NASA: 50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

Page 1

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

5 0 Y E A R S O F E X P L O R AT I O N A N D D I S C O V E R Y


TITAN MINIMAL ART EYEWEAR: WHERE ADVANCED

TECHNOLOGY MEETS SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE. – RIMLESS LENSES FOR CLEAR PERIPHERAL VISION – MAINTENANCE-FREE SCREWLESS DESIGN – UNPARALLELED LIGHTWEIGHT COMFORT

MODEL 8609


THE CHOICE OF NASA ASTRONAUTS ON ALL 20 MISSIONS SINCE 2000.

MODEL 7565

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www.omegawatches.com

11 NASA TESTS, 6 MOON LANDINGS, 88 SHUTTLE FLIGHTS, 110 MISSIONS, ONE WATCH.



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The Owners and Employees of Tony Watson Electric, Inc. Would like to congratulate NASA on this milestone and many more to come in the future. It has been an honor and a privilege to work at John C. Stennis Space Center for the last 10 years.

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The staff at this Center is among the very best on the Mississippi Gulf Coast and we look forward to working with the Contracting Office for many, many years to come.

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Tony Watson Electric, Inc. Tony & Martha Watson 163 Bran-Star Cove Brandon, MS 39042 601-825-8101 www.tonywatsoninc.com


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BATTERY SOLUTIONS MEET THE DYNAMIC REQUIREMENTS OF THE HARSHEST ENVIRONMENTS ˆ OPTIMIZED WEIGHT AND PERFORMANCE ADAPTABILITY AND TOUGH RELIABILITY

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Remember when anything seemed possible? The men and women of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory never lost that feeling. For nearly 50 years, APL scientists have explored the wonders of our galaxy … building more than 60 spacecraft, pioneering a number of space systems and developing instruments and novel techniques to study the complex physics of the universe. Flexible and innovative in their approach, APL space missions have earned a reputation for rapid development, end-to-end execution, cost effectiveness and performance assurance.

The Johns Hopkins University

APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY

www.jhuapl.edu © The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. APL is a not-for-profit division of the Johns Hopkins University.



National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of the Administrator Washington, DC 20546-0001

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Earth

This image of the Florida Keys was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite.

Our Solar System

This view of Saturn and its rings is a composite made from images taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on December 13, 2006.

The Universe

The story of life and death in the Eagle nebula, an industrious star-making factory located 7,000 light-years away, is seen in this majestic view taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

THANKS, NASA,

for 50 years of discovery and exploration.

Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory became an official part of NASA’s patrimony in December 1958, and that relationship has spawned five decades of discoveries in space and space technology. As a NASA facility, JPL—with its links to Caltech’s science and engineering community—has spearheaded a new era in space science that has taken us from Earth through our solar system and beyond. Caltech looks forward to another 50 years of collaboration with the world’s premier space agency.





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Æ;^[in NZVgh 6\d/ 6 8gdhh"8djcign Ig^e! HdbZ 7ZYgdaah! VcY V CZWgVh`V C^\]i H`nÇ By Scott CARPENTER and Kris STOEVER

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Scotty asked why the light didn’t flash like other airplanes. His father told him that the satellite possessed no light of its own but was so high it could still see the sun, so the three of them were looking at reflected sunlight. There was a long silence while they contemplated a brand-new world.

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It Really is Rocket Science! The George Washington University congratulates NASA on 50 amazing years.

www.gwu.edu

G02376 (03.07) Photo credit: NASA

Through working closely with NASA over most of its history, GW trains tomorrow’s leaders in space policy, management, research and engineering. Projects include: Space Policy Institute • Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Science • NASA Langley CARS Laboratory • Mars Exploration Rover, Space Shuttle and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Missions • Modifying Imaging Processing Technology for Diabetes Research • Developing Computational Aeroacoustics


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

29



*% NZVgh d[ C6H6 =^hidgn By Steven J. DICK, NASA Chief Historian

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ifty years after its founding, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration arguably leads the world in exploration, standing on the shoulders of a long line of explorers throughout history. Its astronauts have circled the world, walked on the moon, piloted the first winged spacecraft, and constructed the International Space Station. Its robotic spacecraft have studied Earth, visited all the planets (and soon the dwarf planet Pluto), imaged the universe at many wavelengths, and peered back to the beginnings of time. Its scramjet aircraft have reached the aeronautical frontier, traveling 7,000 miles per hour, 10 times the speed of sound, setting the world’s record. How did an agency with such varied accomplishments come into existence?

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34

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Sometimes, spotting our contribution takes a little help. Partnerships to make the world a better place... From orbiting instruments to invisible power lines, we help to ensure that life has its comforts... and stays that way. We’re especially proud to partner with other innovators to bring sustainability, productivity and energy efficiency down to earth for all to share. Congratulations to NASA on its first 50 years! Visit us close to home at www.abb.com

© 2007 ABB USCS2572


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36

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38

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e2v

an established place in space For more than 20 years e2v has been supplying high performance image sensors to the space sector, developing a particularly close relationship with the engineers of NASA in support of pioneering space exploration. e2v are recognised for their technical excellence by NASA and the world’s other major space agencies where e2v’s sensors are gathering detailed images and making new scientific discoveries. 1.

e2v is working in partnership with NASA on the following projects: NASA’s new Mars probe, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The two-tonne orbiter is gathering data on Mars’ climate, composition, surface features and capturing images from the probe’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). e2v CCD (charge coupled device) image sensors are incorporated into this HiRISE camera which is capturing images of unprecedented resolution and volume of the Red Planet’s surface, looking in particular for clues on the planet’s water and ice history. NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO) mission also counts on image sensors from e2v to capture detailed pictures of the Sun. The mission uses two simultaneously orbiting spacecraft to study the Sun in three dimensions. The resulting 3D images provide world-first views of the Sun-Earth relationship, and will also help to predict when space weather events will affect the Earth. NASA’s New Horizons mission to Pluto, which will collect key information on the surface, composition and atmosphere of Pluto also includes e2v image sensors. The sensors, incorporated into the spacecraft’s Ralph and LORRI science instruments, will help to provide unprecedented image data on the minor planet, its large moon Charon, and its two newly discovered smaller moons. Such scientific studies will provide information on the Kuiper Belt objects, which survive billions of miles away from the sun. Continuous technological development ensures that e2v retains its position as one of the world’s pre-eminent suppliers of scientific detectors to the space science community. Looking towards the future e2v has already supplied devices for the planned upgrade of NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and has started the manufacture of image sensors for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, a rover that is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program scheduled to launch in 2009. The Mars Science Laboratory is a long-term robotic exploration to assess if Mars is, or ever has been, an environment that can support life. The image sensors will be used in The Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument (CheMin) aboard Mars Science Laboratory, which will identify and measure the minerals on the planet.

2.

3.

Celebrating its own 60th anniversary, e2v is proud to have been a part of so many of NASA’s vital missions and looks forward to an exciting age of exploration ahead.

