THE 2020 ISSUE EMERSON FASHION SOCIETY
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IN HE 2020 ISSUE I D
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INDEX MAGAZINE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
DEPUTY EDITOR Meera Singh
Lillian Cohen Rory Willard
PHOTO & ART DIRECTORS
Langley Custer Sophie Droster
STYLING DIRECTORS Lauren Dillow Sabrina Harris
Riddhima Dave Melanie Curry Anna Cappello Charlotte Drummond Rejeila Firmin Andrea Mendez Amaya Segundo Will Percarpio
Yuhan Cheng Zack Lesmeister Tayla Dixon Anna Hamre
Magenta Thomas José Barrera-Aguirre Lea Neumann Nneamaka Odom Amaury Basora Chloe Weisberg Carasanta Woodard Tianna Loverde Valerie Zhang
Sierra Ashley Amanda Benavente
Nadine Grant Jordan Mackenzie
Vrushti Shroff Alexander Naim Claire Ashby Abigail Robinson Sydney Taylor Kayla Buck
PHOTO TEAM Angela Piazza Letao Chen Lily Walsh Jalissa Evora Daniela Calderon Carolina Donoso Kasey Brodwather Lipsky Zhou America Garcia
ART TEAM Josie Buckon Tal Pesso Sabah Shams Luca Soulages Natasha Arnowitz Diego Villarroel Jack Lent Sara Valentine Riley Jensen Mariely Torres
THE 2020 ISSUE ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
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E M E R S O N F A S H I O N S O C I E T Y
LETTERS FROM THE EDITORS A Time Capsule of Misprints, Youth, Sex, & a Culture in Crisis Sometimes we need space, Space to think, to yell, to cry, to heal, to start growing. This year brought us the opportunity for stillness and time like never before. And while it wasn’t the way we wanted, and it wasn’t always comfortablethere is a chance to reclaim time lost as time brewing. We can look at this year like another misprint, but with every mistake comes a journey onto a better path. When the year started, we were thinking about youth, sex and the American dream. Reality was already bleak, and so we were creating our own versions. Realities both inspired by and in spite of the mistakes made before us. As the year continued, the meaning of these themes expanded; we thanked our youth for our health but felt it fleeting, we missed having sex and physical touch, and the ugly truth about the American dream was exposed. As the decade turned, we were forced to face our past and future. Before the novel coronavirus, the health of the planet was already in a crisis. Before the murder of George Floyd, the freedom for everyone to live equally was clearly failing. And even before the divisive election cycle, America
was already a country split in half. This year served us a firm reminder that our democracy is only as strong as we continue to defend it, and there is more work to do. This year's publication is about issues and misprints, two words used commonly in the print industry. We are a series of mistakes and a list of issuesliving, breathing misprints. Things that weren't meant to happen but just did. To no surprise, INDEX is what it is today because of women. From what I know of our history, it was Emma, Dorcas, Emily, Luna, Nia and Oona who made this possible. In perfect timing, we closed the year with the great conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter and we welcomed the age of Aquarius, a time of femininity and love. We move forward with compassion, care, and support for everyone's voice; it's all that we need in order to heal our communities, to save our democracy and planet, and to correct the flaws of our history. With no expectations other than that each day we will work to make the next one better, we welcome the new year and all it may bring.
2020 has been a learning curve for everyone.
We have had to adapt to a new way of life in a pandemic, shed a new light on already-pressing social justice issues, spent a lot of time in isolation, and the list goes on. Mistakes are essential parts of learning, and a necessary part of periods of change. The 2020 issue encompasses all aspects of growth, highlighting the changes that the fashion industry is going through on its way to a more ethical future. Fashion is for everyone, but that is not accurately reflected in the industry at the moment — a mistake that needs to be fixed. There is always room for diversity (models of color, disabled models, models of different sizes, models who are not cisgender) and it is possible to make that happen without tokenizing anyone. A goal of ours at INDEX is to make sure that we authentically represent the people around us. If we make fashion a more accurate representation of the real world, we can move forward and create positive change.
