Lac Mégantic disaster affects water plants Reducing wastewater treatment costs Using UV and ozone in tandem
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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • Nov/Dec 2013 Vol. 26 No. 6 • Issued December 2013 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Founding Editor
Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Design and Production EINAR RICE Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com
Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar Brinjac Engineering, Pennsylvania Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec
Product Showcase . . . 72-75 Environmental News . 76-82 Professional Cards . . . 76-80 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Noise pollution - music to woo certain maidens by...
10 UV and ozone used in tandem for Terrebonne water plant upgrade 12 Precoat filter aids can reduce wastewater treatment costs 16 Non-active biocatalysts are like a multivitamin for wastewater bacteria
20 Operations maintained during reconstruction of Hamilton’s waterworks 26 Northern College takes water treatment instruction to a new level 28 Water filtration – a 4,000 year evolution 32 Doing sample collection the easy way 34 Activated carbon offers micro pollutant treatment options 36 Taming the UK’s River Douglas cures flooding 52 Software evolving for water and wastewater systems
Peter J. Paine Environment Canada
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com
PAGES 38 - 51 38 Understanding the shifting business landscape 40 Using social collaboration tools improves communications 42 Questions, not answers lead to good design decisions 46 Consultants increasingly use BIM to drive project performance 48 Phased water and wastewater systems suit rural growth 50 Twitter, Klout, and LinkedIn help show credibility in a digital age
PAGES 55 - 71 55 Development of tank testing protocols benefits new composting facility 58 Storage, containment and response are the keys to managing spills 60 Lac Mégantic disaster increases awareness of water plant vulnerability 62 Rehabilitating Toronto’s West Don Lands 64 Proper static electricity grounding essential when transferring flammables 66 Wasauksing First Nation installs new water system and elevated storage tank - Cover story 68 Vapour intrusion can hurt your bottom line
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Comment by Tom Davey
Noise pollution â€“ music to woo certain maidens byâ€Ś.. In celebration of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazineâ€™s 25th year of publication, we are pleased to reprint some of Founding Editor, Tom Daveyâ€™s editorial comments.
ozing off on a languid summerâ€™s day, I was brutally awakened by the strident blasts of a car horn. Even in an age where drivers routinely honk away during their trivial pursuits, this acoustical vandalism was excessive. Now aroused, still sleepy but angry, I confronted the driver, whose car held three youths clad in leather jackets. An insolent smirk greeted my protest. â€œWhat do you think GM put this horn here for?â€?, he leered. I replied that, according to various Highway 7UDIÂżF$FWV WKH\ ZHUH LQVWUXPHQWV RI warning for emergencies, not mating calls for juvenile delinquents. Blows might then have been exchanged, but for the timely arrival of his girl friend. When I saw the object of his acoustical entreaties, I conceded to myself that his modus operandi was not entirely without logic. A balcony and classical guitar might well be inappropriate to woo this particular maiden. %XWQRLVHSROOXWLRQLVQRWFRQÂżQHGWR ERRULVK UXIÂżDQV 0DQ\ FLYLOL]HG SHRSOH often cause great pain and inconvenience to their neighbours by blasting away on auto horns at all hours. In dense urban concentrations, a single thoughtless blast can disturb the sleep of hundreds of peoSOHSRVVLEO\DWJUHDWVRFLDODQGÂżQDQFLDO cost to the community. William Shakespeare accurately described sleep as â€œnatureâ€™s sweet restorer.â€? But it is a fragile healer. There are thousands of tired, nervous people who, KDYLQJÂżQDOO\GURSSHGRIIWRVOHHSDUH jolted awake by the hooting horns and squealing tires of nocturnal motorists. Then there are babies, shift workers, and sick people, deservedly enjoying the healing balm of a daytime nap, only to be disturbed by the random use of an instrument that was specially designed to warn and alarm.
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The problem appears to be increasing. Taxis now routinely show up in the early hours, sounding their horns to let fares know they have arrived; and it is becoming common for house guests to conclude their nocturnal farewells with two or three loud blasts as they drive away. There is also an especially effective instrument of torture currently in vogue â€“ the bulb-operated bicycle horn. For a
PHUHÂżYHEXFNVRUVRDQ\HQHUJHWLFNLG simply by squeezing a rubber bulb, can saturate an entire neighbourhood with a persistent yapping sound; itâ€™s the equivalent of poking thistles in the surrounding populationâ€™s ear drums. Lawn care also has become a persistent source of noise pollution that has grown dramatically in recent years. By itself, one gas powered lawn mower is bearable, but the cumulative effect of several mowers can drench entire subdivisions with industrial strength noise for several hours. If a new factory were to emit such protracted noise levels near a residential area, it is certain that indignant demonstrations would erupt at PXQLFLSDORIÂżFHV More acoustical horrors add to the botanical cacophony. These include gas powered lawn-edging tools, rotary grass trimmers, and â€“ worst of all â€“ leaf blowers, which combine a jet-like whine with a raucous engine noise. Quite often entire neighborhoods are seriously disturbed for quite trivial
gardening chores. In an environmental audit, these three gardening activities would collectively total the biggest doPHVWLFQXLVDQFHIRUWKHOHDVWEHQHÂżW Air pollution, too, from gas powered gardening equipment can be surprisingly serious. Designers of an experimental Saab, recently claimed there would be less air pollution driving this car across North America than operating a lawn mower for two hours. 7KHUHDUHWUHPHQGRXVÂżQDQFLDOFRVWV to unnecessary noise. Years ago I visited the National Research Council in Ottawa to do a feature on sleep experiments being conducted there. Scientists told me that many people, whose sleep is disturbed by noise pollution, frequently go into shallower, less desirable sleep patterns, without ever knowing that their slumbers had been disturbed. Next day, they may wonder why they felt tired after a â€œgood nightâ€™s sleepâ€?, never realizing they were victims of unwelcome noise intrusion. It robbed them of a deep, health-restoring sleep, just as surely as if they had been burglarized. If the real costs of absenteeism, lower productivity, and other health related effects of noise pollution were added up and published, I suspect there would be a national outcry against unnecesVDU\DQGVHOÂżVKSUDFWLFHV$Q\EHQHÂżWV that individuals get from their cavalier KRQNLQJ DUH ERWK PLQXWH DQG Ă€HHWLQJ Their effect on society is painful, prolonged and far-reaching. Noise and chemicals can cause neurotoxicity Articles, government sponsored ads, and public announcements all warn of the dangers of second-hand cigarette smoke. But second-hand noise can also cause deafness, raise pulse rates, disturb sleep, and seriously affect human health in diverse ways. Researchers at the Medical Research Council in SurUH\(QJODQGLGHQWLÂżHGDOLQNEHWZHHQ noise and the brainâ€™s susceptibility to damage from toxic chemicals. continued overleaf...
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Comment by Tom Davey 'U-RKQ&DYDQDJKÂżUVWLGHQWLÂżHGD SRWHQWLDOOLQNEHWZHHQVRXQGDQGFKHPLFDO QHXURWR[LFLW\ LQ UDWV :KHQ UDWV ZHUHH[SRVHGWRWKHFKHPLFDOGLQLWUREHQ]HQH '1% LQ D TXLHW HQYLURQPHQW LW FDXVHG EDUHO\ DQ\ EUDLQ GDPDJH '1% ZDV PDUNHGO\ PRUH GDPDJLQJ WR WKH UDWV ZKHQ WKH\ ZHUH DOVR H[SRVHG WR D PRGHUDWHO\ QRLV\ HQYLURQPHQW5DWVGHYHORSHGIHZHUOHVLRQV ZKHQVRXQGOHYHOVZHUHUHGXFHG&DYDQDJKÂśV FROOHDJXH 'U 'DYLG 5D\ ODWHU ZURWHLQMRC News WKDWZKHQWKHUDWV
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â€œHearing is the sentinel of the senses. It keeps us on the alert, unlike sight, which switches off for eight hours of the day. Sound is very, very intrusive; it has privileged access to our thoughts.â€? ZHUHH[SRVHGRQFHDJDLQWRQRUPDOODERUDWRU\QRLVHLQERWKHDUVOHVLRQVDJDLQ DSSHDUHG LQ DUHDV SUHYLRXVO\ SURWHFWHG IURPQRLVH 6XSSRUW IRU WKHLU K\SRWKHVLV KDV FRPH IURP %UD]LO ZKHUH ZRUNHUV H[SRVHGWRWROXHQHFRPPRQO\XVHGLQLQGXVWU\ KDYHEHHQIRXQGWRH[SHULHQFH JUHDWHU KHDULQJ ORVV DQG EDODQFH SUREOHPVLQQRLV\HQYLURQPHQWV %XW FDVXDOWLHV VHHP KHDYLHVW RQ WKHGRPHVWLFVFHQH$WOHDVWSURWHFWLYH JHDULVUHTXLUHGIRULQGXVWULDOZRUNHUV 'RPHVWLFUHVLGHQWVKRZHYHUDUHVFDQGDORXVO\ XQSURWHFWHG ,Q VL[ \HDUV
IRUGDQJHULQWKHSULPHYDOMXQJOHDQGLV LQWLPDWHO\FRQQHFWHGWRWKHDURXVDOV\VWHP6RXQGLVYHU\YHU\LQWUXVLYHLWKDV SULYLOHJHGDFFHVVWRRXUWKRXJKWVÂ´ ,Q WKH 8. GRPHVWLF QRLVH FRPSODLQWV KDYH ULVHQ E\ SHUFHQW WR PRUH WKDQ D \HDU /\QHH (GPRQGVZULWLQJLQWKHDaily Telegraph, VD\V WKDW QRLVH LV WKH VFRXUJH RI FLW\ GZHOOHUVHYHU\ZKHUHDQGJHWWLQJZRUVH 6KHVD\VWKDWLWLVORXGPXVLFDQGEDUNLQJ GRJV Âą UDWKHU WKDQ WUDIÂżF DLUFUDIW QRLVH RU WUDLQV Âą WKDW GULYH DSSDUHQWO\ QRUPDO SHRSOH WR WKH EULQN RI EUHDNGRZQVRUYLROHQFH
7KH FDVHV RI GHDWK GHWDLOHG LQ WKH London Independent ZHUH DOO EDVHG RQ ORXG PXVLF RU EDUNLQJ GRJV 3HUKDSV WKH PRVW SDWKHWLF ZDV WKDW RI \HDUROG9DOHULH(GZDUGVZKRGLHG RISQHXPRQLDLQ%ULVWRO6KHKDGEHHQ VLWWLQJLQDSDUNQHDUKHUKRPHIRUVHYHUDOQLJKWVLQWKHFROGDQGUDLQWRDYRLG QRLVHIURPKHUQHLJKERU-D\QH%XUVWRQ +HUKXVEDQGKDGFDOOHGHQYLURQPHQWDO KHDOWK RIÂżFHUV WLPHV LQ PRQWKV 0V%XUVWRQZDVFKDUJHGZLWKSOD\LQJ PXVLF WRR ORXGO\ LQ GHÂżDQFH RI WKUHH QRLVHDEDWHPHQWQRWLFHV6KHZDVJLYHQ DFRQGLWLRQDOGLVFKDUJH :KLOH WKH ODZ KDV FOHDUO\ IDLOHG WR VXSSUHVV XQQHFHVVDU\ QRLVH WKHUH LV D FKDQFH WKDW WKH WHDFKLQJ SURIHVVLRQ PLJKW VXFFHHG ZKHUH SROLFH DQG JRYHUQPHQW DJHQFLHV KDYH IDLOHG (GXFDWRUVFRXOGWHDFKWKDWDOOLQWUXVLYHQRLVH VWHPVIURPKDELWVZKLFKYLRODWHWKHHWKLFV DQG PDQQHUV RI JRRG HQYLURQPHQWDO SUDFWLFHV ,I WKLV PHVVDJH LV KHDUG ZH PLJKW \HW EH VSDUHG WKH PRXQWLQJ FDFRSKRQ\ FXUUHQWO\ EOLJKWLQJ PRVW RI RXUXUEDQFRPPXQLWLHV
This editorial was published in Tom Daveyâ€™s book â€œFor Whom the Polls Tellâ€?.
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UV and ozone used in tandem for Terrebonne WTP upgrade By Martine Warda
ocated 30 minutes northeast of Montreal, QuĂŠbec, the City of Terrebonne has the last drinking water intake of the many cities along the RiviĂ¨re des Milles-Iles. (IĂ€XHQW IURP XSVWUHDP FRPPXQLWLHV DIIHFWVWKHZDWHUTXDOLW\Ă€RZLQJWR7HUrebonne and its 125,000 consumers. First established in 1861 to only VHUYH7HUUHERQQHLWVWUHDWPHQWSODQWKDV evolved tremendously in recent years, in order to serve the constantly growing SRSXODWLRQ 6LJQLÂżFDQW XSJUDGHV ZHUH also required after the creation of the RAIM (La RĂŠgie dâ€™aqueduc intermunicLSDOHGHVPRXOLQV LQ7KLVH[SDQGed distribution to the adjacent municiSDOLWLHVRI0DVFRXFKHDQG/DFKHQDLH (IIRUWVWRPRGHUQL]HDQGH[SDQGWKH SODQWEHJDQLQ$IWHUJULWUHPRYDO DQGVDQGEDOODVWHGFODULÂżFDWLRQWRVHWWOH RXWVXVSHQGHGVROLGVWZRR]RQHJHQHUDWRUVDUHXVHGWRR[LGL]HRUJDQLFFRPSRXQGV(OHYHQELRÂżOWUDWLRQEDVLQVWKHQ GLJHVW VXJDUV DQG HOLPLQDWH PLFURSDUticles. UV disinfection is used to eliminate SDWKRJHQLF PLFURRUJDQLVPV 7UHDWHG water is stored in three underground UHVHUYRLUVZLWKDFRPELQHGFDSDFLW\RI PĂą7KUHHSXPSLQJVWDWLRQVWKHQ
Efforts to modernize and expand the plant began in 2008.
ensure that the drinking water met standards. The combination of ozone and 89 ZDV DQ LQWHJUDO SDUW RI WKH SODQWÂśV WUHDWPHQW SURFHVV 8VLQJ ozone after FODULÂżFDWLRQVHUYHVDQXPEHURISXUSRVes, including breaking down organics LQWR PRUH VLPSOH DQG ELRGHJUDGDEOH SURGXFWV 7KHVH DUH PRUH UHDGLO\ UHPRYHG E\ VXEVHTXHQW WUHDWPHQW VWHSV VXFKDVELRÂżOWUDWLRQ $Q DGGLWLRQDO EHQHÂżW LV WKDW R]RQH
Due to the constantly changing water quality of the RiviĂ¨re des Milles-Iles, a multi-barrier approach was required, to ensure that the drinking water met standards. feed the 35 km distribution network. While only minor civil engineering ZRUN ZDV UHTXLUHG WKH XSJUDGH ZDV D sound investment for the RAIM in colODERUDWLRQ ZLWK WKH SDUWQHULQJ PXQLFLSDOLWLHV*LYHQWKHHYLGHQWGHPRJUDSKLF growth of the city of Mascouche, it was FULWLFDO WR XSJUDGH WKH IDFLOLW\ WR PHHW demand, as well as ensure that environmental regulations were met. Ozone oxidation for organic removal Due to the constantly changing water quality of the RiviĂ¨re des Milles-Iles, a PXOWLEDUULHUDSSURDFKZDVUHTXLUHGWR 10 | November/December 2013
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EUHDNVGRZQWKHKHDY\SRO\PHUXVHGLQ WKHĂ€RFFXODWLRQVWHSRIWKHVDQGEDOODVWHG FODULÂżHUV7KLV VLJQLÂżFDQWO\ UHGXFHV WKHTXDQWLW\RIFKHPLFDOSURGXFWVUHDFKLQJWKHELRORJLFDOÂżOWHUVZKLFKKHOSVWR SUHYHQWIRXOLQJDQGH[WHQGVFDUERQOLIH 7R HQVXUH FRQWLQXRXV Ă€RZ WKHUH DUH WZR:('(&2 602 JHQHUDWRUV LQ WKHIDFLOLW\RQHLQFRQVWDQWRSHUDWLRQDQG one on standby. The ozone generators DUHIHGE\OLTXLGR[\JHQKRXVHGRXWVLGH WKHSODQW6HUYLFLQJLVSHUIRUPHGWZLFHD \HDUE\D;\OHPVHUYLFHSURYLGHU Using ozone at Terrebonne results LQ HIÂżFLHQW R[LGL]DWLRQ RI RUJDQLFV DQG
UHGXFHG FKHPLFDO XVDJH 7KLV SURYLGHV longer carbon lifetimes and reduced wash IUHTXHQF\ ,W DOVR ORZHUV RSHUDWLQJ H[SHQVHVDQGRYHUDOOHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ UV disinfection 8OWUDYLROHW 89 GLVLQIHFWLRQ LV WKH ÂżUVWVWHSRIGLVLQIHFWLRQSHUIRUPHGIROORZLQJ ELRÂżOWUDWLRQ $V ÂżOWHUHG ZDWHU circulates through the reactors, UV light SHQHWUDWHVWKHFHOOZDOOVRIEDFWHULDDQG YLUXVHVWRSHUPDQHQWO\DOWHUWKHLU'1$ This renders them â€œinactivateâ€? and unDEOHWRUHSURGXFH. UV disinfection was selected for its effective results and low RSHUDWLQJH[SHQVHV 1LQH :('(&2 89 UHDFWRUV KDYH EHHQ LQVWDOOHG DW 5$,0 ÂżYH %; ZLWK ODPSV DQG IRXU %; ZLWK ODPSV $OO KDYH DXWRPDWLF ZLSHUV SUHYHQWLQJ IRXOLQJ RI WKH ODPSV 7KH %; VHULHV LV D 8VKDSHG FORVHGYHVVHO WHFKQRORJ\IRUZDWHUDQGZDVWHZDWHUDSSOLFDWLRQVZLWKDFDSDFLW\XSWR PĂąG DQG D 89 WUDQVPLWWDQFH UDQJH RI Âą Liquid chlorine residual is then addHGDVWKHVHFRQGVWHSLQWKHGLVLQIHFWLRQ SURFHVV)LQDOO\S+OHYHOVDUHFRUUHFWHG WR PHHW UHTXLUHG VWDQGDUGV IRU SRWDEOH water. The log reduction for Cryptosporidium, Giardia and viruses are regulated to
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 5:58 AM
To ensure continuous flow there are two ozone generators in the facility.
Nine UV reactors have been installed.
be 2, 5, and 6 logs, respectively. At the RAIM, use of this multi-barrier approach has led to the plant achieving log reduction levels far beyond this. Given these results, the plant has since established its
consumers, over the next 50 years.
own objectives and benchmarks. Running smoothly since its completion in 2011, the plant now has a capacity of 120,000 m³/d. This will allow the RAIM to serve more than 250,000
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Precoat filter aids can reduce wastewater treatment costs By Ken Rilling
roper selection of filter aid materials and methods of application in a precoat filter enable it to meet challenging wastewater treatment applications by improving filtration efficiency, extending operating life, reducing cleaning cycles, and reducing chemical costs. There are numerous types of filter aid materials available to enhance precoat filter effectiveness. In addition, there are two approaches to filter aid utilization, which can also improve performance. The most obvious application of the filter aid is as a coating layer on top of the porous support or septum. This is referred to as the “precoat layer” and it may be as thin as 0.0625 of an inch. The precoat layer is generated, prior to filtration of the wastewater, by passing one or more aqueous solutions containing the filter aid(s) into the feed side of the precoat filter. The filter aid is retained on the feed side surface of the septum. Different precoat layers can be deposited on the septum as stratified layers, which each provide a particular benefit to the wastewater treatment operation. Depending on the type of precoat filter, it can include mechanisms to ensure that the precoat layers are evenly distributed over the septum. Another approach to applying filter aids in the precoat filter is referred to as a “body feed”. In this approach filter aid(s) can be added into the wastewater, upstream of the precoat filter, either continuously in-line with a static mixer or batch wise by way of a mix tank. The objective in utilizing the filter aid as a body feed is to maintain permeability of the forming cake. This is achieved by continuously generating a filtering layer with the collected body feed, which creates pores to trap suspended solids in the wastewater. This approach is usually applied in situations where the forming cake becomes impermeable, due to the sticky or tacky nature of the retained solids from the wastewater.
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Figure 1, Scanning electron micrograph images of diatomaceous earth, perlite, bentonite, and cellulose filter aid materials.
As previously mentioned, adding filter aids to the precoat filter can greatly reduce overall costs for wastewater treatment operations. In the case of wastewater containing emulsified oils with a droplet size 1 μm in diameter or greater, the filter aid can be utilized to directly remove them without the use of coagulants and flocculants. Operating costs are not only reduced due to the elimination of coagulant and flocculant chemicals, but also because fewer operations are required for wastewater treatment. This means lower capital cost. Sludge generated from the precoat filter cake containing non-flocculated suspensions is lower in moisture content, compared to sludge generated from flocculated suspensions. Smaller sludge volumes generated by the precoat filter can be substantial on an annual basis, reducing overall disposal costs. If the precoat filter utilizes a cellulose-based filter aid, then the filter cake may have fuel value when retaining emulsified oils. This waste sludge is now
a potential source of revenue, instead of a disposal cost. Examples of filter aid materials Diatomite, a filter aid, is obtained by milling and calcining diatomaceous earth (DE). DE is the fossilized remains of hard shelled algae, known as diatoms, that are encased in a cell wall of silica. Since DE crumbles, it is generally obtained in particle sizes from 30 - 200 μm in diameter. The silica content of DE can be as high as 80% to 90%, with an aluminum oxide content of 2% to 4%. Diatomite is a relatively low cost media, which is also utilized in drinking water treatment. Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass formed by the hydration of obsidian. Since perlite is high in water content, it can be expanded. Upon receiving sufficient heat, its volume will increase by 20 or more times. The surface structure of expanded perlite is jagged, which allows for interlocking of the particles. continued overleaf...
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Wastewater Treatment This, combined with its expanded volume, provides for a large network of microscopic channels within the media layer. This filter aid contains 70% to 75% silicon dioxide and 10% to 15% aluminum oxide. As the United States is one of the world’s largest suppliers of bentonite, there is a relatively inexpensive and abundant source of this filter aid material in North America. It can be rich in magnesium oxide, calcite, dolomite or quartz, depending on the origin of the clay. This clay is used for purification of oils and greases, as well as the clarification of beverages. Cellulose is a filter aid that continues to gain popularity. Due to its allowable operating pH range of 4 to 10, and potentially higher, it can be used in processes such as brine filtration and the Merill-Crowe precious metal circuit, where the pH is well above diatomite and perlite pH tolerance. The development of surface modification approaches for cellulose fibers, such as fibrillation, has improved their filtration efficiency. Filter aids can be obtained as a multifunctional, premixed blend of materials. For example, commercial blends are available which contain activated carbon, ion exchange resin and zeolite. These blends can be effectively applied for polishing wastewater, prior to discharge to sanitary sewers. This ensures that local discharge requirements for particular wastewater parameters, such as biochemical oxygen demand and metals, are not exceeded. Other materials that have been applied as filter aids are: paper stock, plastics, powdered glass, rice hull ash, talc, and wood pulp. As the types of filter aid materials continue
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to increase, so will the applications for precoat filters as a cost-effective approach for wastewater treatment. Filter aid selection and process equipment There are a number of factors involved in the selection of the appropriate filter aid materials. These include: minimum particle size of the suspended solids to be retained; required permeability of the cake layer; contaminants to be removed; clarity of filtrate; prevention of cake cracking; sludge volume generated; and sludge disposal requirements. Filter aid particle size determines the size of the suspended particles in the wastewater stream that will be retained in the resulting cake. Materials such as diatomite and perlite are available over a relatively large range of particle sizes and distribution. These particles tend to be hard and spherical in shape, generating a precoat layer that is relatively well defined in particle size retention and cake permeability. An issue with cakes based exclusively on these filter aid materials is the potential of cracks developing, which negates the benefit of this process. Cellulose fibers, being needle like and amorphous, are able to pack tightly to form a thin dense cake, or porous mat, which can be “paper like”. This prevents cracks from occurring in the filter cake, even under relatively significant pressure changes. Filter aids, such as cellulose, paper stock, and wood pulp are compressible. Utilizing the appropriate pressing equipment can result in as much as 20% of the moisture being removed from the cake generated by these filter aids. This is a significant volume and mass reduction and helps to avoid thermal drying. An additional benefit of a cellulose-based filter aid is that cellulose burns ash free. Depending on the wastewater treatment application, the resulting sludge may be suitable for use as a low grade fuel. Cellulose, being biodegradable, can be of benefit where there are constraints on the types of landfill waste allowed. Manufacturing practices in a facility may require that the treatment materials be from a renewable resource. This makes cellulose-based filter aids an appropriate material. The economics of a treatment operation are always of prime importance, but one can be misled by upfront material costs as is the case with cellulose. Although the cost of cellulose is significantly more than for diatomite and perlite, other factors contribute to make it a cost-competitive option. For some applications, the amount of cellulose required for the treatment may be as much as 50% of that required by conventional filter aid materials. Not only is there less raw material consumption, but also the amount of waste generated is significantly reduced which reduces disposal costs. The same feed system, as well as slurry mixing and transport operations, can be utilized for most of the filter aid materials. This allows for considerable flexibility in the precoat filter operation, as the facility does not have to stay with a particular filter aid material. The precoat filter treatment approach can be modified by changing to one or more different filter aid materials to meet changes in wastewater treatment requirements. Ken Rilling, P. Eng., Ph.D., is with Conestoga-Rovers & Associates. E-mail: email@example.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:03 AM
Flush lifting handle Slam lock with SFNPWBCMFPQFOFS )PMEPQFOBSNIBOEMF Stainless hinges with UBNQFSQSPPGIBSEXBSF
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MSU Mississauga Ltd. 2222 S. Sheridan way, Building 3, Unit 300 Mississauga, OntarioNovember/December Canada L5J 2M4 2013 | 15 www.esemag.com
#17 Precoat Filter.indd 15
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Non-active biocatalysts are like a multivitamin for wastewater bacteria KHWKHU ZHÂ¶UH UXQQLQJ DURXQG IURP PHHWLQJ WR meeting or trying to get the kids dressed in the morning, we all need vitamins and other WUDFH HOHPHQWV LQ RUGHU WR IXQFWLRQ DGHTXDWHO\7KH\ DLG RXU ERGLHV LQ PDLQWDLQLQJJRRGKHDOWKDQGÂ¿JKWLQJRIILOOQHVVZKHQZHÂ¶UHXQGHUWKHZHDWKHU7KH same goes for bacteria. ,Q PRVW SHRSOHÂ¶V PLQGV EDFWHULD have a negative connotation. In the UHDOPRIZDVWHZDWHUDQGVOXGJHSURFHVVLQJWKRXJKEDFWHULDDUHWKH9,0VYHU\ LPSRUWDQWPLFURRUJDQLVPV RIZDVWHZDWHUWUHDWPHQW7KH\ZRUNWRUHGXFHVXFK WKLQJVDVIDWVRLODQGJUHDVH)2* DQG ELRFKHPLFDOR[\JHQGHPDQG%2' The effectiveness of the good bacteULD LV GHSHQGHQW RQ PLFURQXWULHQWV HVSHFLDOO\ZLWKDHURELFEDFWHULDWKDWQHHG more trace elements as cofactors than anaerobic bacteria. If the availability of WKHVHQXWULHQWVLVORZEDGEDFWHULDWKDW UHTXLUH IHZHU PLFURQXWULHQWV ZLOO EHcome dominant. ,Q FHUWDLQ VLWXDWLRQV VRPH EDFWHULD RU \HDVW VWUDLQV PD\ UHOHDVH VXIÂ¿FLHQW TXDQWLWLHV RI DQWLELRWLFV WKDW VXSSUHVV growth of other microorganisms. AdGLWLRQDOO\ DQ LQFUHDVHG SUHVHQFH RI SURWR]RDPD\DOVRKDYHDQXQGHVLUDEOH HIIHFWE\IHHGLQJRQJRRGEDFWHULDVXEVHTXHQWO\UHGXFLQJWKHSRSXODWLRQ
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Non-active biocatalysts Bacteria are a key factor in wastewater treatment, as is evident from the VFLHQFHEHKLQGVXFKPHWKRGVDVDHUDWLRQ RUDFWLYHHQ]\PDWLFDGGLWLYHV+RZHYHU aeration on its own can be a slow and FRVWO\ SURFHVV :LWK PRUH WKDQ GLIIHUHQW HQ]\PHV LGHQWLÂ¿HG E\ VFLHQWLVWV DQG WKH YDULHW\ RI FRPSRXQGV LQ any given wastewater stream, active HQ]\PHDGGLWLYHVPD\FDXVHDQHJDWLYH reaction and be detrimental to the treatPHQWSURFHVV 9HJHWDEOHEDVHG QRQDFWLYH ELRFDWDO\VWV 1$%&V VXFK DV 5<'$// :2 :DWHU 2SWLPL]HU GR QRW FRQWDLQ DFWLYH EDFWHULD HQ]\PHVSURWHLQV RU 16 | November/December 2013
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The wrong active enzyme additives may be detrimental to the treatment process.
