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4HE SECOND SEMESTER OF WAS CERTAINLY NOT A TIME FOR IDLENESS AS FAR AS THE )&!3 2ESEARCH TEAM WAS CONCERNED 4HANKS TO THE HARD WORK OF &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR DURING HIS PERIOD OF TRANSITIONAL SERVICE AT )&!3 SEVERAL MAJOR EVENTS ON THE (ISTORY AND !RCHAEOLOGY OF PEOLPLE S SETTLEMENT IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA TOOK PLACE BETWEEN !UGUST AND .OVEMBER 4HE "REUIL AND +HOEKHOE #ONFERENCES AS WELL AS THE SEMINAR ON ,ITHIC 4ECHNOLOGIES AND #HAÔNES OPÏRATOIRES WERE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPING STRUCTURING PARTNERSHIPS WITH VARIOUS SCHOOLS FROM THE 5NIVERSITY OF THE 7ITWATERSRAND IN THIS REGARD LET US THANK +ARIM 3ADR "ENJAMIN 3MITH AND 'EOFF "LUNDEL IN PARTICULAR WITH SEVERAL REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND UNIVERSITIES .2& THE 5NIVERSITIES OF .AMIBIA AND #APE 4OWN AMONG OTHERS AND WITH &RENCH AND %UROPEAN RESEARCH TEAMS AND INSTITUTIONS #.23 ).2!0 !%2! !#) "REUIL THE -USÏE .ATIONAL DE LA 0RÏHISTOIRE AND THE -USÏE .ATIONAL D (ISTOIRE .ATURELLE 4HESE EVENTS WERE ALSO AN OPPORTUNITY TO OFFER TRAINING TO AROUND FORTY !FRICAN AND %UROPEAN STUDENTS OF !RCHAEOLOGY ! DETAILED ACCOUNT OF ALL THESE EVENTS IS GIVEN IN THE h&OCUS ONxv SECTION OF THIS ISSUE 2ESEARCH IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IS CONTINUING THANKS TO THE lELD WORK OF VARIOUS RESEARCHERS IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA AND THE COMPLETION OF THE *OHANNESBURG -APUTO AND ,UBUMBASHI BASED QUANTITATIVE SURVEYS 4HIS PROGRAMME WAS PARTICULARLY SUCCESSFUL WITH THE ALLOCATION OF THREE TENDERS IN I E THE )NTERNATIONAL -IGRATIONS 2ESEARCH 4ENDER FROM THE &RENCH $EPARTEMENT OF &OREIGN !FFAIRS THE &RENCH .ATIONAL 2ESEARCH !GENCY 4ENDER AND A #.23 *UNIOR RESEARCHERS TENDER FOR PART OF THE TEAM THUS OFFERING LONG TERM PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPING THIS RESEARCH AXIS WELL INTO &INALLY A REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS ORDERED BY THE !GENCE &RAN AISE DE $ÏVELOPPEMENT VIA THE &ONDS D ANALYSE DES SOCIÏTÏS POLITIQUES DIRECTED BY *EAN &RAN OIS "AYART WAS SUBMITTED IN $ECEMBER FOR PUBLICATION SOMETIMES IN )&!3 S COMMITMENT IN THE )NTERNATIONAL 2ESEARCH 'ROUPING '$2) ON h'OVERNING !FRICAN #ITIESv CO ORDINATED BY ,AURENT &OUCHARD #%!. AND 3IMON "EKKER 5NIVERSITY OF 3TELLENBOSCH WAS FURTHERED WITH THE RECRUITMENT OF !NNE ,EILDÏ IN 3TELLENBOSCH AND 'ODFREY #HESANG IN *OHANNESBURG WHO ARE BENElTING FROM POST DOCTORAL BURSARIES FOR A THREE MONTH STAY AT THE #%!. OF "ORDEAUX IN AT THE TIME OF THE HALF WAY SEMINAR OF THIS '$2) )N .OVEMBER #LAIRE "ÏNIT 'BAFFOU (32# AND #HRISTINE &AUVELLE !YMAR 5NIVERSITY OF 0ARIS 3ORBONNE ORGANISED A COLLOQUIUM ON h,OCAL 0ARTICIPATION IN $EMOCRATIC 3OUTH !FRICA $ECENTRALISATION ,OCAL #OUNCILLORS AND #IVIL 3OCIETY IN 0OST !PARTHEID #ITIESv AS PART OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME THEY CO ORDINATED WITH FUNDING RECEIVED FROM THE )&!3 TRANSVERSAL PROGRAMME h$EMOCRATIC 4RANSFORMATIONS IN %MERGING #OUNTRIESv 2ESULTING FROM AN (32# )&!3 AND #5"%3 7ITS PARTNERSHIP THIS COLLOQUIUM GATHERED AN IMPORTANT AND DIVERSIlED NUMBER OF ACADEMICS LOCAL COUNCILLORS AND ACTIVE MEMBERS OF VARIOUS ASSOCIATIONS TESTIFYING TO THE PREGNANCY OF LOCAL PARTICIPATION ISSUES IN 3OUTH !FRICA TODAY 4HUS IT LOOKS LIKE IS GOING TO BE AS INTENSE AS WITH THE EXCITING PROSPECT OF PUBLICATIONS BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THE VARIOUS PROGRAMMES AND CONFERENCES ,ET US MENTION AMONG OTHERS THE LAND ISSUE SECURITY PRIVATISATION AND SEVERAL NEW THESES COMPLETED IN ON 3OUTHERN !FRICA ! NEW PROGRAMME ON LINGUISTIC POLICIES AND THE MODERNISATION OF !FRICAN LANGUAGES SHOULD SOON SEE THE LIGHT GATHERING RESEARCHERS OF ,,!#!. THE 5NIVERSITY OF 0RETORIA AND THE -ERAKA )NSTITUTE OF THE #3)2 3EVERAL IMPORTANT COLLOQUIA AND SEMINARS ARE UNDER PREPARATION ON ISSUES CONCERNING DEMOCRATIC CHANGES INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND )SLAM 4HE )&!3 RUN PROGRAMME ENTITLED h!FRICAN 0ERSPECTIVES ON 2ETHINKING $EVELOPMENT %CONOMICSv AN INTERNATIONAL TRAINING SEMINAR ON $EVELOPMENT %CONOMICS WILL BE HELD IN -AY THANKS TO THE 3OUTH !FRICAN $EPARTMENT OF 4RADE AND )NDUSTRY AND TO THE %MBASSY OF &RANCE IN 3OUTH !FRICA &INALLY WITH .ICOLAS 0ÏJOUT 6INCENT $ARRACQ AND .ICOLAS 0ONS 6IGNON COMPLETING THEIR DOCTORAL RESEARCH )&!3 WILL BE HOUSING THREE NEW BURSARY HOLDERS !DRIEN $ELMAS OF THE #ENTRE FOR (ISTORICAL 2ESEARCH #2( OF THE %(%33 A (ISTORY STUDENT .ATHANAÑL 4SOTSA OF THE 5NIVERISTY OF "ORDEAUX )6 A 0OLITICAL 3CIENCE STUDENT AND -AUD /RNE 'LIEMAN 5NIVERSITY OF -ONTPELLIER ))) A STUDENT IN 'EOGRAPHY AND 7ATER -ANAGEMENT )&!3 2ESEARCH WOULD LIKE TO THANK ITS IN HOUSE TEAM FOR ALL THE EXCELLENT WORK ACCOMPLISHED IN AND TO THANK IN PARTICULAR ALL THE COMMUNITIES OF &RENCH %UROPEAN AND !FRICAN RESEARCHERS WHO ARE ITS RAISON D ÐTRE 7E WISH YOU ALL A FRUITFUL !URELIA 7! +!"7% 3%'!44) s 2ESEARCH $IRECTOR