1. Hubble - focal plane formed from two butted e2v devices

www.e2v.com

3. New Horizons (Ralph) seven imaging devices on a single chip

2. STEREO - e2v image sensor


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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Š2007 Caterpillar Inc. Cat, Caterpillar, their respective logos and “Caterpillar yellow,â€? as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission. NASA did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

47


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By Eilene GALLOWAY


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Space exploration became the beacon for our hope, the symbol of national and international achievement, and now we celebrate 50 years of progress and peace. YZX^h^dc bV`^c\ iV`Zh i^bZ! ^i egdk^YZh V kZgn higdc\ WVh^h [dg i]Z h^\cVidgn cVi^dch id Xdbean l^i] i]Z igZVi^Zh# >c &.*,! heVXZ aVl lVh V cZlan ZbZg\^c\ ÒZaY l]^X] Veea^Zh Wdi] id djiZg heVXZ Vh V \Zd\gVe]^X VgZV VcY id [jcXi^dch eZg[dgbZY ^c i]Vi Zck^gdcbZci# > a^`Z id i]^c` d[ ^i Vh Zc" XdbeVhh^c\ aZ\Va egdWaZbh Vg^h^c\ [gdb i]Z ZmeadgVi^dc VcY eVgi^XjaVgan! jhZh d[ djiZg heVXZ# >c 6j\jhi &.*-! > ViiZcYZY V HeVXZ AVl 8daadfj^jb Vi i]Z =V\jZ ^c i]Z CZi]" ZgaVcYh# Bn eVeZg! ÆI]Z 8dbbjc^in d[ AVl VcY HX^ZcXZ!Ç egZhZciZY i]Z Vg\jbZci i]Vi i]Z YZkZadebZci d[ hX^ZcXZ VcY aVl ^h ^ciZg" YZeZcYZci# AZ\Va egdWaZbh bjhi WZ hijY^ZY

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

49


EgZhZci Vi i]Z 8gZVi^dc/

EVja <# 9ZbWa^c\! 6ji]dg d[ C6H6Éh ;djcY^c\ AZ\^haVi^dc By Edward S. GOLDSTEIN, Gregory C. LA ROSA and David S. SCHUMAN

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50

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Sen. Styles Bridges (R-N.H.), the ranking member of the Senate Armed Services Committee, didn’t want to meet with me at his office. He didn’t want to come over to our offices. He stated that if the military legislative liaison saw me over there or his visiting our office, he would be criticized. He didn’t want that. They would criticize him and call him a traitor to the cause of the armed services. So he would meet me at the Hotel Carlton.

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

51


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52

NASA

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Webb said (to Budget Director David Bell), “Don’t flimflam me. You can flimflam some of the new guys in town. You can advise the president, but you don’t make the decision for the president. I will take the budget to the president, and you can come with me if it’s your desire.” L]Vi lVh ndjg ^ckdakZbZci ^c C6H6Éh gZhedchZ id i]Z 6edaad & igV\ZYn4 >iÉh hjgeg^h^c\ ndj Vh` VWdji i]^h g^\]i V[iZg Vh`^c\ VWdji i]Z DjiZg HeVXZ IgZVin# 6h ^i ]VeeZcZY! i]ZgZ lVh V h^bjaiVcZdjh h^\c^c\ d[ i]Z DjiZg HeVXZ IgZVin Wn i]Z kVg^djh Xdjcig^Zh ^c AdcYdc! BdhXdl VcY LVh]^c\idc dc ?Vc# ',! &.+,# EgZh^YZci ?d]c" hdc ]ZaY V gZXZei^dc i]Vi ZkZc^c\# L]^aZ lZ lZgZ Vi i]Z gZXZei^dc! ?VbZh LZWW \di V XVaa [gdb i]Z @ZccZYn HeVXZ 8ZciZg VcY lVh idaY VWdji i]Z igV\ZYn Pi]Z 6edaad & ÒgZR# =Z lZci VgdjcY VcY hjbbdcZY V \gdje d[ jh! VcY lZ lZci WVX` id ]^h d[ÒXZ id ign id hZZ l]Vi XdjaY WZ YdcZ# ½ 6 XdjeaZ d[ YVnh V[iZg iVa`^c\ VWdji i]Z h^ijVi^dc VcY ldg`" ^c\ dc i]^h! ?^b LZWW hV^Y id i]Z egZh^YZci! ÆLZÉgZ \d^c\ id gjc i]Z ^ckZhi^\Vi^dc# 6cY > YdcÉi lVci di]Zg heZX^Va ^ckZhi^\Vi^c\ Xdb" b^iiZZh#Ç =Z lZci id i]Z =^aa VcY hV^Y i]Z hVbZ i]^c\# =Z hV^Y! Æ>[ ndj YdcÉi a^`Z l]Vi lZÉgZ Yd^c\! ndj XVc ÒgZ bZ! VcY ndj XVc Yd ndjg dlc ^ckZhi^\Vi^dc# 7ji lZ lVci id Yd Vc ^ckZhi^\Vi^dc i]ViÉh \d^c\ id WZ i]dgdj\] VcY ]dcZhi#Ç I]Z V\gZZbZci bVYZ l^i] i]Z HZc" ViZ VcY =djhZ d[ GZegZhZciVi^kZh lVh i]Vi

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

53


By Neil deGrasse TYSON 9g# CZ^a YZ<gVhhZ Inhdc ^h i]Z Òghi dXXjeVci d[ i]Z ;gZYZg^X` E# GdhZ 9^gZXidgh]^e d[ CZl Ndg` 8^inÉh =VnYZc EaVcZiVg^jb# 6 gZXZci bZbWZg d[ C6H6Éh 6Yk^hdgn 8djcX^a VcY V gZX^e^Zci d[ i]Z C6H6 9^hi^c\j^h]ZY EjWa^X HZgk^XZ BZYVa! Inhdc lgdiZ i]^h ZhhVn VWdji C6H6Éh higj\\aZ dkZg i^bZ id ^che^gZ Vaa 6bZg^XVch id WZ V eVgi d[ i]Z VYkZcijgZ d[ heVXZ ZmeadgVi^dc! VcY ]^h ]deZh [dg i]Z heVXZ V\ZcXnÉh [jijgZ# 9ZVg C6H6! =Veen W^gi]YVn EZg]Veh ndj Y^YcÉi `cdl! Wji lZÉgZ i]Z hVbZ V\Z# >c i]Z Òghi lZZ` d[ DXidWZg &.*-! ndj lZgZ Wdgc d[ i]Z CVi^dcVa 6ZgdcVji^Xh VcY HeVXZ 6Xi Vh V X^k^a^Vc heVXZ V\ZcXn! l]^aZ > lVh Wdgc d[ bn bdi]Zg ^c i]Z :Vhi 7gdcm# Hd i]Z nZVgadc\ XZaZWgVi^dc d[ djg \daYZc Vcc^kZghVg^Zh! l]^X] WZ\^ch i]Z YVn V[" iZg lZ Wdi] ijgc ).! egdk^YZh bZ V jc^fjZ dXXV" h^dc id gZÓZXi dc djg eVhi! egZhZci VcY [jijgZ# > lVh ( nZVgh daY l]Zc ?d]c <aZcc Òghi dg" W^iZY :Vgi]# > lVh , l]Zc ndj adhi VhigdcVjih <g^hhdb! 8]V[[ZZ VcY L]^iZ ^c i]Vi igV\^X ÒgZ d[ i]Z^g 6edaad & XVehjaZ dc i]Z aVjcX] eVY# > lVh &% l]Zc ndj aVcYZY 6gbhigdc\ VcY 6aYg^c dc i]Z bddc# 6cY > lVh &) l]Zc ndj hideeZY \d^c\ id i]Z bddc Vaid\Zi]Zg# DkZg i]Vi i^bZ > lVh ZmX^iZY [dg ndj VcY [dg 6bZg^XV# 7ji i]Z k^XVg^djh i]g^aa d[ i]Z _djg" cZn! hd egZkVaZci ^c i]Z ]ZVgih VcY b^cYh d[ di]Zgh! lVh VWhZci [gdb bn Zbdi^dch# > lVh dWk^djhan idd ndjc\ id WZ Vc VhigdcVji# 7ji > Vahd `cZl i]Vi bn h`^c Xdadg lVh bjX] idd YVg` [dg ndj id e^XijgZ bZ Vh eVgi d[ i]^h Ze^X VYkZcijgZ# Cdi dcan i]Vi! ZkZc i]dj\] ndj VgZ V X^k^a^Vc V\ZcXn! ndjg bdhi XZaZWgViZY Vh" igdcVjih lZgZ b^a^iVgn e^adih! Vi V i^bZ l]Zc lVg lVh WZXdb^c\ aZhh VcY aZhh edejaVg# 9jg^c\ i]Z &.+%h! i]Z 8^k^a G^\]ih bdkZ" bZci lVh bdgZ gZVa id bZ i]Vc ^i hjgZan lVh id ndj# >c [VXi! ^i idd` V Y^gZXi^kZ [gdb K^XZ EgZh^YZci ?d]chdc ^c &.+( id [dgXZ ndj id ]^gZ WaVX` Zc\^cZZgh Vi ndjg egZhi^\^djh BVgh]Vaa HeVXZ ;a^\]i 8ZciZg ^c =jcihk^aaZ! 6aV# > [djcY i]Z XdggZhedcYZcXZ ^c ndjg VgX]^kZh# 9d ndj gZbZbWZg4 ?VbZh LZWW! i]Zc ]ZVY d[ C6H6! lgdiZ id <ZgbVc gdX`Zi e^dcZZg LZgc]Zg kdc 7gVjc! l]d ]ZVYZY i]Z XZciZg VcY l]d lVh i]Z X]^Z[ Zc\^cZZg d[ i]Z Zci^gZ bVccZY heVXZ egd\gVb# I]Z aZiiZg WdaYan VcY Wajcian Y^gZXih kdc 7gVjc id VYYgZhh i]Z ÆaVX` d[ ZfjVa

