A sprint is a short process that helps people focus 1 goal and move from 1) idea to 2) development of a prototype and 3) testing the prototype with users / potential users. The idea of a sprint is to fast-forward a project, so you can see what the end result might look like and how users will react. https://hbr.org/2016/03/sprints-are-the-secret-to-getting-more-done https://resources.sei.cmu.edu/asset_files/TechnicalNote/2013_004_001_62918.pdf p. 42.
Each sprint may be considered a project. Sprints are used to accomplish something.
Each sprint has a goal of what is to be built and a flexible plan that will guide building it. https://www.scrum.org/resources/what-is-a-sprint-in-scrum
As a rule of thumb, a sprint should be as short as possible and as long as necessary.
By making every sprint the same time duration, the team has a predictable amount of time available to do work. This helps both short-term and long-term planning.
Throughout the sprint, there is a short daily meeting of a few minutes. People share with each other 1. what they accomplished the previous day, 2. what they intend to do today, 3. what is blocking progress. The meeting occurs every day at the same time of day, so everyone can easily remember it. http://www.agileadvice.com/2013/05/31/referenceinformation/the-rules-of-scrum-the-daily-scrum-occurs-every-day-at-the-same-time-of-day/ https://www.aha.io/roadmapping/guide/release-management/what-is-a-sprint https://www.pmi.org/learning/library/agile-project-management-scrum-6269 https://techbeacon.com/your-first-agile-sprint-survival-guide
Agile methods are a reaction to the bureaucracy, planning, and inflexibility of the waterfall approach. Large projects are chopped into a series of shorter cycles. Sources http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a988cd86-9759-11dc-9e08-0000779fd2ac.html http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2011/08/16/how-do-you-explain-radical-management-or-agile-to-a-cfo/ http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2011/04/29/scrum-is-a-major-management-discovery/
Research about what an agile sprint is.