The summer we had just come out of brought the discrimination and deeprooted racism that lives in this country to light. Problems that this country has always had, but people had often failed to see. In this issue, we put a lot of emphasis on having photoshoots and projects that showed individuality and uniqueness of those in our community, with a big emphasis on representing those of color. Especially on a campus that is primarily white, it meant a lot to me that we all wanted to make it our mission to properly diversify the projects we did without tokenizing those involved. In the society that we currently walk around in, there are misconceptions of what beauty looks like. There are ‘mistakes’ that people say (misprints if you will) that are outwardly racist, but are often brushed over. I think that in this issue, we wanted to face these issues that are very much alive and well in our society head on, and with a determination to create change. Not only with race, but with gender, sexuality, fashion taste and more. I think this issue was a great stepping stone, and there is no doubt that we must continue in this direction to make a welcoming and loving industry that reflects the experiences and aesthetics of everyone.
This issue’s duel themes of misprint and the future of fashion depict how 2020 has brought to light issues in our society that need to be rectified. We can hope this tumultuous year will be seen as a turning point in history. Personally, The only steady thing for me in 2020 has been INDEX. I even was at an index meeting when Emerson informed us that we were having a “week long break.” Of course that break turned into five months but we didn’t know that at the time. Even when we heard the news, we were still focused on how we were going to produce this issue. The team has been so innovative, resilient and creative through this entire year and I’m so glad we have something amazing to show for it!
With nothing but love, the team at INDEX wishes you a happy new year.
TABLE OF CONTENT THE 2020 ISSUE
1 5 13 23 27 35 41 53 57 61 71 79 83 91 101 105 113 123 133 143 155 163 171 181
FASHION WITH A CAPITAL F STILL THE SUBURBAN DREAM GREEN IS THE NEW BLACK CALL ME TALKING WITH TIKESHA WHERE & WHETHER POLITICIZED FASHION JANET COOKE REBORN SWEET HUNGER QUEER PUNK RIOT SELF-STYLED SENSUAL VACANCY AMAYA INTERVIEWS AUGUST PRODUCT PROMOTION ICARUS AND THE PURPLE PILL RETROSPECT SPACE, TIME, SPEED, & HEIGHT GENTLEMEN YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT NOW THAT THERE'S NOBODY HERE THE DIVINE FXMME MISS PRINT
An error in
A view or opinion that is
An action or judgment
incorrect because it is based
that is misguided
on faulty thinking.
A juxtaposition of
The practice or policy of
A feeling of fellowship
persons, events, objects,
providing equal access to
with others, as a result
language terms and
opportunities and resources
of sharing common
customs from different
for people who might
printed text; to print something incorrectly.
otherwise be excluded or
Contradicts or attempts
The description or portrayal
A small starlike symbol
to reverse a current
of someone or something in a
used in writing and
particular way or as being of
printing as a reference mark
a certain nature.
or to indicate change.
system to dismantle structures of power.
SLOW FASHION: Clothes and brands that are made in a way that minimizes harm to people, the environment and animals.
A visual illusion in art that
Thank you Flagship Press, for caring deeply about
tricks the viewer into seeing something that isn't there.
out vision and always helping us make it into a reality.
INDEX OF INDEX
FASHION WITH A CAPITAL F 1 INDEX
We’re living in a political moment.
gossiping over fifty dollar salads about how crazy the whole world had become. Mason Margiela added violet tulle masks to his models. The LVMH cocktail party for its prize finalists was canceled. Agnes B and many Chinese brands canceled their shows altogether. The US communications teams for Chanel and Louis Vuitton were told to stay home. Kenzo’s
Misconceptions are inevitable.
show took place in a sealed plastic tube. Less than a week later, Amherst College announced that they were switching to online-only learning for the rest of the semester, followed by hundreds of universities across the country. On March 18, the president announced a State of Emergency and designers announced they were closing their doors temporarily. But, the machines kept going.
The truth is not always obvious.
Less than a week after the announcement, Christian Siriano and his sewing team that remained of his staff started up shop in his home, making nonmedical-grade fabric masks according to FDA guidelines and distributing them to medical workers in New York, having daily communication with Governor Cuomo. Brands like Los Angeles Apparel and Karla Colletto began doing the same, contributing whatever they could to the cause. LVMH reallocated its perfume factories to hand sanitizer production and
Presidential impeachment trials came and went. We panicked over
other medical products for abroad. Other designers decided to add their
possible nuclear wars with North Korea. Wildfires swept across the
names in the ring and sell masks once they became popular, but these were
Australian continent. The royals decided not to be royals. Protests of
the real emergency response assistants, stepping in however they could.