harsh chemicals. Instead, these enviURQPHQWDOO\EHQHÂ¿FLDOSURGXFWVFRQWDLQ QXWULHQWV YLWDPLQV DQG WUDFH HOHPHQWV 7KH\DOORZÂ³JRRGÂ´EDFWHULDWRH[SHGLWH degradation of contaminants and conversion into water, carbon dioxide and YDULRXVLQQRFXRXVVDOWV NABCs do this by enhancing the H[LVWLQJPHWDEROLFSURFHVVHVRIWKHPLFURRUJDQLVPVSUHVHQWLQDOOOLYHPDWWHU regardless of their environment. The dissolved oxygen content of the water is LQFUHDVHG DOORZLQJ EHQHÂ¿FLDO EDFWHULD WRWKULYHDQGGRWKHLUMRE1DWXUDOO\H[LVWLQJEDFWHULDDOUHDG\SURGXFHHQ]\PHV WKDW IDFLOLWDWH DEVRUSWLRQ RI RUJDQLFV WKURXJKWKHLUFHOOXODUPHPEUDQHV6LQFH WKH\FDQEHXVHGLQDQ\ZDVWHZDWHUHQvironment, they do not have the limitaWLRQVWKDWHQ]\PHVSURWHLQVKDYHE\WDUJHWLQJVSHFLÂ¿FPROHFXOHVRUSRWHQWLDOO\ KDYLQJ D QHJDWLYH HIIHFW RQ WKH FXUUHQW biological environment. Industrial pre-treatment )RU IDFLOLWLHV WKDW SURGXFH ZDVWHZDWHUUHGXFWLRQRI)2*%2'&2'DQG 766WRWDOVXVSHQGHGVROLGV LVQHFHVVDU\ GXH WR ORFDO DQG IHGHUDO UHJXODWLRQV DV ZHOODVWKHFRPSDQ\Â¶VERWWRPOLQH0RVW
PDQXIDFWXULQJ RU SURFHVVLQJ IDFLOLWLHV DUH UHTXLUHG E\ ODZ WR SUHWUHDW WKHLU ZDVWHZDWHUWRPHHWDFFHSWDEOHOHYHOVRI FRQWDPLQDQWVSULRUWRVHQGLQJLWRIIWRD ZDVWHZDWHUWUHDWPHQWSODQW$VLGHIURP LQYHVWLQJ VLJQLÂ¿FDQW FDSLWDO LQ DHUDWLRQ V\VWHPV GLJHVWHUV GHZDWHULQJ HTXLSPHQW DQG UHWHQWLRQ WDQNV DQG SRQGV KDXODJHIHHVIRUVOXGJHDUHDOVRFRVWO\ 1$%&VFDQEHXVHGDVDFRVWHIIHFWLYHSUHWUHDWPHQWDGGLWLYHWKDWFDQKHOS facilities meet local and federal wasteZDWHU UHJXODWLRQV DQG HOLPLQDWH FRVWO\ Â¿QHV ,W FDQ VDYH PRQH\ E\ UHGXFLQJ WKHDPRXQWRIVOXGJHIRUGLVSRVDO,WFDQ DOVRSURYLGHDGGHGFDSDFLW\LQUHWHQWLRQ WDQNV RU SRQGV DV ZHOO DV HQKDQFH WKH HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI RWKHU WUHDWPHQW HTXLSment and systems. Biocatalysts in action $ VSHFLDOW\ VWDUFK SURFHVVRU LQ 0DLQHZDQWHGWRUHGXFHWKHDPRXQWRI VOXGJHDVZHOODV%2'OHYHOVLQLWVHIÃ€XHQW 7KH JDOORQ VOXGJH WDQN ZDVDWPD[LPXPFDSDFLW\DQGWU\LQJWR UHFRYHU IURP WXUQLQJ DQDHURELF GXH WR a bad batch of starch. The facility was IRUFHGWRUXQLWVEORZHUVFRQVWDQWO\IRU continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:05 AM
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Various types of foam can be produced during wastewater treatment.
two weeks, but still was unable to settle the tank. $W Â¿UVW WKH FRPSDQ\ ZDV VNHSWLFDO DERXW XVLQJ 5<'$// :2 :DWHU 2SWLPL]HUDIWHUDGYHUVHUHVXOWVZLWKDFWLYH HQ]\PH DGGLWLYHV 2QFH WKH FRPSD-
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:05 AM
Wastewater Treatment Bulking and foaming Filamentous bacteria play a vital role in the activated sludge process. Their long strands interconnect with each other to form a mesh that is the key factor LQ Ă€RFFXODWLRQ RU Ă€RF IRUPDWLRQ 7KLV PHVK KROGV WRJHWKHU WKH Ă€RF WR IRUP manageable portions for better settling, as well as snagging smaller particles. Filamentous bacteria also do an exceptional job at removing BOD. The key to successfully utilizing these bacteria is balance. Too few of WKHPDQGWKHĂ€RFFDQQRWSURSHUO\IRUP 7RR PDQ\ RI WKHP DQG WKH Ă€RF FDQQRW properly settle. An overabundance also absorbs excessive amounts of organic material and inhibits the growth of more desirable organisms. The most common issues that stem from this are sludge bulking and foaming. Sludge bulking occurs when the sludge becomes light, increases in volXPHDQGZLOOQRWVHWWOH9DULRXVĂ€RFSDUWLFOHVEHJLQLQWHUORFNLQJLQWHUĂ€RFEULGJing) forming massive segments. Many times, these segments trap air bubbles, FDXVLQJ WKHP WR Ă€RDW RQ WKH VXUIDFH (sludge scum or foam). This interferes with the compaction and settling of the sludge, resulting in bulking. This also results in a high Sludge Volume Index (standard measure of the physical characteristics of activated sludge solids), overload of the solids handling systems, additional haul-off costs, and degradaWLRQRITXDOLW\HIĂ€XHQW
Sludge foaming is the result of the RYHUDEXQGDQFHRIVSHFLÂżFW\SHVRIÂżODmentous bacteria, mainly Nocardia and to a lesser extent Microthrix parvicella. An opportunistic strand, Nocardia thrive when nutrients are low, the health of naturally occurring bacteria is vulnerable, and high levels of fats, oils and grease are present.
In the realm of wastewater and sludge processing, bacteria are the very important microorganisms of wastewater treatment. Various types of foam can be produced during sludge processing, or startup of activated sludge plants. These disappear once the process is established. Another type is brown, heavy foam that accumulates on the surface of the aeration tank and then transfers WRWKHFODULÂżFDWLRQWDQN,WFDQRYHUĂ€RZ if it gets too thick and wonâ€™t settle. The TXDOLW\ RI WKH HIĂ€XHQW GLVFKDUJHG IURP the tank is also severely degraded with high levels of TSS. This brown foam occurs when undigested nutrients rise to the surface. A key indicator of foam caused by Nocardia is low BOD levels.
Maintaining desired levels of dissolved oxygen, F/M (low organic loading rate), nutrients and pH are all vital to DQHIÂżFLHQWDQGKHDOWK\DFWLYDWHGVOXGJH process. When issues (e.g., bulking) do occur, the addition of remedial methods such as chlorination or hydrogen peroxide can temporarily stabilize the ÂżODPHQWRXV EDFWHULD SRSXODWLRQ ZKHQ properly applied. %DODQFHLVWKHNH\WRFRQWUROOLQJÂżODmentous bacteria, as well as the overall biological health of the system. NABCs, can strike this delicate balance. (QYLURQPHQWDOO\EHQHÂżFLDO NABCs not only provide a cost-effective solution for WWTPs, but also industrial facilities that need to pre-treat wastewater, or cities and towns that may have H2S or other odor and corrosion issues in their sewer lines or lift stations. NABCs are 100% natural, biodegradDEOHDQGHQYLURQPHQWDOO\EHQHÂżFLDO NABCs are not limited to just wastewater treatment. They can be used to FRQWURO RGRU LQ ODQGÂżOOV FRPSRVWLQJ operations, as well as lagoons, ponds and industrial facilities. In addition to odor control, NABCs can enhance methane production for companies that capture, process and sell this natural energy source. Dan Peter is with Apex Engineering Products. For more information, visit www.apexengineeringproducts.com
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416.743.3751 indachem.com November/December 2013 | 19
12/5/13 6:05 AM
Operations maintained during major reconstruction of Hamilton’s waterworks By Kirk Worounig and Bill Docherty
ocated in Hamilton, Ontario, the 909 ML/d Woodward Avenue Water Treatment Plant was originally constructed in the 1930s and expanded in the 1950s. While process upgrades had occurred, much of the plant’s aging superstructure had not been serviced in over 70 years. While the City of Hamilton could have built a new plant, it would have been an expensive undertaking. The anticipated cost was hundreds of millions of dollars. Instead, it was decided to rehabilitate the existing plant’s superstructure, despite the inherent complexities of retrofitting an active plant on such a large scale. Although the superstructure was deteriorating, the core processes of the Woodward plant remained in generally good condition, and, more importantly, they worked. The City and R.V. Anderson Associates Limited (RVA) had undertaken the restoration design in the mid-2000s, but the construction had been deferred until funding became available. When the Infrastructure Stimulus Fund became available in 2009, the $25M project was reactivated. RVA updated the drawings to reflect current standards and conditions, and the project was tendered and awarded. Alberici Constructors Ltd was the general contractor for the project and construction continued from 2009 through to 2011. The restoration included the high-lift pumping station, filter building and nine smaller ancillary buildings, totalling 5,800 m2. A new two-storey administrative building addition was also constructed for the water system operators. Eramosa Engineering Incorporated programmed the Supervisory and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system and implemented the change over for the new operations centre. Maintaining operations during construction Architectural and structural restoration included replacing nearly the
20 | November/December 2013
#20 Hamilton Wentworth.indd 20
A key goal of the restoration was to restore the historical appearance and features of the facility.
entire plant’s existing superstructure around existing and active processes. The Woodward plant is Hamilton’s main source of drinking water, and could not be taken offline during construction. Complex sequencing was required to keep the plant operational to meet seasonal City water demands, while allowing construction to proceed in a timely manner. The project left the original layout intact, as well as the original filters, including media, foundations, main filter galleries and the operations centre. The rest of the superstructure was completely
demolished and reconstructed from the ground up. Protection measures, including multi-layer covers, were required to minimize construction impacts on the existing filters and pipe gallery. During construction, one half of the plant was in continuous service. Site access was clearly defined in the Contract Documents. Due to weight restrictions, no work was allowed to be completed from the roof of the existing sedimentation tanks or in-ground reservoir. Since the site was very constrained, much of the work was staged and completed continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:07 AM
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Water Treatment from the existing roadway circling the plant. Work had to be completed during specified times, normally through the winter months when water demands were less. This allowed more of the plant to be taken out of service. If a delay occurred on a specific component, the entire project could have been delayed at least six months. To help manage this issue, a senior contract administrator and inspector was provided by RVA. This inspector was a professional engineer with over 30 years of experience, including past work at the Woodward plant. This experience allowed the inspector to work with the contractor to address any unforeseen issues that arose, minimizing delays associated with involving other off-site engineers. Construction began in portions of the filter gallery, moved to the operations tower, then moved back to the filter gallery. Work was spread out in four- to six-month periods, as necessary, to allow the plant to continue meeting its water demand requirements. Construction schedule The plant is divided into four quadrants, which allowed for one half of the plant to remain in operation, while the other half was removed from service. Construction occurred one half (or module) at a time, beginning in September 2009 with the tearing down of the southwest quadrant of the filter building, and then the northwest quadrant. Those sections were reconstructed first and turned over to the City in the summer of 2010. Construction then began on the former water tower. In the winter of 2010, construction began on the northeast quadrant and then the southeast quadrant, which was finished in the spring of 2011. In the summer of 2011, the south addition was constructed and the operations centre was relocated. The project also included replacement of some of the original hydraulically-operated filter effluent valves with motorized valves, and the disassembly and cement mortar relining of some piping. These components were integrated into the overall sequencing plan to verify that the valve replacements and piping rehabilitation would not affect plant operations. During restoration, other construction projects were ongoing at the Woodward Avenue plant site, such as construction of an additional chemical feed building and upgrades to the high-lift pumping station. All work was designed by different engineering consultants, but constructed by the same contractor. This eliminated any issues associated with the City being deemed the “Constructor” under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. RVA’s contract administrator was made responsible for issuing progress payments for all construction elements, regardless of the original consultant. This allowed work to be coordinated through a single point of contact, which helped streamline the administration component and keep the scheduling on-track. To verify that all parties knew what work was required within a certain time frame and the associated operational impacts, construction meetings between the contractor, City management and operations staff, and RVA were held every two weeks. The contractor was required to present an updated schedule at every meeting, as well as mitigation and remediation measures for any risks or delays. 22 | November/December 2013
#20 Hamilton Wentworth.indd 22
Construction began in portions of the filter gallery.
During construction, a time capsule was located and opened for the first time.
Additional challenges during construction Operator safety - City water system operators were continuously on-site during construction. The water tower, underneath which the operations centre was located, was part of the reconstruction works. It was decided that only the tower’s façade would be reconstructed, allowing the structure’s framework to be maintained. This meant that safety measures to protect the operators were required. Work on the tower was regularly coordinated with the operators, with construction undertaken in stages. Clearly defined routes allowed operators access to the tower and the plant itself. They were kept informed of changes to access routes. During filter gallery reconstruction, temporary walls were constructed to block off access to the operations centre from the gallery under construction. This protected operators and gave the construction areas clearly defined limits. Winter construction - Because of the tight timelines and the sequencing requirements, much of the construction was done during the winter months. Concrete and mortar, of which the superstructure is constructed, do not cure very well in the cold. To insulate against the cold and minimize the effects of storm events, the building façades were covered with insulated tarps continued overleaf... Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:07 AM
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Water Treatment and heated with space heaters. Temporary heated structures were built to hold materials like sand, brick and water to prevent freezing and keep them useable. Coordinating with multiple stakeholders Extensive consultation with various City departments was required throughout the project. Especially for the sequencing, where various processes were removed from service and then brought back online. The system operators were key stakeholders throughout the entire project. They were involved in workshops and coordination meetings to develop detailed sequencing plans for each component of the work. The rehabilitation concept had the added benefit of streamlining the approvals processes, which is an important factor when working under tight Aerial view of the Woodward Avenue Water Treatment Plant. deadlines. Discussions with the Ministry of the the former operations centre. The welcome centre includes Environment were required concerning meeting water quality objectives when key processes were out of ser- historical documents, photographs and water treatment history vice. A new Certificate of Approval was not necessary, which in the City of Hamilton. helped to expedite the schedule. Upgrading plant performance As was common in the 1930s, the original buildings were Maintaining the historical heritage of the plant While rehabilitation offered cost savings, it was not the without insulation or vapour barriers. Temperatures inside only reason for the decision against reconstruction on a new them were difficult to regulate. This sometimes caused process site. Hamilton takes great pride in the unique character and problems because of condensation or freezing, and occasionhistory of its infrastructure. Many of its water and wastewa- ally created uncomfortable working conditions for operators. The new construction included insulation and vapour barter facilities have been designated as heritage buildings. The Woodward plant, in particular, has a very distinct and attrac- riers for the entire superstructure to allow for better control of the temperature within the filter galleries. The existing filters tive architectural appearance, with an 80+ year history. A key goal of the restoration, therefore, was to maintain and were enclosed behind glass walls. restore the historical appearance and features of the facility. The Water system operations efficiency project involved a great deal more architectural detailing than Increasing efficiency of the operations of the entire water normally undertaken during a WTP upgrade. Care was taken to give the final works an almost museum-quality appearance. system was of key concern to the City’s operational staff. The brick and other materials chosen were matched very The plant had been retrofitted with administration spaces and closely to the original unique ‘Art Moderne’ building features. SCADA systems that allowed remote operation of the entire Care was taken to maintain the general “feel” of the original water system. However, this retrofit did not allow for highly building, with generous natural lighting provided through tall efficient operations, due to space constraints. Accordingly, a new two-storey administration building windows and a windowed clerestory above the filter gallery. Unique exterior features included the removal of the In- was constructed to the City’s specifications, allowing a more diana limestone along the base of the building and along the efficient and comfortable set-up for the operators. Since the top coping. The stones were numbered so that they could be administration building was not critical to the plant’s operareplaced in the exact same location as when the building was tion (it could be run from the existing operations centre), the constructed. Damaged stone was specified to be replaced from administrative building was constructed last, so that critical the original quarry, so that the match was nearly identical to path components were not delayed. stone from the 1930s and 1950s. The exterior doors to the Improved energy efficiency building were replaced with historical replicas, while interior The new superstructure was insulated to help regulate temfeatures included terrazzo flooring, oversized hanging light peratures. This allowed a significant reduction in heat loss, fixtures and yellow glazed block. The original 1930s construction included a time capsule increasing the plant’s overall energy efficiency. encased inside the cornerstone of the building. This capsule Kirk Worounig, P.Eng., is with R.V. Anderson Associates. included valuable historical information about the plant and E-mail: email@example.com the City of Hamilton. During restoration, the capsule was located and opened for the first time. Its contents are now disBill Docherty is with the City of Hamilton. played in the new welcome centre, a mini-museum located in 24 | November/December 2013
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:07 AM
UNITING THE WORLD of
Register by March 29 and save! $&(SUHVHQWVVROXWLRQVWRZDWHUXWLOLW\FKDOOHQJHVDQGRHUVPRUHWKDQ QHZDQGHPHUJLQJWRSLFVWRDGGUHVVDQGVXSSRUWXWLOLW\QHHGV7KHIRXUGD\ SURIHVVLRQDOSURJUDPZLOOSURYLGHFRPSUHKHQVLYHVXSSRUWIRUGULQNLQJZDWHU DQGFRPELQHGXWLOLWLHVXQGHUWKHVHVXEMHFWDUHDV ➤&RPPXQLFDWLQJWKH9DOXHRI:DWHU
Boston, Massachusetts | June 8–12, 2014 | www.awwa.org/ace14
11/20/13 8:23 AM
Northern College takes water treatment instruction to a whole new level
n September 2013, students and faculty at Northern Collegeâ€™s Kirkland Lake campus in OntarLR Ă€LSSHG WKH VZLWFK IRU WKH ÂżUVW WLPH RQ D XQLTXH ZHW ODERUDWRU\ WKDW SURYLGHV KDQGVRQ WUDLQLQJ LQ ZDWHU treatment. This unique, self-contained system is actually a fully operational pilot ZDWHU WUHDWPHQW SODQW ORFDWHG ULJKW RQ FDPSXV ,W DOORZV VWXGHQWV WR VHH KRZ WUHDWPHQWWKHRU\ZRUNVLQSUDFWLFDODSplication, as they learn their trade. The students are registered in the collegeâ€™s Environmental Technician :DWHUDQG:DVWHZDWHU6\VWHPV2SHUDWLRQVSURJUDPZKHUHWKH\DUHWUDLQHGDV ZDWHUWUHDWPHQWRSHUDWRUV%\FRPELQLQJFDPSXVOHDUQLQJZLWKPRQWKVRI practical experience in a real treatment plant GXULQJ FRRS ZRUN SODFHPHQWV WKH\ FDQ JUDGXDWH ZLWK WKHLU &ODVV Operator license. In the past, students had to rely on jar tests and visits to operating plants WR VXSSOHPHQW WH[WERRN WKHRU\ 1RZ WKDQNV WR WKLV QHZ DQG IXOO\IXQFWLRQDOZDWHUWUHDWPHQWSODQWDWWKHLUVFKRRO they can put their learning into practice LQDZD\WKDWVLPSO\KDGQÂśWEHHQSRVVLble before. According to Richard Kallio, Coordinator of Environmental Programs at Northern College, the college had been thinking about an on-campus plant for This self-contained system is actually a fully operational pilot water treatment VRPHWLPH+RZHYHULWGLGQÂśWKDYHWKH plant located right on campus. ÂżQDQFLDOUHVRXUFHVRUWKHSODQWFRQVWUXFtion expertise to make the concept a re- Nielson. â€œThis on-campus treatment VHFRQG SRO\PHU DGGLWLRQ WDQN ZKHUH ality. â€œOur committee members from the plant helps students graduate into the PL[LQJ VORZV WR FRPSOHWH Ă€RFFXODWLRQ Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) industry hands-on ready. They need and coagulation. The third tank is the KHOSHGXVLPPHQVHO\7KH\GUHZXSWKH less real-time on-the-job training in the XSĂ€RZFODULÂżHUZKHUHZDWHUVHWWOHVDQG plans, supplied many of the parts from ZRUNSODFH ,WÂśV JRRG IRU WKH VWXGHQWV Ă€RFFXODQWLVUHPRYHG,QWKHÂżQDOWDQN spares, built the plant and recruited in- good for the college and good for the ZDWHULVÂżOWHUHGWKURXJKDQWKUDFLWHVDQG industry.â€? and gravel. It is then pumped to a clear dustry partners to make donations.â€? Water can be trucked in from any ZHOOIRUGLVLQIHFWLRQ7KHUHVXOWLVFOHDU Eric Nielson, senior operations manager for OCWAâ€™s northeast Ontario VRXUFH DQG ORDGHG LQWR WKH UDZ ZDWHU SRWDEOHZDWHU ,QWKHFOHDUZHOOZDWHULVWHVWHGDQG hub, said the Agencyâ€™s participation at LQWDNH ZHOO RQ WKH EXLOGLQJÂśV JURXQG the college helps to ensure the industry Ă€RRU)URPWKHUHLWLVSXPSHGLQWRWKH UHVXOWV DUH UHFRUGHG7KH ZDWHU LV WKHQ has steady access to quality graduates. ÂżUVW FRDJXODWLRQ WDQN ZKLFK LV D Ă€DVK Ă€XVKHG WR WKH VHZHUV 6LQFH LW KDV QRW â€œWeâ€™re on the advisory committee to PL[HU ZKHUH FRDJXODQW DQG VRGD DVK been treated at a provincially approved represent industry needs and provide DUH DGGHG 7KH ZDWHU PL[HV IRU DERXW facility by licensed operators, it is not curriculum advice to the college,â€? says 10 minutes. It is then pumped into a permitted for drinking.
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:08 AM
OCWAâ€™s process and start-up phase crew: (L to R) Marc Desbiens, Jeff Tuerk, John Seguire and Anthony Danis.
The schoolâ€™s plant was also constructed with viewing windows and clear piping so that students can see whatâ€™s happening throughout the entire process. In addition to providing an invaluable teaching tool, the collegeâ€™s water treatment plant can also serve as an invaluable resource for the industry. â€œIf
be done in a municipal water treatment plant, since everything is online. Operators cannot experiment, without affecting the quality of water being distributed to residentsâ€™ homes. The collegeâ€™s on-site water treatment plant is also scalable. The school is already planning for addition of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), that will
If a municipality has problems with the physical characteristics of their drinking water, they can bring samples to the college and the faculty and students can help them conduct real online testing for potential solutions. thereâ€™s an issue at an operating treatment facility or if we have new ideas about treatment chemicals or dosages, we have been limited to jar testing,â€? says Nielson. â€œNow, we can bring samples to the college and try different variables at the plant to see what happens. Itâ€™s a real world test and jar testing just isnâ€™t the same thing.â€? If a municipality has problems with the physical characteristics of their drinking water, they can bring samples to the college and the faculty and students can help them conduct real online testing for potential solutions. The self-contained system allows students and faculty to run the full gamut of bench top testing and provide empirical results, without any risk to the community. This kind of testing simply cannot www.esemag.com
#29 OCWA N.College.indd 27
allow fully automated operation. Not only will this provide additional safeguards, but it will also let students in the instrumentation program at the collegeâ€™s Haileybury campus, 100 kilometres away, monitor and actuate the plant remotely. Funding for PLCs is already in place and the units are scheduled to be installed soon. Other potential additions to the facility could include ultraviolet disinfection and reverse osmosis components. The college could hypothetically continue adding components until the plant includes every piece of water treatment technology available in the industry today. Kallio says the plant can also benHÂżW WKH (QWU\ /HYHO 'ULQNLQJ :DWHU Operators course provided through
OCWA operators at work on plant piping: (L to R) Tony Janssen, Rob Treverton and John Seguire.