54

NASA

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Š 2008 Cadbury Adams USA LLC Trident and all related trademarks are owned by Cadbury Adams USA LLC.


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56

NASA


I]Z =jbVc ;VXidg By Roger D. LAUNIUS and Chuck OLDHAM

NASA's first launch of astronauts into space on May 5, 1961, was the beginning of a wondrous age of exploration. In nearly 150 separate missions spanning the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Space Shuttle programs, astronauts have engaged in sophisticated scientific experiments, complex engineering tasks, heroic voyages to the moon and no less significant cooperative programs with international partners. All of these activities have been critical in advancing America’s progress in what President John F. Kennedy called “the new ocean” of space. I]Z Òghi hiZe lVh Egd_ZXi BZgXjgn! XdcYjXiZY WZilZZc &.+& VcY &.+(# I]Z BZgXjgn HZkZc VhigdcVjih Ä HXdii 8VgeZciZg! <dgYdc 8dd" eZg! ?d]c <aZcc! <jh <g^hhdb! LVaan HX]^ggV! 6aVc H]ZeVgY VcY 9Z`Z HaVnidc Ä WZXVbZ ]djhZ]daY cVbZh VcY ]ZgdZh ^c i]Z ejWa^XÉh ZnZh# Egd_ZXi BZgXjgn! i]Z VhigdcVjih! VcY i]Z 6bZg^" XVc heVXZ ZmeadgVi^dc egd\gVb lZgZ

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

57


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58

NASA

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www.egginc.com 301.258.6566

MEETING THE DEMANDS OF TODAY AND THE CHALLENGES OF TOMORROW


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Harris Corporation: a trusted supplier of communications sytems for all NASA human spaceflight programs. Since the earliest beginnings of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Harris Corporation has been a leader in providing communications and telemetry systems and solutions to support NASA’s human-spaceflight missions (Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Shuttle, International Space Station) and numerous science endeavors. Harris salutes NASA on its 50th anniversary and looks forward to continuing to support Constellation and NASA science programs with world-class communications products and solutions.

www.harris.com Government Communications Systems t Defense Communications and Electronics t Broadcast Communications t Harris Stratex Networks



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Oerlikon Space the former Contraves Space Over 40 years ago we entered the Space arena by developing the structure of the first European scientific satellite ESRO-1 that was launched in 1968. Building on this success we have been shaping Space history in Europe and elsewhere.

Credit: ESA

The spectacular success of the Cassini/ Huygens mission in 2005 was made possible by our multifunctional separation mechanisms. After a journey of seven years through the solar system they separated the two spacecraft exactly as predicted. Since 1990 the Hubble Space Telescope has provided us with unprecedented views of the Universe. Our Primary Solar Array Deployment Mechanisms provided the release of the Solar Arrays that made these outstanding discoveries of Hubble possible. Today Oerlikon Space is the No.1 in Europe for Solar Array Drive Mechanisms. We are also No. 1 for payload fairings in Europe and are proud that we supplied the fairing for the “New Horizons” spacecraft on top of the American Atlas V-551 Launcher.

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Oerlikon Space AG Schaffhauserstrasse 580 CH-8052 Zurich, Switzerland www.oerlikon.com/space

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C6H6

By Roger D. Launius

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84

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C6H6

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86

NASA


6higdcVjih VcY I]Z^g Hjeedgi IZVbh By Patty REINERT and J.R. WILSON

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C6H6

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

87


88

NASA

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C6H6

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

89



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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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CELESTIAL SOUNDS Bjh^X ^h Vc ^ciZ\gVa eVgi d[ Vcn _djgcZn! l]Zi]Zg V gdVY ig^e dg V ig^e Ydlc bZbdgn aVcZ# Hd ^i ^h dcan Òii^c\ i]Vi bjh^X VXXdbeV" c^Zh i]Z VhigdcVjih dc i]Z jai^bViZ _djgcZn ^cid heVXZ# ÆL]Zc lZ ]ZVg Y^[[ZgZci e^ZXZh d[ bjh^X! ^i ig^\\Zgh bZbdg^Zh VcY bddYh!Ç H^eZh hV^Y#

50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

101

E L E C T RO - E X P U L S I V E D E - I C I N G S YS T E M ( E E D S )

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IMS, Inc. is proud to be a n early member of the NASA Ames Technology Commercialization Center (ATCC), a NASA funded organization. The ATCC is the primary organization responsible for the Commercialization of NASA technology through the process of business incubation and new venture assistance. IMS was issued a Patent License in 1995 to design, manufacture and sell the Electro-Expulsive De-icing System as covered by a NASA Patent. This License was amended by Modification No. 1 in 2001. IMS is currently in production on governmental and experimental platforms.

Program: Sky Warrior UAV

ȱ¢ ǰ ǰȱ ȱ ¢Ƿ IMS-ESS, I NC . www.ims-ess.com 42136 Sarah Way Te m e c u l a C A 9 2 5 9 0 (951) 676-2751

NASA did not select or approve this adveriser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.


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BACK TO BASICS



A half century of partnership From the structural analysis for the very first TelStar satellite, to the nanotechnology research helping to design the James Webb Space Telescope’s microshutter system, Lehigh continues to contribute crucial technical expertise to the success of NASA missions. For more on Lehigh’s exciting partnership with NASA, see the feature story in Resolve magazine at www.lehigh.edu/resolve.

P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science


Congratulations on 50 years of exploration& discovery!

