban came opportunity. In an effort to ensure no gypsum ever made its way to a landfill, Tony and Gwen McCamley established New West Gypsum Recycling, Ltd. (NWGR) in 1985. Over time, a highlyefficient process was developed to pulverize the gypsum core and remove the backing paper, leaving the recycled gypsum ready for use. This process – now patented – is the cornerstone of in excess of five million tonnes of gypsum material NWGR has recycled to wallboard manufacturers. The recycled material is a consistent, quality blend of preand post-consumer gypsum material that is a readily available source for use in the manufacture of new drywall products. Since 1990, NWGR has been expanding its processing capabilities and currently operates facilities in North America and in Europe. NWGR has developed methods of recycling the paper backing for re-use in many different applications.
Today, NWGR plants have capacity for one million tonnes of material per year – and continuously strives to grow that number.
Any post-consumer materials like nails or screws are culled from the gypsum recycling process and moved through a separate recycling stream. Today, NWGR has well over 100 people employed at plants world-wide. The company can recycle dry and wet gypsum. Since there is no product degradation during the recycling process, gypsum can be infinitely re-used. NWGR works with recycling associations, green building associations, and governments to educate and bring awareness to industry stakeholders so landfill does not have to be a choice for gypsum. “As a business, our primary imperative is the re-utilization of materials,” said John Pahulje, vice-president of New West Gypsum. “The bottom line is we care about the environment and want to do our part to help make responsible decisions to positively affect where we live.” Today, NWGR plants have capacity for one million tonnes of material per year—and continuously strives to grow that number. “We will continue to invest in technology to gain process and quality efficiencies as well as cost reductions,” said Pahulje. The ideal solution for gypsum material is a closed-loop reutilization of the material, he said, meaning recycled material is returned to the wallboard manufacturer to re-enter the wallboard manufacturing process. “NWGR offers a closed-loop, sustainable solution that ensures gypsum is not ‘lost’ as it is with landfilling, composting or land spreading,” said Pahulje. “NWGR’s philosophy keeps gypsum material in the supply chain, reducing the need to extract virgin material, which helps to preserve valuable natural resources for generations to come.” Construction waste management guidelines are documented in every green building program. NWGR provides documentation and an audit trail to certify recycling of
gypsum materials for participants in programs such as LEED. The company’s 30-year business model relies on strong relationships with wallboard manufacturers who have consistently grown the recycled content of wallboard products. “We continually work with the wallboard manufacturers on process improvement and our modular equipment allows for efficient technology evolution,” said Pahulje. For more information contact New West Gypsum Recycling at 604-534-9925 or view the website at www.nwgypsum.com ●●
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solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 19
FROM TRASH TO TREASURE: THINKING OUTSIDE THE BLUE BOX By / Catherine Leighton Photos submitted by Partners in Project Green
20 » Solid Waste & Recycling
ASK ANY THIRD GRADER about the three Rs
of waste and they’ll know the answer: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. This famous waste hierarchy – the principle that establishes and prioritizes the most efficient method for managing resources – is well established in the minds of Canadians. The trouble is, we don’t always practise what we preach. As an organization dedicated to helping members of the industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) sector improve their sustainability, Partners in Project Green meets with a wide range of organizations. One thing we always ask about is the company’s waste management program. Organizations typically respond by describing the acceptance criteria for their diversion programs. Very occasionally, they might add some information about efforts to prevent waste generation or to reuse their materials. This tendency to prioritize recycling over prevention and reuse seems prevalent across many industry sectors. There are a variety of reasons, but the most common barriers are:
RECYCLING 1) Organizations may not know their materials can be reused. 2) Organizations may not have the time and resources to find others interested in taking their materials. 3) Organizations may not be aware of programs, like Material Exchange, that help to drive reuse within the ICI community. To jump-start reuse, we need to start thinking outside the Blue Box, and focus on ways to recapture and repurpose valuable resources before they become “waste.” And the best way to further this kind of circular-economy mentality is to promote business-to-business transfer of resources—turning one company’s trash into another’s treasure. To establish such connections, businesses need a simple, cost-effective solution. Partners in Project Green’s Material Exchange platform is an online community and marketplace designed to help local businesses improve their diversion rates using the waste hierarchy. Finding opportunities to reuse materials can be challenging for an individual organization. But when you’re part of a larger community, it can actually be one of the easiest ways to divert material from landfill. Whereas recycling requires a company to negotiate a host of complexities (such as recapturing, aggregating, washing, bailing, and transporting of material), reuse is simply a matter of sending material to a neighbouring business interested in making use of it. Here are a couple of recent success stories that show how the Material Exchange platform can create opportunities for reuse.