WKH :DONHUWRQ &OHDQ :DWHU &HQWUH LQ collaboration with other colleges. College instructors have received training so they can teach the course on their own campuses. For most, the content is all theoretical. However, Northern College now offers the added value of hands-on experience in their real-world laboratory. 6LQFH 2&:$ DOVR KLUHV 1RUWKHUQ College students on co-op placements, WKH$JHQF\VD\VLWDSSUHFLDWHVWKHDGGHG value the treatment plant brings to their WUDLQLQJ 7KH ÂżUVW JURXS RI VWXGHQWV with experience operating Northern Collegeâ€™s on-campus plant, will go out on co-op placement in the summer of 2014. 7KH VFKRROÂśV :DWHU DQG :DVWHZDWHU Systems program is unique in the industry, because it provides the fastest path to licensing in the province. Students can graduate with a Class 1 license in two years. The curriculum is also tailored to drinking water and wastewater systems operation. Others are either compliance-based, or approach environmental technology from a broader spectrum that includes air and soil. Âł$QLPSRUWDQWSDUWRIOHDUQLQJLVGRing and that means making mistakes,â€? VD\V 1LHOVRQ Âł:LWK WKLV HTXLSPHQW DW Northern College, students can make mistakes in a safe environment. Later, when theyâ€™re working in the real world, theyâ€™ll know how to avoid mistakes and KRZWRÂż[WKHPLIWKH\KDSSHQÂ´ For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org November/December 2013 | 27
12/5/13 6:09 AM
Water filtration – a 4,000 year evolution
ankind began filtering drinking water over 4,000 years ago, when the Phoenicians ran their water through columns of sand to make it more palatable. This method of filtration is still used today in many municipal, industrial and agricultural applications. In addition to granular media filters, there are many more methods of filtration employed, from rotating screens, to membranes, that can remove individual atoms and ions (<0.00000004 inches). Filtration Filtration, in its simplest terms, is a sieving process. It removes solid particles from a fluid (liquid or gas), usually by passing it through a porous medium. The media is often a perforated or woven material, which provides holes through which the fluid can pass but the solid particles in question cannot. Granular media can also be the active component in the filtration process. With the popular use today of membranes, the definition of filtration needs to be expanded somewhat to include high pressures exerted on water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). This pressure forces water molecules to migrate across the thickness of a semi-permeable membrane, leaving the solids on the high pressure side. Filtration degree Filtration degree is the smallest particle size one wants to remove from a fluid stream for a specific application. Units of microns, inches or mesh are used when specifying the filtration degree. A micron is simply one-millionth of a meter (the hair on your head averages about 100 microns in diameter). The term “mesh” has found common usage for describing the filtration degree. In reality, it is a vague unit, with no standard means of measurement. This term is taken from the textile industry and is defined as the number of threads per linear inch of weave. Years ago, the filtration industry borrowed the term, modifying the definition to “the number of holes per linear
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Table 1. Filtration Spectrum.
Table 2. Comparison of filtration open areas.
inch”. However, the thickness of the wires used to weave this cloth is never provided and often regarded as “secret” or “proprietary”. Therefore, one really does not know the actual size of the openings that determine the filtration degree. Conversion charts are available, but they all differ by small amounts. The term is not an actual measurement. Microns and inches are measurable by physical means. Effective filtration area The effective filtration area is the actual area of the filter medium that is subject to fluid flow being usable for the filtration process. Any solid barriers making up a structural member of the filtration media must have their surface areas perpendicular to the flow path of the fluid stream removed, when calculating effective filtration area. Filtration open area Some manufacturers use this term interchangeably with effective filtration area. Generally though, there is a difference in definition. Filtration open area is the sum of the areas of all the holes in the filter media. It is most often expressed as a percentage of the effective filtration area and thus, essentially the same as porosity. Filtration open area is a very important design parameter and can vary greatly with different filter media construction.
Weave-wire – square weave.
Weave-wire – Dutch weave.
Many parameters make up water quality. Some are of a chemical nature and do not generally influence the design process of a filtration system, other than maybe directing the selection of materials of construction. More important are physical parameters, such as the following: continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:10 AM
9/23/13 7:51 AM
Stacked horizontal filters to maximize screen area in the smallest footprint.
Electric drive filter.
Filter hanging from ceiling.
For most practical purposes, the unit of parts per million (ppm) can be used in-
terchangeably with mg/L. Surface water sources, such as rivers, lakes and oceans can have very large unexpected TSS changes due to weather, development activities, boat traffic, etc.
Vertically oriented filter.
1. Total Suspended Solids (TSS): TSS is defined as the concentration of total solids, larger than about 1 micron, expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) â€” mass of solids per volume of fluid.
2. Particle Size Distribution (PSD): PSD, as its name indicates, is the distribution of particles according to size. The most common expression of this parameter is the number of particles in different size ranges for a given volume of fluid. This representation almost always skews the results towards lower particle sizes since there are often 100,000s of particles in the 1-5 micron range in a small sample. This is due to bacteria, cell detritus and other fine, nearly colloidal materials. Though the counts and percentage of total number of particles in these fine size ranges are very large, the actual volume or mass is very small. A much better way of presenting this parameter is percent volume, or mass per particle size range, and not particle counts. Volume or mass units are a true representation of the amount of TSS (mg/L) in each size range. Filters remove TSS and not just a certain number of particles. 3. Particle Characteristics: Some particles are ridged three-dimensional objects (i.e., sand), while others are flat 30 | November/December 2013
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Water Treatment two-dimensional structures (i.e., rust flakes, pipe scale). Other TSS particles are soft and plastic (algae, slime). They appear to be three-dimensional, until they are pressed against a filter medium, where they deform into a large flat two-dimensional blot. Particle characteristics will determine how quickly a given TSS will clog a filter element. Areas of importance to filtration design are numerous. An obvious, yet too often unknown, is flow rate. It should be a fundamental value, but many customers answer with â€œ6-inch pipe or 12-inch lineâ€? when asked what flow rate they wish to filter. Pressure of the system is more readily known. It can be measured by a simple pressure gauge, or by knowing flow rate and looking at the pump curve for that particular pump. But, the filter designer may find that the customer recited average pressure. In reality, pressure varies over a wide range of values, depending upon what processes are taking place downstream of the measurement point. Some automatic self-cleaning screen filters must have a minimum pressure during their self-cleaning cycle, so minimum operating pressure is a valuable design condition. Such filters also open a rinse line to a waste drain during their cleaning process so the flow rate at the inlet of the filter will increase. This increase in flow may or may not influence the system pressure, depending on the layout of the piping system.
If a dedicated pumping system is supplying fluid to the filter, then pressure will drop as the pump(s) try to keep up with the increase in flow rate. However, if the supply piping to the filter comes off a larger header, then a small increase in flow rate will likely have no effect on pressure values. Knowledge of the process downstream of the filter can be valuable in the design process. If the purpose of the filter is to protect heat exchangers, then a filtration degree between 80 and 200 microns is most likely sufficient. However, if the downstream process involves spray nozzles, or other fine orifices, more attention needs to be paid to the filtration degree. Generally, if particles in the fluid are ridged and three-dimensional in nature, then the filtration degree should be about one-third the size of the smallest orifice diameter. This will prevent two or three particles getting to the orifice at the same time and bridging the gap, or wedging in the hole. If the particles are soft and plastic in nature, then the chance of particles sticking to the perimeter of the orifice is greater. If enough particles stick, a threshold may be reached at which point the accumulated soft particles will collapse and plug the orifice. When particles of this nature are known to be present, it is best to set a filtration degree about one-fifth the diameter of the smallest orifice.
Fluid temperature normally does not have much influence on the filtration process, except when dealing with membranes, (especially reverse osmosis ones), where small changes in viscosity can have a great impact on filter capacity. Fluid temperature can sometimes influence materials of construction. Ambient temperature ranges determine whether freezing could be a seasonal problem. For automatic self-cleaning screen filters, it may be best to operate rinse valves and other moving components pneumatically to minimize freezing problems. Available power source on-site will determine whether a transformer is needed, or even if batteries will be required for the filter controls. Physical properties of the site can influence filtration design. Some sites have low head clearance but ample floor space. A filter body that is configured horizontally may be best suited for these conditions. In other situations floor space may be a premium, but headroom is abundant. Sometimes there is no floor space at all so a hanging installation may be required. If the available pressure is minimal for a self-cleaning screen filter or rinse water must be kept at a minimum, an electric drive filter may be best. Dr. Allhands is with Orival, Inc. E-mail: email@example.com, or visit www.orival.com
Serving Ontarioâ€™s Consultants & Contractors
#10 Orival.indd 31
Soil Sampling Gas Probes & Monitoring Wells Injection Well Installations Well Maintenance Decommissioning Soil Cuttings Removal Mobile Water Treatment
LandsharkDrilling.ca November/December 2013 | 31
12/5/13 6:10 AM
Doing sample collection the lazy way has many benefits By Kelsy Brennan
eing lazy usually has a negative connotation. However, good can come of it if we realize what is makLQJXVOD]\LQWKHÂ¿UVWSODFH,QWKLVFDVH,DPWDONLQJ DERXWWHGLRXVPRQRWRQRXVUHSHWLWLYHWDVNVWKDWGHOLYHUOLWWOHWRQRMREVDWLVIDFWLRQ:KDWVDQHSHUVRQZRXOGQÂ¶W ZDQWWRJHWOD]\DQGRIÃ€RDGWKRVHWDVNVWRVRPHRQHHOVHDV ORQJDVTXDOLW\DQGFRVWGRHVQÂ¶WVXIIHU":HOO\RXFDQEXW LQVWHDGRIÂµVRPHRQHHOVHÂ¶LWLVDFWXDOO\ÂµVRPHWKLQJHOVHÂ¶DQG that something else is software. (DUWK);,QFKDVEHHQZRUNLQJRQWKH6LWH);'DWD0DQDJHPHQW6\VWHPVLQFH,QDGGLWLRQWRGHYHORSLQJWKHVRIWZDUH ZH DOVR DFWXDOO\ XVH RXU RZQ VRIWZDUH IRU UHDO SURMHFWV$V D result, whenever we have been tasked with something that starts WRHYRNHIHHOLQJVRIOD]LQHVVZHKDYHSURJUDPPHGIXQFWLRQDOLW\ DQGIHDWXUHVLQWRRXUVRIWZDUHWRWDNHWKHEXUGHQDZD\IURPXV$ IHZH[DPSOHVRIWDVNVWKDWKDYHEHHQODUJHO\DXWRPDWHGLQFOXGH Â¿OOLQJ LQ DQG SULQWLQJ RI ERWWOH ODEHOV FKDLQV RI FXVWRG\ DQG checking that the lab results received match what we asked for. 1RZ WKLV DXWRPDWLRQ GRHVQÂ¶W PHDQ WKDW \RX FDQ WXUQ \RXU EUDLQULJKWRIIDQGOHWWKHVRIWZDUHGRHYHU\WKLQJIRU\RX$KXPDQ VWLOOQHHGVWRPDNHWKHFRUUHFWGHFLVLRQVDQGDGDSWWRDQRQSHUIHFW ZRUOGDORQJWKHZD\OLNHEURNHQERWWOHVRUFDQFHOOHGVDPSOHV What we have largely done is transform work that was tiresome
Supplying a wide range of test kits and instrumentation for the detection and quantification of contaminants in soil, waste, water and air; ensuring your data quality objectives are met.
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Western Regional Office 100, 18130-105 Avenue NW Edmonton, AB T5S 2T4 Phone: 1-800-560-4402 firstname.lastname@example.org
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Eastern Regional Office 3620B Laird Road, Unit 7 Mississauga, ON L5L 6A9 Fax: 1-877-820-9667 www.ospreyscientific.com
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12/5/13 6:11 AM
Environmental Management onto chains of custody, where last minute and date/time stamp. In certain cases, ance to change involved in using any details are entered before printing. Finalit prompts the user to enter a reason new software. However, the keys to ly, when the lab sends back test results, for the change. All chains of custody successful implementation are realistic these are imported into the database and are stored in the chain of custody li- expectations and a properly planned auto-reconciled against the chains of brary and can be recalled at any time. roll-out, including training and often custody. â€˘ Effectiveness: Staff can become more customized user guides. So the next We also have users involved in much effective by spending time on tasks WLPH\RXÂżQG\RXUVHOIIHHOLQJOD]\DQG smaller projects that simply log samples that are important rather than tedious think that there must be a better way to into the system as they happen (unand mundane ones. Essentially, they do things, you may be right. scheduled mode). There are still others are working smarter and not harder. that log the sampling in after the samKelsy Brennan, P.Eng., is with EarthFX pling has already occurred. This way, There is a learning curve and resistInc. E-mail: email@example.com WKH\ JHW WKH EHQHÂżWV RI GRFXPHQWDWLRQ and lab data reconciliation. In another example, a consultant VXSSOLHGÂżHOGVWDIIZLWKWDEOHWVWKDWWDON WR6LWH);ZLUHOHVVO\ZKLOHLQWKHÂżHOG These are used to map sample locations, mark samples as collected, enter samSOHGHWDLOVDQGÂżHOGGDWDDQGHYHQVQDS pictures of sample locations. All of this data is immediately synchronized with the main database and available to staff EDFNDWWKHPDLQRIÂżFH In all cases, there are a number of EHQHÂżWVWKDWLQFOXGH â€˘ Accuracy: There is an immediate drop in transcription errors. Since the bottle labels and chain of custody labels are computer printed, the lab can read and transcribe the sample names, dates, test names, etc., with fewer errors. With lab data auto-reconciliation, transcription issues in the lab results become abundantly clear. â€˘ Compliance: If the sampling program has been pre-defined, forgetting to collect samples is extremely difficult. The SiteFX forecast and sample status tools can help show what is coming and alert users of samples that are in danger of becoming overdue. â€˘ Consistency: There is also an increase in consistency from user to user and one sampling event to the next. Sampling programs can be set up as recurring, or duplicated and edited if necessary. Sampling details (sample locations, lab tests, samples Microbial Induced Corrosion and Water Infiltration are two major problems due, etc.) are picked from pre-defined common to sewage collection systems. Whether for new construction or lists. This can be especially beneficial rehabilitation, Xypex Crystalline Technology is a most effective and for new staff. permanent solution. Worldwide, in both sewage collection and wastewater â€˘ Documentation: Changes to a samtreatment structures, Xypex has been proven to cost effectively mitigate chemical attack in severe biochemical conditions and prevent water pling program are tracked and docinfiltration even under extreme hydrostatic pressure. umented automatically. Adding or removing sampling locations, or www.xypex.com changing a lab test is tracked by SiteFX, using the current user name
PREVENT MICROBIAL INDUCED CORROSION
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12/5/13 6:11 AM
Activated carbon offers micro pollutant treatment options By Steven Ragan and Holger Fuchs
Medical residues/endocrine disrupting compounds The presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients, radio-opaque substances and endocrine disrupting chemicals in wastewater is a relatively new issue in relation to water quality. Because of the potential toxicology of these difficult to treat pollutants, links to the emotive and headline grabbing health issues of carcinogenicity and effects on human population fertility are emerging. To remove these substances from wastewater, the “old” contact treatment process with powdered activated carbon (PAC) has found ready application. Studies on the removal of these micro-pollutants by PAC have recently been completed by the Biberach University of Applied Science, at a full-scale sewage treatment plant in Southern Germany. Activated carbon grades, with a pore structure well suited to adsorption of medicinal residues, were applied and 34 | November/December 2013
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Removal rates for four pharmaceuticals - PAC dosage: 10mg/L 100
Lignite Based PAC
Peat Based PAC
Removal rate (%)
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Figure 1a. Removal of drug residues. Removal rates for several radio-opaque substances Lignite Based PAC (10 mg/L) Peat Based PAC (10 mg/L) Lignite Based PAC (20 mg/L)
100 90 80
Removal rate (%)
n 1971, Professor Philip Walker of Penn State University made his famous quote “carbon, an old but new material” and predicted that “… the development of new carbon materials and the improvement of old carbon material will continue.” He said this when accepting the Skakel Award at the 10th Biennial Carbon Conference of the American Carbon Society, In the four decades since Professor Walker made these comments, his words have proven prophetic. The award of two Nobel prizes to “old but new” carbon materials in recent years (Chemistry 1996 to Curl, Kroto and Smalley for fullerenes, and Physics 2010 to Geim and Novoselev for graphene) attests to the fact that carbon, such an abundant and commonplace element, remains a material full of new possibilities. Activated carbon, like other forms of carbon, possesses both old and new characteristics. Examples can be readily found of new applications for old forms of carbon, as well as new forms of carbon for old applications. This article will focus on one example of each.
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Figure 1b. Removal of X-Ray “dyes”. mett th the ttreatment t t objectives. bj ti For the 15 key pharmaceuticals detectable in water, the removal rate after PAC application was >50% for carbamazepine and >90% for diclofenac. This is a very effective reduction of these medical residues. (See Figure 1a.) The study also investigated the possibility of removing radio-opaque substances, commonly termed x-ray dyes, which are often used in medical investigations and industrial processes. Although the investigation was limited to iodine containing substances, this provided a representative study. These compounds
are th the mostt common and d mostt persistent it t members of this group in water. Radio-opaque substances are highly polar molecules, in comparison to the pharmaceuticals investigated in this study and, therefore, they show significantly lower removal rates (See Figure 1b.). Nevertheless, activated carbon has a significant impact on the residual levels of radio-opaque substances after treatment and is proven effective in their removal. Dechlorination Being a powerful oxidant, effective against almost all bacteria and virus
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Water Treatment particles, dissolved chlorine gas or hypochlorous acid released by chemicals such as calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite has proven the most effective and widespread disinfection process. However, the very oxidative and reactive property of available, or “free”, chlorine requires its careful control in process water to prevent interaction with specific process chemicals. The undesirable nature of chlorinated by-products in brewing or beverage preparation, e.g., cola drinks, is obvious. Removal of this free chlorine, i.e., dechlorination, by flow in contact with activated carbon is one of the oldest process applications of carbon. However, it is important to realise that dechlorination by activated carbon does not remove reactive “free” chlorine by adsorption. Rather, it results in its transformation to the less reactive and tasteless chloride (Cl-) ion. The dechlorination capability of granular activated carbons (GAC) is typically measured using the half-value length (the method first published in DIN 19603). This test measures the bed depth of carbon that halves a free chlorine concentration of
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However, the dechlorination performance of GAC is very sensitive to external surface area to mass ratio. It is known to be favoured by small particle sizes. New fibrous forms of activated carbon, including cloths or felts, offer very high external surface area/mass ratios. The dechlorination performance of one such punched fabric product is shown in Figure 2. Although the felt layer was only 4 mm thick and weighed 2.5 g, it was shown to dechlorinate or “transform” a concentration of 2 mgL-1 chlorine at >75% removal efficiency for over 200 litres. This was achieved at a flow velocity of 12.5 cms-1, which was considerably quicker than the 1 cms-1 velocity used in the DIN 19603 half-value test method. Such fibrous forms offer improved dechlorination performance in comparison to traditional GACs. They illustrate a “new” form of activated carbon offering enhanced performance for “old” treatment processes and wastewater applications. Figure 2. The dechlorination performance of one punched fabric product.
5 mgL-1. For typical activated carbons, the half-value length is typically 3-5 cm.
Steven Ragan and Holger Fuchs are with Jacobi Carbons. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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12/5/13 6:12 AM
Taming the UK’s River Douglas cures centuries old flooding
The inlet to the dam is protected by a series of debris screens and a specially-designed debris screen capable of withstanding loads of 50 kilonewtons.
enturies of history as a Lancashire mill town and coal mining centre have shaped the town of Wigan’s development in the Àood plain of the 5iver Douglas. The town was featured in the book “The Road to Wigan Pier” by George Orwell and is also the birthplace of Environmental Science & Engineering’s co-founder, Tom Davey. However, the river that powered its industrial revolution also left a destructive legacy for homes and businesses at its mercy during peak storm events. The UK’s Environment Agency’s determination to reduce the risk and provide much-needed stimulus for urban regeneration has resulted in a £12 million solution, which was six years in the planning. The natural Douglas valley, still undeveloped less than a mile away from the centre of town, provided an obvious solution to the town’s Àooding troubles and the protection of around 600 homes and 170 commercial properties. The Environment Agency’s Àood alleviation solution was to build a dam to hold back the river during a maMor Àood and create up to 370,000 cubic metres of
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temporary storage along a one kilometre stretch of the valley. The ¿rst phase of the solution was to raise Àood defence walls along the 5iver Douglas in the town centre. This was completed in 2008. Constructing temporary Àood storage was the obvi-
Adding specially designed restrictor plates on the flow controls’ intakes enables the median 10,000 litres per second flow rate. ous next step. The dam’s design needed to provide a means of attenuation only during severe Àooding, while allowing the river to Àow naturally through the valley at other times. The initial solution for the dam was to install gates with real-time controls. However, these gates would require power and back-up power, regular maintenance and operator intervention.
By changing the dam design to use two 2 m diameter Hydro-Brake® Flow Controls, neither power nor ongoing maintenance would be necessary. (The Hydro-Brake Flow Control is known as the Reg-U-Flo® Vortex Flow Control in North America). Use of these Àow controls was vital, because it enabled the dam to be ¿netuned. The reservoir footprint was reduced signi¿cantly, compared to a conventional Àood gate solution. 5iver water can Àow unimpeded through the dam, until it reaches a pre-designed level. At this point the device is engineered to trigger a vortex, which throttles back the Àow, releasing it at a strictly pre-determined rate. This means that a great deal more river water can Àow through the dam, before the need to start attenuation. A new design of the Hydro-Brake Flow Control, with an adjustable intake, was developed speci¿cally for the project by Hydro International, in close co-operation with Jacobs, the consulting engineers, and the Environment Agency teams. Adding specially designed restrictor plates on the Àow controls’ intakes enables the median 10,000 litres per second Àow rate from
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Flood Control the outfall to be adjusted by plus or minus 20% in future. 7he neZ desiJn Zill enable the Ă€oZ of the river downstream to be adjusted in future to take account of climate chanJe or to alter the outĂ€ow based on ongoing experience. The Environment Agency is continuing to monitor river Ă€ows closely. Construction The cone-shaped Hydro-BrakeÂŽ Flow Controls, weighing 15 tonnes each, were installed into the dam using a 200-tonne crane. The main contractor moved some 70,000 tonnes of earth to create the dam and Ă€ood storage area, including a stilling basin immediately upstream of the dam. Construction challenges included the specialist removal of tonnes of Japanese Knotweed and the investigation and ground stabilisation of nearby coal mining sites. The inlet to the dam is protected by a series of debris screens and a specially-designed debris screen capable of withstanding loads of 50 kilonewtons.
#22 Wigan.indd 37
The main contractor moved some 70,000 tonnes of earth to create the dam and flood storage area, including a stilling basin immediately upstream of the dam.
Flow controls put to the test More than 100 mm of rain, equivalent to one monthâ€™s rainfall, fell in just a few hours in the North of England during one weekend in June, 2012. The Environment Agencyâ€™s Ă€ood alleviation scheme on the River Douglas was put through its Âżrst major test, as torrential downpours Âżlled the new Ă€ood storage
area. At the centre of the dam, just a mile from Wigan town centre, the two giant Hydro-Brake Ă€ow controls successfully held back Ă€ood waters in the carefully-engineered Ă€ood storage area. For more information, E-mail: email@example.com or visit www.hydro-int.com
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Each year, ES&E invites experts and leaders in environmental consulting to share their opinions, experiences and values with our readers. We continue to be honored every year with erudite responses from some of our leading consulting engineers. Their opinions are based on many years of collective experience in maintaining high standards, while keeping up with the diversity and complexities of environmental engineering and managerial leadership.