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As the developer of yogurt for consumption in space and the makers of these fine earth-bound products, we’re proud to be a partner.

www.arlafoodsusa.com 50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

105


>ciZgk^Zl/ H]Vccdc AjX^Y By Edward S. GOLDSTEIN

Among a select group of space travelers, Shannon Lucid has amassed more than her share of frequent flyer miles. A veteran of five shuttle missions and 179 days aboard the Russian Mir space station in 1996, Lucid discussed what it is like to live and work in space. F# Dc 6edaad -! l]^aZ Zc gdjiZ id i]Z bddc! ?^b AdkZaa bjhZY! Æ>[ >Éb hdbZ adcZan igVkZaZg [gdb Vcdi]Zg eaVcZi! l]Vi > i]^c` VWdji i]Z :Vgi] Vi i]^h Va" i^ijYZ! P^hR l]Zi]Zg > i]^c` ^iÉY WZ ^c]VW" ^iZY dg cdi#Ç <^kZc ndjg ZmeZg^ZcXZh dc ÒkZ heVXZÓ^\]ih! Y^Y ndj ]VkZ dXXVh^dc

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A^[Z HX^ZcXZh By Robert ZIMMERMAN

The question always has been the same: Can human life survive in the alien environment of space? As Wernher von Braun wrote in 1952, “Some medical men are concerned at the prospect of permanent weightlessness, not because of any known danger, but because of the unknown possibilities.” There were even fears that the launch into space might itself be lethal. Dr. Heinz Haber of the U.S. Air Force’s Department of Space Medicine wrote in 1952, “Some pessimists maintain that the crew members of a rocket ship would not live to experience space, because they wouldn’t even survive the tremendous stresses placed upon them during the powered ascent.” ;daadl^c\ Hejic^` VcY i]Z VYkZci d[ i]Z heVXZ gVXZ! i]Z Jc^iZY HiViZh VcY i]Z Hdk^Zi Jc^dc [ZgkZcian gVXZY id ÒcY dji i]Z VchlZg id i]ZhZ fjZhi^dch! hZcY^c\ Yd\h! bdc`Znh! [gd\h VcY kVg^djh di]Zg a^[Z [dgbh ^cid heVXZ# KZgn fj^X`an Wdi] Xdjcig^Zh aZVgcZY i]Vi i]Z ldghi [ZVgh lZgZ jc[djcYZY! VcY i]Vi adlZg [dgbh d[ a^[Z XdjaY gZVY^an hjg" k^kZ Wdi] aVjcX] VcY lZ^\]iaZhhcZhh# 8djaY ]jbVch a^kZ ^c heVXZ! ]dlZkZg! VcY [dg ]dl adc\4 DcXZ V\V^c i]Z heVXZ gVXZ egdk^YZY i]Z VchlZg# I]gdj\]dji i]Z &.+%h! C6H6 VcY ^ih XdbeZi^idgh ^c i]Z Hdk^Zi Jc^dc ÓZl ^cXgZVh^c\an XdbeaZm bVccZY b^hh^dch id ÒcY dji i]Z a^b^ih d[ ]jbVc ZcYjgVcXZ ^c heVXZ# >c Ó^\]ih aVhi^c\ Vcnl]ZgZ [gdb V [Zl dgW^ih id hZkZgVa YVnh! VhigdcVjih VcY Xdh" bdcVjih WgVkZY i]Z jc`cdlc Zck^gdcbZci d[ heVXZ id ÒcY dji ^[ ]j" bVch XdjaY l^i]hiVcY ^ih Z[[ZXih! VcY ^[ hd! ]dl ^i ldjaY X]Vc\Z i]Zb# 6i i]Z i^bZ! i]Z egdWaZb [dg hX^Zci^hih lVh Vh bjX] Ò\jg^c\ dji ]dl id bdc^idg i]Z a^[Z h^\ch d[ i]Z^g W^dad\^XVa heZX^bZch! l]Zi]" Zg ]jbVc dg Vc^bVa! Vh ^i lVh ign^c\ id jcYZghiVcY i]Z Z[[ZXih d[ lZ^\]iaZhhcZhh ^ihZa[# C6H6 hX^Zci^hih YZkZadeZY V kVg^Zin d[ gZ" bdiZ hZch^c\ YZk^XZh id bdc^idg ]ZVgi gViZ! WgZVi]^c\! iZbeZgV" ijgZ! WaddY egZhhjgZ VcY di]Zg k^iVa a^[Z h^\ch# IdYVn i]ZhZ ZhdiZg^X

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The moon has held our imaginations for millennia, yet it is only in modern times that we have visited this body, first with robotic machines and then with astronauts. Exploration of the moon has taught us much about the evolution of the solar system and ourselves. We’ve known for centuries about the effects on tides and biological cycles from a waxing and waning moon. But it took space-age exploration to show us how the moon is connected to human existence on a very fundamental level.

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50 Years of Space Exploration SPACE FLORIDA SALUTES NASA ON ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY

“America’s Historic Gateway to Space�

For more information visit: www.spaceflorida.gov or call: 321.730.5301 Photos courtesy of NASA


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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NASA and Old Dominion University Partners in a Spirit of Adventurous Intellect

The College of Sciences, the Frank Batten College of Engineering and Technology and the Virginia Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Center congratulate NASA on its 50th anniversary. We are shaping the future through our partnerships in research and development, such as: • Astrobiological Exploration on Mars • Climate Change and Ocean Productivity • “Superboom” Mitigation through Computational Engineering • High-Performance Wireless Mesh Networks

VMASC demonstration at a national conference Above left: The 12-Tesla magnet for COSMIC’S mass spectrometer

• Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport on Virginia’s Eastern Shore

Left: E.V. Williams Engineering and Computational Sciences Building

• Aerodynamic Testing at the Full-Scale Wind Tunnel • Production of O2 from CO2 on Mars

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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C6H6Éh EaVcZi FjZhi

By Edward S. GOLDSTEIN

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

129


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F

ifty years of unveiling the past and pioneering the future, thank you NASA for inspiring us all.

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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)BSEXBSF 4PGUXBSF $BQBCJMJUJFT GPS .JTTJPO $SJUJDBM 4VDDFTT Madison Research Corporation has proudly supported NASA over 15 years in the areas of Avionics, Propulsion Technology, Hardware Development, Information Technology, and Test & Evaluation. Now, as part of Kratos Government Solutions, Inc., we are firmly positioned with expanded capabilities and a global reach to continue our premier support to NASA’s Constellation Program carrying us back to the Moon and on to Mars.

Kratos Defense & Security Solutions, Inc. 401 Wynn Drive Huntsville, AL 35805

(256) 864-7200

Toll Free: (877) 556-4410 www.kratosdefense.com


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the Astronaut watch • limited edition • swiss gmt movement • replica of 1960’s landmark design

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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Empowering Discovery through Simulation Built on a foundation of product performance simulation, information intelligence and on-demand computing technologies, Altair delivers enterprise solutions for rapid design exploration and decision-making.

With a client community that exceeds 3,500 of today's leading manufacturers and researchers, we invite you to visit www.altair.com/clients for industry examples on how Altair's solutions have helped companies drive innovation and discovery.

Innovation IntelligenceTM Enterprise CAE Software

On-demand Computing Technology

Business Intelligence Solutions

Product Innovation Consulting


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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Maryland is home to some of the world’s leading aerospace and defense companies, such as Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and BAE Systems. The state’s economy is driven by an atmosphere of creativity, innovation, collaboration and entrepreneurial spirit.

Thank you NASA for calling Maryland home!

www.choosemaryland.org | 1.888.ChooseMD Martin O’Malley, Governor | Anthony G. Brown, Lt. Governor | David W. Edgerley, Secretary | Clarence T. Bishop, Deputy Secretary Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Ariz.