TABLE RI FRQWHQWV %DITORIAL h"USY %ND OF 9EAR AT )&!3 2ESEARCHv BY !URELIA 7! +!"7% 3%'!44)

2ESEARCH 0ROGRAMMING n ND SEMESTER

)&!3 2ESEARCH %VENTS

)&!3 2ESEARCH !CTIVITIES

2ECENT 0UBLICATIONS .OT TO BE MISSED IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA

0LACE OF (ONOUR FOR (ISTORY AND !RCHAEOLOGY DURING THE 3ECOND 3EMESTER OF )&!3 #.23 (ISTORY AND !RCHAEOLOGY 2ESEARCH 7ORKS 0ERSPECTIVES

)&!3 )2$ #.23 #ALENDAR OF EVENTS AND LIST OF PUBLICATIONS #HIEF EDITOR !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI 0UBLICATION -ANAGER $ENISA ,EAH 4RANSLATOR ,AURENT #HAUVET 4HE VIEWS AND OPINIONS EXPRESSED IN THIS PUBLICATION REMAIN THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE AUTHORS

CONTACT GHWDLOV

"USY YEAR END

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)N THE lELD OF (ISTORY AND !RCHAEOLOGY OF PEOPLE S SETTLEMENT IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA THREE EVENTS TOOK PLACE DURING THE SECOND SEMESTER OF AS PART OF THE )&!3 #.23 PARTNERSHIP AND THE PERIOD OF TRANSITIONAL SERVICE OF &RANÂ OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR AT )&!3 FROM *UNE TO !UGUST ! COMPLETE REPORT IS DEDICATED TO THIS lELD IN THE &OCUS /N SECTION OF THE NEWSLETTER &IELD TRIPS CARRIED OUT WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THIS PROGRAMME "RUNO "/3# :!.!2$/ DOCTORAL STUDENT IN !RCHAEOLOGY 5NIVERSITY OF 4OULOUSE ,E -IRAIL CARRIED OUT A lELD TRIP IN .AMIBIA THANKS TO THE SPONSORSHIP OF THE &RENCH %MBASSY IN 7INDHOEK FROM THE ST TO THE TH OF $ECEMBER GIVING HIM AN OPPORTUNITY TO GET IN TOUCH WITH LOCAL ARCHAEOLOGISTS 5NIVERSITY OF .AMIBIA AND -USEUM OF 7INDHOEK TO CARRY OUT A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH AND AN EVALUATION OF AVAILABLE MUSEUM COLLECTIONS WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF HIS DOCTORATE ON h#ULTURAL $YNAMICS AND %VOLUTION OF ,ITHIC 0RODUCTION 3YSTEMS BETWEEN THE %ND OF THE -ESOLITHIC AND THE .EOLITHIC 0ERIODS #ONTRIBUTION OF THE 4ECHNOLOGICAL 3TUDY OF !RMATURESv AND TO EVALUATE THE RELEVANCE OF FUTURE RESEARCH ON KITCHEN MIDDENS ON BEHALF OF .ICOLAS 6ALDEYRON LECTURER AND RESEARCHER REPORTING TO THE SAME LABORATORY &RANÂ OIS 8AVIER &!56%,,% !9-!2 WENT ON TWO lELD TRIPS ON THE TH AND TH OF !UGUST IN 5PINGTON TO CARRY OUT ARCHIVAL RESEARCH AT THE 0ELLA -ISSION 3TATION .ORTHERN #APE AND THE $IOCESE OF +EIMOES ON THE TH OF *ULY IN 'RAHAMSTOWN TO IDENTIFY AND STUDY THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF +WAAIHOEK 0ADRAO DE $IAS WITH A VIEW TO A PUBLICATION "AATLHODI *UDGES -/$)+7! STUDENT AT THE $EPARTMENT OF !RCHAEOLOGY 5NIVERSITY OF THE 7ITWATERSRAND UNDERTOOK A RESEARCH TRIP THAT ENABLED HIM TO PARTICIPATE IN A .EOLITHIC %XCAVATION AT ,A 0ERTHE DU #ROS DIRECTED BY +ARIM 'ERNIGON 54!( ,ABORATORY THE UPPER 0ALEOLITHIC SITE AT 2EGISMONT LE HAUT DIRECTED BY &RANCOIS "ON 54!( ,ABORATORY AS WELL AS THE -ESOLITHIC SITE AT #UZOUL DE GRAMAT DIRECTED BY .ICOLAS 6ALDEYRON 54!( ,ABORATORY FROM THE TH OF !UGUST TO THE TH OF 3EPTEMBER

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4HIS FOCUS AREA BRINGS TOGETHER VARIOUS RESEARCH EVENTS AROUND THE 0ROGRAMME ON h)MMIGRATION 4RANSIT AND 5RBAN 4RANSFORMATION IN 0OST !PARTHEID 3OUTHERN !FRICA #ITIES *OHANNESBURG ,UBUMBASHI -APUTOv RESEARCH 0ROGRAMME 4HIS PROGRAMME CO ORDINATED BY ,OREN " ,ANDAU &ORCED -IGRATION 3TUDIES 0ROGRAMME 7ITS 5NIVERSITY AND !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI )&!3 INVOLVES THE FOLLOWING INSTITUTIONS THE &ORCED -IGRATION 3TUDIES 0ROGRAMME 7ITS 5NIVERSITY THE #.23 52-)3 3/,))3 ,ABORATORY THE 5NIVERSITY OF ,ILLE THE 5NIVERSITY OF ,UBUMBASHI THE 5NIVERSITY %DUARDO -ONDLANE AND )&!3