Robert Bosch Inc.: Waste and Recycling Bin Reuse Exchange While clearing out some storage space last year, Robert Bosch Inc. came across more than 80 surplus recycling and waste receptacles. While no longer of use to the organization, the bins were still in good condition. Bosch listed the receptacles on Material Exchange, which helped to facilitate a connection with Habitat for Humanity’s ReStore, a retail operation that accepts donations of used household and renovation materials. (All ReStore proceeds support Habitat for Humanity’s mission to help low-income families build affordable homes.) Habitat for Humanity collected the receptacles, free of charge, for resale at their ReStore outlets. Bosch saved the disposal costs and diverted 142 kg of material from landfill.
Region of Peel: Furniture and Household Goods Exchange The closure of Goodwill’s Toronto retail locations in 2016 left large volumes of material in sudden need of a home.
As a result of this team effort, more than 6,670 kg of material was diverted from landfill. Region of Peel found itself with material from three different Goodwill stores at its waste transfer sites. Reluctant to send this material to landfill, Peel contacted Material Exchange. Partners in Project Green conducted a site assessment and created an inventory of available material to post on the platform. This exchange proved especially complex given the short timelines, the many different types of materials, and the fact that multiple locations required support. Happily, Partners in Project Green managed to connect Region of Peel with two organizations that were able to reuse and resell the material: Habitat for Humanity and Oasis Clothing Bank. As a result of this team effort, more than 6,670 kg of material was diverted from landfill. Region of Peel has since partnered with Salvation Army Thrift Store for ongoing local reuse in their community. As these case studies demonstrate, good opportunities for reuse, on both the large and small scale, are more readily available to organizations that are part of a community committed to the circular economy. Partners in Project Green’s Material Exchange provides a space where organizations can share information about unused or desired resources, create connections with others looking to make exchanges, and ensure that reusable material stays out of landfill. Whether you’re dealing with newly available material or items that have been sitting in storage for years, our platform offers a simple, free solution. I’d challenge every organization out there to consider listing at least one material. Check out the platform at materialexchange.ca. ●● Catherine Leighton is the waste management co-ordinator at Partners in Project Green, an initiative of Toronto and Region Conservation and Toronto Pearson. She can be reached at email@example.com. For more information about Material Exchange, please visit www.MaterialExchange.ca. solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 21
Bin Sensor Technology Maximize Efficiency, Save Money By / Jessica Kirby Photo submitted by RecycleSmart RecycleSmart has deployed over 1500 sensors in waste dumpsters across Canada.
RecycleSmart is a Vancouver-
based company that uses bin sensor technology to monitor and adjust collection needs and cycles for businesses looking to maximize their efficiency and save on costs. On-going data collection and subsequent service adjustments shed light on unnecessary or poorly-timed pick-ups, help RecycleSmart ensure the correctly sized bins are in place, and give the company leverage to act as a liaison with haulers to create schedules that meet the customer’s needs and fit preset scheduling requirements. The process is gradual and calculated. If, for instance, a company begins with one bin going three times a week on average 30 per cent full, they could knock one collection off of the schedule. Monitoring for the next 30 days may see the bins going at 65 per
22 » Solid Waste & Recycling
cent full, and perhaps an additional pick-up could be removed. “We want to go to about 80 per cent and not have overflow,” said Collin Bell, managing partner with RecycleSmart. “We could be looking at the scheduling and size of bin and striving for 85 per cent efficiency.” This is one of the company’s biggest challenges—trying to get the haulers to go onto a more customized schedule. They have set routes, which means although RecycleSmart is looking at actual data that shows bins are never full on particular days, haulers aren’t willing or able to deviate from their prescribed pick-up days. “Basically, we are trying to move toward a dynamic model based on the customer’s needs, whereas industry runs on a preset schedule,” said Bell. “We know it isn’t realistic to call for
pick-up tomorrow, so we are checking every 30 days and making changes based on data trends. We are probably never going to get to the point where we are 100 per cent full at each collection, but we are aiming for close to that.” The goal is to work this program into the existing model and make it more efficient. As external factors like carbon taxes and traffic restrictions progress, they may come together to create the perfect storm for change, he said. RecycleSmart stays on as a permanent fixture in the program, monitoring the bins’ sensor data to drive accurate sustainability reporting, and to monitor vendor performance. “Once we have maximized efficiency, we want to be proactive rather than reactive to ensuring vendors are showing up and providing the correct service,” said Bell. “Instead of the customer calling us to say ABC Hauling didn’t show up,
“Instead of the customer calling us to say ABC Hauling didn’t show up, we want to be calling the customer to say ABC had a breakdown but will be there shortly.” we want to be calling the customer to say ABC had a breakdown but will be there shortly.” Founded in 2007, RecycleSmart works nationally, with satellite offices in Calgary and Toronto. With a focus on customers eager for innovation and early adopters of new technology, it tends to shy away from municipalities, educational facilities, and healthcare, which are typically locked into longer-term contracts and less able to make adjustments. Private, medium, and large businesses are the company’s main target customers— hospitality, commercial property managers, and multiple location retailers. A recent case example is a container monitoring and vendor management contract between RecycleSmart and Bentall Kennedy Canada’s Airport Executive Park in Richmond, BC Airport Executive Park (AEP) is a 35-acre park offering approximately 700,000 square feet of office space, 1,500 square feet of restaurant space, and a 4,500-square-foot daycare facility. RecycleSmart installed container sensors in all waste containers at the Airport Executive Park, managed the RFP to switch waste hauling vendors, and analyzed container fill level data to drive overall cost reduction at the property while maintaining a clean operating environment.