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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6higdW^dad\n/ >ih Dg^\^ch VcY 9ZkZadebZci By G. Scott HUBBARD

For thousands of years humans have gazed at the night sky and wondered about the presence of life elsewhere, whether in our solar system or on some other blue planet or body around another star. Such thoughts have found their expression in fiction, scientific missions and religions worldwide. Philosophers and ordinary people have pondered the rise of life on our planet. Creation myths are fundamental to every civilization and culture, and reflect the profound resonance of the question of our origins. Today, astronomers have pushed back our understanding of the origins of the universe to within tiny fractions of microseconds of the big bang. However, science cannot, as yet, offer any complete definition of life, nor yet point to the exact time, conditions and mechanisms when organic matter first went from nonliving to living. Just 50 years ago, humans began to extend their presence into space, first with robots and then with humans. As this tentative expansion of our species into other worlds continues, basic questions remain unanswered about the long-term adaptation of living organisms to other environments. For example, we do not know what the effect will be of living for years on Mars, where the pull of gravity is about one-third that of Earth. Astrobiology addresses all these compelling mysteries by embracing the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in the universe. C6H6Éh XjggZci VhigdW^dad\n egd\gVb VYYgZhhZh i]gZZ [jcYVbZc" iVa fjZhi^dch/ =dl YdZh a^[Z WZ\^c VcY ZkdakZ4 >h i]ZgZ a^[Z WZndcY :Vgi] VcY! ^[ hd! ]dl XVc lZ YZiZXi ^i4 L]Vi ^h i]Z [jijgZ d[ a^[Z dc :Vgi] VcY ^c i]Z jc^kZghZ4 L]^aZ fjZhi^dch d[ djg dg^\^ch ]VkZ WZZc Y^hXjhhZY [dg b^aaZcc^V! C6H6 idd` V cZl Y^gZXi^dc ^c &..* Wn YZÒc" ^c\ V hX^ZcXZ egd\gVb i]Vi Vahd lVh V cdkZa ZmeZg^bZci ^c gZhZVgX] i]Vi Wg^Y\Zh VcY XdccZXih bVcn Y^hX^ea^cZh# Eda^i^Xh! hX^ZcXZ! eZghdc" Va^i^Zh VcY hZgZcY^e^in Vaa Xdcig^WjiZY id i]Z XgZVi^dc VcY hjXXZhh d[ l]Vi ^h cdl XVaaZY VhigdW^dad\n Vh V ÒZaY d[ ^cfj^gn#

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

157


GTSI Solutions

The Right Partners Take You Farther Congratulations on 50 years of discovering and exploring the boundaries of our universe and beyond. GTSI and Sun Microsystems™ are proud to support NASA in its missions. For more than 20 years, we have delivered leading information technology solutions, and we look forward to our relationship growing stronger in the decades ahead.

Visit GTSI.com/Sun-NASA to view our technology solutions.

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164

NASA

C6H6

By Steele HILL


While we do not often stop to think about it, we are living in the atmosphere of the sun, known as the heliosphere. And we creatures on Earth are just beginning to grasp many of the implications this brings. The sun is our source of light and life, but also of radiation. And it challenges our reliance on technology in numerous ways. Over the past 50 years NASA has made significant investments and achieved huge scientific advances in understanding the sun, its processes and impact on the entire solar system. At NASA, the Heliophysics Division is concerned with three major questions: Why and how does the sun vary? How do the Earth and planetary systems respond? What are the impacts on humanity? ;gdb C6H6 h WZ\^cc^c\h! V\ZcXn hX^Zci^hih gZVa^oZY hdaVg dWhZgkVi^dc [gdb heVXZ ldjaY XgZViZ jc^fjZ gZhZVgX] deedgijc^i^Zh cdi edh" h^WaZ dc :Vgi]# ;gdb heVXZ! i]Z hjcÉh aVnZgh XVc WZ eZZaZY VlVn Wn dWhZgkVi^dch ^c bja" i^eaZ lVkZaZc\i]h d[ a^\]i! a^\]i i]Vi ^h ÒaiZgZY dji Wn djg Vibdhe]ZgZ# ;gdb heVXZ! i]Z hdaVg l^cY eVgi^XaZh XdchiVcian higZVb^c\ [gdb i]Z hjc XVc WZ hVbeaZY# >c heVXZ! lZVi]Zg VcY V gdiVi^c\ :Vgi] VgZ cZkZg Vc ^hhjZ! hd lZ XVc dWhZgkZ i]Z hjc ZkZgn bdbZci d[ i]Z YVn# I]Z ^YZV d[ hijYn^c\ i]Z hjc! d[ XdjghZ! ^h cdi cZl id ]jbVc ]^hidgn# CVi^kZ eZdeaZh ]VkZ h]dlc \gZVi ^ciZgZhi ^c i]Z hjc VcY ^ih bdkZ" bZcih i]gdj\]dji ]^hidgn# >c VcX^Zci 8]^cV! eZdeaZ gZedgiZYan Wa^cYZY i]ZbhZakZh ign^c\ id Y^hXZgc hjchedih# I]Z \gZVi bdcda^i]^X higjX" ijgZ Vi HidcZ]Zc\Z WZ\jc VgdjcY '(%% 7#8# ]Vh V Xg^i^XVa dg^ZciVi^dc idlVgYh i]Z hjbbZg hdahi^XZ# I]djhVcYh d[ hbVaaZg hidcZ X^gXaZh Zm^hi i]gdj\]dji :jgdeZ VcY WZndcY! cdi^c\ X]Vc\Zh ^c i]Z hjcÉh Vc\aZ VcY edh^i^dc [gdb YVn id YVn! gZeZViZY nZVg id nZVg# I]Z aVg\Z BVnVc engVb^Y d[ :a 8Vhi^aad! Wj^ai VgdjcY -%% 6#9#! ]VY V heZX^ÒX hdaVg dg^ZciVi^dc# I]Z hX^Zci^ÒX gZXdgY d[ djg a^[Z"\^k^c\ hiVg egdWVWan WZ\Vc ^c &+&' l]Zc <Va^aZd <Va^aZ^ dWhZgkZY! gZXdgYZY! VcY lgdiZ VWdji hjchedih l^i] V gZXZci ^ckZci^dc! i]Z iZaZhXdeZ# Di]" Zgh WZ\Vc id Yd i]Z hVbZ# HX^ZcXZ ]VY cdl bVg`ZY i]Z XgZVi^dc d[ V Xdch^hiZci gZXdgY d[ hjchedi dWhZgkVi^dch# 9ZkZadebZcih ^c i]Z cVhXZci ÒZaY XVbZ hadlan# >c &-)* ild ;gZcX] e]nh^X^hih idd` i]Z Òghi e]did d[ i]Z hjc# DkZg i]Z cZmi &%% nZVgh dg hd hdaVg hX^ZcXZ bVYZ ^cXgZbZciVa egd\gZhh l^i] \gdjcY"WVhZY ^c" higjbZcih! ^cXajY^c\ i]Z YZkZadebZci d[ gV" Y^d Vhigdcdbn# NZi! ^i lVh cdi jci^a i]Z HeVXZ 6\Z i]Vi bV_dg VYkVcXZh ZchjZY! dcZ Wj^aY^c\ jedc i]Z di]Zg# ;gdb ^c^i^Va! hedgVY^X hiZeh! V l]daZ Hjc":Vgi] hnhiZb^X egd\gVb ZbZg\ZY