!CTIVITIES 4HE SECOND WORKSHOP OF THE PROGRAMME TOOK PLACE IN !UGUST IN *OHANNESBURG !T THE END OF THE lELD TRIPS OF %LISE 0ALOMARES 52-)3 AND $OMINIQUE 6IDAL ,ILLE IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA THIS WORKSHOP GAVE EACH AN OPPORTUNITY TO PRESENT THEIR RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY ! lRST LOT OF RESEARCH ARTICLES WILL BE EXCHANGED INTERNALLY IN *ANUARY WITH A VIEW TO A lNAL PUBLICATION $OMINIQUE 6IDAL PRESENTED THE RESULTS OF HIS LAST THREE lELD TRIPS DURING THE &ORCED -IGRATION 3TUDIES 0ROGRAMME SEMINAR AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF THE 7ITWATERSRAND 0RESENTATIONS 4HE QUANTITATIVE PART OF THE PROGRAMME WAS PRESENTED BY !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE '$2) #.23 SEMINAR h'OVERNING !FRICAN #ITIESv ON .OVEMBER TH AND TH IN 3TELLENBOSCH ! WORKSHOP ORGANISED ON .OVEMBER TH BY 3CARLET #ORNELIESEN OF THE 0OLITICAL 3CIENCE $EPARTMENT OF 3TELLENBOSCH 5NIVERSITY ON h4RANSNATIONALISM -IGRANT 3PACES AND #ITIZENSHIP 0ERSPECTIVES FROM !FRICA AND %UROPEv GAVE !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI THE OPPORTUNITY TO READ AN ARTICLE ON THE lRST RESULTS OF THE SURVEY ON -IGRANTS AND THE #ITY #ATHERINE 1UIMINAL %LISE 0ALOMARES AND !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI (ER ARTICLE DEALT WITH h!FRICAN 4RADERS AND THE #ITY -IGRATION 4RADIENG .ETWORKS AND 3TATE $YNAMICS IN THE *OHANNESBURG #ONTEXTv 4HE THREE QUANTITATIVE SURVEYS ON *OHANNESBURG -APUTO AND ,UBUMBASHI WERE COMPLETED IN /CTOBER AND THEIR ENTRIES lNALISED IN $ECEMBER 7ITH A SAMPLING OF PEOPLE THESE SURVEYS BASED ON A QUESTIONNAIRE USED BY 7ITS ET 4UFTS 5NIVERSITIES IN IS TO PRODUCE NEW DATA ON MIGRANT POPULATIONS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT ,OREN ,ANDAU AND !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI TOOK PART IN A SEMINAR CO ORDINATED BY *OSEPH +ANKU AND $ONATIEN $IBWE IN !UGUST IN ,UBUMBASHI WITH A VIEW TO TRAIN THE TWENTY #ONGOLESE INTERVIEWERS IN THE SPECIlC METHODOLOGY OF THIS SURVEY #OMBINING QUANTITATIVE RIGOUR IN THE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND THE FORMAT OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE WITH A CONCERN FOR QUALITY IN THE TRAINING OF INTERVIEWERS THE DURATION OF EACH INTERVIEW FROM H TO H AND THE NATURE OF THE QUESTIONS POSED THESE MULTI SITE SURVEYS ARE MEANT TO BE REUSED IN FUTURE AND TO SERVE AS BASIS FOR THE QUALITATIVE EMPIRICAL WORKS OF THE SUB PROJECTS OF THE PROGRAMME 6ARIOUS lELD TRIPS WILL TAKE PLACE IN #AROLINE +IHATO AND *EAN 0IERRE -ISAGO DOCTORAL STUDENTS AT 7ITS IN *OHANNESBURG $OMINIQUE 6IDAL IN -APUTO AND *OHANNESBURG AS WELL AS %LISE 0ALOMARES #ATHERINE 1UIMINAL AND !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI IN *OHANNESBURG 4WO CALLS FOR TENDERS RELYING ON SOME MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIATED TEAMS WERE SUCCESSFUL AND USED CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THIS PROGRAMME 4HE -)42!.3 PROJECT 4RANSIT -IGRATION IN !FRICA ,OCAL AND 'LOBAL $YNAMICS 0OLICY -ANAGEMENT AND !CTORS %XPERIENCE CO ORDINATED BY THE #.23 52-)3 3/,))3 ,ABORATORY AND )&!3 WAS SUCCESSFUL IN ITS REQUEST FOR FUNDS WITH THE &RENCH !GENCE .ATIONALE DE LA 2ECHERCHE 4HE -INORITIES AND &OREIGNERS IN !FRICAN #ITIES 0UBLIC 0OLICIES 0RACTICES AND 2EPRESENTATIONS PROJECT WAS ALSO SUCCESSFUL WITH A CALL FROM THE #.23 FOR !4)0 *UNIOR 2ESEARCHERS 4HIS PROJECT WILL BE CO ORDINATED BY THE #%!. OF "ORDEAUX TOGETHER WITH )&!3 4HE REPORT ON i -IGRATION IN 0OST !PARTHEID 3OUTH !FRICA #HALLENGES AND 1UESTIONS TO 0OLICY MAKERS w COORDINATED BY !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI AND ,OREN ,ANDAU CONTRACTED

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BY THE &ONDS D ANALYSE DES SOCIÏTÏS POLITIQUES &!3/0/ WAS SUBMITTED TO THE $ÏPARTEMENT 2ECHERCHE DE L !GENCE &RAN AISE DE $ÏVELOPPEMENT IN $ECEMBER )TS PUBLICATION IS PLANNED FOR SOMETIMES IN 4HE RESULT OF A COLLECTIVE WORK BETWEEN 3TEPHEN %LLIS 5NIVERSITY OF ,EIDEN $ARSHAN 6IGNESWARAN ,OREN ,ANDAU AND 'AYATRI 3INGH &ORCED -IGRATION 3TUDIES 0ROGRAMME 7ITS 5NIVERSITY AND !URELIA 7A +ABWE 3EGATTI OF )&!3 THE REPORT EXAMINES THE MAIN ISSUES DOMINATING THE DEBATE ON IMMIGRATION IN 3OUTH !FRICA I E THE NEED FOR QUALIlED LABOUR AND THE DIFlCULT CONCILIATION BETWEEN SHORTAGE AND PROTECTIONIST EMPLOYMENT POLICY THE LEGACY OF A DISCRIMINATORY MIGRATION SYSTEM AND THE CONSTRAINTS WEIGHING ON A MIGRATION POLICY THAT HAS BEEN REFORMED WITH DIFlCULTY SINCE THE END OF APARTHEID THE CHALLENGE OF IRREGULAR IMMIGRATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ADMINISTRATIONS IN CHARGE OF MIGRATION CONTROL AND THE SPECIlC IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION ON THE LOCAL STRUCTURES OF GOVERNANCE &INALLY A COLLOQUIUM ATTEMPTING TO TAKE STOCK OF KNOWLEDGE ON THE EVOLUTION OF MIGRATION STUDIES IN !FRICA FOCUSING PARTICULARLY ON THE HISTORIOGRAPHY AND ETHNOGRAPHY OF MIGRATION IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA ON RECENT THEORETICAL ISSUES AND ON METHODOLOGICAL DEBATES WILL TAKE PLACE AT THE END OF ! CALL FOR PAPERS WILL BE SENT IN *ANUARY &IELD TRIPS CARRIED OUT WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE PROGRAMME $OMINIQUE 6)$!, ,ECTURER IN 3OCIOLOGY AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF ,ILLE COMPLETED A lELD TRIP IN 3OUTH !FRICA FROM THE TH OF *ULY TO THE TH OF 3EPTEMBER TO WORK ON HIS PROJECT ENTITLED h-OZAMBICAN -IGRANTS IN *OHANNESBURG -EMBERSHIP )DENTIlCATION AND 0OLITICAL 0RESENCEv %LISE 0!,/-!2%3 ,ECTURER IN 3OCIOLOGY AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF 2OUEN AND ASSOCIATE RESEARCHER WITH THE 52-)3 ,ABORATORY COMPLETED A lELD TRIP TO CONDUCT SURVEYS IN *OHANNESBURG AND $URBAN WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SUB PROJECT ENTITLED h-IGRANTS AND THE #ITYv FROM THE TH OF *ULY TO THE TH OF !UGUST !URELIA 7! +!"7% 3%'!44) AND ,OREN ,!.$!5 COMPLETED TWO lELD TRIPS

FROM THE TH TO THE TH OF !UGUST A lELD TRIP WITH A VIEW TO SET UP THE QUANTITATIVE SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY ON ,UBUMBASHI

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FROM THE TH TO THE TH OF .OVEMBER A lELD TRIP TO TAKE PART IN THE COLLOQUIUM OF THE %UROPEAN 5NION $EVELOPMENT .ETWORK ON h-IGRATIONS AND $EVELOPMENT 7HO "ENElTS v ORGANISED BY THE !&$ IN 0ARIS