The on-going data monitoring is where RecycleSmart’s value proposition really kicks in—a property manager with 50 bins working to monitor its programs independently would have to log in, monitor, and schedule pick-ups for each receptacle per the information, a labour intensive tracking process RecycleSmart’s technology is able to simplify. “We have system checks automated to see what needs help and give a report,” said Bell. “Otherwise the customer would have to be doing it manually.” A company can have two stores in the same city, and while one is doing a great job, another can be struggling. “Owners will assume the same success rate, but they find out, it’s not so much.” Monitoring can help make recycling programs more successful by identifying problems, making the programs more convenient, and customizing them to fit each location. “One thing we learned from putting in sensors and looking at the data is people don’t know about their waste and recycling programs,” said Bell. “They think they know what is going on but once the data is out in the open, they have eye opening discoveries.” ●●
NEWS BITE MMBC Changes its Name to Recycle BC Multi-Material BC, the non-profit organization responsible for residential packaging and printed paper recycling throughout the province, has rebranded to Recycle BC. The clearly-defined name reflects an ongoing mandate to promote recycling best practices and the environmental benefits of recycling to residents through education. Launched as Multi-Material BC three years ago, Recycle BC provides recycling services to over 1.7 million households through curbside, multifamily and depot collection. The program is funded by the businesses that produce packaging and printed paper, meaning residents don’t pay for the service. Recycle BC is promoting the new brand with a challenge intended to get people talking and thinking about the importance of recycling. In partnership with the Vancouver Whitecaps, the organization is launching a social media contest that encourages residents to share their best recycling photos, ideas, and tips on Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, or the RecycleBC.ca website using the hashtag #RecycleBC for a chance to win suite tickets for a group of six, or pairs of tickets in monthly draws. Information is available at RecycleBC.ca. ●●
The property’s initial monthly service costs were $4,867, which RecycleSmart reduced in three stages to $4,041 for savings of $826 per month, or $9,912 per year. solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 23
Upgrade and Rehabilitation
© Can Stock Photo / gyn9988
of Landfill Gas Systems By / Helmut Blanken
LANDFILL GAS (LFG)
collection systems show a reduction in the LFG capture on lots of landfills. Landfill owners/operators experience a reduction in LFG capture, even if there is still sufficient organic substance in the waste and no gas emissions at the surface are detected. Lower LFG volumes impact the efficiency of the gas utilization and also may cause a non-compliance in the LFG collection efficiency. Reasons for the failure of the gas collection system are diverse. LFG extraction wells and the lateral collection system are key elements of a landfill gas collection system. Failure and/or reduction in performance may be caused by: • Air intrusion into the LFG system • Settlements of collection pipes • Blockage of filters in LFG extraction wells, due to high leachate levels and/or build-up of iron hydroxide or calcite. These impacts on the performance of the LFG collection system are mostly caused through inadequate design and/or lack of adequate control and maintenance. It is noted that the build24 » Solid Waste & Recycling
Figure 1: Landfill Gas Manifold Station. Photo submitted by Helmut Blanken
up of iron hydroxide or calcite in the filter of LFG extraction wells depends on waste composition and the moisture content in the waste. Landfills in wet climates may be more affected than landfills in dry climates. Based on the long-term operating experience and research, HBHE has developed a design approach that provides maximum collection efficiency, efficient monitoring, and control. As the clogging of LFG wells including the surrounding filter pack causes
significant impacts on LFG wells up to complete failure, the maintenance of LFG wells is a critical part to operate the LFG collection system most effectively. Based on the information gathered from a presentation at the 10th Leipziger Deponiefachtagung (Landfill Symposium) in 2013, HBHE Consulting developed a procedure for rehabilitation and maintenance of LFG wells, which includes the cleaning/ flushing of the surrounding filter pack. Upgrade of the LFG Collection System The monitoring, control, and
LANDFILL GAS maintenance of the landfill gas system is key for maximizing the collection efficiency. The density of waste in a landfill is different, depending on the age of the waste, waste composition, and the depth of the waste. The Regional District of Nanaimo experienced impacts on the performance of landfill gas wells through air intrusion, leachate mounding in LFG wells, and condensate in the collection system at the regional landfill, resulting in a decrease of the collected landfill gas. In order to move the collection efficiency towards the goal of 75 per cent collection efficiency, as defined in the BC Landfill Gas Regulations and to provide best landfill gas management practice, the LFG system at was upgraded in 2010/2011. The existing LFG System included 30 vertical extraction wells and three horizontal gas drains. These gas wells were connected to a lateral collection system. The system was monitored and controlled at each well location. The upgrade of the system included the following measures: • Level controlled leachate pumps were installed in LFG wells, which showed high levels of leachate, causing blinding of the filter • Installation of four manifold stations • Installation of four LFG wells • Connection of LFG wells and horizontal drains to the manifold station, with the exception of nine LFG wells, which shall be connected to a future manifold station at the north side of the landfill • Installation of condensate knockouts attached to the manifold station.
