Page 1

Cutting Edge

WRITTEN, DESIGNED AND

BY MICHELLE STAUFENBIEL

PHOTOGRAPHED 1


Table Of Contents DEDICATION......................................................................... Pg. 3 FOReWARD............................................................................. Pg. 4 Introducion....................................................................... Pg. 6-111 Chapter 1................................................................... Pg. 13 Chaper 2............................................................................. Pg. 15-17 Chaper 3.......................................................................... Pg-18-25 Chaper 4 ........................................................................... Pg. 27 Conclusion.......................................................................... Pg. 28 Works Cited................................................................... Pg. 29-30 2


Dedication I would like to dedicate this book to Mr. Manke, throughout this whole project you have been a huge help. My partner Nick and I do appreciate it. I would also like to thank the freestyle staff, Mr. Greco, Mrs. Parkinson, and Mrs Kefauver, for their patience and understanding whenever I hit a huge barrier during this project. Honestly your patience is outstanding, though I am sure you guys have had plenty of practice. 3


Forward Surgery is such a common and often complex process that involves almost everybody in their lifetime. Wheather it is your best friend that is getting surgery done on a torn ACL. Or maybe your mom is getting a tumor removed tomorrow from her kidney. Re gardless to say , surgery is a typical procedure that should not be feared but practiced and advanced to not only improve life for our memebers of society but to save lifes. When the Da Vinci was first introduced it was such a drastic and different change. Can somebody really trust their life to a robot? That is the question that will be adressed. I wanted to write about the Da Vinci robotic surgery because it relates to our future. This book will adress the advantages of robotic surgery but also the negative aspects as well. Hopefully at the end of this book, you the reader will be able to have a better understanding of the Robotic system that has changed surgery for the better.

4


5


Introduction Imagine, for hundreds of years our ancestors climbed stairs, and then a new innovation emerges: the elevator. This novelty saves time and proves to be easier than walking up stairs. Who wants to trudge up stairs after a long and hard day of work? The elevator gives humans another option. However, the elevator is a bit foreign and frightening. The stairs seem like a safer option because humans have acclimated to them. They are a tradition. The thought of branching out to try something new is unnerving, but it can be beneficial. Robotic surgery is very similar to an elevator because it is a more efficient technological advancement as opposed to the traditional route.

6


7


In 1985, during a successful neurosurgical biopsy, a robotic arm was used for the first time to assist in the surgery itself (1980s Robotic Advancements). At that time, many people thought of Robotic Surgery as a groundbreaking but frightening concept. In 2000, the Da Vinci robotic surgery was FDA approved to begin operating on patients (Frequently Asked Questions). Thirteen years ago, a traditional doctor was the only way to have open-heart surgery, but when Robotic surgery was invented, it proved that times were changing, technology was progressing, and surgical options were improving.

8


9


10


Since the Da Vinci released its first robot, 2,585 have been sold worldwide in 2,025 hospitals (Frequently Asked questions). The Da Vinci robot assists in many surgeries such as: open-heart surgery, prostate surgery, and general surgeries (Manke). Many people are faced with hard and important questions: Do they choose traditional surgeons or the newly advanced Robotic surgeon? Intuitive Surgery, the company that patents the Da Vinci robot, is now a successful company, but their ride to success was a not a smooth one. Over the years the robotic system has faced many criticisms and harmful no toriety, but all critics aside, the Da Vinci robot is still a thriving sugery system that is loved by many.

11


12


Chapter 1: But Rosie the Robot did not have Four Arms Robots have four arms? Rosie the Robot did not have Four Arms. Upon hearing about robotic surgery, I immediately pictured the classic cartoon show, the Jetsons and their robot maid Rosie. However, during class, my peers and I watched a presentation about robotic surgery, and much to my surprise, it was not even close to my childhood friend Rosie. The Da Vinci robot has a surgeon console. During an operation the Doctor looks through a telescope in the console. The doctor and surgeon console are placed a few feet away from the Da Vinci robot and the patient in the same room. The Da Vinci robot itself has four arms. The first arm is a 2D camera that is held in place to let the doctor and his assistants view the surgery. The other three arms hold and operate small instruments used to work directly on the patient (Frequently Asked Questions). The Da Vinci is designed to give doctors better access to the problem area that requires operation.

13


14


Chapter 2: The Evolution of the Da Vinci When the Da Vinci robot was invented, it worked on making the procedures for its patients cleaner, quicker, and more painless than traditional surgery. Over time the Da Vinci robot has evolved to indeed make procedures cleaner and has reduced the blood loss (Manke). James Manke, who works for Intuitive surgery and films the surgery in person claims, “Patients heal faster and typically they go home in a day or two after the procedure. Its virtually bloodless because the instruments are performing microsurgery and the ability of the surgeon to control the bleeding with the instruments is much more advanced.� The instruments are smaller and refined, which allows the operating surgeon to make smaller cuts on the patient. The robot enabled surgeries to be less painful than the traditional surgeries and heal faster with a smaller incision rather than a big cuts.