0ROJECT ,EADERS &RÏDÏRIC 6AIREL FRÏDÏRIC VAIREL CEDEJ ORG EG &LORIAN +OHSTALL mORIAN KOHSTALL CEDEJ ORG EG #%-#! 'UATEMALA 4RANSFORMATIONS OF ELECTORAL PROCESSES POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY IN -EXICO AND #ENTRAL !MERICA #ONTRIBUTION TO A COMPARATIVE ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY OF ,ATIN !MERICA 0ROJECT LEADER 7ILLIBALD 3ONNLEITNER WSONNLEI YAHOO COM #3( .EW $ELHI )NDIA S DEMOCRATIC RENEWAL IN QUESTION 0ROJECT LEADER 3TÏPHANIE 4AWA ,AMA 2EWAL 3TEPHANIE 4AWA ,AMA 2EWAL EHESS FR )&!3 (32# 0RETORIA 1UESTIONING THE PLACE OF LOCAL PARTICIPATION IN A DEMOCRATISING COUNTRY $ECENTRALISATION LOCAL COUNCILLORS AND CIVIL SOCIETY IN POST APARTHEID #APE 4OWN AND *OHANNESBURG 0ROJECT LEADERS #LAIRE "ÏNIT 'BAFFOU CBENIT HSRC AC ZA #HRISTINE &AUVELLE !YMAR CFAUVELL UNIV PARIS FR )&!3 (32# 0RETORIA $EMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION IN COSMOPOLITAN SOCIETIES ! COMPARATIVE PROJECT 0ROJECT LEADER )VOR #HIPKIN )#HIPKIN HSRC AC ZA )&0 0ONDICHÏRY )NSTITUTIONALISING )NDIAN -EDICINES #HALLENGES TO 'OVERNANCE AND 3USTAINABLE $EVELOPMENT 0ROJECT LEADER ,AURENT 0ORDIÏ LAURENT PORDIE IFPINDIA ORG

)N ORDER TO FACILITATE EXCHANGES BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT PROJECT TEAMS INVOLVED IN THIS PROGRAMME TEAMS FROM COUNTRIES AN INTERACTIVE PLATFORM HAS BEEN SETUP PROVIDING BOTH AN OVERVIEW OF THE DIFFERENT PROJECTS INCLUDING SOME OF THEIR RESEARCH RESULTS AND A SECURE SPACE FOR THE VARIOUS TEAM MEMBERS TO SHARE IDEAS AND INFORMATION 4HE PLATFORM CAN BE VISITED AT WWW IFAS ORG ZA DEMOCRATIC?TRANSFORMATION 4HE TEAM WORKING ON h$ECENTRALISATION ,OCAL #OUNCILLORS AND #IVIL 3OCIETY IN *OHANNESBURG AND #APE 4OWNv )&!3 (32# CO ORDINATED BY #LAIRE "ÏNIT 'BAFFOU AND #HRISTINE &AUVELLE !YMAR HELD THEIR CLOSING COLLOQUIUM ON THE TH AND ST OF .OVEMBER IN *OHANNESBURG )N ADDITION TO PRESENTING THE RESULTS OF THE TEAM S RESEARCH THE AIM WAS ALSO TO COMPARE THESE RESULTS AND VARIOUS OTHER APPROACHES WITH THOSE OF OTHER RESEARCHERS WORKING ON SIMILAR TOPICS -OST OF THE PAPERS PRESENTED CAN BE VIEWED IN DRAFT FORM ON THE INTERACTIVE PLATFORM

#ONTACT DETAILS OF THE PERSONS IN CHARGE OF THE RESEARCH PROJECTS

4HE )&0 TEAM FROM 0ONDICHERRY WORKING ON h)NSTITUTIONALISING )NDIAN -EDICINESv CO ORDINATED BY ,AURENT 0ORDIÏ HELD A WORKSHOP ON THE TH AND TH OF $ECEMBER ENTITLED h4HE INSTITUTIONALISATION OF 4HERAPEUTIC 0RACTICES IN )NDIAv 7HILE THE INSTITUTIONALISATION OF MEDICINE IN )NDIA HAS BEEN APPROACHED IN QUITE A NUMBER OF ACADEMIC WORKS ITS COLLECTIVE AND COMPARATIVE STUDY ON A PAN )NDIAN SCALE HAS NEVER BEEN UNDERTAKEN TO DATE 4HE AIM OF THE WORKSHOP WAS TO OFFER A PRELIMINARY UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONTEMPORARY PROCESSES HISTORY AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF MEDICAL INSTITUTIONALISATION IN THE COUNTRY

!S PART OF THE h8 #ONGRESO #ENTROAMERICANO Y ) #ONGRESO .ACIONAL DE 3OCIOLOGÓAv IN !NTIGUA 'UATEMALA THE #%-#! TEAM WORKING ON h%LECTORAL 4RANSFORMATION IN -EXICO AND #ENTRAL

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#%$%* #AIRO 0OLITICAL %LECTIONS IN THE -AKING -ORE THAN A -OMENTUM OF 2EFORM IN THE -IDDLE %AST

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!MERICAv AND CO ORDINATED BY 7ILLIBALD 3ONNLEITNER ORGANISED A &ORUM ON h4HE 4RANSFORMATIONS OF THE $EMOCRATIC 0ROCESSES IN #ENTRAL !MERICA v ON THE TH OF /CTOBER 4HE #%-#! ALSO PARTICIPATED IN THE ORGANISATION OF THE )NTERNATIONAL #OLLOQUIUM ON h-IGRACIONES Y &RONTERASv ON .OVEMBER IN #HIAPAS -ÏXICO WHICH INCLUDED A SESSION CO CHAIRED BY 7ILLIBALD 3ONNLEITNER ON h4HE .EW 'EOGRAPHY OF 0OLITICAL 0ARTICIPATION IN #HIAPASv 4HE #(3 TEAM WHO IS WORKING ON h)NDIA S $EMOCRATIC 2ENEWAL IN 1UESTIONv PROCEEDS THROUGH THE REGULAR CONFRONTATION OF ONGOING INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROGRAMMES IN THE FORM OF A MONTHLY SEMINAR ON h4HE &ORMS /BJECTS AND 3TATES OF 0OLITICAL -OBILISATION IN #ONTEMPORARY )NDIAv

&IELD TRIPS COMPLETED WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THIS PROGRAMME

4HE )&!3 (32# PROJECT CO ORDINATED BY )VOR #HIPKIN ON h$EMOCRATIC #ONSOLIDATION IN #OSMOPOLITAN 3OCIETIESv WILL HOLD A SYMPOSIUM ON h#OSMOPOLITAN #ITIZENSHIPv FROM THE TH TO THE TH OF !PRIL AT THE (32# IN 0RETORIA -ORE INFORMATION WILL BE AVAILABLE ON THE INTERACTIVE PLATFORM CLOSER TO THE EVENT

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4HE lRST DAY OF THE COLLOQUIUM PLACED (ENRI "REUIL IN THE COLONIAL CONTEXTS OF THE TIME AND CONlRMED THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ROLE HE PLAYED IN THE HISTORY OF 3CIENCES IN !FRICA AND %UROPE 4HE SECOND DAY ANALYSED "REUIL ARCHAEOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES IN !FRICA $URING THE THIRD DAY THE SPECIlC CONTRIBUTIONS OF !BBÏ "REUIL TO 3OUTH !FRICAN !RCHAEOLOGY IN TERMS OF PRACTICES INTERPRETATIONS AND INSTITUTIONAL INPUTS WERE DEBATED )NFORMATION RELATING TO THE COLLOQUIUM AND EACH TIME WHERE POSSIBLE ALL THE ARTICLES OR PAPERS OF PARTICIPANTS HAVE BEEN SYSTEMATICALLY PLACED ONLINE ON THE )&!3 2ESEARCH WEBSITE WWW IFAS ORG ZA RESEARCH ! SELECTIVE PUBLICATION OF THE COLLOQUIUM PROCEEDINGS WILL BE SUBMITTED TO THE 3OUTH !FRICAN !RCHAEOLOGICAL "ULLETIN ! PUBLICATION FOLOWING UP ON THE COLLOQUIUM AND COMPILING SOME OF THE PAPERS IS PLANNED FOR O )NTERNATIONAL -ULTIDISCIPLINARY 3EMINAR ON THE (ISTORY AND !RCHAEOLOGY OF THE +HOE+HOE 0OPULATIONS 0AARL 7ESTERN #APE .OVEMBER 4HIS INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR lNANCED AND ORGANISED BY )&!3 AND THE #.23 TOOK STOCK OF THE CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ON THE +HOEKHOE POPULATIONS OF 3OUTHERN !FRICA 4HE MISSING LINK BETWEEN EARLY MIGRATIONS #ENTRAL !FRICAN "ANTU SPEAKING POPULATION INPUTS AND EARLY 3OUTHERN !FRICAN POPULATION SPECIlCITIES THE STUDY OF THESE POPULATIONS AIMS REACH WORKABLE DElNITIONS ANALYSE ETHNIC CATEGORISATION AND UNDERSTAND BETTER THROUGH THEM THE ORIGINS OF FOOD PRODUCTION IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA THE DIFFUSION OR MIGRATION BASED MODES OF TRANSMISSION OF THE MATERIAL AND SYMBOLIC CULTURES OF THESE POPULATIONS AND RElNE THE PERIODISATION OF THE