Volume of LFG destroyed (m3)
Average Methane concentration (%)
Table 1: Results of the landfill gas collection at the Regional Landfill Nanaimo for the years 2009 to 2013.
• More accurate control of each LFG well • Maximum capacity of each individual LFG well • Improvements on balancing of the LFG collection field • Improvements on monitoring of the lateral collection piping, detection of blockages • Effective condensate management • Less time for monitoring and control • Less downtime • Safer work conditions for monitoring and control • Increase of collection efficiency.
time of the landfill and during the post-closure period. The performance of LFG wells can vary significantly. The capacity for new wells is not foreseeable. For this reason LFG wells, in particular good performing LFG wells, must be kept in good condition. Regular maintenance, as it is common practice for leachate collection systems, should be conducted for LFG wells on a regular basis. The frequency depends on the local conditions such as climate, waste composition, etc. The goal of the maintenance/rehabilitation is to remove iron hydroxide or calcite from the gravel filter and from the filter pipe.
Table 1 above shows the results of the landfill gas collection at the Regional Landfill Nanaimo for the years 2009 to 2013.
There are several known procedures used in drinking water well maintenance including:
It is noted that in 2011 the Regional District of Nanaimo implemented a food waste collection program, resulting in a significant diversion of organic waste from the landfill.
The LFG wells were connected to the manifold stations separately to allow for individual monitoring and control of the wells and lateral piping. Each connection included a separate condensate knockout.
Maintenance of the LFG Collection System The waste mass is a heterogenic composition of materials, inert and organic. Over time, iron hydroxide and/or calcite builds up in the gravel filter and in the holes or slots in the filter pipe of LFG wells, leading to a reduction of the negative pressure in the surrounding waste and, accordingly, a decrease in LFG capture. The build-up of iron hydroxide or calcite depends on the moisture content in the waste.
The results of this upgrade were:
LFG wells must function for the active
• Rehabilitation with ultra sound • Rehabilitation with pressure impulse • High pressure cleaning and additional chemical application. Since the conditions in the landfill environment (landfill gas, layout of the LFG wells, access to the wells, chemistry, etc.) are different, the applicability of those methods is limited. Further, working in the landfill environment, in particular landfill gas, requires experience and know-how in dealing with the special qualities of a landfill. A procedure, developed from the classic well rehabilitation and experience from the leachate drain maintenance, led to improved performance of LFG wells.
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This procedure involves the following steps: • Remove installations in LFG wells • Flush with nitrogen • Clean with high pressure using a special rotating nozzle • Install the packer as directed by the engineer • Inflate the packer with nitrogen • Injection solvent • Repeat procedure until the full length of the filter has been covered. After the procedure is completed, installations are re-installed and the LFG well can be put back in operation. The rehabilitation must be properly planned and supervised by a professional. Settings of the packer and application of solvents differ depending on the local circumstances. The work requires a stringent health and safety plan for working in the landfill gas environment and working with chemical/biological solvents. This system goes beyond the pipe cleaning using water pressure. It allows for a controlled infiltration of the solvent into the surrounding gravel filter to dissolve iron hydroxide or calcite to regain permeability of the 26 » Solid Waste & Recycling
filter systems. The system is suitable for regular maintenance of LFG wells and/or rehabilitation of failing LFG wells.
• Experienced staff • Suitable and sufficient cleaning solvent, to be determined by the engineer.
The work must be properly documented for complete records of work steps, timing, and application of solvents. After that work is complete, a camera inspection should be conducted. The effectiveness of the rehabilitation will be documented by measuring flow rate and pressure at the LFG well before and after the process.