Understanding our shifting consulting landscape â€“ narratives versus numbers
he mission of Consulting Engineers of Ontario is to â€œpromote a sustainable business environment for membersâ€?. Its strategic goals are aimed at shaping public policy through Government Relations, promoting fair procurement and EXVLQHVVSUDFWLFHVDPRQJPHPEHUÂżUPV (Client Relations), better communicating the CEO message (Communications and Public Relations) and providLQJVHUYLFHVLQVXSSRUWRIPHPEHUÂżUPV (Member Services). This is all well and good and necessary to enhance the sustainability of RXU LQGXVWU\ DQG PHPEHU ÂżUPV but it doesnâ€™t explicitly address the needs of our clients and our interconnection. Our landscapes are constantly changing, whether we are in the public, private or government sectors. This is a situation that necessitates a periodic re-think of strategy. While we typically use traditional analytical tools (numEHUV WRUHGHÂżQHDQGUHÂżQHWKRVHEXVLness strategies, it has been proposed that a narrative approach may serve us well as we move forward. (Michael G. Jacobides, Harvard Business Review, January-February 2010, pp.77-84) Jacobides feels that the use of words over numbers allows entities to focus on
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the causes of change, allowing enablers to update their strategy constantly. He does this by setting up a playscript, wherein characters and their roles are described, followed by the evolution of plots, sub-plots and story lines. This may seem far-fetched to those of us with technical backgrounds. However, most people can understand and visualize a verbal presentation more easily than they can comprehend the impact of numbers when describing the performance of a sector, company or public entity. Simply put, a playscript is the framework within which the analysis takes place. The outcome is then set up at the corporate and business levels, prior to being translated into the day-to-day opHUDWLQJOHYHOVLQDÂżUP The corporate playscript speaks to value generation, and is further broken GRZQWRORRNDWV\QHUJLHVDQGÂżQDQFLDO sub-plots. The synergies subplot looks at the various parts of an organisation and KRZWKH\FROOHFWLYHO\DGGYDOXH7KHÂżnancial subplot looks at how the company uses its assets to generate a return. The business playscript is important in that it describes the main players in a sector and how they interact. It covers linkages between companies in the in-
Bill De Angelis, P.Eng., MBA
dustry, and story lines about how competitors in a sector generate value. $ÂżUPFRQVLGHULQJWKHSOD\VFULSWDSproach would follow a three-step analysis process, with a fourth step added for implementation: 1. How do we work today? Write current corporate and business playscripts. Describe the current setting in ZKLFK WKH ÂżUP RSHUDWHV OLVWLQJ RWKHU players (including regulators) and their UROHV /RRN DW KRZ \RXU ÂżUP LQWHUDFWV with others in the same sector, then outline your value proposition and how it currently works. 2. How can we be better? Rewrite the playscript, rethinking and reshaping LWWRIDYRXU\RXUÂżUP/RRNDWZD\VWR identify and respond to customer needs and at other options for adding value. 3. If we make these changes, are they sustainable? Future-proof the playscript. Make sure it can survive by understanding customer needs and market trends, being aware of competitor actions, and anticipating how others will respond to your approach. 4. Can we actually do this? You need to ensure your organisation is prepared to re-tool to implement the QHZ VWUDWHJ\ ,GHQWLÂżFDWLRQ RI RUJDQLsational capabilities and gaps needs to
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be addressed, and mechanisms to foster acceptance of the new approach must be developed. One of the positive outcomes of this approach is its ability to gain employee acceptance, because it is easy to understand. When it comes to consultant-client relationships, there is often a disconnect between what clients want and what the consultants perceive they want. When RQHH[DPLQHVWKHÂżQDQFLDOPRWLYDWLRQV of each side (sub-plot), it is seen that the private sector exists to make money SURÂżW 6RLWVDFWLRQVDUHIRFXVHGXSRQ that end goal. Alternatively, the public sectorâ€™s motivation is to spend money HIÂżFLHQWO\ There is some commonality here, but also some subtle differences that prevent both parties from gaining maxiPXPEHQHÂżWIURPWKHUHODWLRQVKLS Restating the relationship in terms of playscript narratives can help identify gaps and opportunities within each otherâ€™s business models, to bring both sides closer together. Each party will ÂżQGDSODFHLQWKHRWKHUÂśVSOD\VFULSWLQ this type of analysis. Letâ€™s look at how some of the elements of a playscript might be laid out and identify where synergies, commonalities, gaps, issues and opportunities may exist. This type of exercise doesnâ€™t WDNH WKH SODFH RI D ULJRURXV ÂżQDQFLDO analysis, but may help illustrate where JDLQV QRW HDVLO\ VHHQ LQ D ÂżQDQFLDO UHYLHZPD\EHLGHQWLÂżHGDQGFRQVLGHUHG 'HÂżQHVHFWRUDQGSOD\VFULSW +RZGRZHZRUNWRGD\"
The role of the private sector is to provide competent designs for new infrastructure. The role of the public sector is to deliver infrastructure as directed by council, at the least cost to the public. The corporate playscript looks at V\QHUJLVWLF DQG ÂżQDQFLDO VXESORWV ,Q terms of synergies, success relies (on both sides) upon the interactions between the project managers, clear projHFW GHÂżQLWLRQ FRPSHWHQW WHDP PHPbers, and effective project delivery. The business playscript looks at the main players in the business, their competencies and capabilities, linkages be-
#30 Consulting Forum Section.indd 39
WZHHQ ÂżUPV LQ WKH EXVLQHVV DQG VRPH notion of how those entities intend to JHQHUDWH UHYHQXH ,Q WKH FRQVXOWLQJ business, we know who our competitors are, and what they present in terms of resources. We now have many instances ZKHUHÂżUPVFROODERUDWHZLWKHDFKRWKHU to deliver successful projects. Consultant selection is often on the basis of cost, all else being equal. Team weighting is often towards junior staff, in order to keep overall rates and prices low. Gaps are seen in staff training and development and this has a negative impact on the industry. 5HZULWHWKHSOD\VFULSWVRWKH SORWIDYRXUV\RXUFRPSDQ\ +RZFDQZHZRUNEHWWHU"
Consultants need to better understand SURMHFWVFRSHWRUHĂ€HFWZKDWFOLHQWUHDOO\ wants; consider outsourcing more design to lower costs; move to higher level CADD training and execution; hire new VWDII IURP RWKHU VHFWRUV WR ÂżOO FXUUHQW gaps; and maintain quality. The client will want to: improve the clarity of Request for Proposal documentation to reduce scope and cost imSDFWV PRYH WR PRUH SUHTXDOLÂżFDWLRQ of a candidate pool; hire new staff from external sources to stimulate new ways of thinking and project delivery; revamp its internal organisation to reduce duplication of services; better equip project managers to get projects out sooner; and continue to focus on development of long-term capital plans. &OLHQW PRYHPHQW WRZDUGV 4XDOLÂżFDWLRQV%DVHG6HOHFWLRQDQGOLIHF\FOH costing can improve selection processes and elevate the quality of deliverables. Placing consulting staff in municipal settings and vice versa, allows both sides to better comprehend issues and improve opportunities for future collaboration. )XWXUHSURRIWKHSOD\VFULSW WRVXUYLYH$UHWKHSURSRVHG FKDQJHVVXVWDLQDEOH"
Consultants may want to develop a Ă€H[LEOHRUJDQLVDWLRQWRDOORZLWWRHDVLO\ expand and contract depending on the types and availability of capital projects. They need to anticipate what cli-
ents want and incorporate those needs and directions into the playscript. The public sector has been moving for some time into the realm of LQFUHDVHG ÂżQDQFLDO DQG RUJDQLVDWLRQDO DFFRXQWDELOLW\ ,W ZLOO QHHG WR FRQWLQXH to adopt private sector practices around the allocation of risk, responsibility and accountability. Continued and increasing frequency of communication between the consultant and client sectors, about expectations, timelines and funding/budgets will ensure adequate time to prepare for and mitigate impacts of changes in the public and political environments. (QJDJH\RXURUJDQLVDWLRQ &DQ\RXDFWXDOO\GRWKLV"
7KHFRQVXOWDQWZLOOQHHGWR â€˘ ,GHQWLI\DGGLWLRQDOVNLOOVUHTXLUHGWRGHliver the new model. â€˘ Look at linkages to external service providers to assist. â€˘ Look at new product offerings to meet future needs. 7KHSXEOLFHQWLW\ZLOOQHHGWR â€˘ Convince its political leaders that change is warranted. â€˘ Look to similar successful organisations for assistance and guidance. â€˘ Communicate changes early and clearly to staff to ensure buy-in. Where does all this take us? The narrative approach is a tool that allows us to evaluate how we are performing DV LQGLYLGXDO ÂżUPV DQG PXQLFLSDOLWLHV More importantly, it provides both sides with insights into where we can collecWLYHO\ LPSURYH KRZ ZH ZRUN 6XVWDLQability, survivability and prosperity are words on everyoneâ€™s minds these days. Therefore, we need to be open to looking at our industry from every angle to identify and implement changes that will make us stronger. Bill De Angelis, P.Eng., MBA, Vice President and General Manager, Associated Engineering E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
November/December 2013 _
12/5/13 6:15 AM
Using social collaboration tools improves business communications By Morgan Pel
-mail was once lauded as the tool to ease our communication woes, but it is no longer delivering on that promise. Who among us has not experienced the dread of returning to an untouched inbox after a few days away? Not only do you have to sift through the sheer volume of mail, but also spend time deciphering the various threads within an e-mail chain. Why was this person added? Do I have an action item in here? Was this purely FYI? Has everything already been dealt with and have I just wasted the past 15 minutes getting caught up to three days ago? Managing e-mails feels like a losing battle, and one that often pulls us away from customer-focused project work. We keep such a large collection of correspondence, so that we can go back and reread a conversation for context. However, this is a cumbersome method for gaining a sense of the history of a topic, and certainly for sharing that history with others. There is also the challenge in the final step of the e-mail life cycle – what do you do with it? Delete it? File it?
E-mail is not a conversation tool, but has been forced to become one. It is not the ideal platform for having ongoing dialogue among multiple contributors, or for building an accessible knowledge base. The advent of social media has transformed the landscape in this regard. It is no longer just the vapid, entertainment-focused medium, that it was once thought to be. Social media platforms are actually poised to better facilitate conversation than e-mail. Social business is an opportunity to bridge the worlds of social media and the traditional ways of doing work. At Burnside, we have recently initiated the use of an internal social business platform that allows us to leverage the concepts more typically associated with Twitter, Facebook and Wikipedia, to enable collaboration across our offices, without relying entirely on e-mail. This system allows us to enhance productivity, make communication more efficient, and harness the collective knowledge base of our colleagues. Each employee has a profile describing themselves and their areas of exper-
> Water & Wastewater Systems > Stormwater Treatment & Management > Modeling > Hydrologic & Hydraulic Analysis > Environmental Planning > Distribution, Collection, Treatment > Hydrogeology
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tise. Employees then build a community of colleagues, that can be based on office location, project work, technical discipline, or other logical groupings. Interactions on the network can take a variety of forms: status updates, forum discussions, activities (interactive, collaborative “to-do” lists), wikis, or blog entries. For example, individuals can send status updates to the people they have added to their community: “I’m out on site today; back in the office on Friday” or “Finishing up proposal with Bob for submission tomorrow”. Team members can discuss project questions or the status of a deliverable in a forum or even within an activity app, which is like an interactive, collaborative “to-do” list. A subject matter expert might populate a wiki with useful content that the rest of the organization can access, write a blog post about best management practices, or provide a link to updated legislation or new regulations. Too often, information is tied up in a silo, based on who is included in an e-mail chain. Questions are sent to the resident expert and that response is only provided to an individual. While this
/TTAWA s -ARKHAM s ,ONDON s .IAGARA &ALLS s #ALGARY s 6ANCOUVER s 6ICTORIA $ELCAN 625 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500 Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 9R9 Tel: 905.943.0500 Fax: 905.943.0400 email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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solves an immediate query, the expert has probably received this question multiple times. Now, instead of sending this e-mail to ‘Everyone’, they could post a blog update or start a wiki entry. If the question is posed on a forum, then it is simply a matter of responding, and the knowledge in the response will be accessible to others as well. This information is now searchable and accessible to a much wider audience, allowing more people to benefit. Now, answers to questions can also come from anyone within the company. In the past, information transfer has often followed a hierarchical pattern, from manager down to junior employee. However, it may no longer be the manager that has the answer. Often a more junior professional can pitch in and provide that knowledge, and social collaboration tools can facilitate this. Project-specific communities have been developed to allow team members access to information in a central location. Managers can provide direction to their team, monitor progress and workflow, and ensure that relevant documentation is readily available. Collaboration among team members can occur more smoothly. There is an opportunity to ask the right questions of the right individuals and have focused conversations in context. In a project forum, an engineer could post that they are finishing a review of a drawing set. The CAD operator knows
that there are revisions coming his way and the project manager knows that this task is on track. The person who is writing the corresponding report knows that the drawings are almost complete and they should be able to review the final set soon. All project documents are integrated with a file management system allowing the entire team to have access to the most recent files. Questions can be posed to the team as necessary. A history of interaction is inherently saved on the platform, solving that end-of-life e-mail question. Key lessons learned are then searchable for future projects, allowing us to build on our success and learn from our mistakes. Managers are no longer relying on a spreadsheet that they pull out once a month to track progress. They don’t need to call, text, or e-mail their team to see what the status is. If a task is assigned to someone, the onus is on them to complete it and then to indicate it is done. There is a sense of accountability, as people are not anonymous on the network. A project can be managed from our Mississauga office, but have contributors in Calgary, Phoenix, and Orangeville. Project managers have a newfound sense of assuredness that tasks are being completed on time. Change is not instant, and our firm is still in the adolescent phase of adopting this technology. We are under no
illusion that any one tool can be the ultimate solution to all the challenges of managing communication and access to information. Having the best tools for the task is certainly important, but it is how they are used that will make the difference. A wide demographic of people in the company, from new millennial workers to seasoned veterans of the “boomer” generation, has embraced the opportunity to collaborate in a new way. This has been especially evident in our teams, that are geographically separated and with the wider adoption of flexible work time hours. People have the opportunity to react and respond to information on their own time and have a resource that is more responsive than past methods. When you put new tools in the hands of capable and curious people, it is quite interesting to see what they will do with them. This is especially true if these tools facilitate collaboration, and allow people to further experiment and to learn from each other how to best use them. As feedback loops go, it is one that is most definitely positive. Besides, who among us doesn’t want to see a dramatic drop in e-mail traffic? Morgan Pel is with R.J. Burnside & Associates Limited. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Design/Build Construction Management P3 Project Delivery Maple Reinders has been delivering innovative environmental construction projects for the Canadian market for over 46 years including design, operation and private ﬁnancing.
LORNE PARK, ONTARIO
LAC LA BICHE, ALBERTA
www.maple.ca 1-888-416-2753 Mississauga
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Questions, not answers lead to good team decisions By Pat Coleman
esign decisions are like bricks in a wall, with each layer built upon the preceding one. In an organization, these critical â€œbricksâ€? are â€œlaidâ€? by teams of engineers and other professionals. One would expect these decisions to be rationally based on good data and best practices. In the real world, however, risk aversion, habit, and uncertainty can cloud or limit rational thinking, especially in dynamic environments where regulations, technology, opinions, and budgets are continually changing. However, project managers can use quality assurance/quality improvement/ quality control processes to control potential design process-related quality failures resulting from engineer bias, team dynamics, and organizational culture.
there are â€œholesâ€? in every design, but an error made at one stage in a design may become irrelevant, or may be corrected at a later stage in the design process. However, if an error propagates throughout the design, the integrity of the design is compromised. As a result, the earlier an error is made, the larger the number of subsequent decisions at risk. For this reason, errors in design Ă€RZV ORDGV HIĂ€XHQW FULWHULD ZDVWHwater temperatures, and understanding of neighborhood and environmental issues, can compromise a design. For example, the owner of a new sequencing batch reactor (SBR) plant was XQDEOH WR FRQVLVWHQWO\ PHHW LWV HIĂ€XHQW limits and, therefore, started legal action against the contractor. A third party expert was asked to assess why the plant could not meet its permit. When he clocked the cycle time during dry Understanding quality failure A Quality Management System weather, he found the length to be be(QMS) consists of three types of mea- tween the programmed storm and dry sures. Quality assurance (QA) and quali- ZHDWKHU F\FOH GXUDWLRQV 7KH 6%5 ty improvement (QI) are a set of proactive should have been in this transition perimeasures taken during design develop- od for one cycle when it switched from ment to prevent errors and encourage dry to wet weather and again when it innovation. Quality control (QC) is a set VZLWFKHG EDFN7KH H[SHUW WKHQ ORRNHG of reactive measures that trap and correct at the operation of the terminal pump errors in deliverables. If a team commits station and discovered that its operato the vision on which these measures are WLRQWULJJHUHGWKH6%5ÂłUDWHRIÂżOOÂ´DOfounded, these measures will ensure that gorithm to switch between wet and dry weather operation. LWGHOLYHUVDÂżWIRUSXUSRVHSURGXFW Failure to â€œlook upstreamâ€? in the earQuality failure can rarely be linked back to a single cause or person. It is a ly part of the design process, meant the myth that one person can be made ac- SBR operated on a cycle time that was countable for a design failure. When LQVXIÂżFLHQWWRWUHDWWKHZDVWHZDWHUIXOO\ A well managed collaborative design managers proceed with this view, they XVXDOO\ÂżQGVFDSHJRDWVQRWFDXVHV7KLV team committed to a well thought out is because a failure often results from set of QMS measures would not have a series of small errors that cascade to made these types of errors. SURGXFHDĂ€DZHGHQGSURGXFW Individual bias 7R XQGHUVWDQG KRZ HQJLQHHU IDLOXUHV Design decisions are often made by affect a design, consider the holes in a block of Swiss cheese, and imagine that engineers, not teams. How these are HDFKKROHUHSUHVHQWVDQHUURU7KHVWUXF- communicated to the rest of the team WXUH RI WKH FKHHVH LV ÂżQH DV ORQJ DV WKH DQGKRZWKHLUELDVDQGSHUVRQDOLW\LQĂ€Xholes donâ€™t line up, or cascade. Similarly, ence the making and communication of 42 | November/December 2013
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the decision must be managed carefully. ,I DQ HQJLQHHU LV RYHUFRQÂżGHQW KDV WRR much invested in a particular outcome, favors what they are comfortable with, or is blind to new ideas, they may make or support the wrong decision. Some common types of individual biases include: 2YHUFRQÂżGHQFH: If a team member LVRYHUFRQÂżGHQWRIDGHFLVLRQWKH\PD\ limit discussion to issues that support their agenda. In turn, the team may PLVLQWHUSUHW WKLV RYHUFRQÂżGHQFH DV H[pertise, rather than biased opinion. Dismissing an idea, simply because it is outside of oneâ€™s experience (e.g., â€œItâ€™s not done that way hereâ€?) is a sure sign RYHUFRQÂżGHQFHLVLQSOD\<RXQJRULQexperienced engineers, working with biased ones, may be reluctant to ask questions, and lose an opportunity to learn and grow professionally. 2. Sunk cost: If an engineer has invested time and the clientâ€™s money to develop a plan, their loyalty to that plan may be inappropriately strong. When challenged with an alternative, the engineer may argue â€œthereâ€™s no budget for thatâ€? or â€œwe canâ€™t go thereâ€?. If a new option is proposed by an external expert, they may try to unfairly discredit it, or the expert, to protect their own reputation. 3. Availability: An engineer may favor technologies they know and understand well, rather than explore alternatives and seek the information they lack, so that they can evaluate other options IDLUO\7KH FRUROODU\ WR WKLV LV ZKHQ DQ engineer favors a new technology, they know little about, because they are bored with established ones and seek a new challenge. 4. Anchor: An engineerâ€™s decisions may EH XQGXO\ LQĂ€XHQFHG E\ WKHLU VWDUWLQJ point, or history, on a project. If the path WRPDNLQJDGHFLVLRQLVĂ€DZHGWKHHQJLneer may be reluctant to retrace the steps WRFRUUHFWWKHVHĂ€DZVODWHLQDGHVLJQ 5. Egocentrism7KLVELDVRFFXUVZKHQ an engineer attributes more credit to
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their contribution in a decision made by a team than an outside independent body would, particularly when they have been hired into a new position based on their â€œexperienceâ€? and cannot deliver. Such an engineer may inhibit a teamâ€™s productivity, because the other members may pull back when they see this person taking credit for their work.
based on previous designs which have not been tested, or are not at capacity. One way to break this impasse is to ask for details on the design and call the systemâ€™s operator.
Team dynamics Project managers must understand how the team â€œframesâ€? the design, or creates a mental model of the task. The frame must encompass the full scope of Additional biases 7ZR RWKHU ELDVHV PD\ LQĂ€XHQFH GH- the project drivers, if the end product is VLJQGHFLVLRQV7KHÂżUVWRFFXUVZKHQDQ to meet client and community expectaengineer believes there is a correlation tions. Time spent at the start of the projbetween two elements, when in reality ect to correctly â€œframeâ€? the task is never there is not. If the burden of proof shifts a waste. 3URMHFWJRDOVPD\FRQĂ€LFW7KHSURMfrom the correlation being proved to the correlation being disproved, the team ect manager should encourage the team will be reluctant to challenge this bias. WRUHVROYHUDWKHUWKDQGLVPLVVFRQĂ€LFWAt this point, the project manager may ing goals early in the design process. have to step in and ask the individual ,QGHHGUHVROYLQJFRQĂ€LFWLVRQHSDWKWR to provide evidence to support their as- innovation. Âł7KHWHVWRIÂżUVWUDWHLQWHOOLVHUWLRQ ,I WKH WHDP LV QRW VDWLVÂżHG DQG JHQFHLVWKHDELOLW\WRKROGWZRRSSRVLWH the design stalls, further data may have LGHDVLQPLQGDWWKHVDPHWLPHDQGVWLOO to be collected, or a third party expert UHWDLQ WKH DELOLW\ WR IXQFWLRQÂ´) 6FRWW )LW]JHUDOG opinion solicited. Team dynamics impact the end prodThe second occurs when an engineer believes they have proven their concept, uct, because the teamâ€™s needs may be-
come more important than the end prodXFW7KHWHDPPD\EHEOLQGWRĂ€DZVRU opportunities, consume budget early, and leave no money for later decisions. Or, it may slip into relying solely on perception and opinion. The most common negative dynamics that plague teams are: 1. Dysfunction: This occurs when fault lines develop and air time is not managed. A design then develops that allows the team to function, but not meet client expectations. When the project manager VROYHV WKH FRQĂ€LFW E\ JLYLQJ HDFK IDFtion part of what they want, the design becomes a political compromise that VDWLVÂżHVQRRQHÂąLQFOXGLQJWKHFOLHQW 2. Group think:KHQDWHDPLVFRQÂżdent of its superiority, it may agree on a solution, while rationalizing away data and discounting warnings. A sure sign RI WKLV LV ZKHQ D ÂżUP FRQWLQXDOO\ SXWV forth a single solution to different situFRQWLQXHGRYHUOHDI
Growing our Pipeline Expertise Sandra Rolfe-Dickinson, B.Eng., M.Sc., C.Eng., FICE, FCIWEM
Pipeline Condition Assessment and Asset Management Expertise: t 1JQFMJOFJOWFTUJHBUJWFUFDIOJRVFT t "OBMZTJTPGĂĽFMEBTTFTTNFOUXPSL t 'BJMVSFJOWFTUJHBUJPOT t &GGFDUPGEFUFSJPSBUJPOQSPDFTTFTPOGVUVSFQFSGPSNBODF t %FTJHOPGPQUJNVNSFIBCJMJUBUJPOTPMVUJPOT Worldwide engineers with a passion for engineering. HEAD OFFICE
70 Valleywood Drive, Markham, ON CANADA L3R 4T5 T. 905.940.6161 | 416.987.6161 www.ColeEngineering.ca
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ations. To avoid losing the clientâ€™s conÂżGHQFH RU LQFXUULQJ DGGLWLRQDO GHVLJQ FRVWV WKH SURMHFW PDQDJHU PXVW Âłwake the team upÂ´ WR FRQVLGHU RWKHU RSWLRQV DQG UHPLQG WKHP LW ZDV KLUHG WR VHUYH WKHFOLHQWÂśVLQWHUHVWVQRWWKHLURZQ 3. Impotence,IDWHDPEHFRPHVÂłVWXFNÂ´ DQGVWDUWVWRORRSWKHSURMHFWEXGJHWZLOO VRRQ EH GHSOHWHG E\ PHDQLQJOHVV UH ZRUN7KLVV\QGURPHLVRIWHQFDXVHGE\ UHPQDQWVRIDFRUSRUDWHFXOWXUHWKDWKDV RXWOLYHG LWV XVHIXOQHVV7KH WKUHH LPSRWHQWFXOWXUHVDUHDÂł1RÂ´FXOWXUHZKHUH JURXSV FRPSHWH E\ QL[LQJ HDFK RWKHUÂśV LGHDV D Âł<HVÂ´ FXOWXUH ZKHUH JURXSV DOZD\VDJUHHZKHQWRJHWKHUEXWVDERWDJH WKHGHFLVLRQODWHUDQGDÂł0D\EHÂ´FXOWXUH ZKHUHWKHJURXSDOZD\VZDQWVPRUHGDWD DQGPRUHDQDO\VLVGRQHEHIRUHPDNLQJD decision. 4. Misapplications of analogies: This WHDPG\QDPLFRFFXUVZKHQDJURXSUHOLHVRQKRZWKH\GLGWKLQJVLQWKHSDVW ZLWKRXWFRQVLGHULQJWKHGLIIHUHQFHVEHWZHHQWKHSDVWDQGWKHFXUUHQWVLWXDWLRQ
5. No formal analysis 7KLV RFFXUV ZKHQDJURXSDFFHSWVDQLQWXLWLYHMXGJPHQW RQ WKH SDUW RI DQ H[SHUW ZLWKRXW GRLQJ WKH IRUPDO DQDO\VLV WR FKHFN WKH GHFLVLRQ :KHQ DQDO\VLV LV GRQH WKH WHDP FDQ IRFXV WKH H[SHUWÂśV DGYLFH RQ LPSURYLQJWKHGHVLJQ 6. Procedural injustice: If one faction LQ D WHDP SXVKHV WKURXJK D GHFLVLRQ OHDYLQJWKHUHVWIHHOLQJWKHLUYLHZVZHUH LJQRUHGPHPEHUVPD\UHJUHVVLQWRSDV-
SOH VHQLRU PDQDJHPHQW EURXJKW PHPEHUVIURPDG\VIXQFWLRQDOWHDPWRJHWKHU IRU WZR GD\V7KH\ VWDUWHGWKH PHHWLQJ E\DOORZLQJHDFKPHPEHUWRWDONDERXW ZKDWWKH\WKRXJKWZDVWKHSUREOHP$W WKH HQG RI WKLV GLVFXVVLRQ WKH OHDGHU UHDG WKH WHDP ÂłWKH ULRW DFWÂ´ D ÂłYou must decide whether you are either on or off the busÂ´ DQG E ÂłNo negative thinking will be tolerated for the rest of the meetingâ€?.