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C6H6Éh B^hh^dc id Djg =dbZ EaVcZi By Edward S. GOLDSTEIN and Tabatha THOMPSON

"We shall never cease from exploration And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time." – T.S. Eliot

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“The atmosphere almost looks like an eggshell on an egg, it’s so very thin. We know that we don’t have much air. We need to protect what we have.” – Eileen Collins >c i]Z adc\ iZgb! C6H6Éh HigViZ\^X EaVc ^bV\^cZh V hXZcVg^d [dg WZndcY '%&+ i]Vi ^cXajYZh V iZX]cdad\^XVa aZVe ^c :Vgi] dWhZgkV" i^dch id YZiZXi X]Vc\Zh ^c i]Z :Vgi] hnhiZb Vh i]Zn ]VeeZc# C6H6 Zck^h^dch jh^c\ XdchiZaaVi^dch d[ hbVgi hViZaa^iZh eaVXZY ^c kVg^djh dgW^ih id Vj\bZci V^gWdgcZ hZchdgh VcY hjg[VXZ"WVhZY hZchdgh id [dgb Vc ^ciZ\gViZY! ^ciZgVXi^kZ ÆhZchdglZWÇ dWhZgk^c\ hnhiZb# Id bV`Z hjX] V hnhiZb edhh^WaZ! C6H6 ]Vh V iZX]cdad\n ^ckZhibZci egd\gVb YZh^\cZY id ]Zae i]Z V\ZcXn WZ gZVYn [dg hjX] V [jijgZ Wn Vhhjg^c\ C6H6 l^aa ]VkZ i]Z cZXZhhVgn ^chigjbZcih! ^c[dgbVi^dc hX^ZcXZ! VcY XdbedcZcih cZZYZY id iV`Z VYkVciV\Z d[ gZkdaji^dc" Vgn b^hh^dc VgX]^iZXijgZh#

A PROFOUND VIEW FROM ABOVE EZg]Veh i]Z \gZViZhi iZhi^bdcn id i]Z aVhi^c\ gZaZkVcXZ d[ C6H6Éh :Vgi] hX^ZcXZ egd\gVb XdbZh [gdb VhigdcVjih l]d ]VkZ hZZc djg [gV\^aZ :Vgi] [gdb heVXZ# E^Zgh HZaaZgh! l]d ÓZl dc i]Z heVXZ h]jiiaZ 9^hXdkZgn HIH"&&* b^hh^dc ^c ?jan '%%+ VcY ]daYh V E]#9# ^c W^dbZiZdgdad\n! hV^Y i]Z [daadl^c\ id Vc VjY^ZcXZ Vi i]Z Hb^i]hdc^VcÉh CVi^dcVa 6^g VcY HeVXZ BjhZjb ^c '%%)/ Djg iZX]c^XVa VW^a^in id k^Zl i]Z :Vgi] [gdb heVXZ ^h Xd^cX^" YZci l^i] djg VW^a^in id X]Vc\Z djg eaVcZiVgn Zck^gdcbZci# Hd Vi i]Z kZgn i^bZ i]Vi lZ VgZ VWaZ id hZZ djg eaVcZiVgn ]dbZ ^c ^ih Zci^gZin! lZ VgZ edlZg[jaan bdi^kViZY id Yd hd Ä id jcYZg" hiVcY ]dl i]Z :Vgi] hnhiZb ldg`h! id ]Zae jh VhhZhh i]Z `^cY VcY YZ\gZZ d[ X]Vc\Zh! Wdi] bVcbVYZ VcY cVijgVa! i]Vi VgZ dc" \d^c\! VcY jai^bViZan id ]Zae jh egZY^Xi i]Z [jijgZ XdchZfjZcX" Zh d[ i]ZhZ X]Vc\Zh# ½I]Z ejWa^X VcY i]Z^g gZegZhZciVi^kZh ^c \dkZgcbZci cZZY WZiiZg ^c[dgbVi^dc dc l]^X] id WVhZ Vaa `^cYh d[ YZX^h^dch ^ckdak^c\ i]Z eaVcZiVgn Zck^gdcbZci0 [gdb iVg\Zi" ^c\ [Vb^cZ gZa^Z[ ^c 6[g^XV Yjg^c\ Ygdj\]ih! id i]Z Xdci^cj^c\ Y^hXjhh^dc dc \adWVa Xa^bViZ X]Vc\Z# HViZaa^iZ dWhZgkVi^dch egd" k^YZ i]Z hdaZ bZVch id dWhZgkZ i]Z l]daZ eaVcZi Vabdhi ZkZgn YVn jh^c\ i]Z hVbZ ^chigjbZci# ;^cVaan! l]^aZ h]Z dgW^iZY i]Z :Vgi] ^c '%%*! :^aZZc 8daa^ch! i]Z XdbbVcYZg d[ i]Z heVXZ h]jiiaZ 9^hXdk" Zgn! hV^Y! ÆI]Z Vibdhe]ZgZ Vabdhi add`h a^`Z Vc Z\\" h]Zaa dc Vc Z\\! ^iÉh hd kZgn i]^c# LZ `cdl i]Vi lZ YdcÉi ]VkZ bjX] V^g# LZ cZZY id egdiZXi l]Vi lZ ]VkZ#Ç

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“The X-vehicle research pushed us into flight regimes that we hadn’t fully explored. We continue to learn about those regimes, at very high speeds where the demands on aircraft are severe. The data that we’ve collected are helping with the design of vehicles that could one day revolutionize flight.” – Dr. Jaiwon Shin i]Z ZmVXi egdXZhh l]ZgZWn aVg\Z YgdeaZih [gZZoZ dc l^c\h VcY ]dl ^XZ VXXjbjaViZh jcYZg HA9 XdcY^i^dch# Hd C6H6 jcYZgidd` XadhZ XdaaVWd" gVi^dch l^i] XdaaZV\jZh ^c i]Z cVi^dcVa VcY ^ciZgcVi^dcVa ^X^c\ Xdbbj" c^in VcY i]dhZ l^i] ZmeZgi^hZ ^c hjX] ÒZaYh Vh Vibdhe]Zg^X X]VgVXiZg" ^oVi^dc! ^XZ"VXXgZi^dc e]nh^Xh VcY XdbejiZg h^bjaVi^dc# HjWhZfjZcian! i]Z HA9 gZhZVgX] ^c^i^Vi^kZ aZY id bjX] \gZViZg jcYZghiVcY^c\ d[ ]dl hjX] XdcY^i^dch Vg^hZ VcY ]dl e^adih VcY eaVcZh XVc Vkd^Y i]Zb#

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

189



HeVXZ Egd\gVb 7ZcZÒih/ C6H6Éh Edh^i^kZ >beVXi dc HdX^Zin By J.R. WILSON

In his January 1961 farewell address to the nation, President Dwight D. Eisenhower fretted about the tradition of “the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop [being] overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields.” To be certain, NASA has employed large teams of scientists and engineers in managing its complex missions. But the agency has also encouraged the spark of genius that comes from individual inventors. Significantly, both ways of doing business have resulted in remarkable technical innovations that have served to advance progress in aeronautics research, space science and space exploration as well as benefit people on Earth.

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

193


Congratulations NASA on your 50th Anniversary. Leading the Nation and the World to New Discoveries.

NASA displays eerie image using 3D programming.

G. Scott Hubbard, former NASA/Ames Research Center Director and Sam W. Downing, SVMHS President/CEO sign the second Space Act Agreement.