Summary The efficiency of an LFG collection depends on the layout of the LFG wells and the lateral collection system. The design of the LFG wells is determined by local conditions such as waste composition, depth of the landfill, waste compaction, and cover system. The system should be designed to allow for most efficient operating and maintenance including condensate management. Cost for operating and maintenance and expected lifespan of the system should be considered in the design.
It is noted, that the efforts/costs for the rehabilitation of the gas well also depend on the design of the LFG well with respect to accessibility, layout of the filter, and installations. In this regard, the design should consider the accessibility for maintenance and/or rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of an LFG well requires the following labour, equipment, and material: • Explosion proof camera equipment • Vacuum truck and high pressure flushing equipment • Explosion proof pump system • PPE suitable for working in a landfill gas environment
To maintain a high collection efficiency, LFG wells must be maintained on a regular basis. The procedure as described in this article allows for cleaning of the LFG well and surrounding filter, leading to significant extension of the lifespan for an LFG well. The drilling of replacement wells may not provide equivalent performance and can be avoided. ●●
Regulatory Developments Across Canada Stewardship Executives Charged with Diversion of Eco Fees Two former executives with Ontario Tire Stewardship are facing provincial charges for alleged misappropriation of eco-fees paid by Ontario drivers on tire purchases. The Investigations and Enforcement Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change charged the two executives under the Waste Diversion Act. Ontario Tire Stewardship had a surplus of approximately $50 million in consumer paid fees last year based on approximately $70 million in fees collected. Since notice of the charges, a decision has been made to shut down Ontario Tire Stewardship, which is the smallest of the three recycling programs operated in Ontario. Ontario Tire Stewardship will be eliminated under new legislation designed to improve recycling in Ontario. The Executive Director of Ontario Tire Stewardship has been given a deadline of October 31, 2017 to submit a wind-up plan, with operations to cease by December 31, 2018. Significant Fines for Violations of PCB Regulations Substantial fines have been imposed for violations of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (“CEPA”) and the PCB Regulations on two companies in relation to PCBs. One of the companies is a major Montreal property management firm and was fined $975,000 for improper handling of electrical equipment containing PCBs. The company pleaded guilty to 52 charges after an investigation found that the company did not comply with the environmental protection compliance orders issued by enforcement officers. The company also did not meet its obligations relating to use, storage, and disposal of electrical equipment
●● policy and law By / Rosalind H. Cooper
containing PCBs, and failed to submit reports on the use and storage of its electrical equipment. In addition to the fine, the company will have to publish an article on the facts surrounding the violation and develop procedures to manage contaminated electrical equipment for all of its buildings and provide training to managers and staff. Similarly, another company located in Montreal was found guilty of six charges and fined $765,000 for a large release of PCBs into the environment. The company was directed to set up an environmental management system and provide training on the legal consequences of violating environmental legislation to its Canadian managers, as well as publish an article on the facts surrounding the offences. An investigation showed that several violations of CEPA and the Regulations occurred, including the release of more than 146 kg of PCBs into the environment; failing to notify of the release as soon as possible; taking all possible measures to prevent the release of PCBs in the environment; and, failing to submit annual reports for 2008, 2009, and 2010 within the required deadline. New Brunswick Raises Handling Fees for Beverage Containers The Province of New Brunswick recently filed a regulation under the Beverage Containers Act, which raises handling fees payable to redemption centres. The Regulation provides that, from December 2016 to March 31, 2017, inclusive, $0.03044 was to be paid for each empty refillable beer container and $0.04262 for all other empty beverage containers. After April 1, 2017, $0.03120 is to be paid for each empty refillable beer container and $0.04368 for all other empty beverage containers.