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MAJOR PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE -ESOLITHIC AND .EOLITHIC ERAS 'ATHERING EXPERTS IN VARIOUS DISCIPLINES FROM %UROPE THE 5NITED 3TATES AND 3OUTHERN !FRICA THIS INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR AROSE FROM THE NEED TO COMPARE THIRTY YEARS AFTER THE PIONEERING WORKS OF RESEARCHERS SUCH AS 2ICHARD %LPHICK AND #HRISTOPHER %HRET THE KNOWELDGE ACCUMULATED ON THE +HOEKHOE POPULATIONS OF 3OUTH !FRICA AND THE ORIGIN OF BREEDING ECONOMICS AND FOOD PRODUCTION IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA #ONCEIVED ON THE MODEL OF THE 3CHOOL OF !MERICAN 2ESEARCH IN 3ANTA &E .EW -EXICO TO FACILITATE INTENSIVE AND INTERDISCIPLINARY WORK THIS SEMINAR GATHERED FROM THE TH TO THE TH OF .OVEMBER IN 0AARL 7ESTERN #APE THIRTEEN EXPERTS HISTORIANS ARCHAEOLOGISTS ROCK ART SPECIALISTS LINGUISTS GENETICISTS AND ANTHROPOLOGISTS WHO GAVE LONG PRESENTATIONS ON THE MOST RECENT RESULTS IN THEIR RESPECTIVE DOMAINS 4HIS ENCOUNTER IS ALSO THE RESULT OF A RESEARCH PROGRAMME CO ORDINATED BY &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR (ISTORIAN #.23 )&!3 FROM AND +ARIM 3ADR !RCHAEOLOGIST (EAD OF THE !RCHAEOLOGY $IVISION AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF THE 7ITWATERSRAND

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4HE FOLLOWING RESEARCHERS TOOK PART IN THE SEMINAR !LAN "ARNARD %THNOLOGIST 5NIVERSITY OF %DIMBURG 5+ &RANCOIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR (ISTORIAN #.23 -!% &RANCE 4OM 'ULDEMANN ,INGUIST -AX 0LANCK )NSTITUT 'ERMANY 7ILFRID (AACKE ,INGUIST 5NIVERSITY OF .AMIBIA "ERND (EINE ,INGUIST 5NIVERSITY OF #OLOGNE 'ERMANY *OHN +INAHAN !RCHAEOLOGIST .AMIBIA #HRISTA +OENIG ,INGUIST 5NIVERSITY OF #OLOGNE 'ERMANY !LAN -ORRIS (UMAN "IOLOGY 5NIVERSITY OF #APE 4OWN 3OUTH !FRICA +ARIM 3ADR !RCHAEOLOGIST 5NIVERSITY OF THE 7ITWATERSRAND 3OUTH !FRICA !NDREW " 3MITH !RCHAEOLOGIST 5NIVERSITY OF #APE 4OWN 3OUTH !FRICA "ENJAMIN 3MITH 2OCK !RT 3PECIALIST 5NIVERSITY OF THE 7ITWATERSRAND 3OUTH !FRICA (IMLA 3OODYALL 'ENETICIST -EDICAL 2ESEARCH #OUNCIL 3OUTH !FRICA AND $ETLEF 'RONENBORN 3ENIOR ,ECTURER AND 2ESEARCH #URATOR 2OEMISCH 'ERMANISCHES :ENTRAL -USEUM

3IX EXPERTS OFFERED THEORETICAL AS WELL AS PRACTICAL TEACHING AND GAVE PUBLIC CONFERENCES 4HEY ARE *EAN -ICHEL 'ENESTE $IRECTOR OF THE #ENTRE NATIONAL DE 0RÏHISTOIRE 0!#%! 0AOLA 6ILLA #URATOR -USEUM OF #OLORADO &RAN OIS "ON 3ENIOR ,ECTURER AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF 4OULOUSE LE -IRAIL 5-2 54!( 6INCENT -OURRE 0OST DOCTORAL RESEARCHER 5-2 54!( .ICOLAS 4EYSSANDIER TEMPORARY ,ECTURER AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF 4OULOUSE LE -IRAIL 5-2 54!( AND 3YLVAIN 3ORIANO 2ESEARCH 3CIENTIST AT THE #.23 5NIVERSITY OF 0ARIS 8 .ANTERRE #O ORDINATED BY &RAN OIS "ON AND +ARIM 3ADR THIS SEMINAR GATHERED STUDENTS ALL CONlRMED AND PROFESSIONAL !RCHAEOLOGISTS FROM ALL 3OUTH !FRICAN !RCHAEOLOGICAL $EPARTMENTS AS WELL AS FROM THE 5NIVERSITY OF "OTSWANA AND THE !RCHAEOLOGY $IVISION OF THE "OTSWANA .ATIONAL -USEUM AND A FEW %UROPEAN STUDENTS

4HE OBJECTIVE OF THE ENCOUNTER WAS TO BRING ABOUT THE PUBLICATION OF A REFERENCE WORK SOMETIMES IN &AR FROM PERMANENTLY RESOLVING THESE DEBATES THIS SEMINAR AND THE FUTURE PUBLICATION SHOULD OFFER A CRITICAL PRESENTATION OF THE MOST RECENT KNOWLEDGE AND ONGOING DEBATES THUS PAVING THE WAY FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

! TRAINING WORKSHOP WAS ORGANISED WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE &RENCH %MBASSY IN 3OUTH !FRICA )&!3 THE #.23 AND THE .2& FROM THE TH TO THE TH OF .OVEMBER #HAÔNES /PÏRATOIRES ANALYSIS A WELL DEVELOPED lELD OF &RENCH !RCHAEOLOGY IS LITTLE KNOWN IN THE ANGLOPHONE WORLD AND IS NOT PART OF ANY !RCHAEOLOGICAL CURRICULUM IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA 4HIS TYPE OF ANALYSIS MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO UNDERSTAND PROCESSES THAT CANNOT OTHERWISE BE BROUGHT TO LIGHT BY DESCRIPTIVE TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSES 4HANKS TO THE ACCURATE AND REASONED DESCRIPTION OF A TECHNICAL PROCESS CHAÔNES OPÏRATOIRES ANALYSIS AIMS NOT ONLY TO PLACE OBJECTS IN THEIR TECHNICAL CONTEXT BUT ALSO TO INFER INFORMATION ON THE SOCIO ECONOMIC CONTEXT INTO WHICH ELABORATION TOOK PLACE )T IS INDEED THE JOINT ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL TRADITIONS AND WAYS OF LIFE THAT MAKE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS PROCESS POSSIBLE

7ITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE LONG STANDING SCIENTIlC PARTNERSHIPS ESTABLISHED ON THE OCCASION OF THE h+HOESAN !RCHIVESv PROGRAMME l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hFOUNDINGv THESES ON PROCESSES AS WITH THE WORKS OF .ICOLE 0IGEOT *ACQUES 0ELEGRIN *EAN -ICHEL 'ENESTE AND %RIC "OÑDA THE TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH CONSTITUTES HENCEFORTH IN &RANCE AT LEAST THE REFERENCE METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF STUDIES FOCUSING ON THE MATERIAL CULTURE OF PREHISTORIC POPULATIONS BE IT FOR LITHIC INDUSTRIES BONE TOOL INDUSTRIES ORNAMENTAL INDUSTRIES ETC /NE OF THE THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS APPROACH IS THAT OF THE h4ECHNICAL 3YSTEMv AN EXPRESSION BORROWED FROM %THNOLOGISTS 4HIS NOTION MEANS THAT ALL THE TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES OF A HUMAN GROUP ARE STRUCTURED AROUND INTERDEPENDENT SUB SYSTEMS !S SUCH STONE WORKING IS AS THE CASE MAY BE LINKED TO HIDE WORKING PROJECTILE MANUFACTURING AND BUTCHERY OR STILL TO BODY ORNAMENT MANUFACTURING AMONG OTHERS 7HILE EACH SUB SYSTEM DESERVES TO BE STUDIED FOR ITS OWN VALUES THIS APPROACH CONTRIBUTES TO ITS INSERTION INTO THE TECHNICAL SYSTEM AS A WHOLE 4HE TECHNICAL SYSTEM IS WHAT REPRESENTS THE CULTURAL IDENTITY OF A GROUP AS REGARDS ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE MATERIALS THROUGH THE MANY ACTIVITIES PRACTICED

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/NE OF THE METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF THIS APPROACH IS THE DESCRIPTION OF THE CHAÔNES OPÏRATOIRES 4HIS EXPRESSION REFERS TO ALL THE SUCCESSIVE OPERATIONS REQUIRED TO REALISE A TECHNICAL ACTION &OR EXAMPLE IN THE lELD OF HARD STONE KNAPPING IT CONCERNS THE PHASES OF MATERIAL COLLECTION AS WELL AS TRANSFORMATION lRST CUTTING SHAPING ETC AND USAGE OF THE TOOL THUS PRODUCED !S SUCH RESTORING AN OBJECT INTO ITS DYNAMIC REALISATION AND UTILISATION PROCESS ENABLES ONE TO DESCRIBE ACCURATELY THE SKILLS AND INTENTIONS OF THE CRAFTSMAN 4HE SUM OF SUCH KNOWLEDGE AND INTENTIONS MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO PROGRESSIVELY RECONSTITUTE SOME OF THE FACETS OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED TECHNICAL SYSTEM

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURES OF PREHISTORIC GROUPS AND AS SUCH TO RENEW OUR VISION ON THE EVOLUTION OF THESE SOCIETES &RAN OIS "ON 3ENIOR ,ECTURER 5NIVERSITY OF 4OULOUSE LE -IRAIL 5-2 54!(

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! NUMBER OF JOINT RESEARCH AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES DEVELOPING LINKAGES BOTH SIDES ON AND IN RELATION WITH 3OUTH !FRICA HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTED )N ADDITION TO THE OPERATIONS MENTIONED EARLIER AS REGARDS COLLOQUIA AND THOSE MENTIONED HEREUNDER THESE ACTIONS ARE IDENTIlED AS FOLLOWS )NDIVIDUAL 2ESEARCH 7ORKS &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR h&OUR 7ORDLISTS OF %XTINCT #APE +HOEKHOE FROM THE TH #ENTURYv 3TUDIES IN !FRICAN ,INGUISTICS FOR PUBLICATION ;#RITICAL ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL $UTCH +HOIKHOI MANUSCRIPT LEXICONS DISCOVERED AT THE "RENTHURST ,IBRARY !RTICLE SUBMITTED EDITED AND ACCEPTED UNDER PRESS=

7ITH SUCH AN APPROACH INPUTS ARE NOT LIMITED SIMPLY TO THE DESCRIPTION OF TECHNICAL FACTS BUT MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO INTERPRET ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS EXPLAINING THE ELABORATION AND UTILISATION OF ONE TOOL OR ANOTHER )N OTHER WORDS THE TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH AIMS NOT ONLY TO ESTABLISH A CLASSIlCATION AS FOUND WITH DESCRIPTIVE TYPOLOGY BUT ALSO TO IDENTIFY THE TECHNICAL SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VALUES CONVEYED BY THE OBJECT 4HIS APPROACH OFFERS MANY APPLICATIONS &OR INSTANCE LET US MENTION WHAT RELATES TO HARD ROCK KNAPPING LEARNING WHICH WE CAN TRY TO UNDERSTAND IN CERTAIN CONTEXTS THANKS TO THE DElNITION OF SKILLS LEVELS 7E THUS TOUCH UPON THE SOCIAL DIMENSION OF THESE ACTIVITIES 7E CAN MENTION THE RELATION BETWEEN LAND EXPLOITATION STRATEGIES E G NOMADIC ECONOMICS AND THE MAKING OF THE TOOLS THE STRONG ANTICIPATION TO A GREATER OR LESSER EXTENT OF THE NEEDS CHAÔNES OPÏRATOIRES LINKED OR NOT TO THE MOVEMENT OF GROUPS OVER VAST AREAS 7E CAN MENTION THE HIERARCHY IN TERMS OF TECHNCIAL INVESTMENT DEPENDING ON VARIOUS ACTIVITY REGISTERS MAKING IT POSSIBLE TO TACKLE CERTAIN SOCIO ECONOMIC GROUP ORGANISATIONS /R STILL THE STRONG INTERDEPENDENCE TO A GREATER OR LESSER EXTENT BETWEEN A HUMAN GROUP AND ITS NATURAL ENVIRONMENT VIA THE EXPRESSION OF ONE ASPECT OR ANOTHER OF ITS TECHNICAL SYSTEM 4HE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS RELYING ON THE METHODOLOGICAL TOOL OF CHAÔNES OPÏRATOIRES ANALYSIS IS THEREFORE MEANT TO REVEAL THE

&RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR 0ALIMPSESTE DE L IDENTITÏ !UTOUR DE 0ELLA !FRIQUE DU 3UD UNDER COMPLETION BY THE END OF AROUND PAGES ;3TUDY OF INDIGENOUS AND COLOURED IDENTITIES IN 3OUTH !FRICA BASED ON MISSIONARY ARCHIVES= &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR h.OMADS )DENTITIES .OMADIC )DENTITIES $ISAPPEARANCES AND 2EAPPEARANCES OF +HOESAN +HOEKHOE AND 3ANv $EPARTMENT OF !NTHROPOLOGY 7ITS 5NIVERSITY *OHANNESBURG COORD $AVID #OPLAN 2EHANA 6ALLY -ARCH &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR (ISTOIRE DE L !FRIQUE DU 3UD 0ARIS LE 3EUIL PAGES &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR #ONFERENCE h7HAT (ISTORY FOR 3OUTHERN !FRICA v CONFERENCE GIVEN WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF &RANCOPHONY $AY AT THE &RANCO -OZAMBICAN #ULTURAL #ENTRE -APUTO -OZAMBIQUE -ARCH &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR h!ND 3OUTH !FRICA )NVENTED !PARTHEIDv , HISTOIRE &EBRUARY PP &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR h)BN "ATTUTA -UHAMMAD IBN !BDULLAHv OVERVIEW ARTICLE FOR THE .EW %NCYCLOPEDIA OF !FRICA *OHN -IDDLETON *OSEPH # -ILLER EDS FOR PUBLICATION

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&RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR 0UBLIC CONFERENCE h4HE "USHMEN (AVE .OT $IED /UTv CONFERENCE GIVEN AT THE 'OETHE )NSTITUTE IN *OHANNESBURG -AY