NASA programs have led to “firsts” in

Beth DeBerdt, CT technician at Salinas Valley Memorial with original Rain Man Kim Peek and father Fran Peek.

software that produces 3-dimensional images

space exploration as well as to discoveries

of the heart and to fuse images from scanning

in technology and science that improve life

technologies such as ultrasound, MRI and CT.

here on Earth. The results of NASA

This historic partnership began with our

research have become part of our

first Space Act Agreement in 1998.

®

Congratulations NASA—the first

lives—including VELCRO , the CT scanner and an insulin pump for people

50 years have led to life-changing

with diabetes. We’ve been working

discoveries. The next half-century may

with NASA for a decade to develop

prove even more amazing.

www.svmh.com

S A L I N A S

V A L L E Y

M E M O R I A L

H E A L T H C A R E

S Y S T E M


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

195



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All of us at Metropole want to thank-you for 50 years of expertise in creating ground breaking, earth shaking vehicles

and platforms that have carried our TDRSS S-band diplexers around the world and back.

NASA did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.

MPI Metropole Products, Inc. 2040 Jefferson Davis Hwy. • Stafford,Virginia 22554 540.659.2132 • fx. 540.659.2133 • e. metropole@aol.com

www.MetropoleProducts.com 50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

205

CLEAR-COM CONGRATULATES NASA FOR 50 YEARS OF EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY. Thank you for choosing Clear-Com intercom systems for your mission critical communications in: Test and Evaluation Command and Control Training and Simulation

RAISING PERFORMANCE

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KENNEDY SPACE CENTER (FLORIDA)

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LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER (HAMPTON, VA.)

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JUVENT

Dynamic Motion Therapy

Maintain and strengthen muscle and bone. Improves postural stability (balance). Low magnitude acoustic (mechanical) vibration. Gentle, simple, and safe treatment - only 20 minutes a day in home or clinic environment. Years of research funded by NASA, NIH and the U.S. Army.

Congratulations NASA! Happy 50th Anniversary!

www.juvent.com

300 Atrium Drive Somerset, NJ 08873 USA 1-732-748-8866 1-877-209-9600 (Toll free) Juvent, Dynamic Motion Therapy, and the symbol are trademarks of Juvent Medical, Inc. Copyright © 2007 Juvent Medical, Inc.

NASA did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.

50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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Parachutes and Aerodynamic Deceleration Systems for this World and Beyond. 45 South Satellite Road, PO Box 207, South Windsor CT 06074-0207, USA Tel: 860-528-0092 • Fax: 860-528-8122 • Website: www.pioneer.aero.com

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Trusted Partner

Congratulations NASA on 50 years of exploration and discovery. At Raytheon, we’re proud of our reputation as the world’s leading developer of technologies in defense and government electronics, space and information technology. We’re also proud that this reputation rests upon a foundation of trust with customers, employees, suppliers and communities. This combination of trust and technology is delivering distinct operational advantages and information superiority to customers, worldwide.

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MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER (HUNTSVILLE, ALA.)

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Space Doc

The most valuable team member is the one who helps keep the team whole.

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CHS Onsite Health Centers are the first line of defense against lost work days and reduced productivity. As the largest provider of occupational health services to NASA, our customized onsite centers promote a healthier workforce with immediate and preventive health management, accessible medical follow-up, environmental safety, and compliance. We anticipate, recognize and evaluate health hazards in the workplace to protect employees and the environment. Keep your workforce and the environment healthy with CHS’ onsite solution.

For more information on CHS Onsite Health Centers, call 800-761-6333 or visit www.chsmedical.com.

Who Can You Afford to be Without Tomorrow? © 2007 Comprehensive Health Services, Inc.


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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The spark of innovation. At LSI, our success is built on delivering more than technology. Our mission is to deliver the spark of innovation that brings people and information together. For more than a decade, LSI has been providing NASA industryleading technologies to gather and manage data and images from space. With our experience in storage computing, we contributed to the Columbia supercomputer, improving the safety of space exploration. And our advanced compression technology has helped NASA create and broadcast real-time high definition images from the outer reaches of space. As partners in innovation, LSI congratulates NASA on celebrating 50 years of sparking exploration and discovery. lsi.com

NASA did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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Information Technology Communications Science & Engineering T echnical Services Ser vices Technical Working with NASA since 1984, InDyne has supported: NASA Headquarters • Kennedy Space Center • Johnson Space Center • Stennis Space Center Glenn Research Center • Goddard Space Flight Center • Marshall Space Flight Center • Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Launch Communications • Payload Planning • Crew Training • Mission Support NASA did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement

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Congratulating NASA for 50 Years of Achievement

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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IZc EgZh^YZcih VcY C6H6 By John M. LOGSDON

In NASA’s 50-year history, 10 men have held the office of president of the United States. Because the president and his staff set NASA’s agenda and request the budget resources needed to carry it out, the White House has had great influence over the content and pace of the nation’s civilian space efforts. Congress must approve or modify the president’s space initiatives and budget proposals, but historically lawmakers have made only minor changes to what the president has proposed.

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ROCKET SCIENCE

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

231

The Carpet and Rug Institute adapted x-ray fluorescence used for the space shuttle to measure soil removal in carpet for its Seal of Approval certification program. Talk about a down to earth application of space technology! And just one more example of NASA’s extraordinary 50 years of progress and discovery. For a list of certified products, visit carpet-rug.org.


Photo credits: EADS Astrium, ESA AOES Medialab, ESA - D. Ducros, ESA/CNES/Arianespace-Service Optique.

Giving life to space applications for over 40 years

The battery: Pumping with energy. Pulsing with power. It is the heart of any space application. Saft gives life to satellites, launchers and probes with its high-power, low-weight, and highly reliable batteries. With over 40 years of experience, Saft is at the center of today’s space missions.

Saft America, Inc.

www.saftbatteries.com

space@saftbatteries.com

107 Beaver Ct. Cockeysville, MD 21030 Phone: 410-771-3200 Fax: 410-771-0234


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

237


Formed in 2006, United Launch Alliance combines the successful Atlas and Delta expendable launch vehicle programs to offer cost-effective and reliable launch services to U.S. government customers, including NASA, the Department of Defense, the National Reconnaissance OfďŹ ce and other organizations. Congratulations NASA!

www.ulalaunch.com


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

239


C6H6 VcY ^ih >ciZgV\ZcXn! 6XVYZb^X! >cYjhign VcY >ciZgcVi^dcVa EVgicZgh By Roger D. LAUNIUS

From NASA’s very origins, its leaders, as well as other government officials, realized that the agency would need a variety of partners to accomplish its expansive exploration and research mission. In terms of the interagency, academic, industry, and international partnerships that were struck by NASA, an unusual set of relations emerged in the first years of the agency. In no small part, the approach sought to build on the capabilities of each external organization rather than duplicate them across many groups.

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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As Webb explained, he hoped to entice outstanding students to enroll in programs across the nation rather than at only a few elite schools.

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“...The expansion of human knowledge of phenomena in the atmosphere and space...” – National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958

USRA’s 101 member universities salute the men and women of NASA upon the Agency’s 50th year.

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Jc^iZY HiViZh"Hdk^Zi HeVXZ 8ddeZgVi^dc Yjg^c\ i]Z 8daY LVg By Roald SAGDEEV, University of Maryland, and Susan EISENHOWER, The Eisenhower Institute

Russian space scientist Roald Z. Sagdeev spent a large part of his career viewing NASA from the Soviet Union’s side of the Cold War divide. Sagdeev, the former head of the Russian Space Research Institute, now is the director of the University of Maryland’s East-West Space Science Center. He wrote this essay with his wife, Susan Eisenhower (President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s grandaughter) that traces the long, hard path to space cooperation until the Soviet Union’s dissolution in 1991.