New Stewardship Plan for Suppliers of Automotive Related Materials Ontario’s new Automotive Materials Stewardship’s Industry Stewardship Plan will be officially open, as of April 1, 2017, to handle waste diversion obligations for its member companies. The automotive materials covered include antifreeze and antifreeze containers, empty oil containers, and oil filters. Companies that supply automotive materials to the Ontario market currently handle their own waste diversion obligations through Stewardship Ontario’s Municipal Hazardous or Special Waste program, and the stewardship fees paid by industry stewards finance the collection, transport, and recycling obligations. With the transition to the new Automotive Materials Stewardship’s Industry Stewardship Plan, automotive stewards will have published and predictable fees with per unit rates, which will include the publication of an annual fee table to members in advance of each program year to assist with budget forecasting. There will also be annual savings of up to $2.5 million by allowing the program operator to claim input tax credits for HST paid on obligated materials. Stewards have the choice of remaining with Stewardship Ontario until the existing program is wound down or can transition to the Automotive Materials Stewardship’s Industry Stewardship Continued on page 31 solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 27
Fake Recyclers are Hurting the Industry: What we can do about it “All ships rise with the tide” is an old expression that is especially true in the waste management industry. On a dayto-day basis, customers care little about how and where we manage their waste and recyclables. They begin to care greatly if they find out that they’ve been duped into believing that their waste was being managed responsibly or their recyclables were being recycled. Bad hombres that do not handle waste and recyclables in a responsible manner hurt us all. Bad Hombres A recent court case out of the United States highlights how a bad hombre can tarnish the reputation of the entire industry. The case involves a recycling company in Iowa that was recently found guilty of violated a number of environmental laws. The company, Feinberg Recycling, specializes in scrap metal recycling. The State of Iowa sued the company for violating a number of environmental regulations. The State claimed the company was melting down scrap aluminum in a furnace and that hazardous air pollutants were being released to the atmosphere. Under Iowa State law, the company was required to have a permit to operate the furnace. The judge ruled against the company and ordered it to pay a $125,000 fine and dismantle the furnace. Canada is not immune to bad hombres. In 2015, a company based in British Columbia known as Electronics Recycling Canada was charged in convicted in a BC Provincial Court for contravening the Canadian Environmental Protect Act. The company pled guilty to exporting hazardous recyclable material to Asia without a permit. The materials included lead acid batteries and used nickel-cadmium batteries. The company received a $40,000 penalty. 28 » Solid Waste & Recycling
By / John Nicholson
By / John Nicholson, M.Sc., P.Eng. Impact on Industry Bad hombres hurt the entire industry. News stories of waste & recycling companies misdirecting recyclables or improperly disposing of waste erodes the public trust in the industry. Manufacturers, commercial companies, open door policy. It offers tours of its and municipalities that rely on waste facilities and environmental education & recycling companies to manage programs. Its facilities have 24-hour recyclables and waste appropriately community response lines. may begin to lose confidence in the Secondly, companies can encourage industry. third-party audits of the facilities and Although there are no specific surveys operations and share the findings undertaken in recent years on the trust with customers. Such audits are not Americans, Canadians, and corporations uncommon in the United States. This is have that their waste and recyclables partly due to the difference in the waste are being managed appropriately, there management regulatory regime in the are surveys that demonstrate that the US vs Canada. For example, in Ontario, 3Rs and landfill diversion are important “ownership” of waste and recyclables to them. For example, in a 2014 survey gets transferred by the waste receiver. by the National Waste & Recycling This “ownership” transfer does not Association in the US found that 77 per occur to the same extent in some US cent of those surveyed understood the jurisdictions. importance of implementing an organics Thirdly, waste and recycling companies management program for sourcecan support customer’s efforts at separated organics instead of disposing implementing the 3Rs and have of it with general household waste. A higher goals such as “zero waste”. By Canadian survey commissioned by the partnering with customers on 3R and Canadian Plastics Industry Association zero waste initiatives, your waste and (CPIA) in 2014 found that 66 per cent recycling company is demonstrating its of those surveyed supported energy-tocommitment to a long-term relationship waste technology. An overwhelming 89 that goes beyond just getting rid of per cent preferred that non-recyclable waste. U-PAK, an Ontario-based waste plastics go to an energy-from-waste management and recycling company, facility rather than a landfill. is a good example of a company that What to Do works with its customers on achieving To prevent the erosion of trust in the zero waste goals. ●● waste and recycling industry, there are several things companies can do. The Are you looking for first action by a company is to focus on digital advertising transparency. By allowing customers options? SW&R has and the public to tour the operation will some great options alleviate any apprehensions they may availble so contact your have. An example of this transparency sales representative can be seen at Waste Management today for more Inc., the largest waste and recycling information. company in the world. WM Inc. has an
Digest What You Eat: Practical Suggestions for Successful M&As in the Waste Industry Hugh Latif is a highly respected and known management consultant. He is the author of Maverick Leadership. Latif believes as we enter the new year, we can expect to read the usual list of major acquisitions. Many of you are familiar with the standard benefits offered by mergers and acquisitions: 1. Acquiring market share 2. Diversification of product and service offerings 3. Increasing plant capacity distribution channels
4. Acquiring specific strategic expertise, R&D, and/or assets 5. Reduction of financial risk. In addition, acquisitions are attractive because of the speed of growth effect that comes from owning new assets and resources almost overnight. Instead of waiting to achieve results through regular organic growth, the acquisition route to results is so much quicker. You make a one-time investment, which hits your balance sheet just once. Entering into an acquisition, the major consulting and accounting firms stand ready to help. This includes helping you identify targeted companies, put together a plan of attack, evaluate, negotiate and finance the deal, do the legal paperwork, address fiscal strategy, and obtain government approval (often for larger acquisitions). These firms provide all the help you need during the making of the deal. But
●● mergers By / Mark Borkowski President, Mercantile Mergers & Acquisitions Corp.