Project managers need to understand how their organizationâ€™s culture affects decision making within teams. VLYHDJJUHVVLYH EHKDYLRU 7KLV GLPLQLVKHV WHDP SURGXFWLYLW\ RU ZRUVH VDERWDJHVWKHGHFLVLRQWRFRUUHFWZKDWWKH\ VHH DV DQ LQMXVWLFH ,Q WKHVH VLWXDWLRQV PDQDJHUVPXVWEHFDUHIXOWROD\RXWWKH SURFHVVIRUDOOLQVLVWLQJRQFDQGRUDQG DFWLYH OLVWHQLQJ UHTXLULQJ WHDP PHPEHUV WR NHHS DQ RSHQ PLQG H[SODLQLQJ WKH GHFLVLRQ UDWLRQDOH DQG WKHQ DQQRXQFLQJWKHGHFLVLRQ ,WLVQRWQHFHVVDU\WRKDYHDJUHHPHQW %XWLWLVQHFHVVDU\WKDWWHDPPHPEHUV VHHWKHSURFHVVDVEHLQJIDLU)RUH[DP-
$IWHU WKLV PHHWLQJ WKH WHDP UHPDLQHG G\VIXQFWLRQDO :KHQ DVNHG DIWHUZDUGV ZK\ WKH PHHWLQJ IDLOHG WR UHVROYH WKH LVVXHV SDUWLFLSDQWV VDLG WKDW DOWKRXJKWKH\KDGWKHFKDQFHWRVSHDN LWZDVSRLQWOHVVEHFDXVHQRRQHZDVOLVWHQLQJ7KH\IHOWWKHSURFHVVZDVXQMXVW DQGWKHUHIRUHFDUULHGRQDVLIWKHPHHWLQJQHYHURFFXUUHG :KHQVHWWLQJXSDGHVLJQWHDPSURMHFW PDQDJHUV PXVW EH FRJQL]DQW RI WKH IROORZLQJ D Composition :KR VKRXOG EH LQ-
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volved in the design process? b) Context: What type of environment should the design team operate within? c) Communication: What are the means for dialog and participation in the design process? d) Control: How will I control the design and decision making process? These factors include allowing conĂ€ict and debate while developing an open culture of politeness candor constructive scufĂ€ing and creativity The manager must appropriately engage external staff to keep forcing underlying assumptions and orthodoxies to the surface to challenge assumptions which are past their due date and to frame the problem to encompass all the projectâ€™s goals )unctional teams produce functional designs Organizational culture Project managers need to understand how their organizationâ€™s culture affects decision making within their teams There are three common cultural issues that impact the design process: 1. Normalization of deviance: The theoretical capacity of a process consists of three parts: a) what is required now; b) additional capacity required between now and the design year; and c) additional capacity to account for uncertainty in the design data safety factor) There is a risk where the duration of design construction and realization of capacity is long enough that the designer has moved on to another project The designer may start to underestimate the real risk and reduce the safety factor on the next design leading to a design failure 2. Practical drift: When organizations develop procedures they take into account how engineering disciplines work together If a group Âżnds a simpler more efÂżcient method to accomplish the same task but it deviates from procedure there is a risk their savings will be made at the expense of someone elseâ€™s budget If there is no means to communicate this deviation from procedure the rest of the organization will falsely assume that procedure is being followed A common manifestation of this problem is when a group shifts from discipline to self-checking when checking is done by younger less expensive staff or even worse when a group opts out of checking altogether because of budget ZZZ.esemag.com
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limitations (veryone must play by the same rules for a quality system to work If a change needs to be made the change should be to the rule not by an engineering departmentâ€™s method of working Response to an ambiguous threat: When an unanticipated concern is raised late in the design process there is a small window during which the risk can be assessed and remedial action taken If the team is unable or unwilling to assess the risk they tend to do nothing and time runs out Asking the right questions Peter 'rucker a well known business thinker believed that taking action without thinking is the cause of every failure He argued in his seminal work â€œThe Practice of Managementâ€? that â€œthe most common source of mistakes in management decisions is the emShasis on Âżnding the right ansZer rather than the right question.â€? People tend to Âżlter what they tell their superiors They assume superiors do not want to hear about problems only solutions This means that by the time the
manager is aware of the problem the cost of Âżxing it has ballooned )or this reason managers must ferret out problems by asking the right questions QA/QC processes are not rituals to be executed without thought They should be an encapsulation of best practice and be embraced They work best when all are committed to collaborating and are ready to confront bias dysfunction and culture when they get in the way of making the right decisions The last word goes to Professor Michael 5oberto of %ryant 8niversity 5hode Island whose Critical Decision Making lectures inspired this article: â€œ4uestions not ansZers. ,f \ou can build good processes and get people asking good questions \ou can get to good decisions.â€? Pat Coleman P.(ng. is Zith %lack 9eatch Canada Compan\. E-mail: colemanPF@BV.com
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NETZSCH Pumps & Systems - Solutions you can trust
NETZSCH Canada, Inc. Tel: 705-797-8426 email: email@example.com www.netzsch.ca
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Consultants increasingly use BIM to drive project performance By David Bannister
ver the past few years, consultants have seen paradigm shifting changes in the way projects are procured, designed, constructed and operated. Increasingly, teams are assembled to address a project over its entire life cycle, and owners are looking for solutions which maximize life cycle value. Sustainability is a theme which underpins the evolution of successful projects. Years of insufficient focus and funding have created a critical need for upgrade or replacement of major physical infrastructure across many sectors. Governments at all levels are prioritizing funding for large capital projects. Against this backdrop, consultants are being asked to produce designs and documents for increasingly complex projects
in an integrated team environment. This has to be achieved within much shorter delivery timelines than many of us would have thought possible not too long ago. One of the keys to successfully delivering projects in this new paradigm is the use of building information modeling (BIM) to drive project performance. Our experience on major projects, such as several underground stations for the Crossrail in the UK and the Freedom Tower in the US demonstrated that only through the use of advanced BIM modeling were we able to address revised client priorities, stakeholder requirements or site conditions. As we have increasingly incorporated the use of BIM into our way of working, we have documented a few lessons learned, which might be of benefit to those consultants just beginning to use it.
8QGHUVWDQGWKHEHQH¿WV Typically, consulting firms, which are well along the road to integrating BIM into the way they execute projects, will begin to realize efficiencies in reduced time and cost to deliver a project, as well as better quality documents. However, it is important to understand and accept that moving from CAD to BIM often results in increased project execution cost and time during ramp-up. Beyond the initial transition from 2D to 3D documents, there is moving from using BIM as just a 3D CAD tool, to fully capturing the potential across 3D (virtual building creation/embedded element attributes), 4D (time/phasing/ schedule), 5D (quantity/cost), 6D (sustainability optimization strategies) and 7D (facilities and asset management).
NASM Plan Consulting and Application of Industrial and Municipal Materials Serving municipal, industrial and commercial NASM generators across the province Services Include: · Preparing Non-Agricultural Source Material (NASM) Plans for submission to OMAF · Provide all preparation for NASM Plans including soil sampling, field assessments and GIS site maps in compliance with OMAF and MOE regulations · Perform follow up documentation for single and multi year NASM plans · Provide transport and injection application of liquid and solid NASMs
For more information please contact: Rob Alton or PAg, CCA-CA 905-312-4095
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Mark Janiec PAg, CCA-CA 905-878-2800 ext 223
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This requires a serious and ongoing commitment to the time and cost of developing corporate skill sets. Our experience on major projects around the world has demonstrated to us the need for corporate proficiency in these advanced BIM capabilities, in order to respond effectively to client expectations. Training and development regimes must be implemented in order to remain at the forefront of project delivery. BIM and the need for project team integration. In the past, consultants would undertake the design and preparation of documents. The contractor would then take them and construct the facility. Finally, the owner would assume the facility and be responsible for ongoing operation and
Moving to BIM, as the primary platform for project delivery, offers efficiencies in design and document production. maintenance. Increasingly, owners are looking for a projection execution approach which addresses substantially, or even completely, full facility life cycle. The move by governments to using a public private partnership (P3) or alternative financing and procurement (AFP) project procurement process, is an example of this trend. Fully capturing the cost efficiency and quality enhancement potential of a life cycle approach requires an integrated team approach, with all players involved along the entire project timeline. BIM allows owners/project applicants, designers, contractors and operators, to quickly and comprehensively explore options and alternatives. Also, they are able to clearly understand the impacts of a decision, or strategy, proposed by one discipline on the other disciplines or project members. Typically, this requires the BIM model to be addressable by all integrated team members. Lead responsibility for the BIM model management must be passed seamlessly from one project team member to another as the project passes from the design, construction, and operation and maintenance stages. The use of BIM models, developed to this advanced level of information, requires the active and ongoing participation of everyone involved. 8VLQJPXOWLSOHRI¿FHVIRUSURMHFWGHOLYHU\ The fast pace expected for project delivery, coupled with the size and complexity of many current or contemplated infrastructure projects, may require the involvement of multiple consultant firms, or multiple offices of a single consultant. It is critical to ensure that protocols are in place to support this need. For example, GENIVAR recently completed a $500M project that involved over 100 employees working in several different offices across Canada. The entire project was delivered exclusively using BIM tools, with over 250 BIM models developed by the participating disciplines. GENIVAR has overseas design/CAD/BIM centres, which are used extensively to support project delivery in the UK, Europe and North America. A suite of tools and technology (such as Revit Server, Remote Desktop Services, Cloud-based solutions) is used to enable effective and efficient collaborative work on BIM projects, with www.esemag.com
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geographically distributed teams and models. In our experience, good communication, clear lines of responsibility and authority, standardized project delivery design and document platforms, and well developed project execution protocols are essential to efficiently deliver a project to the level of quality and assurance that clients demand. Moving to BIM, as the primary platform for project delivery, offers significant efficiencies in design and document production. More importantly, a basic proficiency in BIM is increasingly required as a condition of participation on many project teams, whether under a traditional or P3/AFP process. The global practice of GENIVAR across most consulting engineering sectors has benefited enormously from a corporate commitment to BIM capability. Moving from 2D, to basic 3D documents, and on to advanced BIM, has allowed us to interact and contribute as part of integrated project teams in ways we would have never imagined only a few years ago. As consultants contemplate where they are on their BIM journey, we would encourage them to think about how using it to drive their firm’s project performance will benefit both clients and staff. David Bannister is GENIVAR’S GTA Buildings Sector Leader. E-mail: David.Bannister@genivar.com
Marketing Manager A National Trade Association committed to promoting the appropriate use of its members’ Construction Products to the Highway, Municipal and Resource Sectors is seeking a person for the position of Marketing Manager. If you are familiar with the workings of Canada’s Heavy Construction Industry and have experience in sales and marketing to these groups, we would like to speak with you. You probably have a University degree in Civil Engineering or a related field. The position requires the ability to work under little supervision with a wide variety of interest groups, often bringing these groups together to find common ground and effective solutions to complex technical issues. You must be able to present sound, clear technical arguments in writing and public speaking, often to large groups, in the English language. A working knowledge of French would be an asset. You will work from a base of your choosing in Canada, near a major airport, as extensive travel is a requirement for this position. Working closely with Member Companies you will develop and carry out a sound Marketing Plan. Please submit letters of interest with your resume and salary expectations in confidence to: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Phased water and wastewater systems suit rural development growth By Marshal Deane
ecently, the number of inquiries from rural land developers and resort operators has increased dramatically regarding the design, build and operation of water and wastewater treatment systems. We believe that there is a significant opportunity in these situations to reduce the initial capital investment required, by using build-to-suit (phased) servicing, matched to the build rate. Clients are excited about this new approach, which matches interim treatment system capacity with actual effluent flows, without sacrificing the ability to achieve final design treatment capacity. ASI has successfully incorporated this strategy into a number of development projects, mitigating multiple financial and project risks for our clients and host municipalities.
We see a trend for this project structure in many small municipalities, where development is constrained by wastewater treatment capacity and the cost for expansion. People want to move into these communities and the communities want the people. But, financing a treatment plant, with capacity for a population that won’t arrive for years, just doesn’t make sense. The trend toward Build-to-Suit, Phased or Just-in-Time Servicing is being implemented across the US and western Canada and is beginning to pick up momentum in Ontario. This approach to servicing leverages best-in-class technology and the construction of decentralized wastewater treatment plants. The concept is elegant in its simplicity and exceeds all regulatory requirements, with suitable treatment capacity, and infrastructure.
The strength of this approach is based on the relationship between developers and the municipality involved. Developers are known for optimistic absorption rates for their proposed developments, which take several years of approvals, and construction. Over the course of a development’s evolution, many outside influences, including economic down turns, can alter the original anticipated growth. This can lead to oversized, inefficient wastewater systems and significant investment risk. A phased servicing strategy manages the risk of outside influences either developing faster or slower than initial forecasts. A build-to-suit strategy provides flexibility that limits the risk of a development’s failure, and increases the longterm sustainability of a community.
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Every servicing project, whether private or public, is driven by balancing initial capital expenditure, operations/ maintenance costs, and management of assets, with revenue generated through user fees or utility income. Build-to-suit servicing is a tool that balances this equation in many ways. Typical residential developments progress slowly, once pre-sales and construction begin. Initial servicing requirements during this time are minimal. Matching servicing requirements with treatment capacities is an essential part of balancing upfront capital expenditures. Additionally, minimizing up-front capital expenditures and operating costs, including labour, energy, gas, chemicals, and assets management allows capital to be used in other areas of the development. Along with reducing initial capital requirements, and reducing early phases of operating costs, long-term financial benefits can be achieved. Traditionally, wastewater treatment facilities are designed for a population density that reflects a combination of different size and/or style of residential units. Proposed densities are then translated into forecast wastewater flow rates, based on government design guidelines.
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The build-to-suit strategy allows for real-time collection of actual flow data in the first phase, and raw sewage characteristics that can be used to re-rate the anticipated capacity of the ultimate plant capacity (right-size). Experience tells us that design forecast wastewater flow rates are typically higher than actual flow rates, so the build-to-suit approach provides an opportunity to defer, or eliminate, future phases of a project. If the required wastewater plant is constructed to service the ultimate population of the proposed development, initial wastewater flows generated by the few residents will not provide sufficient flow. All wastewater treatment plants require a minimum hydraulic and organic load to effectively remove the specific parameters of the raw wastewater. The cost implications of a facility that cannot operate effectively are a key factor in upsetting the financial balance discussed earlier. These types of operational issues can also lead to unforeseen design and construction changes. The worst-case scenario for an over-designed facility that canâ€™t achieve approved performance, is that the Ministry of the Environment will
issue Orders or Fines to the plant owner and operators. Ultimately, if the plant cannot operate effectively at the smaller flows, it is often more cost-effective to mothball it and truck raw wastewater to another treatment plant. This will again add to unplanned operations costs. Developing a phasing strategy, that meets the requirements of a residential/ resort/commercial, or even municipal project, involves several inputs. These include the ultimate population to be serviced, anticipated rate of growth of the development, effluent criteria, discharge location, and cash flow. A build-to-suit strategy is continuing to help private development projects obtain municipal approval. In the coming years, more development projects will involve variations of this strategy to procure and deliver water and wastewater infrastructure. Marshal Deane is with ASI Group Ltd, E-mail: email@example.com
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Social media can help consultants show credibility in a digital age By Rebecca H. Goldberg and Carl Friesen
eing seen as the â€˜go-toâ€™ person or acknowledged thoughtleader in your field is a good place to be. You donâ€™t need to look for clients; they come to you. They donâ€™t wince at your fees. You can pick and choose the projects you find particularly interesting, and work just with people you like. And they buy lunch. But the ways you demonstrate thought leadership and credibility seem to be changing, with a deluge of new information technologies. Many business professionals, particularly consultants, are asking themselves: Just how do I get acknowledged as a thought-leader today? This question is particularly vital for consultants, whose value depends largely on their reputation for innovation and effectiveness. Demonstrating that you both understand and know how to use these
tools effectively can help communicate that you are at the leading edge of your field through your content and comments. To understand which of the new tools are effective for demonstrating thought leadership, itâ€™s important to understand what tools have been traditionally effective. These include academic and professional designations, published papers in professional or academic journals, presenting papers at recognized professional conferences, publishing a book and a strong CV. Changing role of expertise To see how this is changing, consider how potential clients look for expertise. Generally, itâ€™s because they have a problem they need to solve, or an opportunity they want to access. Increasingly, they want a â€˜nameâ€™ on their project, someone
who has credibility. They look for indications of credibility to help them differentiate among potential problem-solvers, and also because they may need to defend their choice. Getting buy-in matters, because of the increasing number of business decisions today that are made in consultation with other stakeholders. In the Google age, such searches are conducted online, and in two main ways: topic search and name search. Anyone wanting to learn about a new subject area will enter some keywords about the topic into a search engine. If the consultant has generated enough content about their subject area, that content should come up ideally near the top of the search results. However, it is more likely that someone will already have heard about the consultant, or met them at a networking
YOUR PARTNER FOR PROCESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
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PROUD PARTNER OF:
SPD Sales Limited would like to welcome Wayne Harrison to the SPD team, where he will be fulfilling the role of Area Manager for Eastern Ontario. Wayne Harrison has an extensive professional history, rooted in the sales and technical expertise of chemical dosing pumps. His previous experience as a District Manager for both Siemens Water Technologies and US Filter/ Wallace and Tiernan brings a wealth of transferable knowledge and value to SPD. Educated as a Mechanical Engineering Technologist, Wayneâ€™s career began in Engineering and Technical Service at Wallace & Tiernan, before making the transition into chemical dosing sales. Wayneâ€™s passion for sales derives from his innate enthusiasm for customer relations, travel and the thrill of the sale. Quite simply, Wayne says, â€œI enjoy meeting people!â€? Wayneâ€™s interest in environmental issues and concerns is a personal commitment as he volunteers his time to industry organizations such as the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association, of which he is a former president. If you would like to contact Wayne, he can be reached at: Harrison.w@SPDSales.com
50 | November/December 2013
#30 Consulting Forum Section.indd 50
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/9/13 8:11 PM
event. They can type the personâ€™s name into a search engine to see what evidence there is of that personâ€™s expertise. The digital age has spawned a wide range of emerging vehicles for demonstrating thought leadership which can complement and bring more attention to the long-established means described above. Many consultants find the sheer variety of content marketing and social media tools to be overwhelming. If this has been your experience, keep two questions in mind: What do you want to be known for, and whom do you want to reach? Then, develop a plan that is an appropriate blend of â€œestablishedâ€? and â€œemergingâ€? tools. Remember: your name is your brand. Itâ€™s relatively easy if your name is somewhat unusual. For example, there are only seven people on LinkedIn with the name â€˜Carl Friesen,â€™ but â€˜Rebecca Goldbergâ€™ returns 73 results. This is why Rebecca distinguishes her name as â€˜Rebecca H. Goldbergâ€™. You might consider some similar way to make your name â€œyoursâ€? online and carry it
through when choosing profile names for yourself. One of the best-known online â€˜scorecardsâ€™ is oneâ€™s Klout Score (klout.com) which is a 1-100 number showing how influential you are. Emerging thought leadership vehicles â€˘ YouTube: Right after the question, â€œis this consultant a recognized authority in his field?â€? a potential client will ask, â€œwould I enjoy working with him?â€? Thatâ€™s a question a consultant can answer through effective use of YouTube. Videos of a presentation youâ€™ve given, or just you talking to the camera about a development in your clientâ€™s industry, go a long way to showing you as an approachable kind of person. â€˘ Twitter: Although Twitter seems to be everywhere, it really isnâ€™t. According to recent figures by social media guru Jay Baer, only seven percent of Americans use Twitter. But still, this micro-blogging platform is emerging as an effective way to demonstrate thought leadership â€˘ SlideShare: This little-known platform allows you to share presentations developed on PowerPoint and similar programs, presenting ideas in infograph-
ics including charts and graphs, text, photographs and other elements. Itâ€™s a good way to provide a tight dose of information on a specific topic. â€˘ LinkedIn: Standing midway between the â€œestablishedâ€? and â€œemergingâ€? technologies is LinkedIn, which at its most fundamental is an online CV. Itâ€™s also likely the first result someone will come to if they Google your name, so it needs to put you in your best light. But, more than just a resume, LinkedIn is a vehicle to aggregate all your published articles and papers, slide shows, audio files, videos, infographics and other content in one easy to find place. Rebecca H. Goldberg, MES, is an independent interactive media consultant. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: goldberg_r Carl Friesen, MBA, CMC, is Principal of Global Reach Communications Inc. E-mail: email@example.com Twitter: carlfriesen
(AVEYOUUEVERL R LOOK OOK OKED E AT ATTHE THE HETRUECOSTOFOWNE N RSH S IP IP FOR YOURLIFTSSTATIONS NS 7HE 7HENYYOUSEEBE 7HE B YONDINITITIIALPU PURCH RCHASE ASE PRICETO O OTHHERLIF LIFE C E CCYCL YCLECOST STSL ST S IKEINSTA STALLA LL TIO TION N PUM PUMP P EFlCIENCCYANNDPPOWE WERRD R DRAW DRAW O A OPERATIONAND O A MA MAINT INTENA ENANCE NCE ASSOCIATTEDL D ABO ABORT RTIME IMEAN EAANDEEQU Q PMENT ANDPPART QUI ARTS S YOU YOUWI WILL LL APPRECIA IATETHEE3MI M TH, ,OVE ,OVEELESSAPPR P ROACCH H /UR /UROP OPERA ERATOR TOR SAFE AB ABOOVE VE GRA GRADE DEE 7ET7E 7 LL-OUNTED0UMP UMP3T 3TATI ATIONS NSWI WITH TH LONG LAASTTING HIGH HIGHLY LY EFl LY EFlCIE EFl CIENT CIE NT 3, 3 .O . N #LOG LOG0U 0UMPS MPSDE DELIV LIVER ER THELOW WESSTL T LIFT I ST STATI ST ATION ATI ON OPEERATTINGCO C STSn nINC INCLUD UDING ING SAVINGGSV SVSSUB SUBMER MERSI MER SIBLES SIB ES
#30 Consulting Forum Section.indd 51
3EEFORYOURSELF2EQUESTAVIEWATYOURFACILITY WITHAVISITFROMONEOFOURTRAVELINGDEMO0UMP 3TATIONSAT3MITH!ND,OVELESSCOM
November/December 2013 | 51
12/5/13 6:18 AM
Software evolving for water and wastewater systems By Ivan Romanow
he future of water and wastewater automation lies with collaborative technologies and interactive communities that empower innovation. The availability of proven connectivity protocols, along with cloud-based collaborative tools, will minimize bid costs and maximize the global reach of system integrator (SI) and equipment manufacturer expertise.
i¿cations. /arge, widely distributed facilities, or small remote ones, could take advantage of the global reach and expertise of such a community. Development and operation in the cloud Cloud-based architecture enables controllers to be created, con¿gured, simulated, deployed and operated from a single point of connect, via any devise with a browser. It provides a collaborative online environment for building of systems, the reuse and sharing of entire applications, and the exchange of ideas with colleagues. A cloud-based platform for connected devices gives full functionality for creating, deploying, managing and maintaining control systems. This single point of con¿guration for life cycle management of the control system enables improved business per-
Collaborative technologies A collaborative community could be made up of internal employees and partners, such as SIs, equipment suppliers, etc. Cataloging applications created internally, and/or created on your behalf, could be easily stored and retrieved as required. An online community of water and wastewater professionals could compete to solve client challenges as per posted spec-
The safe solution. U.S.F. F Fabrication’s Hatch Saffet e y Grrat a e Sy Syst stem st em m iss avai aila ai la ab blle in n a varriie ety of conﬁg et on nﬁg ﬁgurat ur tio ur ons to meet virtually l any application. The syst stem em alllows ow ws fo f r rou uttiine ne m ma ain ntten ten enan ena ance of o pum mpss and equipment when closed an nd mayy act act ass an add ddit itiiona it al barrri rier er when op ope en. n. It allo lows people to move freely l around d the hatch ch op open ening gs wittho hout ut exxpo p si sn ng g the emssel e ve es to dangerous fall-through. Alll Hatch atch at hS Sa a et afet etyy Gra rattes es fea eatu ea ture tu ur : • Ta amper-res err res sista ista is tan nt 316 6 SS hin nge es an nd har ardw d arre • Po owder err-co coat atted ated ed alu umi minum m gra ates e to re esistt corr rrosiion rr • Ho old open dev evic ices ic es to o lock ck th he gra rate es in n their irr ful ulll up upriightt an a d op pen pos sition n • Ca an be b rret ettro roﬁt ﬁttted d into o existing ng g accce c ss s op pening ngs
Our experienced team pro rovide i es a qu uicck tu t rn rnar narrou un nd d on qu q ot otess, drawings and deliveries. Calll us u tod od o day ay 1.800 .8 800 0 .6 668 6 .4 453 33 or email us at sales@engin neere edp dpum ump. um p.co p. co om
1635 Industrial Ave. • Port Coquitlam, BC CV V3C 6M9 M9 9 Phone: 604.552.7900 • Fax: 604.552.7901
52 | November/December 2013
#27 Software Evolving.indd 52
formance and pro¿tability in multiple ways. There would be no more software to install and maintain. Instead, you can manage and access digital content from any device with a browser. /ibraries of code and function blocks more easily enable development engineers to ¿nd, co-create, and implement software solutions for the task required. This highly scalable platform turns a network of devices into an ecosystem primed for adaption and survival. The “Industrial Internet” platform can communicate with intelligent controllers that manage the automation system down to the nodes and back to the cloud. The result is far greater resolution of device-level data that can be stored in the cloud for real-time automation control and life cycle management. Planning your move to the cloud An organization’s data security and privacy requirements are very important. Your legal, risk, and compliance counterparts should review all privacy and data protection requirements. If special data types must remain on-site, consider a hybrid deployment model. It’s also important to protect your mobile device users. Identify the necessary features of your current security arrangements and compare these with the software as a service (SaaS) provider’s capabilities. Review the SaaS’s road map to determine if there are any missing features. Then you can add enhancement requests into contractual obligations. Also, you must carefully understand and negotiate service-level agreements for availability, reporting, performance and accuracy. Despite the robust availability that SaaS inherently provides, it is imperative that you have a clear understanding of their disaster recovery plan. In the event of an incident, what are the implications for you, and what is your plan during the interim period?
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/6/13 7:24 PM
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$%95'980":59-759+8933 â€˘ Meeting Federal (E2), Provincial, Regulations â€˘ Site Emergency Preparedness & Response Plans â€˘ Industry Specific Standards, ISO 14000, International Cyanide Management Code, Aboriginal Agreements 2568':64:*9%607/:52-954693:)633:78+: #775+3 â€˘ Hands on Chemical Testing & Evaluation of Chemicals, Reagents, Process and Waste streams as well as Mixed Spilled Substances *28476895:#78+/68' â€˘ Best Management Practices, Why & When to Patch, Over-pack or Transfer for transport, product recovery or waste disposal 1-6//:*28452/:.904693:/78+:7495:78+:765 â€˘ Deal with Time Critical Issues and Hierarchy of Event â€˘ Discharges >1,000 gallons per minute in all terrain â€˘ Laboratory size to train derailment, pipeline size spills, all-terrain â€˘ Selecting conditions, flow rates, wind conditions, recovery â€˘ Improvise Countermeasures to reduce cost & contamination â€˘ Boat & Boom Deployment in river, open water
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@576868':B2:)9%9%95 :$<-9569809:B2:*78:39A Spill Management Fl.Pg. Ad.indd 1
12/7/13 12:01 AM
A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.