15


16


Someday, if I were burdened with a surgery, I would prefer a system where the healing process is quicker and less painful. Most people are likely to be frightened when they first hear they may have to undergo an operation. To be sure, surgery is a burden but often times the best option. When a person is faced with this burden, they have to make a decision in which the costs will outweigh the benefits. Many people are still weary of the Da Vinci robot surgery, but some see it as the right path. The robotic surgery horror stories only add to the hesitation of some patients.

17


Chapter 3: The Drawbacks of a Robot

In 2010, a survey was sent out to 176 doctors that used robotic surgery. The conclusions of the survey found that one hundred of the doctors reported experiencing a failed system even before the system and procedure was started (Kaushik). However, few doctors claimed that the Da Vinci failed during the actual procedure. As such, there have been over twenty lawsuits filled against Intuitive Surgery, over the past few years. This may be alarming for anybody considering robotic surgery.

18


19


Some of the filed lawsuits claim: wrongful death, punctures arteries, blood vessels, organs, burns or tears of arteries, and etc. (Da Vinci Surgical Lawsuits). The company who manufactures the surgical robot claims that these alleged injuries are a product of inexperience within the practicing surgeon (Da Vinci Surgical Lawsuits).

20


21


Manke makes a suggestion to a worried patient: “Its always good to ask surgeons how many procedures have you done because there are varying degrees of experience... Not saying that less experi ence robotic surgeons would do a bad job, but they would tend to work on simpler cases and less complex procedures. So as a surgeon becomes more experienced they will take on the more complex procedures and do a good job (Manke).� There is no promise that the most experienced doctor will avoid making a mistake, but it cannot hurt to ask questions.

22


23


24


Due to the lawsuits, Intuitive Surgery has taken a huge publicity hit. However, Intuitive Surgery and all of its employees are hard at work trying to clean up the mess. The Da Vinci robot has lost some credibility in the public’s eyes from these lawsuits as well. Since the beginning of March 2013, Da Vinci stock has dropped drastically by sixteen percent, which in affect harms Intuitive Surgery who is one of the leading companies in the Dascent Industry (Sumagaysay). In 2002, the Da Vinci Robot racked up roughly 2.1 billion of Intuitive surgery’s revenue (Sumagaysay). Each system costs 1.5 million dollars, which is a pricy cost for each hospital (Sumagaysay). Critics still question if this system is worth the price.

25


26


Chapter 4: The Know and the Future of the Da Vinci James Manke explains the Da Vinci robot’s surgical ability, “Right now the surgical system is only designed to work on soft tissue. Because the instruments are so small they can’t cut into tougher tissue like bone and cartilage. Its just for organs and blood vessels. There will be a time were the instruments became stronger and will be able to take on spine surgery anything involving the cranium, thats in the future. Right now its best for anything within the torso anything to do with urology and gynecology.” The future goal for robotic surgery is to cut through the bone in order to perform more complex surgeries. 27


Conclusion Yes, robotic surgery has it skeptics, but in such a risky market, it is to hit walls. Some doctors prefer traditional surgery to this new inn vative surgery. This creates even more adversity for the robot. As criticisms and questions multiply so do the success stories. Dr. Hyung an urologist who uses the Da Vinci system, advocates his loyalty. H claims that he will never go back to traditional surgery (Dance). Mu like the elevator, robotic surgery is an innovation that will take some ting use to.

28


bound nothe g Kim, He uch e get-

Bibliography

“Da Vinci Surgical Lawsuits”. Fight for Victims. Web 10 ary 2013. http://fightforvictims.com/medical-devices/da-vinci-su robot-injury-lawsuit

“Frequently asked questions” Intuitive Surgical. Intuiti gical, August 2010. Web. 11 March 2013. http://www.intu surgical.com/products/products_faq.html

Kaushik. “Malfunction of the Da Vinci robotic system d robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: an international survey.” US tional Library of Medicine National Intuitive of Health. April 24 2010. We ruary 2 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20192613 Manke, James. Personal interview. 24 March 2013.

Samadi, David B. “History of Robotic Surgery.” Robotic ogy. Robotic Oncology, 2005. Web. 11 March 2013. http:/ 29 roboticoncology.com/history/


Sumagaysay, Levi. “The Rise of Lawsuits Against Intuitive Surgical Robots”. The Mercury News Silicons News, March 15 2013. Web 19 March 2013. http://www.siliconbeat.com/2013/03/15/the-rise-of-the-lawsuits-against-in tuitive-surgical-robots/ury-lawsuit 1980s Robotic Advancements. Intuitive surgical. Web, January 8 2013. http://www.intuitivesurgical.com/company/history/ http://www.heart-valve-surgery.com/heart-surgery-blog/2008/09/16/howmuch-does-the-da-vinci-surgical-robot-cost/ Dance, Amber. “Use of Robotic Surgery Grows, But so do Questions”. Los Angelos times. October 17 2011. Web, Januarty 26. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/oct/17/health/la-he-robotic-surgery-20111017

30

michelle_staufenbiel  

michelle_staufenbiel

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you