once the acquisition is consumed and advisors collect their fees, the army of accountants, lawyers, experts, and advisors leave. They wish you much success for many happy years, but now it is just you left alone to sort out the new customers acquired, the new employees that are now members of your family, the new assets that were purchased, and most importantly, the new culture you’ve just inherited. Latif believes that when you need help the most, nobody is around to put together these two organizations, or in other words, help you digest what you just ate. This is the main reason acquisitions fail. Eating (the actual acquisition) is not the problem; it is the digestion that leads to success or failure. Post-acquisition planning and execution is the main reason acquisitions fail. For an acquisition to succeed, there must be a comprehensive plan in place, ideally one that has been researched well and put together by the new team, not consultants and advisors. Many acquisitions have earn-out clauses, meaning a portion of the agreed upon price of the deal is paid up front, and a second part is earned and paid as the benefits of the M&A are realized. Why not have advisors and consultants paid in the same manner? This would solve 80 per cent of the problems. The second big reason M&As fail has to do with the acquisition price. In the interest of consuming the deal, the acquiring company often ends up paying too much simply because
the valuation was made by nonindependent interested party(ies). Remember the value of advice is in direct relationship to the expertise of the giver, and in indirect relationship to the degree of their involvement. True advice must come from an expert who is independent. Valuations should be made by an independent party. I suggest separating the brokering from the advice. If your expert advisor fees are directly tied to the value of the deal, they benefit from a higher price and not a lower one. “In my new book Maverick Leadership, I dedicated a chapter to sustaining your business performance,” said Latif. “The chapter explains, among other things, the six key ways for building moats around your business. I also gave examples of failed and successful acquisitions—it makes for some interesting reading, if I must say so myself.” Hugh Latif of Hugh Latif & Associates in Vaughan, Ontario is a management consultant who helps mid-size, private companies with strategy, succession planning, and HR. He is author of a new book, Maverick Leadership. ●● Mark Borkowski is president of Mercantile Mergers & Acquisitions Corp. Mercantile is a mid market M&A brokerage firm. He can be reached at www. mercantilemergersacquisitions.com.
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●● around the world
EDSNA Provides a Sustainable Waste Management System for Attica Attica Prefecture includes the capital of Greece, Athens, and has a population of 3.8 million people; sustainable waste management systems are important to manage the 2.1 million tonnes of municipal waste generated annually.
hook loader loads the containers for transport to the Fyli sanitary landfill site. The Scania hook loader vehicles are weighed before leaving the transfer station their net container weight is recorded.
EDSNA is the solid waste management authority responsible for managing waste produced from Athens and the other sixty-six municipalities making up Attica Prefecture. To manage these large volumes, EDSNA has built and operates a network of waste management facilities.
The waste transfer station complies with all environmental regulations. It has a water spray system to reduce dust produced in the tipping areas. A drainage system extracts any leachate produced by the static compactors when compressing the waste into the enclosed containers. These leachates are collected in a tank and treated on site to reduce their BOD, COD, and ammoniacal nitrogen levels. The cleaned water is discharged into the sewer system.