Continued development of tank testing protocols benefits new green bin composting facility By Darrin Hopper
n 2002, the City of Toronto started its Green Bin Program for Source Separation of Organics (SSO). It is a critical component of “Target 70”, the City’s goal of achieving a 70% GLYHUVLRQUDWHIURPODQG¿OO Toronto currently collects more than 110,000 tonnes of residential and commercial SSO annually, from green bins at more than 500,000 single family dwellings. To meet a collection target of around 180,000 tonnes of SSO per year, the City is now embarking on the next phase of its strategy. This involves providing green bins to multi-family dwellings, including schools, apartments and high rise condo buildings. To-date, the majority of the SSO collected has been processed by aerobic composting. However, this process does not harness its energy potential. To meet current and future processing capacity and to capture the renewable energy potential of the collected SSO, Toronto has expanded its existing Dufferin Organics Processing Facility (DOPF), which utilises an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It has also added a second AD facility on Disco Road, located just east of Lester B. Pearson Airport. The City www.esemag.com
In 2011, H2Flow Tanks & Systems Inc. erected a Permastore glass-fused-tosteel bolted tank at the original DOPF.
contracted an AECOM-led team to deliver a full design-build-operate service for the new Disco Road facility. Once both projects are completed, the City will have two facilities with a combined processing capacity of up to 130,000 tonnes annually. (55,000 tonnes per year from the Dufferin plant and 75,000 tonnes per year from the Disco Road plant). The BTA ProcessR is the technology selected for the new Disco Road facility. It is the same process that has been in operation since 2002 as a technology
demonstration project at the DOPF. Key features of the two AD facilities include the BTA Hydropulper and BTA Grit Removal (hydrocyclone) preprocessing technology. This pre-treatment stage pulps and cleans the SSO material, prior to digestion, separating both the light (mostly plastic) and heavy (glass, stone, metal, etc.) contaminants. Removing contaminants, prior to digestion, ensures trouble-free digester operation and that the digested organics continued overleaf... November/December 2013 | 55
12/5/13 6:21 AM
Spills are suitable for producing Category A compost at external composting sites. Under the new draft Ontario Compost Guidelines, this compost can be marNHWHGIRUXQUHVWULFWHGXVHDVDEHQHÂżcial fertiliser and soil conditioner. The anaerobic digestion stage of the process converts volatile organics of the SSO into biogas, with a methane content of around 60%. Biogas at WKH '23) LV FXUUHQWO\ Ă€DUHG 3ODQV are underway to review options for energy utilization for both facilities by upgrading the biogas. This includes biomethane for injection into the natural gas pipeline network and fuelling City-owned vehicles. In 2011, H2Flow Tanks & Systems Inc. erected a Permastore glass-fusedto-steel bolted steel tank at the originDO '23) 7KH ÂżUVW WDQN LQVWDOOHG LQ 2001, required shut down for maintenance and cleaning. Erection of the new tank allowed for future expansion and growth to meet the Cityâ€™s green bin demands. H2Flow worked closely with BTA on this project, which helped with the design of the much larger Disco Road facility. The project involved eight tanks. H2Flow and AECOM worked together to get the design, layout and and are typically distributed evenly structural requirements of eight bolted around the roof. steel tanks coordinated and shipped to This code was written around typsite for erection within a tight timeline. ical municipal concrete pancake diH2Flow also provided the sequencing gesters that are not designed for mixing batch reactor (SBR) treatment system HIÂżFLHQF\ RU PD[LPL]DWLRQ RI ELRJDV and associated tanks for the liquid waste production. Access to these digesters from the facility. was typically designed through a large One very interesting aspect of this opening in the roof structure as they project was the regulations around had no sidewall access. Because steel pressure testing and sign off of the ac- tank structures have grade level access cess requirements. These are governed there is not a requirement for such a by the Technical Standards & Safety large opening in the roof structure. The Authority (TSSA) - Fuels Safety En- structural beamed roof design actually gineering Program. They are the body precludes design of an access manhole in charge of upholding the CAN/CGA this large. B105-M93 and the newly released code TSSA simply provided a letter of CSA-B149.6-11. Clause 8.3.1 of CAN/ variance and the work done in the dis&*$%0 VSHFLÂżHV WKDW ÂłLQ WKH covery and letter of variance on the roof of a digester with an internal diam- DOPF site helped facilitate work on the eter larger than 15m, there shall not be Disco Road site. less than three manholes, at least one of The newly released code CSA-B149. which shall not be less than 1.05m in- 6-11, soon to be adopted in Ontario, WHUQDOGLDPHWHUDQGRIVXIÂżFLHQWDUHDWR does not qualify the tank by a percentallow a man equipped with an air pack, age of pressure drop. It has formulas easy access into the digester using a to calculate the loss of volume exportable ladder.â€? trapolated over a 24 hour period. It is The other manholes are for venting understood that during the re-writing 56 | November/December 2013
process for this test the committee members agreed not to state a maximum percent loss per volume. This is because there is no historical value to set a reasonable standard. Instead, it was agreed for committee members to collect data to be used to establish loss criteria for the next edition of the code. ,WLVFRPPRQNQRZOHGJHWKDWÂżHOG testing has certain environmental conditions which cannot be accounted for, such as wind conditions and the exact placement of a signal thermal couple inside the tank. It is also common knowledge that steel tanks are affected more by these conditions than concrete tanks. Based on Permastoreâ€™s experience LQ RWKHU PDUNHWV WKH RQO\ GHÂżQLWLYH measure of determining that there are no gas leaks in a bolted steel tank is with a soap test. This is typically done at 1.5 times maximum operating pressure, over the period of time it takes to soap the gaseous zone of the tank. The experience gained from tank testing at the Dufferin Organics Processing Facility site was invaluable. This included an attempt to eliminate the temperature variance by getting the tank up to pressure for three hours at night in order to eliminate temperature variance from the sun and the wind. The GLIÂżFXOW\ ZLWK WKLV ZDV WKH ZLQGRZ RI time it took to build pressure as the temperature was dropping. Tank testing at the Disco Road site was a much simpler process as it followed the European time tested method of bringing the pressure up to the 1.5 times max operating level (as per the CSA code) and soap testing the gaseous zone of the tank. The new CSA code was applied and some of the ÂżUVWKLVWRULFDOGDWDZDVFROOHFWHGIRUWKH calculation of allowable pressure loss formula. The Disco Road project is almost fully completed and is entering the commissioning stage. The majority of the tanks are now covered with insulation and cladding, in order to maintain the required operating temperatures for the anaerobic digestion process. Darrin Hopper is with H2Flow Tanks & Systems Inc. (PDLOGDUULQ#KĂ€RZFRP
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:21 AM
KG SERVICES 9OUR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SPECIALIST !NY SPILL ANYWHERE
ANYTIME s n DAYS A YEAR RESPONSE s %XCAVATING SERVICES HAULAGE DISPOSAL
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POWER GENERATORS TRAFFIC CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND FLEET OF EQUIPMENT TO COVER EVERY ASPECT OF REMEDIATION AND ROADSIDE SPILLS s !BOVE AND BELOW GROUND FUEL TANK REMOVAL s ,ICENSED BY THE -/% AND 433!
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h3ERVING /NTARIOv Tanks.indd 57
12/5/13 6:21 AM
Storage, containment and response are the keys to managing spills By Charles Ross
ndustries involved with chemicals of any kind are facing unprecedented pressure from government and the public to avoid spills or chemical releases, no matter the cost. â€œWeâ€™ve come a long ways from the days when I started in spill response 35 years ago. Then, the response to minor and major spills might only involve a drum of sand, a bale of sorbent material and a few shovels,â€? says Cliff Holland, Environmental Director of Spill Management Inc. in Stoney Creek, Ontario. Holland feels that industry and institutions can take major steps towards meeting the demands of both the government and the public, and their own commitments to protecting the environment, if they approach their preparedness from the perspective of: Storage, Containment, Response. This involves having a complete and comprehensive emergency response plan, that considers all potential incidents; hands-on training for responders in handling product and in containing and cleaning up spills; good housekeeping and storage practices; and adequate containment areas that are free from debris. Safe storage, says Holland, usually begins with a system that segregates substances according to their chemical properties. This will reduce and eliminate the possibility of incompatible substances coming into contact and causing heat, ÂżUH DQG RIIJDVVLQJ RU H[SORVLRQV 6WRUDJH YHVVHOV PXVW EH suitable for the materials they are holding. Containment areas with adequate capacity to handle a spill are essential to safe storage of chemicals. Over the years, the impact of spills into containment areas has been lessened by reducing the size of storage containers and the total volumes that are allowed to be stored on sites, or transported by land, air or water. But, there are many situations where containment LVGLIÂżFXOWWRSURYLGHEHFDXVHRIWHUUDLQZHDWKHUDQGWKHSUHVence of materials such as petrochemicals in a long and remote pipeline. Emergency responders must provide the containment. First, though, there must be corporate support for the necessary training and resources. Responders need to have the authority to take whatever actions are necessary. Too often, says +ROODQG VHQLRU FRUSRUDWH PDQDJHPHQW KDV OLWWOH H[SHULHQFH with reducing the environmental impact of a spill, yet are making the decisions on how to respond, based on visibility and public opinion. Âł7RSPDQDJHPHQWKDVWRÂżQGDEDODQFHEHWZHHQIDVWDQG effective response to an environmental incident and keeping regulators and the public informed of what is being done,â€? he VD\VÂł:HQHHGWRDYRLGVLWXDWLRQVZKHUHWKHÂżUVWFRUSRUDWH direction of a response may be to make a statement to the media and address public issues, rather than responding to the spill.â€? Responders, he says, must have training to meet worstcase scenarios. This includes how to slow the advance of a spill, how to divert it away from environmentally sensitive
58 | November/December 2013
Checking for gases.
areas, how to stop it and how to shut down the source. All need to be carried out without waiting for approval from senior management. 7KHLUWUDLQLQJVKRXOGLQFOXGHHPHUJHQF\UHVSRQVHH[HUFLVes that not only meet environmental regulations, but health and safety requirements, corporate policy, industry standards and the interests of any concerned community groups. In fact, says Holland, industry should work closely with community groups and municipal response agencies because they may be able to reach a spill site much more quickly than a company response team. Ensuring that these local agencies have the ULJKWHTXLSPHQWWRGRWKHMREFDQEHDQH[FHOOHQWLQYHVWPHQW in environmental protection and community good will. â€œNo one intends to create a spill,â€? says Holland. â€œBut when there is one, there is no time to try to avoid taking the blame. It has to be reported to the appropriate regulators and help must get to the scene to contain or stop the spill and clean it up. Time is the critical issue in any emergency.â€? â€œBut thereâ€™s another aspect that the chemical industry has to be aware of. That is the potential for complacency DQGRYHUFRQÂżGHQFHRIUHVSRQGHUVZKRUHO\RQWKHLUKD]PDW clothing, the information in Material Safety Data Sheets, guidebooks and manuals and monitoring systems,â€? says Holland. â€œTodayâ€™s training focuses on reading technical data. ,QGXVWU\DQGHPHUJHQF\FUHZVKDYHOLWWOHÂżUVWKDQGWUDLQLQJ in sampling and testing chemical properties to determine the potential consequences of a spill,â€? he says. He believes that successful spill response today must learn from the lessons of the past. Then, emergency responders had to understand the hazards of what was spilled and to stay back Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:22 AM
Preparing a receiving area for spills.
until all of the risks could be evaluated. Responders relied on what were called â€œstability testsâ€? to verify the degree of UHDFWLYLW\RIPDWHULDOVRUFRQÂżUPĂ€DVKSRLQWVDQGRWKHUFULWLFDO factors. Training for response in winter conditions is an aspect of spills that often gets little consideration because it may be costly, inconvenient and uncomfortable. There is an entirely different set of conditions in winter in forests, mountains or on lakes and rivers, than on the same terrain in summer. A spill can disappear under layers of ice or snow. There is also a greater risk to the responders who may have to cross ice, or work in slush, snowdrifts or even whiteout conditions. â€œSometimes responders spend entirely too much time in classrooms, studying the theory of what they should do in winter weather, rather than being outside and developing the real skills that they will need,â€? says Holland. In addition, in preparing and planning for winter response a corporation must provide supplies and support, including possible medical help for its responders in a remote, snowbound location. The Canadian government has moved in an interesting direction to reduce the number of spills at fuel tank systems located on federal and Aboriginal lands. It has increased the emphasis on spill management, rather than spill response. Between June 2008 and June 2012, new technical requirements were phased in, including effective secondary containment, leak and spill detection and methods for alerts if tanks are RYHUÂżOOHG The consequences of not being aware of what is required at each level of an operation to ensure compliance with environPHQWDOUHJXODWLRQVFDQOHDGWRODUJHÂżQHVIRUDFRUSRUDWLRQ DQGLWVRIÂżFHUVDQGDFRUSRUDWHEODFNH\HLQSXEOLFRSLQLRQ Recent court cases in Ontario indicate that the province appears to be tightening enforcement of recently revised environmental regulations, according to Holland. Many comSDQ\RIÂżFLDOVGRQRWDSSHDUWRNQRZWKDWLWLVQRZDQRIIHQFH to allow a contaminant to be discharged into the natural enwww.esemag.com
Vacuum for cleanup.
Cutting ice during winter training.
vironment, if it â€œcausesâ€? or â€œmay causeâ€? an adverse effect â€“ UDWKHUWKDQÂłOLNHO\WRFDXVHÂ´DVWKHUHJXODWLRQRQFHVSHFLÂżHG Requirements for reporting spills have also been tightened. 2QH RI WKH PRVW VLJQLÂżFDQW FRQFHUQV IRU LQGXVWU\ LV WKDW FRUSRUDWHRIÂżFHUVDQGGLUHFWRUVPXVWSURYHWKH\WRRNDOOUHDsonable stops to prevent the corporation contravening environmental regulations. Therefore, storage, containment and response will all be important factors in any legal defence, or to mitigate a public relations disaster. Charles Ross works with Spill Management Inc. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org November/December 2013 | 59
12/5/13 6:22 AM
Lac MĂŠgantic disaster increases awareness of water treatment plant vulnerability By Dr. Mark R Brown
train pulling 72 tank cars, laden with oil from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) in North Dakota, derailed and exploded in Lac-MĂŠgantic, QuĂŠbec on July 6, 2013, killing 50 people. Such accidents are a product of the boom in â€œpipeline on railsâ€? methods of shipping oil. In 2009, a mere 500 tank cars of oil were transported by rail in Canada. For 2013, this was projected to be as high as 140,000 tank cars. This disaster has heightened awareness in drinking water suppliers to the consequences a similar disaster or local incident would have on continuity and safety of supply. Incidents have been reported from pleasure craft, commercial vessels, highway accidents, oil and gasoline storage tank failure and industrial incidents. Water plant managers and supervisors consider this an unlikely risk, but one with high impact. The consequence of having a plant shutdown for cleaning and replacement RIÂżOWHUEHGVRUPHPEUDQHVLVVHYHUH enough on its own. However, contamination passing through the plant will require water quality announcements and ZLOOFDXVHVLJQLÂżFDQWVFUXWLQ\IURPWKH media and public. Health risks $ VLJQLÂżFDQW SHUFHLYHG ULVN LV EHQzene contamination of the drinking water supply. Benzene forms between WR RI FUXGH RLO DQG UHÂżQHG gasoline. Levels are regulated at a maximum concentration of 0.5Îźg/l in drinking water across the developed world. Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause leukemia. Monitoring for benzene in treated ZDWHULVERWKFRVWO\DQGGLIÂżFXOWWRSHUIRUP ZLWK VXIÂżFLHQW IUHTXHQF\ WR JLYH operators, managers and customers FRQÂżGHQFH LQ WKH UHVXOWV 5HVXOWV DUH often received several days after sampling. Also, with changing levels during spill conditions, treatment methodoloJLHVDUHRIWHQGLIÂżFXOWWRSODQ
60 | November/December 2013
Figure 1. Groundwater intake VOC monitoring.
Figure 2 shows that, over the period from June to October 2012, there were several incidents at this intake to the water plant.
Groundwater Contamination of an aquifer is rarely an immediate effect of spills. Volatile organics (VOCs) migrate through the soil and rock, which results in delayed peaks in incoming levels to the plant. However, with complex geology and hydraulics, spills can affect drinking water supplies tens of miles away from the incident. Each aquifer has a low natural total VOC (TVOC) content and any sigQLÂżFDQW LQFUHDVH ZLOO QRUPDOO\ EH DQ indicator of chemical contamination. There are few online techniques for measuring this, particularly at levels below 100ppb. One method is the use of electronic nose sensors to â€œsniffâ€? the air above the water. The Multisensor MS1200-SYS Total VOC monitoring system does this. It is non-contact, and reagent free, and provides an immediate response
to incoming VOCs. The system works by sampling air in a controlled sample tank. It then correlates the results, using gas laws, to show Îźg/l TVOC in the water. Accuracy is Âą10% at 80 Îźg/l WROXHQH HTXLYDOHQW 5HDGLQJV DUH UHported every 20 minutes to a 4-20mA output, on a unit display or by triggering UHOD\VEDVHGXSRQXVHUGHÂżQHGDOHUWOHYels. This allows immediate action to be taken, and changing VOC trends to be LGHQWLÂżHG An example is shown in Figure 1, where contamination was present for four months, peaking at 70 Îźg/l TVOC. It was above the high alarm level for three months. In the period where the contamination was high, mobile activated carbon adsorbers were deployed onsite and for the peak period of three months. Finished water was treated with granular activated carbon polishLQJ ÂżOWHUV WR UHPRYH UHVLGXDO 92&V
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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MS1200 VOC concentration monitor.
(primarily benzene). The ability to accurately monitor incoming TVOC levels in real time ensured carbon was only used at the times required and, more importantly, was deployed prior to system contamination. The result was safe water, at minimal cost to the consumer. Surface water Surface water plants are vulnerable to spills of chemicals and hydrocarbons, as current monitoring methods do not provide immediate online results with the accuracy and frequency required to protect them. Rapid action is required RQLGHQWLÂżFDWLRQRIFRQWDPLQDWLRQGXH to the dynamic and ever changing nature of surface water sources. In one case, waste oil was illegally dumped directly upstream from a water plant intake. The resultant contaminaWLRQZDVLGHQWLÂżHGE\DQRSHUDWRUDVLW was passing through the plant into the distribution system, and the plant was shut down. Lost production and re-routing of ZDWHUVXSSO\FDXVHGVLJQLÂżFDQWGLVUXStion and resulted in additional cost to the plant operating company. However, the largest cost was the cleanup procedures required prior to re-commissioning. Rewww.esemag.com
SODFHPHQW RI WKH VDQGDQWKUDFLWH ÂżOWHU beds, carbon absorbers and detergent Ă€XVKLQJRIWKHSLSHZRUNZDVWKHPDMRU cost. This plant now operates with the Multisensor MS1200-SYS Total VOC monitoring system which was installed at the intake from the river. As most plants are unmanned throughout the night, the relays in the Multisensor monitor automatically control the intake pumps. If gross contamination LV LGHQWLÂżHG WKH UHOD\ ZLWKLQ WKH XQLW switches off the intake pumps and alerts the control center of the problem. Each river has a natural background TVOC level which changes throughout the seasons but tends to be in the range 5-10 Îźg/l. The low alarm is, therefore, set at 20 Îźg/l above background level. This is purely an early warning to potential problems. Corrective actions are to perform further investigation and review trends for TVOC levels. The high alarm is set at 50 Îźg/l above background level. This automatically triggers shutting down the intake pumps and alerts the control center.
Figure 2 shows that, over the period from June to October 2012, there were several incidents at this intake WR WKH ZDWHU SODQW 7KH PDMRULW\ ZHUH small localized contamination events, ZKLFKKDGQRVLJQLÂżFDQWHIIHFWRQZDWHU quality. However, in early July an event caused the inlet pumps to be switched off. This incident was traced back to a localized spillage. The automated system allowed the contamination to pass downstream, before the plant was placed back into service. Conclusion Remedial costs from contaminated LQWDNHZDWHUDUHVLJQLÂżFDQW7KHUHIRUH monitoring for incoming VOCs should be an integral part of plant protection. Unfortunately, monitors are often only installed after a pollution event has occurred. Dr. Mark R. Brown is with Multisensor Systems Limited. For more information, E-mail: email@example.com
MUNICIPAL â€˘ INDUSTRIAL
WATER â€˘ WASTEWATER â€˘ BIOENERGY
COMPLETE STORAGE SYSTEMS
www.greatario.com 519-469-8169 firstname.lastname@example.org November/December 2013 | 61
12/5/13 6:22 AM
Remediating Torontoâ€™s West Don Lands
ow do you transform a former abandoned industrial wasteland at the mouth of 7RURQWRÂ¶V'RQ5LYHULQWRDQ area suitable for residential and commercial development? For years, environmental remediation was considered far too costly for this polluted tract of land QHDUWKHFLW\FHQWUH%XWZKHQ7RURQWR experienced a major economic boom in the early 2000s, the West Don Lands VKRZHGXSRQWKHPXQLFLSDOLW\Â¶VUDGDUDV an ideal location for development. $WWKHVDPHWLPH2QWDULRÂ¶VHQYLURQmental practices had evolved from policies that constricted development in the VWRDPRUHÃ€H[LEOHDSSURDFKWKDW PDGH WKH HIIRUW PRUH Â¿QDQFLDOO\ IHDVible by 2006. CH2M HILL partnered with key stakeholders to envision a clean, industrial site for mixed community use, inFOXGLQJKRXVLQJUHWDLODQGRIÂ¿FHVSDFH 7KHQ WKH\ ZRXOG UHPHGLDWH WKH :HVW 'RQ/DQGVWRÂ¿WWKDWYLVLRQ 7R GHWHUPLQH ZKLFK FRQWDPLQDQWV were present and in what quantities, the FRPSDQ\ Â¿UVW FRQGXFWHG DQ HQYLURQPHQWDO ULVN DVVHVVPHQW 5HVXOWV RI WKLV study enabled the team to remove soil selectively where dangerous levels of toxins were found (approximately 16,000 tonnes) and treat the soil that remained appropriately. Previous environmental regulations would have required generic remediation, meaning that all soil, in this case, hundreds of thousands of tonnes, would have had to be removed and transSRUWHGWRDODQGÂ¿OOVLWH A new, tight deadline When the Pan Am games were announced in 2010 and the West Don Lands site was chosen as the home of WKH $WKOHWHVÂ¶ 9LOODJH 2QWDULR 5HDOW\ Corporation (now Infrastructure Ontario) contracted CH2M HILL to complete the characterization, risk assessment and remediation activities at the West Don Lands. 7KHVLWHZDVVHOHFWHGWRKRXVH DWKOHWHV DQG RIÂ¿FLDOV IRU WKH 3DQ Parapan Am Games. In order to al-
62 | November/December 2013
West Don Lands rendering courtesy of Waterfront Toronto.
The green line outlines the West Don Lands site prior to remediation efforts in 2008.
low site preparation and construction to begin in late 2011, the timeline for all environmental work had to be compressed. A project of this size and scope would typically take between three and Â¿YH\HDUVWRFRPSOHWH7KURXJKWKHFROlective efforts of a large team and a commitment to an aggressive schedule, the environmental activities in the West Don Lands were completed in 20 months.
7KH SURMHFW WHDP HQJDJHG PRUH than 30 technical editors and document publishers from across North America. 7KH\ ZRUNHG DORQJVLGH VFLHQWLVWV chemists and analysts to deliver 900,000 pages of documents (an average of six complex deliverables per week) ahead of schedule and in line with the proMHFWÂ¶VTXDOLW\FRQWUROV\VWHP 7KLVHGLWRULDODUP\GHYHORSHGLQQRY-
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Spills ative processes to concurrently deliver documents typically developed sequentially. These were four Phase 1 environmental site assessments (ESAs), eight Phase 2 ESAs (including 511 boreholes and 289 monitoring wells), eight risk assessments (RAs), eight remedial option feasibility studies, remediation of six Record of Site Condition (RSC) properWLHVQLQH&HUWLÂżFDWHVRI3URSHUW\8VHDQG
ultimately met the projectâ€™s aggressive November 2011 deadline, enabling the Provinceâ€™s $514-million Athletesâ€™ Village project to commence on time. To date, the project team has received industry recognition across Canada by winning three Brownie Awards for achievement in Canadian brownÂżHOGUHGHYHORSPHQW Meeting the compressed timeline for
Meeting the compressed timeline for the completion of the environmental work was key to the overall construction schedule. eight RSCs. This was all achieved between April 20, 2010 and November 30, 2011. Together with the provincial Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and Infrastructure Ontario, CH2M HILL found solutions to address the many issues that plagued the site. These inFOXGHG D PDVVLYH Ă€RRGSURWHFWLRQ EDUrier, dig and dump, a clean cap, granular material barriers, vapour barriers and a vapour collection system. 7KH ÂżUP DQG LWV PXOWLRIÂżFH WHDP
the completion of the environmental work was key to the overall construction schedule for the Athletesâ€™ Village, which is now well underway. The following is an overview of accomplishments on the West Don Lands project by the 335 collaborative project team members across 53 North AmerLFDQRIÂżFHVDQGIRXUWLPH]RQHV â€˘ Worked safely. Staff and subcontractors worked 140,000 incident-free hours. â€˘ Met fast-track schedule. Completed 900,000 pages of documentation in 20
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months (typically takes three to five years). Developed innovative solutions. Promoted sustainability through a risk assessment approach versus soil removal DQG ODQGILOOLQJ WKHUHE\ PLQLPL]LQJ disposal amounts. Adapted for regulatory changes. Completed first submissions under new regulations. Managed stakeholders. Navigated competing stakeholder agendas, including multiple levels of government applying new regulations at a politically sensitive site. Worked with ongoing construction. Dealt with access and data interpretation challenges from working at an active site with constantly changing conditions. Derived value from a derelict brownfield site. Delivered innovative environmental risk management strategies, designed for simple and rapid integration into redevelopment plans. For more information, visit www.ch2mhill.com
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November/December 2013 | 63
12/5/13 6:22 AM
Static electricity dangerous when transferring flammables
By Brian Astl
tatic electricity is known to most of us as the annoying phenomenon that we experience ZKHQ ZH VKXIÃ€H RXU IHHW DORQJ the carpet and then touch a door knob. The momentary spark is alarming, but it doesnâ€™t cause any real damage to us. For those people that work in jobs that UHTXLUHKDQGOLQJEXONÃ€DPPDEOHOLTXLGV or gases and transferring them to storage tanks, the dangers of static electricity are quite different. $VWDWLFVSDUNFDQLJQLWHÃ€DPPDEOHYDSRXUVFDXVLQJÂ¿UHVH[SORVLRQVDQGORVV of life and equipment. Yet, many people are not practicing proper safe static bondLQJ DQG JURXQGLQJ WHFKQLTXHV WR DYRLG WKHVHLVVXHV7KH\DUHSXWWLQJWKHPVHOYHV in harmâ€™s way on a daily basis. Static electricity is the culprit in many LQGXVWULDO Â¿UHV DQG H[SORVLRQV HYHU\ \HDUDQGLWLVPXFKPRUHSHUYDVLYHWKDQ most people think. According to the 1DWLRQDO )LUH 3UHYHQWLRQ $VVRFLDWLRQ in the US alone, at least 280 industrial accidents are caused annually by static electricity. And only those accidents that ZHUHUHSRUWHGWRÂ¿UHDQGHPHUJHQF\SHUVRQQHOLHWKHELJÂ¿UHVDQGH[SORVLRQV are accounted for in this statistic. These accidents can occur in almost DQ\LQGXVWU\WKDWGHDOVZLWKÃ€DPPDEOHV +RZHYHU LQGXVWULHV VXFK DV FKHPLFDO processing or oil and gas are often the most at risk, as they deal with large DPRXQWV RI Ã€DPPDEOH OLTXLGV WKDW DUH transferred into and out of storage tanks. ([WHQVLYH VWXGLHV E\ WKH &KHPLFDO 6DIHW\ DQG +D]DUG ,QYHVWLJDWLRQ %RDUG and the National Transportation Safety %RDUG KHOSHG WR UDLVH DZDUHQHVV RI WKH risks within a storage tank from static electricity. Less well known (or at least OHVVZHOOSUDFWLFHG DUHVDIHW\LVVXHVUHlating to static electricity in a truck or UDLO FDU WKDW LV WUDQVSRUWLQJ Ã€DPPDEOHV to and from the storage tank. 7KH ULVN RI LJQLWLQJ Ã€DPPDEOH PDterial with static electricity is so high, WKDW WKH 1DWLRQDO )LUH &RGH RI &DQDGD PDQGDWHVWKDWDQ\RQHZKRKDQGOHVÃ€DPmables must drain the static electricity
64 | November/December 2013
A Lind Equipment Staticsure portable static monitoring system, mounted on a drum.