#OLLECTIVE 2ESEARCH 7ORKS !UTHORS ARE INDICATED AS THEY APPEAR ON THE PUBLICATIONS h,E PÒLERIN LE MISSIONNAIRE L AMBASSADEUR &IGURES DU VOYAGEUR (ENRI "REUILv 3UR LES CHEMINS DE LA 0RÏHISTOIRE , ABBÏ "REUIL DU 0ÏRIGORD Ì L !FRIQUE DU 3UD EXHIBITION CATALOGUE OF h(ENRI "REUIL SUR LES CHEMINS DE LA 0RÏHISTOIREv PP ;AUTHORS & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR 9 0OTIN= h4OUT CE QUE NOUS AVONS TOUJOURS CRU SAVOIR SUR LES CHASSEURS CUEILLEURS D !FRIQUE AUSTRALE 2EGARDS CROISÏS DE L ARCHÏOLOGIE DE L HISTOIRE ET DE L ETHNOLOGIE DES "USHMENv INAUGURAL CONFERENCE 886)E RENCONTRES INTERNATIONALES D ARCHÏOLOGIE ET D HISTOIRE D !NTIBES /CTOBER ;AUTHORS & "ON + 3ADR & &AUVELLE !YMAR $ 'RONENBORN " "OSC :ANARDO= h0OUR UN NOUVEAU COMPARATISME !FRIQUE AUSTRALE n %UROPE OCCIDENTALE 2EGARDS CROISÏS DE L ARCHÏOLOGIE DE L HISTOIRE ET DE L ETHNOLOGIE DES CHASSEURS CUEILLEURS "USHMENv !CTES DES 886)E RENCONTRES INTERNATIONALES D ARCHÏOLOGIE ET D HISTOIRE !NTIBES UNDER PRESS ;2EWORKED SUBMITTED EDITED AND ACCEPTED VERSION OF THE TEXT OF THE PREVIOUS CONFERENCE !UTHORS + 3ADR & "ON & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR $ 'RONENBORN " "OSC :ANARDO= h4RANSITIONS IN THE 6OID 4HE 3PREAD OF 0ASTORALISM TO 3OUTHERN !FRICA AND TO 4EMPERATE %UROPEv PAPER READ BEFORE THE 3OCIETY OF !FRICANIST !RCHAEOLOGY ANNUAL MEETING #ALGARY #ANADA *UNE ;AUTHORS $ 'RONENBORN + 3ADR & "ON & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR= h%LLIPSOID 'RINDING (OLLOWS ON THE 7EST #OAST OF 3OUTH !FRICAv 3OUTHERN !FRICAN (UMANITIES UNDER PRESSE ;!RTICLE SUBMITTED EDITED ACCEPTED !UTHORS + 3ADR & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR= h:WISHEN 3TEIZEIT UND NEUZEIT (IRTENNOMADEN AM +AP DER 'UTEN (OFFNUNGv !RCHAOLOGIE IN $EUTSCHLAND FOR PUBLICATION ;AUTHORS $ 'RONENBORN & "ON & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR + 3ADR= h(ISTORICAL !RCHAEOLOGY OF %ARLY #ONTACT 0ERIOD +HOEKHOE +RAALS 3OUTH !FRICAv *OURNAL OF !FRICAN !RCHAEOLOGY SUBMITTED UNDER EDITING ;AUTHORS & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR & "ON $ 'RONENBORN + 3ADR= h,A CORRESPONDANCE ENTRE 2AYMOND -AUNY ET 7LADISLAW &ILIPOWIAK AU SUJET DE LA FOUILLE DE .IANI 'UINÏE CAPITALE SUPPOSÏE DE L EMPIRE MÏDIÏVAL DU -ALIv FOR PUBLICATION I(OMMAGES *EAN "OULÒGUE ;AUTHORS & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR " (IRSCH= h,ETTER FROM 2OBERT *ACOB 'ORDON TO h-ONSIEUR LE BAILLIv ON HIS &IFTH *OURNEY IN THE )NTERIOR OF THE #APE #OLONY v COMPLETED ARTICLE NOT YET SUBMITTED ;AUTHORS & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR WITH THE COLLABORATION OF , #HAUVET= h, AILLEURS ET L AVANT %LÏMENTS POUR UNE CRITIQUE DU COMPARATISME ETHNOGRAPHIQUE DANS L ÏTUDE DES SOCIÏTÏS PRÏHISTORIQUES Ì L EXEMPLE DES +HOESAN D !FRIQUE AUSTRALEv UNDER COMPLETION FOR SUBMISSION IN AUTUMN ;AUTHORS & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR & "ON + 3ADR=

h6OL DE VACHES DEVANT PAYSAGE COLONIAL (ISTOIRE D UNE IMAGE RUPESTRE D !FRIQUE DU 3UDv ESSAY UNDER COMPLETION AROUND PAGES FOR SUBMISSION DURING ;AUTHORS & 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR * , ,E 1UELLEC & "ON= 4HIS ESSAY WAS THE SUBJECT DURING THE h"REUIL IN !FRICAv COLLOQUIUM OF A PUBLIC CONFERENCE h(UNTERS OR (UNTED 4HE @"ATTLE 3CENE OF 6ENTERSHOEK &REE 3TATE 2EVISITED ! 6IRTUAL 2ESTORATION AND .EW )NTERPRETATIONv 4HURSDAY !UGUST /RIGINS #ENTRE 5NIVERSITY OF THE 7ITWATERSRAND ;& 8 &AUVELLE !YMAR * , ,E 1UELLEC & "ON=

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!N INTERNATIONAL lELD TRIP FOR THE FOURTH YEAR OF THE PROGRAMMEON h+HOISAN!RCHIVESv BROUGHT TOGETHER &RAN OIS "ON 0ALAEOLITHIC !RCHAEOLOGIST 4OULOUSE +ARIM 3ADR !RCHAEOLOGIST 7ITS ,AURENT "RUXELLES 'EOMORPHOLOGIST ).2!0 &RANCE .ICOLAS 6ALDEYRON .EOLITHIC !RCHAEOLOGIST 4OULOUSE AND &RAN OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR TO lNALISE THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH WORKS CONDUCTED IN THE 7ESTERN #APE AROUND THE ISSUE OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL VISIBILITY OF THE HISTORICAL POPULATIONS OF +HOEKHOE CATTLE BREEDERS 3EVERAL ARTICLES AND PAPERS MENTIONED HEREUNDER OR UNDER PREPARATION HAVE BEEN OR WILL BE DRAWN FROM THESE RESEARCH WORKS

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3EVERAL lELD TRIPS WERE UNDERTAKEN BY &RENCH !RCHAEOLOGY STUDENTS FROM THE 54!( ,ABORATORY 4OULOUSE LE -IRAIL IN 3OUTH !FRICA AND SUPERVISED BY RESEARCHERS OF THE SAME LABORATORY TAKING PART IN THE RESEARCH WORKS IN 3OUTH !FRICA 4HESE STUDENTS "RUNO "OSC :ANARDO *ULIE -ORIN AND &ELDRIK 2IVAT THUS HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO WORK ON 3OUTH !FRICAN REFERENCE LITHIC SERIES AT THE #APE 4OWN -USEUM OR THE 5NIVERSITY OF #APE 4OWN IN CLOSE COLLABORATION WITH THE lNDERS OF THE SITES OR THE CUSTODIANS OF THE COLLECTIONS AND WITH A VIEW TO PRODUCE COMPARATIVE ACADEMIC WORK &EEDBACK PUBLICATIONS ON THE SKILLS ACQUIRED BY THESE STUDENTS IN 3OUTH !FRICA HAVE BEEN SCHEDULED COLLOQUIUM OF 5)300 IN ,ISBON IN 3EPTEMBER COLLOQUIUM OF THE !3!0! IN #APE 4OWN IN !LL STUDENTS THESES ARE KEPT AT THE )&!3 2ESEARCH 2ESSOURCE #ENTRE