Waste Transfer Station The Schistou waste transfer station, constructed in 1991 and located near Piraeus, processes 900 tonnes of municipal waste daily and is operational 24 hours. Municipalities from the surrounding area deliver waste in conventional waste collection vehicles to the waste transfer station. The island of Salimina also delivers waste to the Schistou waste transfer plant, via a ferry to Piraeus. The waste is then driven the short distance to the plant. Upon arrival, waste collection vehicles are weighed and pass through a radiation detector. They proceed to one of two tipping platforms where they discharge their loads into a waste storage bunker before returning to the weighbridge so their tare weights can be established before leaving site. Waste is transferred from the bunkers using two steel buckets, pulled by wire cables, into the apertures of four Marrel static compactors. Each compactor feeds waste into closed 30 cubic metre roll-on-off containers, which, once loaded, are lifted from the by a Mercedes SK 8x4 Kaoussis Multilift HL32.56 hook loader and placed in the container storage compound. There, a Scania 8x4 Kaoussis Multilift LHT320.56
Sanitary Landfill Site The Fyli sanitary landfill site at Ano Liosia disposes of 6,000 tonnes of municipal waste a day collected across Attica. It accepts 1.8 million tonnes of municipal waste a year. Fyli is the largest sanitary landfill site operated in Greece and in Europe. Waste is delivered directly by municipalities in collection vehicles, or by waste transfer vehicles coming from Schistou or other waste transfer stations around the periphery of Attica. Upon arrival, all waste is weighed at a series of weighbridges. The waste collection vehicles also pass through a radiation detector. The landfill receives all waste coded ‘20’ in the European Waste Catalogue e.g. 20 03 01, 20 03 02, and 20 03 03; and, waste coded ‘19’ e.g. 19 12 10 and 19 12 12 waste transfer station / pre – treatment outputs. Once the waste collection vehicles have been weighed, they drive along the haul road to the tip face of the landfill where they discharge their loads. Next, they return to a series of weighbridges so that their tare weights can be established before leaving the site. Landfill compactors
By / Timothy Byrne
compress the freshly deposited waste into the landfill cell, and bulldozers cover the waste with soil to prevent vermin from feeding on it. The landfill site complies fully with the requirements of the EU Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC). It is lined and collects leachate, which is treated in a desalination plant on site using the reverse osmosis system. The fresh leachate entering the treatment plant is received in a settling tank. The heavies fall to the bottom of the tank from a suspension while flocculation is achieved with the light fraction remaining on the top. The leachate is further treated to reduce its BOD, COD, and ammoniacal nitrogen content before being discharged into the sewer network. Methane is burnt on site using a series of flare torches. Electricity is harnessed from the burnt methane through a series of energy generator sets. The landfill is split into two phases. Phase one is currently being filled while phase two is being engineered for landfill operations. Phase two will commence operations within the next year. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Recycling Plant EDSNA has also constructed a mechanical biological treatment (MBT) and recycling plant at Ano Liosia next to its sanitary landfill. The plant processes 1,200 tonnes of waste a day equating to 600,000 tonnes of municipal and recyclable wastes a year. On arrival, waste collection vehicles solidwastemag.com » April / May 2017 » 30
●● advertiser index are weighed and pass through a radiation detector. The vehicles proceed to the tipping platform to discharge their loads into a waste storage bunker before returning to the weighbridge so their tare weights are recorded before leaving site. The facility has a number of waste storage bunkers split by partitions. Some receive raw municipal waste while the others receive commingled recyclables collected from the blue coloured 1,100 litre waste containers EDSNA provides for residential recyclables collection. Waste inside the waste storage bunkers is transferred to a network of conveyor belts by overhead gantry cranes with cactus grabs where it is processed using manual and mechanical techniques. The recyclable commodities are extracted e.g. glass, paper, cardboard, plastics e.g. HDPE, TETRAPAK, LDPE, and ferrous and non-ferrous cans. The organic waste fraction is mixed with green waste and composted using the open windrow aerobic process. The remaining non-recyclable fractions are converted into a secondary recovered fuel (SRF), and disposed of inside the sanitary landfill site. Recycling and Education EDSNA promotes recycling to the wider population across Attica. Containers for the collection of paper and cardboard were recently rolled out to schools
to increase diversion rates. EDSNA has also provided the blue coloured 1100 litre containers for the deposit of plastics, paper, and cardboard, and blue coloured igloos for commingled glass. These containers are placed at communal collection points throughout Attica. The collection of small batteries is widely encouraged and the company provides Attica municipalities plants for green waste shredding. The output can be turned into compost. Future Waste Treatment in Attica EDSNA plans to move away from sanitary landfills for the treatment of municipal waste. The existing MBT and recycling plant at Ano Liosia will be expanded with an additional capacity of 350,000 tonnes processing capacity per annum. An additional network of five smaller MBT plants will be built around the periphery of Attica. This will help treat waste nearer to where it is produced, reducing the carbon footprint. The objective is to recover as many recyclable materials from the waste stream as possible, leaving a minimal fraction disposed of in locally constructed sanitary landfill cells. Five new sanitary landfill cells will be constructed inside inactive quarries or mines for the deposit of the non-recyclable waste fraction. The output fraction will be easier to manage since there will be very little BOD and ammoniacal nitrogen to treat. The
output will be more COD-based, which is more stable to treat. Methane will also be flared off site and electricity harnessed from it through energy generator sets. The company will continue environmental monitoring and closedsite rehabilitation activities to stabilize leachate and methane. ●●
Regulatory Developments Across Canada Continued from page 27
Plan by signing a letter of intent with Automotive Materials Stewardship. After signing the letter, stewards will be provided with a membership agreement to confirm participation and stewards must confirm that they will continue to comply with Stewardship Ontario’s rules for stewards under the existing program until the new Automotive Materials Stewardship’s Industry Stewardship Plan becomes effective on April 1, 2017. The new Automotive Materials Stewardships Industry Stewardship Plan was approved by the Resource Productivity and Recovery Authority, formerly known as Waste Diversion Ontario. ●●
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