DZD\ VDIHO\ +RZHYHU WKH &RGH GRHV QRWSURYLGHJXLGHOLQHVRQhow to properly and safely drain static electricity from bulk trucks or rail cars. This leads many people to try different approaches, which PD\EHÃ€DZHGRUGDQJHURXV A recent study of 310 accidents in the chemical industry showed that 70% of the static electricity incidents were caused by improper grounding. Operators, maintenance personnel, and plant electricians are simply not trained in the proper way to ground static electricity and/or maintain static grounding systems. Common static grounding mistakes The most common mistake made, when designing a static grounding system for bulk trucks or rail cars to interface with storage tanks, is to use clamps that are not designed for static discharge. For example, battery clips are used exWHQVLYHO\7KHSUREOHPZLWKWKHVHLVWKDW WKH\KDYHVKDUSSRLQWVEXWZHDNVSULQJV that will not withstand regular use. Quite TXLFNO\WKHVSULQJZLOOFHDVHWRSURYLGH a strong grip, which will mean that there is no good metal-to-metal contact on the truck or rail car. The ground point and WKHFOLSPD\HYHQEHSURQHWRIDOOLQJRII during bulk transfer operations. Another incorrect choice is to use ZHOGLQJ FODPSV :KLOH WKHVH KDYH stronger springs than battery clips, they DUHEXLOWZLWKÃ€DWHQGVWKDWFDQQRWHQVXUH good metal-to-metal contact. Without
strong sharp points on the end, the clamp may not be able to penetrate paint, rust, or dirt, that has accumulated on the truck or rail car. The second most common mistake is ODFNRIYHULÂ¿FDWLRQIRUWKHVWDWLFJURXQGing system. Most operators do not know if their static grounding clamps and wires will actually drain static electricity. Typically, the static grounding clamp that is connected to the truck or rail car is attached to a plated steel or copper cable that then terminates at a known ground SRLQWHJJURXQGURG 7KHLGHDLVWKDW WKHVWDWLFHOHFWULFLW\ZLOOÃ€RZWKURXJKWKH FODPS DQG FDEOH WR JURXQG +RZHYHU wear and tear, weather, corrosion and other factors can quickly degrade the connection between the clamp and the known ground point, especially outdoors. 0DQ\ IDFLOLWLHV GR QRW KDYH SURSHU PDLQWHQDQFHSURFHGXUHVLQHIIHFWWRYHUify this connection. This is typically done with an ohmmeter, measuring the resistance from the known ground point to the tip of the clamp. 0RUHRIWHQHYHQLIWKHUHLVDPDLQWHQDQFHSURJUDPLQSODFHWKHYHULÂ¿FDWLRQLV done intermittently. This can result in a problem with a static grounding system that goes undetected for months. RecentO\ D IDFLOLW\ YHULÂ¿HG DQ RXWGRRU VWDWLF grounding assembly for their bulk truck to storage tank transfers. It was connectHG WR D NQRZQ JURXQG SRLQW XVLQJ YHU\ thick insulated copper cable. It was al-
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Spill lls ways assumed that the cable could not fail, as it was mechanically very robust. 9isual insSections con多rmed that the system was in place and should operate. However, the ohmmeter showed that there was no electrical continuity between the clamp and the known ground point. Hence, the static grounding system was completely ineffective. Upon removing the insulated jacket, it was discovered that the cable had been severed. If the assembly were being monitored by a static monitoring system, workers would have been aware of the danger. Ideal static grounding system An ideal static bonding and grounding system uses properly designed and regularly maintained static grounding clamps, robust cabling, and a real-time monitoring system. This real-time monitoring system would warn users immediately if there was improper connection to the known ground point. A properly designed static grounding clamp has a very strong spring to provide pressure on the points so that they are pushing against the metal surface.
The points themselves are typically made out of stainless steel and sharpened to cut through paint, rust and dirt. These clamps will last a long time, but must be regularly checked to ensure the spring is still strong and that the points are still sharp. Clamps should be connected to the known ground point, using robust cables appropriate for the environment in which they are being used. Aviation grounding, for example, will often use plated steel cable, that is coated in a special plastic to resist UV and chemical degradation. This will also be coloured yellow, to provide a trip warning to operators. At bulk unloading sites, a retractable grounding reel is often used to provide up to 125 ft of cable that can ground any size truck, regardless of its orientation or position. 'rum 多lling operations will often use coated, coiled, plated steel cable, that coils back up when not in use, keeping it out of the way. Copper cable can be used as well, but should be properly insulated to avoid damage to the conductors inside. Lastly, the static grounding operation will ideally have a monitoring system in
place that will warn operators if there is no safe connection. These systems work by sending an intrinsically safe signal through the entire length of the static grounding assembly. It then con多rms that the clamp is connected properly to the truck or rail car, and that the cable will carry electricity all the way to the known ground point. Static monitoring systems Traditionally, static monitoring systems have been large, expensive, permanently 多xed point solutions, that are used at bulk loading and unloading bays. However, new technology solutions are small, inexpensive, portable battery-operated units that can be used anywhere. These are small enough to be stored in a truck cab and be available whenever the need arises, at any location. This is particularly helpful for independent transport companies which travel to storage tank farms that have static monitoring infrastructure of varying quality in place, or none. Brian Astl is with Lind Equipment. E-mail: email@example.com
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November/December 2013 | 65
New treatment system brings clean water and opportunities to Wasauksing First Nation
he grand opening of Wasauksing First Nation’s new water supply, treatment and distribution system, “Wen Shi Shing Biish Wiigwaaming,” on October 18, 2012, was an important day in the history of the community. Wasauksing First Nation (formerly Parry Island First Nation) is located on a 77 km2 island in Georgian Bay, just south of Parry Sound, Ontario. With 126 km of lakeshore, Parry Island is one of the larger islands in the Great Lakes. The Wasauksing community on the island consists of approximately 1,073 band members, with 379 living on the reserve. Community leaders and staff have worked hard to ensure their infrastructure is able to service residents for present and future growth demands. Ensuring safe, clean water has been a very important issue, as the community had been living under a boil–water advisory for 10 years. Finally, in 2010, the federal government announced an initiative to improve water access in First Nations communities. This enabled Wasauksing to apply for and receive the necessary funding to design and construct a water treatment system that would extract, cleanse, distribute and store fresh water from Georgian Bay. The system consists of water mains, a treatment facility and a storage tower.
The tank is supported by a 36.6m high concrete pedestal.
FXPHQWVVSHFL¿HGERWKDZHOGHGSDLQWHG tank and a glass-fused-to-steel tank. 7HQGHU VSHFL¿FDWLRQV IRU WKH HOHYDWHG storage reservoir included: • 7.3m x 36.6m concrete pedestal, with 300 mm walls • 11.0m x 10.4m glass-fused-to-steel tank — insulated and cladded • Tank piping • Geodesic dome • Mobilization and demobilization
To be able to provide clean potable water to our community members for generations to come is a big source of pride for Wasauksing. Detailed design and contract administration services for this $16.6-million project were provided by First Nations Engineering Services Ltd. (FNESL), a 100% aboriginal-owned engineering company. In the fall of 2010, FNESL tendered the design-build of the composite elevated storage reservoir. The do66 | November/December 2013
• Environmental protection, including fencing, rip rap, rock excavation, etc. • Site works, including site preparation and grading, granular drive and parking area, final site works • Pedestal to include valve and chemical injection rooms Greatario Industrial Storage Systems
submitted its bid as a general contractor. The company’s experience working with First Nations communities and FNESL gave it an in-depth understanding of the project details and expectaWLRQV 6SHFL¿FDWLRQV IRU WKH WDQN ZHUH very similar to a recent project Greatario was involved with for Henvey Inlet First Nations. In February 2011, Greatario was awarded the Wasauksing project as general contractor, to design-build the elevated storage reservoir and also construct the pedestal base. The comSDQ\ ¿QDOL]HG DOO GHVLJQ GUDZLQJV DQG began pedestal construction in March 2011. Angus MacAlister, Greatario’s project manager, worked closely with the Wasauksing and FNESL team to ensure the construction met everyone’s expectations and was completed in a timely manner. In addition to Greatario’s trained building crew, local labour and contractors were involved with the project. “The local contractors were a great
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asset to our team. Understanding the local culture and weather conditions enabled us to accomplish the project within the First Nation guidelines,” says McAlister. Final insulation and cladding of the tank were completed, when warmer weather arrived in the spring.
This new drinking water treatment and distribution system consists of a new raw-water intake and low-lift pumping station, water treatment plant, IHDWXULQJVORZVDQG¿OWUDWLRQZLWKR]Rnation pre-treatment, UV and chemical disinfection, SCADA system, elevated
storage reservoir and heated storage building to house a new water delivery truck. The system services 114 homes, an elders’ complex, day care centre, school, health centre and administraWLRQ RI¿FHV ,Q DGGLWLRQ WR SURYLGLQJ safe drinking water, the new distribution system includes hydrants for added ¿UHSURWHFWLRQZLWKLQWKHFRPPXQLW\DV well as cisterns for 33 homes unable to be serviced by the core water main. Ryan Tabobondung, director of public works for Wasauksing First Nation, says: “The members and leadership of Wasauksing are thankful and honoured to have the opportunity to work with the federal government (AANDC) on this project. To be able to provide clean potable water to our community members for generations to come is a big source of pride for Wasauksing. The employment and various economic offshoots WKLVSURMHFWKDVFUHDWHGZLOOEHQH¿WWKH community for many years.” For more information, E-mail: email@example.com
November/December 2013 | 67
12/5/13 6:23 AM
Vapour intrusion can hurt your bottom line! By Marc McAree, Luciella Longo and Mark Youden
apour intrusion, though invisible to the eye and inaudible to the ear, gives those who are aware of it, a reason to pause. Its movement, via preferential pathways into overlying buildings and other enclosed spaces, is the concern. Vapour toxicity and its potential impact on human health is the overriding peril. Vapour intrusion results when volatile chemicals from sub-surface contaminated groundwater or soil, enter an overlying building or enclosed space. Vapours are emitted from volatile chemicals and may migrate through subsurface soil and into indoor air spaces. They follow the path of least resistance, such as cracks in a buildingâ€™s foundation and openings for utility lines. Examples of volatile chemicals include volatile organic compounds, select semi-volatile organic compounds and some inorganic analytes, such as elemental mercury, radon and hydrogen VXOÂżGH Samples are taken from different media to assess the intrusion of vapour. Of the different media - indoor air, outdoor air and sub-slab soil gas - soil VDPSOHVDUHWKHOHDVWOLNHO\WREHVLJQLÂżcantly affected by background interferences. These can confound the interpretation of indoor air sample results. The challenge with soil gas sampling and analysis is the use of widely differing protocols. Environmental consultants PD\ HPSOR\ PRGLÂżHG PHWKRGV ZKLFK may lead to further differences in testing outcomes. Regulation of vapour intrusion In Canada, federal and provincial governments focus their vapour intrusion efforts on protecting the environment and human health. In all cases, consideration of the applicable contaminated sites regime is necessary. At the federal level, a contaminated site is, â€œone at which substances occur at concentrations above background levels and pose, or are likely to pose, an immediate or long-term hazard to
68 | November/December 2013
Railways must be careful about how they degrease engine and rolling stock, as witnessed by the Windsor vs. Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd. (CPR) case.
human health or the environment, or H[FHHG WKH OHYHOV VSHFLÂżHG LQ SROLFLHV and regulations.â€? There are no federal statutes or regulations for contaminated sites. However, the federal government has published contaminated sites and vapour intrusion guidance. At the provincial level, â€œcontaminatHGVLWHÂ´LVQRWDOZD\VOHJDOO\GHÂżQHG)RU example in Ontario, the assessment of FRQWDPLQDWHG VLWHV LV JURXQGHG LQ GHÂżnitions such as â€œcontaminantâ€? and â€œadverse effectâ€? and the application of the Records of Site Condition Regulation. +RZHYHUWKHUHLVQROHJDOGHÂżQLWLRQRI â€œcontaminated siteâ€?. In British Columbia on the other hand, the term â€œcontaminatHGVLWHÂ´LVGHÂżQHGLQUHJXODWLRQ At the federal level, the Federal Contaminated Site Risk Assessment in Canada, Part VII: Guidance for Soil Vapour Intrusion Assessment at Contaminated Sites focuses on vapour inWUXVLRQ DQDO\VLV LQ WZR WLHUV 7KH ÂżUVW tier uses qualitative screening to categorize sites according to their potential for vapour intrusion. Under this tier, a determination is also made about whether the assessment should proceed to the second tier. The second tier uses a quantitative risk assessment, where representative VHPLVLWHVSHFLÂżF YDSRXU DWWHQXDWLRQ
factors allow for an estimation of indoor air concentrations and prediction of human health risks. This guidance docuPHQWVHWVRXWVLJQLÂżFDQWOLPLWDWLRQVDVsociated with the use of soil data at sites that are contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. It recommends that additional information, such as groundwater data and indoor air data, be obtained for chlorinated hydrocarbon impacted sites. Also at the federal level, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) created a National &ODVVLÂżFDWLRQ6\VWHPIRU&RQWDPLQDWHG Sites (NCSCS). This document functions as an important management and screening tool, for prioritizing, investigating and remediating contaminated sites under the federal program. Recently, the CCMEâ€™s Soil Quality Guidelines Task Group created a replacement for its 1993 sampling and analytical guidance documents. The 2012 draft Guidance Manual for Environmental Site Characterization in Support of Environmental and Human Health Risk Assessment (Volume I: Guidance Manual) has a chapter devoted to soil vapour guidance. It describes methodologies for completing site characterization programs, at sites to be evaluated for soil vapour intrusion into buildings. continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Stormwater storage modules
Small double wall tanks, from 20 to 405 gallons, provide primary and secondary containment for hazardous and corrosive chemicals in one unit. Linear polyethylene tanks are certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61, and high-density crosslink resin tanks for chemical storage. ISO 9001:2008 Certified. Web: www.assmann-usa.com
Brentwood’s StormTank® Stormwater Storage Modules are strong, lightweight, and offer the largest void space of any underground stormwater storage units on the market. The StormTank’s stackable, subsurface design allows for management of heavy water volumes and generation of serviceable space. Tel: 610-374-5109, Fax: 610-376-6022 E-mail: stormwater@ brentwoodindustries.com Web: www.brentwoodindustries.com
Assmann Corporation of America
The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
The H2FLOW SBR consists of FLUIDYNE Sequencing Batch Reactor internals integrated into a glass-fusedto-steel tank. It features jet aeration headers that never require replacement, and a solidsH[FOXGLQJ¿[HGGHFDQWHUZKLFKKDV been proven in many installations. Tel: 905-660-9775 :HEZZZKÀRZFRP
Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to provide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.densona.com Denso
Specialist training Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats
Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.spillmanagement.ca Spill Management
Spill containment systems
To avoid any major reoccuring expenses like oil/water filtration, shoveling snow and debris, or incurring tainted water disposal costs, Transport Environmental Systems offers open collector pan models and closeable lid models to help avoid collecting snow, rainwater and debris. Also available are roll-under spill collector pans and other products for train/tanker truck loading, unloading and spill containment. Tel: 252-571-0092, Fax: 252-489-2060 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.transenvsys.com
Westeel’s C-Ring Containment Systems are ideal for petrochemical, frac water storage, oil and gas, fertilizer, hazardous material, and agricultural applications. All systems are made with high-strength (50-ksi) steel and have heavy-duty G115 galvanizing, meeting the stringent requirements of ISO 9001. Tel: 888-674-8265, 204-233-7133 Fax: 888-463-6012 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.westeel.com
Wise Environmental Solutions Inc. specializes in: frac, mini mixer, 4 motor mixer, open top, poly and double wall tank rentals, as well as vacuum, dewatering and environmental roll-off boxes. We pride ourselves on safety and offer competitive transportation and disposal rates. Tel: 519-860-5589 or 519-542-6667 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.wiseenv.com
Wise Environmental Solutions
Transport Environmental Systems
Storage/Containment & Spills Product Showcase
Small double wall tanks
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Spills This 2012 draft guidance document was developed in parallel with similar guidance on soil vapour for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and Alberta Environment. The 2012 draft Guidance Manual for Environmental Site Characterization in Support of Environmental and Human Health Risk Assessment (Volume III: Suggested Operating Procedures) provides guidance on the installation of soil gas probes and the collection of soil gas and sub-slab gas samples for chemical analysis. It also sets out a suggested procedure for conducting leak testing of a soil gas probe and sampling train. The ÂżQDOGUDIWRIWKLVVDPSOLQJDQGDQDO\WLcal guidance document is expected to be released in late 2013. Most provinces deal with vapour intrusion within their respective contaminated site regimes. In Ontario, the MOE has developed the Draft Technical Guidance on Soil Vapour Intrusion Assessment. This guidance document provides those undertaking risk assessments with tools to identify, review and
erties adjacent to a CPR maintenance and repair shop in southeast Calgary. CPR used TCE as a degreasing solvent in its maintenance shop from the 1950s, through to the 1980s. The plaintiffs alleged that TCE from the CPR shop contaminated groundwater beneath their properties and then seeped into their homes. There was evidence before the Court that CPR voluntarily installed fans to vent the vapours. The plaintiffs are claiming damages for reduction in property values and rental values, as well as physical damage to property from remediation measures. This case is currently proceeding Recent Canadian civil cases :LQGVRU YV &DQDGLDQ 3DFLÂżF 5DLO- through the litigation discovery process. way Ltd. (CPR) is about vapour intruIn Wamboldt vs. Northstar Aerosion from contamination caused by the space, a January 2006 class action was use of a degreaser. The solvent, known brought by Cambridge, Ontario resias trichloroethylene (TCE), was used in dents, who were neighbouring property the repair and maintenance of engine owners to the Northstar Aerospace plant. The neighbours claim that TCE contamand railway rolling stock. In September 2007, the Alberta ination from the facility resulted in va&RXUWRI$SSHDOXSKHOGWKHFHUWLÂżFDWLRQ pour intrusion into their homes, causing of a class action against CPR. The ac- VLJQLÂżFDQW GDPDJH 6SHFLÂżFDOO\ WKHLU tion was brought by residents of prop- claim alleges that TCE from the North-
evaluate sites for vapour intrusion. It VSHFLÂżHV UHTXLUHPHQWV DQG EHVW SUDFWLces for designing, conducting and assessing site conditions (i.e., soil vapour DQGVXEVODEYDSRXUTXDOLW\ 7KHVHDOlow for accurate assessments of potenWLDOLPSDFWVWRLQGRRUDLUTXDOLW\ This guidance document also functions as a tool for MOE staff, in identifying sites where soil vapour, sub-slab vapour and/or indoor air should be monitored, in formulating assessment UHTXHVWV DQG LQ LVVXLQJ Environmental Protection Act (EPA) orders.
A NEW STORM IS ON THE HORIZON Comi m ng in 2014
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Spills star plant migrated into soil and groundwater beneath the plaintiffsâ€™ homes. The plaintiffs claim $200 million in damages for reduction of property value, loss of rental income and inability to obtain PRUWJDJHÂżQDQFLQJSOXVPLOOLRQIRU punitive damages. Subsequent testing of indoor air revealed concentrations of TCE at levels UHTXLULQJ UHPHGLDO DFWLRQ 2XW RI residences tested between July 2005 and January 2006, 54 per cent required ongoing monitoring of indoor air quality, 39 per cent required installation of basement ventilation, and 6 per cent required temporary evacuation until basement ventilation could be established. At the time, Northstar took a range of steps to reduce TCE concentrations in the indoor air of individual homes, including installing soil vapour extraction units, heat recovery ventilator systems and photo-catalytic oxidation units. Remediation of TCE in groundwater is expected to take up to ten years, potentially resulting in long-term impacts on property values.