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! TRAINING SESSION TRYOUT BETWEEN &RENCH STUDENT &ELDRIK 2IVAT AND "OTSWANESE STUDENT *UDGES -ODIKWA ON A STUDY OF THE +ASTEELBERG LITHIC SERIES NEVER STUDIED BEFORE THE MAJOR REFERENCE SITE OF 3OUTH !FRICAN ,ATE 3TONE !GE

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4RAINING IN &RANCE OF TWO 3OUTHERN !FRICAN STUDENTS 3OUTH !FRICAN STUDENT !LITTA -OTLAUNG AND "OTSWANESE STUDENT *UDGES -ODIKWA DURING THE SUMMER OF !LITTA -OTLAUNG AND THE SUMMER OF *UDGES -ODIKWA %ACH ADVANCED !RCHAEOLOGY STUDENTS WORKING UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF +ARIM 3ADR !RCHAEOLOGY $EPARTMENT 7ITS 5NIVERSITY HAVE ALREADY TAKEN PART IN SEVERAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN &RANCE IN CHRONO CULTURAL PERIODS CALLING FOR MULTIPLE SKILLS 5PPER 0ALAEOLITHIC .EOLITHIC -ESOLITHIC OFFERING PROBLEMATIC SIMILARITIES WITH CURRENT RESEARCH WORKS IN 3OUTHERN !FRICA 7HILE THESE lELD TRIPS ARE RELATIVELY AFFORDABLE WHEREBY STUDENTS ARE LOOKED AFTER BY THE EXCAVATION PERSONNEL THEY ARE CERTAINLY COST EFFECTIVE AS FAR AS THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE GOES !LL THE EXCAVATION SITES WERE SELECTED WITH THE HELP OF &RAN OIS "ON AND SEVERAL OTHER COLLEAGUES OF THE 54!( ,ABORATORY IN 4OULOUSE LE -IRAIL

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4HE ORGANISATION OF AN EXPLORATORY lELD TRIP TO -OZAMBIQUE IN !PRIL FOR TWO &RENCH RESEARCHERS "ERTRAND (IRSCH 0ROFESSOR OF (ISTORY IN 0ARIS ) AND *EAN ,OÕC ,E 1UELLEC $2 #.23 2OCK !RT 3PECIALIST 54!( 4HE AIM OF THIS lELD TRIP ORGANISED WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE 3#!# OF -APUTO WAS TO PREPARE THE GROUND AND SEARCH FOR POTENTIAL PARTNERS FOR A FUTURE &RANCO -OZAMBICAN lELD TRIP IN (UMAN 3CIENCES

&RANÂ OIS 8AVIER &AUVELLE !YMAR (ISTORIAN #.23 $IRECTOR OF THE #&%% OF !DDIS !BEBA

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"ACKGROUND 7HILE THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASED QUESTIONING OF NEOLIBERAL DOMINATION IN POLICY MAKING THE SUPPLY OF CRITICAL AND CONSTRUCTIVE RESPONSES REMAINS POOR 4HE SITUATIONS IN MOST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE PARTICULARLY PREOCCUPYING SINCE GOVERNMENTS AND CIVIL SOCIETIES ARE WEAKLY EQUIPPED TO RESPOND CRITICALLY TO EXTERNAL INITIATIVES AIMED AT THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND TO GENERATE ENDOGENOUS

STRATEGIES $UE TO RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS AMONG OTHER THINGS RESEARCHERS AND STUDENTS FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TEND TO RELY ON A SMALL NUMBER OF STANDARD TEXTBOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS FROM MULTILATERAL lNANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH SEVERELY RESTRICTS THEIR EXPOSURE TO ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES 3UB 3AHARAN !FRICA IS PROBABLY MOST AFFECTED BY THE POOR AVAILABILITY OF CUTTING EDGE RESEARCH AND TEACHING IN NON ORTHODOX ECONOMICS 4HE INmUENCE OF NEOLIBERAL ECONOMICS ON THE CONTINENT HAS PRECLUDED THE EXPLORATION OF MORE PROACTIVE 3TATE INVOLVEMENT TO SUPPORT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REDUCE POVERTY 4HE TIDE IS HOWEVER GRADUALLY TURNING THE NEED FOR hMOREv RATHER THAN MERELY hBETTERv WHICH IN NEOLIBERAL TERMS HAS PROVED TO MEAN hLESSv 3TATE INTERVENTION IN ECONOMIC AFFAIRS IS INCREASINGLY BEING RECOGNISED #RUCIALLY ECONOMIC TAKE OFF APPEARS BOUND TO REMAIN A PIPEDREAM IF IT IS PREMISED ON UNABATED LIBERALISATION RATHER THAN DEVELOPMENTAL TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL POLICIES 4HE LATTER WOULD REPRESENT A QUALITATIVE LEAP IN THE NATURE OF 3TATE INTERVENTION WHICH IS CURRENTLY TYPICALLY LIMITED TO hCREATING FAVOURABLE CONDITIONSv 4HE SHORTCOMINGS OF hPOPULISTv OR NEOPOPULIST ALTERNATIVES TO THE NEOLIBERAL ORTHODOXY WILL ALSO BE DISCUSSED 4HESE ALTERNATIVES WHICH TEND TO FOCUS ON SPECIlC ISSUES FOR INSTANCE THE ENVIRONMENT OR hEXTREME POVERTYv HAVE CAUGHT THE PUBLIC S ATTENTION AND CONTRIBUTED TO THE ONGOING REFORMULATION OF THE MAINSTREAM DEVELOPMENT DISCOURSE /NE OF THE MOST STRIKING EXAMPLES OF THE SOMETIMES COMBINED FAILURE OF BOTH NEOLIBERAL AND NEOPOPULIST THEORIES IS LAND REFORM WHICH WILL BE ADDRESSED IN !0/2$%

!0/2$% !0/2$% WILL ALLOW TALENTED ACADEMICS POLICY MAKERS AND TRADE UNIONISTS TO GAIN ACCESS TO ALTERNATIVES TO MAINSTREAM THINKING ON DEVELOPMENT ISSUES AND TO BE EQUIPPED IN A WAY THAT WILL FOSTER ORIGINAL THINKING 0ARTICIPANTS WILL RECEIVE INTENSIVE HIGH LEVEL TRAINING INTERACT WITH SOME OF THE BEST DEVELOPMENT ECONOMISTS IN THE WORLD AND WITH OTHER PARTICIPANTS FROM 3OUTHERN !FRICA AND BEYOND #OSTS INCURRED BY PARTICIPANTS n TRAVELLING ACCOMMODATION CONFERENCE FEES AND PER DIEM n WILL BE COVERED 4HE SEMINAR WILL BE HELD IN 3TELLENBOSCH FROM THE TH TO THE TH OF -AY 4HE VENUE WILL BE CONlRMED AT A LATER STAGE !0/2$% WILL COVER ESSENTIAL TOPICS IN $EVELOPMENT %CONOMICS PRESENTING VIEWS THAT ARE CRITICAL OF MAINSTREAM AND NEOPOPULIST VIEWS 4OPICS WILL INCLUDE INDUSTRIAL POLICY POVERTY lNANCIAL CRISES AND VIOLENT CONmICTS ,ECTURES WILL EQUIP PARTICIPANTS WITH KEY INFORMATION PERTAINING TO BOTH MAINSTREAM AND NON MAINSTREAM APPROACHES TO EACH TOPIC $AY LECTURES WILL LAST FOR THREE AND A HALF HOURS WHILE A NUMBER OF SHORTER EVENING LECTURES WILL ALSO BE ORGANISED 4HREE RESEARCH WORKSHOPS GATHERING SEVERAL LECTURERS WILL BE HELD AROUND OVERARCHING THEMES

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