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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AZVYZgh! K^h^dcVg^Zh VcY 9Zh^\cZgh By Roger D. LAUNIUS

Due to its strong mission orientation, NASA has been uniquely favored with a plethora of superb leaders, visionaries and designers drawn to challenging projects. At critical moments in NASA’s development, these individuals made a huge difference. They helped establish the agency and managed its programs, formulated its long term goals and strategies, designed and engineered spacecraft and systems, and successfully focused NASA’s workforce on the agency’s goals. Presented here are brief tributes to some special individuals who made an indelible mark through their service.

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258

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elevating engineering... right out of this world. The University of Saskatchewan Space Design Team (USST)

> www.usask.ca

In the race to find a way to lift payloads into space, the USST has certainly earned a place among the best. At NASA Elevator 2010 competitions, this group of students and alumni combine innovative technology and ingenious engineering to produce impressive climbing machines that leave the rest of the field behind. At the University of Saskatchewan, there is only one direction – up.


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Your Mission: celebrate the space program, explore the Space Coast.

Florida’s Space Coast thanks NASA for 50 years of curiosity, bravery and dedication to exploring our universe. To discover more about the area that NASA calls home, including the attractions at Kennedy Space Center and the Astronaut Hall of Fame, we invite you to visit Florida’s Space Coast. Call 800-936-2326 or visit www.space-coast.com.

C O C O A P A L M

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M E L B O U R N E T I T U S V I L LE


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It’s one thing to think about studying Earth from above or sending robots and humans to the moon or Mars or conducting experiments in space. It’s something else to create the technology to actually do these things. The people who turn space exploration dreams into real NASA missions or projects are engineers and scientists.

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C6H6Éh >ccdkVidgh VcY Jchjc\ =ZgdZh NASA’s 50-year legacy of pioneering the future is as much the product of quietly persistent innovators and unsung heroes as it is of the agency’s more high profile representatives. The following profiles represent just a sample of people who have made a difference in the agency’s history.

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PTC : GET TING THE JOB DONE FOR NASA In every aspect of program execution – from 3D CAD to Project Management, Product Data Management, Process Automation and Project Collaboration - PTC is proud to play an essential role in the success of NASA’s next generation manned space programs. Today, PTC’s Pro/ENGINEER®, Windchill® ProjectLink™ and Windchill® PDMLink™ are core components of NASA’s principal product lifecycle management environments for the many program elements in the Vision for Space Exploration. Download our complimentary whitepaper on Secure Collaboration and learn about process and technology solutions to improve the control and management of your intellectual property.

www.ptc.com /go/securecollaboration/nasa CONGRATULATIONS TO NASA ON ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY! ©2007 Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC). PTC, the PTC logo, Pro/ENGINEER and Windchill are trademarks or registered trademarks of PTC.

OFFICIAL AEROSPACE SUPPLIER CONGRATULATES NASA ON ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY

Catalog & retailer information: US Distributor LWR Time Ltd. · Ph 570 408 16 40 FORTIS - the world’s first manufacturer of automatic wristwatches · since 1912 swiss more than 10 years in space · www.fortis-watch.com


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© NASA

Germany and the US through six decades of space flight By Dr. Niklas Reinke

50 years of NASA are a worthy occasion to honour the intense and fruitful relations between the USA and Germany in astronautics. As in many other fields of politics and science, the co-operation between both countries has always been close, closer than any other transatlantic partnership in space flight. Especially American and German scientists benefitted from this constellation. Even though engineers in both countries – together with Russians – were the pioneers of rocketry, it was not before 1945 that their work got connected.

In 1945, the Americans seized the archives of the German rocket program, together with about a hundred rockets, in a spectacular salvage operation codenamed ‘Special Mission V2’. There was an intense interest in the German rocket program. Its head Wernher von Braun was also brought to the US, together with 128 engineers of his former Peenemünde team. Although the US had a thirtyyear-old tradition of rocket research that started with Goddard, no American space program existed in 1946. The Germans soon were able to continue their work on behalf of the US-government. With von Braun being in charge, the US developed the Redstone and the heavy launcher Saturn V that, in 1969, took the first men to the moon. Official German-American co-operation in space flight started in the 1960s. Both governments decided on the joint mission Azur, which, in 1969, became Germany’s first satellite studying the Earth’s magnetosphere. With this first joint project, German research benefitted from the now advanced American space science and technology. The Americans on the other hand, saw advantages in cooperating with selected branches of the Federal German industry and research that were considered particularly reliable. Azur marked the beginning of a tradition of bilateral transatlantic co-operation. In the 1970s, next in line was Helios, the outstanding mission that brought two German-built probes closer to the sun then any spacecraft before. German scientists also took part on the spectacular landing of the US probes Viking on Mars, the deep-space probes Voyager and the Pioneer Venus Mission. Until today, Germany and the US succeeded in more than 40 joint satellites, probes and space telescopes. The most recent program is the airborne infrared telescope Sofia – a German telescope carried on a NASA Boeing 747 for very flexible astronomic studies without needing a telescope in space. Indeed, international co-operation remains essential for major space programs like the STS or the ISS. Germany headed the European development of Spacelab, the multi-disciplinary laboratory carried on 16 Space Shuttle flights in the 1980s and 1990s. But due to the problems with STS, Spacelab could not fly as often as hoped for. The fact remains that Spacelab was the most ambitious space science project ever carried out up till then. They totalled 181 days in space and enabled 110 astronauts to work on 720 experiments, culminating in the highly successful Neurolab mission in April 1998. Yet the spirit of Spacelab lives on in the ISS and its European laboratory Columbus – again developed and constructed under German responsibility. Only now, with the ISS being a reality, we are in a position to provide a final judgment on the value of human space flight, and hence on future manned missions like an international base on the Moon. 50 years of NASA and 100 years of German Aerospace Research, which the Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) celebrated in 2007, are a solid basis for many more fruitful joint missions during the rising millennium. With international competencies combined, the sky is no longer the limit. As a political scientist and historian, Dr. Niklas Reinke works for DLR corporate communications.

German Aerospace Center www.DLR.de

NASA did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.


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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

303


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C6H6

On Oct. 1, 1958, the 170 NASA Headquarters employees gathered in the courtyard of their building, the Dolly Madison House, located across Lafayette Park from the White House, to hear the agency’s first Administrator, T. Keith Glennan, proclaim NASA open for business. At the beginning, NASA had 8,000 employees absorbed from the 43-year-old National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, three laboratories (now renamed research centers), and two stations. Among those employees who “punched the time clock” on NASA’s first day are several hardy individuals who still proudly wear the NASA badge or work for NASA contractors. These are the stories of NASA’s 50 year men and women.


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NASA'S DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER

7>AA 96C6 C6H6

By Gray CREECH

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UCLA faculty, students, and staff join NASA in celebrating 50 years of exploration and discovery. We’re proud that UCLA scientists are working with NASA and colleagues around the world to unlock the mysteries of the universe.

cassiniwisemarsroverschandrasofiaspitzerspacetelescopedawnmissionlunarreco ndraclimatesoundermarsexpressstardustmarsglobalsurveyorvenusexpress sofiacassinimarsodysseystardustlunarreconnaissanceorbitermarsglobalsurveyo NASA did not select or approve UCLA and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.

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50 Years of Exploration and Discovery

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