In 2009, there was negotiation of a settlement agreement. The settlement took the form of a series of funds set up IRUFODVVPHPEHUV6SHFLÂżFDOO\DSURSerty damages fund and extraordinary damages fund were set up for the class members. The property damages fund is distributed to members on a pro-rata basis. The extraordinary damage fund compensates members for damages not covered by the damages fund. 1RUWKVWDU SDLG PLOOLRQ LQWR WKH property damage fund and another $3 million was paid by promissory note. Northstar contributed $500,000 to the extraordinary damages fund and $550,000 towards the legal costs of class members. The settlement did not affect any personal injury claims, remediation required by the MOE, or Northstarâ€™s payment to members for increased charges on their hydro bills. Conclusion There is limited consistency in how vapour intrusion is regulated. Generally, federal and provincial governments
have opted to focus on guidance rather than implementing laws. Much focus has been on streamlining what we know about vapour intrusion into concise guidance documents. Authorities are also trying to achieve consistency and uniformity in sampling methods and mitigative approaches. Courts are grappling with the nexus (causal connection) and evidentiary burden of vapour intrusion claims. Most recently, the Courts have dealt with motions brought by defendants seeking the dismissal of vapour intrusion lawsuits. In the future, there will be greater focus on vapour intrusion and the re-opening of previously assessed contaminated sites, where vapour intrusion was not then known to be a concern. Marc McAree is a partner at Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP. Luciella Longo and Mark Youden were students at Willms & Shier. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Waterra FHT-45 high turbidity filter offers the most surface area available in a capsule designed specifically for groundwater monitoring. features â€˘ SMALL LOTS, PRE-CERTIFIED BY ICPMS â€˘ HIGH VOID VOLUME FOR LONG FILTER LIFE â€˘ MOLDED COMPOUND INLET IS STANDARD â€˘ HIGH QUALITY POLYETHERSULPHONE 0.45 FILTER MEDIA â€˘ UNIQUE OPEN PLEAT GEOMETRY FOR MAXIMUM MEDIA EXPOSURE â€˘ EACH FILTER IS PRE-RINSED WITH ONE LITRE OF DE-IONIZED WATER â€˘ MEDIUM TURBIDITY WATERRA FMT-45 & 0.2 MICRON CAP300X2 ALSO AVAILABLE
DISPOSABLE FILTERS www.waterra.com (CANADA) Waterra Pumps Limited email@example.com â€˘ tel: 905.238.5242 (USA) Waterra USA Inc. firstname.lastname@example.org â€˘ tel: 360.738.3366
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American Public University is a leading provider of quality online education. APU offers more than 180 undergraduate and graduate degree and certificate programs for environmental science, policy, and management professionals. When youâ€™re ready to learn more, visit StudyatAPU.com/ESE. Tel: 877-777-9081 E-mail: email@example.com Web: StudyatAPU.com/ESE American Public University
Multisensorâ€™s MS1200 On-line VOC/Hydrocarbon Monitor is designed for water and land remediation applications. It utilizes a contactless measurement technique, sensing headspace gases or volatiles in the environment, and provides a measurement system with proven reliability and very low maintenance requirements. It offers high sensitivity VHQVRUWHFKQRORJ\DQGLVUREXVWIRUÂżHOG deployment. Tel: 888-965-4700 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.avensyssolutions.com Avensys Solutions
Product & Service Showcase
Denso Petrolatum Tapes Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! 7HO)D[ E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.densona.com Denso
Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute
The new combined pH/ ORP electrodes, Memosens CPS16D, CPS76D and CPS96D, from Endress+Hauser now make customersâ€™ processes even more transparent. Two parameters measured at the same time or alternately - pH SOXVH[WUDVHQVRUFKHFNGRQÂśW leave room for interpretation. $QGIRUWKHÂżUVWWLPHRQH single sensor is able to deliver the rH-value! 7HO)D[ E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ca.endress.com/memosens
Endress+Hauserâ€™s CSP44 portable sampler is a true water monitoring station. The addition of industrial Memosens based inputs allows for special event sampling, real time process monitoring and data logging (pH, ORP, conductivity, GLVVROYHGR[\JHQDQGWXUELGLW\ The CSP44 uses the same powerful controller found in Endress+Hauserâ€™s Liquiline Analytical product portfolio. 7HO)D[ E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/analysis
Reciprocating rake screening system
The new Vertical Auger MonsterÂŽ 6FUHHQÂżWV inside pump stations. Wastewater pump stations are facing DQLQĂ€X[RIVHZHUFORJJLQJĂ€XVKDEOH wipes, so JWCE engineers developed the Auger Monster â€“ AGV which conveys wipes straight up and out of the sewer system. 7HO)D[ E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.envirocan.ca
JWC Environmental has introduced the new Bar Screen Monsterâ„˘, using H[FOXVLYH technology WRFDSWXUHPRUHGHEULV7KHÂżUVWVHOI contained reciprocating rake screening system is designed to capture and transport large amounts of wastewater debris to the discharge point. 7HO)D[ E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.envirocan.ca
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Be sure to check out CSPIâ€™s online industry news magazine, In the Trenches, at cspi.ca, for news, updates, photos, interviews, stories and information regarding noteworthy water management project solutions and the latest technical innovations in corrugated steel pipe technology,
Combination pH/ORP electrode
Vertical screening system
72 | November/December 2013
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Process mixing system The HYDRAULIX PL[LQJV\VWHPVIHDWXUH a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.greatario. com
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:27 AM
Product & Service Showcase
AV-MS flow meter
Multi-actuator valve controller
*UH\OLQHÂ¶VQHZ0XOWL6HQVRU$UHD 9HORFLW\)ORZ0HWHUXVHVWKUHH VXEPHUJHGXOWUDVRQLFVHQVRUVWR FRQWLQXRXVO\ PHDVXUH YHORFLW\DW GLIIHUHQW points in the channel DQGSURYLGH an average YHORFLW\UHDGLQJIRUÃ€RZPRQLWRULQJ 7KH$906FDQEHFDOLEUDWHGWR FKDQQHOVRIDQ\VKDSH 7HO (PDLOLQIR#JUH\OLQHFRP :HEZZZJUH\OLQHFRPDYIPKWP
7KH+)/2:6%5FRQVLVWVRI )/8,'<1(6HTXHQFLQJ%DWFK5HDFWRU internals LQWHJUDWHGLQWR DJODVVIXVHG WRVWHHOWDQN ,WIHDWXUHV jet aeration KHDGHUVWKDW QHYHUUHTXLUH UHSODFHPHQW DQGDVROLGV H[FOXGLQJÂ¿[HGGHFDQWHUZKLFKKDV EHHQSURYHQLQPDQ\LQVWDOODWLRQV 7HO :HEZZZKÃ€RZFRP
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Halogen Valve Systems
Greyline Instruments Stereo microscopy
Single channel fluorometer
Inclined screw press
With the increasLQJGHPDQGVWR RSWLFDOO\YLHZLQ high resolution, IRUERWKPDFURDQG PLFURDSSOLFDWLRQV 1LNRQKDVGHYHORSHGWZRQHZ VWHUHRPLFURVFRSHVWKHPRWRUL]HG]RRP 60=DQGPDQXDOLQWHOOLJHQW]RRP 60=7KLVODWHVWHGLWLRQWRWKH60= VHULHVRIIHUVWKHZRUOGÂ¶VODUJHVW]RRP UDQJH DQGKLJKHVWUHVROXWLRQLQ WKHVHULHV 7HO)D[ (PDLOVDOHVY#KRVNLQFD :HEZZZKRVNLQFD
Turner Designsâ€™ Enviro-Tâ„¢ is an accurate, single channel Ã€XRURPHWHUZKLFK LQVWDOOVLQWRDSOXPELQJWHHIRUGLUHFW LQOLQHPHDVXUHPHQWV,WLVHDVLO\LQWHJUDWHGZLWKGDWDFROOHFWLRQV\VWHPVDQG SURYLGHVDP$VLJQDORXWSXWSURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHUHODWLYHFRQFHQWUDWLRQRI WKHÃ€XRURSKRUHRILQWHUHVWLQWKHVDPSOH ZDWHU,WRIIHUVDZLGHG\QDPLFUDQJH ORZVHQVLWLYLW\DFRPSDFWSDFNDJHDQG HDV\LQWHJUDWLRQZLWKFRQWUROOHUV 7HO)D[ (PDLOVDOHVY#KRVNLQFD :HEZZZKRVNLQFD
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Septage receiving station
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Next generation OSHG equipment
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&OHDU *XDUGTM is DIDLOVDIH pressureUDWHGFOHDU FRQWDLQPHQWSLSLQJV\VWHPDOORZLQJ IRUHDV\YLVXDOGHWHFWLRQRIOHDNV DQGPLQLPL]LQJULVNIRUWUDQVSRUWRI DJJUHVVLYHFKHPLFDOVLQEXLOGLQJV &OHDU*XDUG'RXEOH&RQWDLQPHQW XWLOL]HV,3(;Â¶VSDWHQWHG&HQWUD/RNTM Â¿WWLQJGHVLJQZKLFKNHHSVWKHFDUULHU SLSHSHUIHFWO\FHQWHUHGLQVLGHWKH FRQWDLQPHQWSLSH)LWWLQJVDUHDYDLODEOH LQFOHDURUÂ³FRVWVDYLQJÂ´RSDTXH 7HO :HEZZZLSH[LQFFRP
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Leak detection system
IPEX double containment systems can be equipped with a patented Centra-Guardâ„˘ point-of-collection leak detection system. Centra-Guard systems are available for aboveground, suspended piping applications, with sensors housed in saddle-type clamps, as well as for below-grade piping systems, with sensors located in drip leg assemblies. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com
Master Meterâ€™s Interpreter Register System, based on proven DialogÂŽ 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.mastermeter.com
Product & Service Showcase
Access hatches MSU MG Safety Hatches are the â€œopen and shut caseâ€? for access hatches. They are manufactured to CSA standards right here in Canada by Canadian :HOGLQJ%XUHDXFHUWLÂżHGZHOGHUV Web: www.msumississauga.com
Filtration products Experience â€“ that is what sets Orival Water Filters apart from competitors. Twenty-seven years under one ownership, with long-term application engineers on staff, make Orival, Inc. your reliable provider of ÂżOWUDWLRQSURGXFWV7KHFRPSDQ\KDV hundreds of automatic self-cleaning VFUHHQÂżOWHUPRGHOVZLWKDÂżOWHUIRU nearly every application. Tel: 800-568-9767 (PDLOÂżOWHUV#RULYDOFRP Web: www.orival.com
OctaveÂŽ offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is an excellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.mastermeter.com Master Meter
Portable toxicity monitoring The DeltaToxÂŽ II Water Quality Test System has a combined detection capability which provides a very sensitive and rapid test to detect two of the most probable classes of agents; pathogens and toxic chemicals that may accidentally or intentionally contaminate drinking water or wastewater. Tel: 800-560-4402, Fax: 877-820-9667 (PDLOVDOHV#RVSUH\VFLHQWLÂżFFRP :HEZZZRVSUH\VFLHQWLÂżFFRP Osprey Scientific
Ultraviolet disinfection system
Diaphragm metering pumps
The Aquaray HiCAPâ„˘ UV Disinfection System is designed for high capacity (HiCAP) wastewater treatment plants where reduced footprint and advanced controls are of paramount importance. It features Ozoniaâ€™s newest innovations: 1000 Watt high capacity UV lamps; three module sizes for increased GHVLJQĂ€H[LELOLW\DQGRSWLRQDOLQWHJUDWHG automatic UV bank lifting system. Tel: 804-756-8423 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.ozonia.com
The Multi-Parameter Controller, DulcometerÂŽ diaLog DACa, provides continuous measurement, control and data-logging of up to 14 different parameters. The high-performance DACa completes the intelligent control circuit between DULCOTESTÂŽ sensors and chemical metering pumps. It can EHFRQÂżJXUHGIRURQHRUWZRPHDVXULQJ channels depending on the application. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.prominent.ca
The Sigma Series of diaphragm metering pumps from ProMinent has many new advanced features. With a removable/ externally mountable HMI (Human Machine Interface), variable metering SURÂżOHVGLDSKUDJPUXSWXUHZDUQLQJ system, and cost savings through energy consumption based on power required, Sigma provides more safety and reliability for optimum metering results. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.prominent.ca
Ozonia North America
ProMinent Fluid Controls
ProMinent Fluid Controls
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Groundwater sampling The HydraSleeve Discreet Interval No-Purge Sampler provides a formation quality sample with very little effort and cost. In independent studies, the HydraSleeve was found to be 50%-80% more cost-effective than other sampling methods. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterra.com
PISTAÂŽWorksâ„˘ is a packaged all in one headworks and grit removal scheme, offering a compact footprint and speedy/ efficient installation. The system features a fully automated control system, an integrated screening system for solids retention, a PISTAÂŽ Grit Concentrator, a PISTAÂŽ TURBOâ„˘ Grit Washer and a PISTAÂŽ 360â„˘ Grit Chamber. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless
PVC or Polyethylene
The Waterra Clear PVC EcoBailer and Weighted Polyethylene EcoBailer are both eco-friendly products. A better weight distribution allows these bailers to sink straighter, and the efficient valve design makes them the fastest sinking bailers available. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
The EcoPlugâ„˘ offers the latest in well plug design and is the only well cap made from recycled materials. If youâ€™re looking for a durable, tamper-proof well cap that will withstand repeated use (and abuse) over many years, the EcoPlug is an excellent fit for your requirements. This well cap is available for 3/4â€?, 1â€?, 2â€? and 4â€? monitoring wells. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
Oil/water interface sensor '6EF?E8F(DBE@@D :C4CBD>F;, C>(DBE@F?BE@; 3D<EFE?=A@FC=FD? C97@A+E:F+E@=CA? A3FB6EFA@C4C?D> ;$2F'6EF;, 5=E=F5>B@D=A?C< BE<6?A>A4/FBAF:E; BE<BF>C5C:=FD?:FCB= =E?=A@FC=F?ABF:D9; D4E:F-/F=B@A?4F=A>+E?B=2F+DC>D->EF8CB6 ECB6E@FC97E@CD>FA@F9EB@C<FBD7E=FD?:FA7E? A@F<>A=E:F@EE>F3A@9DB=2 'E>.F)10;,!#;0,&,*FD".F)10;,!#;0%1& ;9DC>.F=D>E=8DBE@@D2<A9 (E-.F88828DBE@@D2<A9
Controlling contaminated groundwater Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/ patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www. waterloo-barrier.com Waterloo Barrier
Amalgam UV lamps
WEDECO Ozone Generators from Xylem eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca
Xylemâ€™s WEDECO ECORAYÂŽ ultraviolet lamps offer significant savings in operation and life cycle costs. The UV lamps incorporate a new long-life coating and improved overall stability and performance. An innovative gas and amalgam mixture in the lamp utilizes up to 80 percent less mercury. Corresponding electronic ballast cards have been fine-tuned to the specific requirements of ECORAY lamp aging characteristics. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca
Megamix II thick repair mortar for resurfacing deteriorated concrete manholes, sewer pipe and water tanks is formulated for superior bond, chemical durability and high strength. It can be sprayed or trowel applied up to a thickness of 2 inches. It is NSF 61 approved. Tel: 604-273-5265 Web: www.xypex.com
XYPEX Chemical Corporation
Chemical-free water treatment
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Product & Service Showcase
Grit removal system
November/December 2013 | 75
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ES&E NEWS Canada signs treaty to reduce mercury emissions Acoustic Panels, Enclosures & Products WE WE LCOM
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• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • Web: www.anthrafilter.net
The Government of Canada has signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a global agreement to reduce mercury emissions and releases to the environment. The Convention is a legally-binding treaty negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). As an Arctic country, Canada is one of WKHPDLQEHQH¿FLDULHVRIWKLVDJUHHPHQW It has reduced its own mercury emissions by over 90% in the last forty years. However, over 95% of the mercury deposited in Canada from human activity comes from foreign sources. The Convention addresses all aspects of the life cycle of mercury, including providing controls and reductions across a range of products, processes and industries where mercury is used, released or emitted. The pace of mercury reductions will depend on a number of factors, including which countries ratify the treaty, how many ratify (50 required for entry into force) and what actions the parties to the treaty decide to take.
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The governments of Canada and British Columbia have renewed their water quantity monitoring agreement. The Memorandum of Agreement for Water Quantity Surveys ensures the ongoing collection, processing, publication and distribution of water quantity data in BC. The BC network of approximately 450 water quantity monitoring stations has been co-managed by Environment Canada and BC’s Ministry of Environment since 1975. The agreement provides for shared operating costs of approximately $7 million each year. Approximately one-third is covered by Environment Canada, while BC’s Ministry of Environment covers two-thirds and recovers half this amount from third-party clients such as BC Hydro, First Nations, industry, local governments and agencies. Similar partnerships exist between the Government of Canada and all of the provinces and territories. CollectiveEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:29 AM
ES&E NEWS ly, these bilateral agreements establish the framework for the national network of more than 2,500 water quantity monitoring stations. Specialists in a comprehensive range of Municipal, Environmental, Structural, Building, Water Resources, Transportation and Municipal Engineering
Bill to protect Great Lakes passes second reading
Bill 6, the proposed Great Lakes Protection Act 2013 recently passed second reading in the Ontario Legislature. The proposed act would provide new tools to restore and protect the lakes and create a Great Lakes Guardians’ Council to identify priorities and recommend actions to address them. The bill has now been referred to the Standing Committee on Regulations and Private Bills. Public hearings on the bill are anticipated to occur later this year. Ontario’s Great Lakes form the longest freshwater coastline in the world, stretching more than 11,000 kilometres. The basin is home to 40 per cent of Canada’s economic activity and more than 80 per cent of Ontarians get their drinking water from the Great Lakes.
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Turning spill penalties into environmental benefits Ontario is using penalties collected from environmental violations to fund 10 projects to restore and protect the environment. These include waterway habitat improvements, shoreline tree plantings, and spill prevention. Environmental penalties are issued to industries that have spilled a contaminant into the environment, or that did not comply with regulatory requirements. The Ontario Community Environment Fund (OCEF) uses the penalties collected to support environmental improvement projects, if possible in the watershed where the violation occurred. Municipalities, schools, conservation authorities, First Nations and MéWLVFRPPXQLWLHVDQGRWKHUQRWIRUSUR¿W organizations in the 13 communities where penalties were collected may apply for the more than $320,000 available for 2013. In 2012, 16 Environmental Penalty Orders were issued, adding $165,395 to the Ontario Community Environment Fund. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
ESE Nov.Dec.13_News.indd 77
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ES&E NEWS Insitu Groundwater Contractors • • • • • P: 519-763-0700 F: 519-763-6684 • 150 Stevenson Street, South Guelph, ON N1E 5N7
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Approval processes streamlined A new Memorandum of Understanding will streamline environmental assessPHQWV DQG SHUPLWWLQJ IRU OLTXH¿HG QDWural gas projects in British Columbia by reducing duplication and improving timeliness. The BC Oil and Gas Commission and WKH (QYLURQPHQWDO $VVHVVPHQW 2I¿FH regulate many of the same projects in the oil and gas sector. By coordinating their work and sharing information, the two agencies will manage a single, predictable regulatory regime for LNG projects, from inception through closure. Improvements include: sharing information to eliminate the need for companies to submit the same reports to both agencies; working with companies to identify opportunities for environmental assessments and permitting reviews to run concurrently; sharing information and attending meetings together to ensure a comprehensive approach to First Nations’ engagement; and joint inspections for a coordinated approach to compliance with environmental assessment FHUWL¿FDWHDQGSHUPLWFRQGLWLRQV A copy of the memorandum is available at: http://www.eao.gov.bc.ca/ eao_ogc.html
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Under a new watercraft inspection program, boats and water equipment entering Alberta from other jurisdictions will be examined for invasive plants and animals, like Eurasian watermilfoil and zebra and quagga mussels. If a boat is found to have zebra or quagga mussels, it will be decontaminated or the owner will be asked to keep the watercraft out of Alberta’s waters for up to 30 days. If Eurasian watermilfoil or other plants are found on the watercraft, it will be washed on site. The inspections are part of a larger program safeguarding Alberta’s waterways from non-native species. The initiative also includes a new monitoring program for adult and juvenile mussels as part of Environment and Sustainable Resource Development’s ongoing surface water quality monitoring program. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/5/13 6:29 AM
ES&E NEWS Helping rural Ontario protect drinking water Protection of local drinking water sources in small, rural municipalities is being strengthened in the province of Ontario. Almost 200 municipalities are eligible for grants ranging from $18,000 to $100,000 to help carry out source water protection plans. An additional incentive of up to $15,000 is available to municipalities that work together to implement these plans. The province has already provided over $240 million for drinking water source protection planning, which was a recommendation of the Oâ€™Connor inquiry into the Walkerton tragedy.
Consulting Engineers and Scientists 1-800-265-9662 www.rjburnside.com
QuĂŠbec commits to protection of drinking water sources The government of QuĂŠbec has announced the publication for public consultation of the Draft Regulation respecting water withdrawals and water protection. The Regulation implements a set of measures that will make it possible to oversee oil and gas exploration and development projects in accordance with the safest requirements in North America. Any drilling within 300 metres of water withdrawal sites will be prohibited. This is the minimum distance and may be increased according to any potential risks determined by the hydrogeological study required for each drilling operation. In addition, drilling will also be prohibited in the outer protection zone of a municipal groundwater withdrawal site and in the intermediate protection zone of a municipal surface water withdrawal site. Companies will be required to carry out a hydrogeological study of the area in a two-kilometre radius of the drilling site. They will also have to set up a minimum of three groundwater observation wells within 100 metres of the site. The government requires that water monitoring measures be undertaken before, during and after exploration and development activities. The Regulation also provides for implementing a new water withdrawal authorization system. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
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ACG Technology ...........................83 American Public University ..........48 American Water Works Association ....................................25 American Water/Terratec Env. .....46 Associated Engineering .................5 Avensys .........................................50 BakerCorp ......................................67 Brentwood Industries....................70 CALA...............................................30 CIMA Canada .................................43 Cole Engineering ...........................43 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute.....................................47, 84 Delcan .............................................40 Denso ...............................................8 Endress + Hauser ..........................17 Engineered Pump Systems ..........52 Envirocan ......................................83 Greatario.........................................61 H2Flow ............................................70 Hanna Instruments Canada ..........29 Hoskin Scientific......................18, 49 Huber Technology ...........................9 Indachem ........................................19 IPEX ................................................13 Jacobi Carbons..............................37 KG Services ...................................57 Landshark Drilling .........................31 Maple Reinders Group ..................41 Master Meter ....................................3 Monitario ........................................21 MSU Mississauga ..........................15 National Hose.................................67 NETZSCH Canada..........................45 Osprey Scientific ...........................32 Pro Aqua.........................................23 ProMinent .........................................2 SEW-Eurodrive ..............................14 Smith & Loveless...........................51 SPD Sales .......................................50 Spill Management Inc ....................54 Stantec............................................44 USF Fabrication .............................52 Waterra .........................11, 35, 53, 71 Westeel ...........................................63 WISE Environmental Solutions ....65 XCG Consultants ...........................44 Xylem ................................................7 Xypex ..............................................33
82 | November/December 2013
ESE Nov.Dec.13_News.indd 82
Old foundry now part of the â€œ Steam Punkâ€? movement 7KLV SDVW VXPPHU (6 ( (GLWRU 6WHYH 'DYH\ PHW -LPL 0F.HH DQ 2QWDULR EDVHG DUWLVW ZKR FUHDWHG WKH DPD]LQJ VFXOSWXUH VKRZQ LQ WKH PLGGOH RI WKH SKRWR 7KH\ DUH PDGH RXW RI SDUWV RI 'RUU-2OLYHUÂśV 2ULOOLD 2QWDULR IRXQGU\ WKDW ZHUH JLYHQ WR KLP ZKHQ LW ZDV GHFRPPLVVLRQHG VHYHUDO \HDUV DJR +H H[SODLQHG WR 'DYH\ WKDW KH FUHDWHG WKHP WR UHFRJQL]H WKRVH ZKR ZRUNHG LQ WKH IRXQGU\ RYHU WKH \HDUV 8SRQ VHHLQJ WKLV SKRWR $O 9LYLDQ RI 3UR $TXD 6DOHV VDLG â€œI recognize some of the items in the sculptures as I was a machinist back in the days at Dorr-Oliver. I cut the teeth in that big gear on the bottom in the middle of the picture.â€? RQ$XJXVW LQ WKH 2QWDULR 3URYLQFLDO&RXUWRI-XVWLFHIRURIIHQFHVXQGHU WKH Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA, 1999) $VKIRUG &OHDQHUV ZDV FRQYLFWHG RI FRQWUDYHQLQJ WKH Tetrachloroethylene (Use in Dry Cleaning and Reporting Requirements) Regulations. 7KH RIIHQFHV RFFXUUHG LQ -XO\ DQG LQFOXGHG LPSURSHU VWRUDJH DQG FRQWDLQPHQW RI WHWUDFKORURHWK\OHQH ZDVWHZDWHU DQG UHVLGXH $VKIRUG &OHDQHUV ZDV ÂżQHG ZKLFK LV WR EH SDLG WR WKH (QYLURQPHQWDO 'DPDJHV )XQG $V SDUW RI D QHJRWLDWHG UHVROXWLRQ DJUHHPHQW WKH FRPSDQ\ LV UHTXLUHG WR SXEOLVK DQ DUWLFOH UHJDUGLQJ WKH UHVXOWV RI WKHLU FDVH LQ D WH[WLOH LQGXVWU\ PDJD]LQH 1HZ SHQDOWLHV IRU RIIHQFHV XQGHU CEPA, 1999 ZHUH DGRSWHG RQ -XQH Dry cleaner fined for 7KLV FKDQJH LPSDFWV LQGLYLGXDOV environmental offences DQG FRUSRUDWLRQV E\ LQWURGXFLQJ KLJKHU PD[LPXP DQG PLQLPXP ÂżQHV WKDW PRUH $VKIRUG&OHDQHUV,QFDGU\FOHDQHURSHU- DFFXUDWHO\ UHĂ€HFW WKH VHULRXVQHVV RI HQDWLQJLQ7RURQWR2QWDULRZDVVHQWHQFHG YLURQPHQWDO RIIHQFHV SODQWÂśVHIĂ€XHQWVWUHDP7KHXQODZIXOGLVFKDUJHZDVQRWUHSRUWHGWR(QYLURQPHQW &DQDGD DQG WKH 3URYLQFLDO (PHUJHQF\ 3URJUDP XQWLO VHYHUDO GD\V DIWHU WKH LQFLGHQW 2I7HFN 0HWDOVÂś VHQWHQFH LVSD\DEOHWRWKH(QYLURQPHQWDO 'DPDJHV )XQG 0RQH\ SDLG WR WKH )XQGÂżQDQFHVSURMHFWVVSHFLÂżFWRSURSHUPDQDJHPHQWDQGFRQWURORIÂżVKHULHV RU ÂżVK KDELWDW RU WKH FRQVHUYDWLRQ DQG SURWHFWLRQ RI ÂżVK RU ÂżVK KDELWDW LQ WKH .RRWHQD\5LYHURU&ROXPELD5LYHUZDWHUVKHGV$ SUHIHUHQFH ZLOO EH JLYHQ WR SURMHFWV LQ WKH ORZHU &ROXPELD UHJLRQ VRXWKIURP1HOVRQ%ULWLVK&ROXPELD 7KH (QYLURQPHQWDO 'DPDJHV )XQG ZKLFK LV DGPLQLVWHUHG E\ (QYLURQPHQW &DQDGDZDVFUHDWHGLQ
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
12/6/13 11:43 PM
ACGT 035 ES&E Mag March2013_FNL 14/03/13 10:38 AM Page 1
Two Companies • Many Lines One Number To Call PRIMARY TREATMENT • Complete line of ﬁne screening equipment • Self-cleaning perforated plate screens • FlexRake® front-raked ﬁne screens • FlexRake® front-raked bar screens • FlexRake® low ﬂow • Screenings washer/compactor • Auger conveyor • Self-Cleaning trashracks • Muﬃn Monster® grinder (for sludge, scum, septage, screenings & wastewater) • Channel Monster® grinder for pump stations and sewage treatment plant headworks • Honey Monster® septage receiving station • Auger Monster® ﬁne screen system • MSS ﬁne screen & band screen perforated plate ﬁne screens with 2, 3 & 6mm perforations • Screenings washer/compactors • Rotating drum screens (down to 2mm perfs) • Raptor screenings washer press • Vistex™ grit separators • Grit washers and classiﬁers SECONDARY TREATMENT • Aqua-Jet® direct drive ﬂoating aerator • AquaDDM mechanical ﬂoating mixer • Fine bubble aeration systems using membrane or ceramic diﬀusers with gas cleaning systems • Stainless steel coarse bubble aeration systems • Two & three rotary lobe P/D blowers • Centrifugal multistage blowers • Floating diversion curtains (for aerated lagoons, activated sludge systems & clear wells) • Subsurface jet aeration/mixing systems (for high rate & low rate treatment systems) • Drop in jet aerators/mixers • Spiraﬂo & Spiravac peripheral feed clariﬁers • Closed loop reactor oxidation ditch systems • Rotary brush aerators • High eﬃciency single stage integrally geared blowers • Direct drive turbo type blowers • Chain & ﬂight clariﬁer systems & components (plastic, cast iron or stainless steel) • Aeration system controls & instrumentation • Half bridge, centre feed circular clariﬁers • Spiral blade clariﬁers
SECONDARY TREATMENT cont. • Multi stage act’d biological process (MSABP) • Moving Bed Bioreactors • Sequencing Batch Reactors • Membrane Bioreactors TERTIARY TREATMENT • AquaDisk® - cloth media tertiary ﬁlter DISINFECTION • UV disinfection systems • Package & custom ozone systems BIOSOLIDS PROCESSING/HANDLING • Sludge storage bins & live bottom dischargers • GBT & RDT for sludge thickening • Belt ﬁlter presses & screw presses • Centrifuges for thickening & dewatering ODOUR CONTROL • Bioﬁlters • Bioscrubbers • Carbon adsorbers • Chemical wet scrubbers CONVEYANCE • Shaftless & shafted screw conveyors • Screw pumps (open & closed designs) FLOWMETERS • Open channel ﬂow metering (portable and permanent; wireless data transmission) • Insertion mag ﬂow meters with wireless data transmission • Data loggers with wireless data transmission • Clamp-on ultrasonic ﬂowmeter INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PCl Series DAF with corrugated plates • PWl Series DAF low proﬁle, from 20·800 GPM • Pipe ﬂocculators • Industrial wastewater treatment systems STORMWATER TREATMENT • Downstream Defender® advanced hydrodynamic separator • First Defense® enhanced hydrodynamic separator • Up-Flo™ ﬁlter • Reg-U-Flo® vortex ﬂow controls WATER TREATMENT • Pressure ﬁltration systems (removal of iron & manganese, arsenic, ﬂuoride, radium, uranium)
CALL 905.856.1414 • 131 Whitmore Rd., Unit 13, Woodbridge, ON L4L 6E4
Formerly Bay Odor Control
Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association
11/22/13 7:40 AM
Join us In The Trenches and Make a Difference. We’re fortunate to live in Canada, one of the world’s great nations. Accordingly, it is incumbent upon all of us who work in water/soil management to protect our abundance of precious resources, for our children and for generations to come. We can all participate in this stewardship by improving the products, innovations and technologies used to manage our infrastructures and other resource related sectors to maintain our standard of living, while ensuring Canadian industry remains globally competitive. That underscores the importance of the jobs we all do, day in and day out. Which is why CSPI created In The Trenches – an online industry newsmagazine for sharing information and new ideas. For many of us, its title may be a metaphor; but, it also reÀects the reality that, regardless of whether we operate a backhoe, analyze water and soil, or sit at a computer creating things, we really are all in this together. That’s why CSPI and its members encourage everyone in the industry to openly share their news, knowledge, successes and insights of how to do things better for less. Sharing knowledge empowers us all to succeed in making a better Canada. We’re all members of this vital industry sector. And membership has its responsibilities.
For more news from In The Trenches visit us at cspi.ca
11/22/13 7:38 AM
Published on Nov 20, 2013
Published on Nov 20, 2013
This issue focuses on: Lac Megantic disaster affects water plants, reducing wastewater treatment costs, and using UV and ozone in tandem. As...