extradition law in Hong Kong erupted into more than 2 million marchers and a battle against mainland influence. Sustainable fashion trends swept
And while some designers dedicated their brands to the medical sphere,
across mainstream media. The Black Lives Matter movement hit the
others raised awareness of social and economic conflict. Telfar namesake
mainstream, drawing the largest protests in US history in support of
Telfar Clemens, proposed a historic project to eliminate the air of elitism
police reform and education on race and privilege. An Area 51 raid went
that had grown around his bags, founded in 2004 under the motto of
viral online but never really happened. Tiktok devoured all of our time,
inclusivity. Luxurious, ethical, and practical. How can one go wrong?
creating trends in everything from the music industry to the political
Quickly becoming “the Bushwick Burkin” it’s hard to keep them on the
sphere. And we’ve already forgotten about most of that because over
shelves. So on August 19, the designer decided to allow for unlimited
300,000 Americans have died of COVID-19 since March.
orders for 24 hours, that way those who paid attention to the brand and wanted an “exclusive” bag could get one. All bags promised to be delivered
The world’s future is incredibly uncertain, twisted under the weight of
between December 15 and January 15.
misconceptions. 2020 has blurred the lines of truth and reason, changing the world we know into something distinctly unrecognizable.
For Millennials and Gen Z’ers, the ones dominating the fashion and consumer markets right now, it’s not just about what a company sells
Back in February as COVID unknowingly swept the continent of
but how. The entire market has changed because of it. The “new guard”
Europe, the fashion industry was feeling the pressure, in the middle of its
prioritizes social awareness and ethical materials and workforce. They’ve
busiest season. After breakouts in Italy and Milan Fashion Week, fashion
grown up around technology that creates instant accountability, feeding
icons and celebrities alike flew to Paris to experience it all again, further
into the concept that brands should reflect the people they ask for money.
mixing themselves with the virus in the name of fashion. On her flight to France, Gwyneth Paltrow posted a selfie making a distasteful joke about
According to Forbes, 79 percent of millennial employees are loyal to
her 2011 movie “Contagion,” wearing the Arinium Urban Air Mask 2.0—
companies that care about ethical business. Instagram has turned into a
which instantly sold out in all colors. But people still went, dressed in their
glossary of aesthetic learning tools for ethical consumption and societal
typical extravagant frocks, squeezing forearms instead of handshakes and
participation. Sixteen percent more Americans were concerned about EFS
Global Warming in 2018 than in 2013. The influencer market is on track to be worth $15 billion by 2022, according to pre-pandemic predictions, but if the recent rise continues, even more. 87 percent of global travelers reported the desire to travel sustainably, according to Booking.com. And after four years of the current administration, Democrats have won the presidency, control of the House, and are staging a runoff race in previously crimson Georgia for the control of the Senate. But as new expressions are finding their way into the mainstream, others are shifting, making alliances and selling themselves into larger conglomerates. This April, Raf Simons stormed the doors of Prada—with an invitation, of course. Effective April 1, Simons became co-creative director of the Italian luxury fashion house, sharing equal responsibilities of designing both the women’s and men’s collections with Miuccia Prada. The contract does not include any involvement with Miu Miu. When asked about the details of the contract, Prada announced that “The contract is forever, there is no end date to the contract.” Simons has ample experience and cult following throughout the greater fashion community, working for brands including Jil Sander and Christian Dior. Prada said it hopes that the new appointment will keep the brand relevant, in an age of ever-changing fashion. And yet, the whole situation is a bit worrisome. Things didn’t go so well at Calvin Klein when Simons was given complete authority, the first person to have such since Calvin Klein himself. Sure, the fashion was arguably some of Simons’ best work, but the leaders within Calvin Klein didn’t feel that he represented the brand’s tone properly. He simply designed for his own taste. So this September, with the presentation of their spring collection, “Dialogues,” the first under Simons and Miuccia Prada, all eyes were on the brand as they stepped into a new era. With dulled mustard curtains and vintage VHS cameras posted everywhere, the designer brought a slight casual element to the show with hoodies and his classic word mumbles printed on several looks. And yet, with the buttonless swaths of fabric and the brand’s iconic tea-length A-line skirts, the collection was a hit. With retirements and acquisitions encroaching upon the fashion community in a time of hardship, having two prominent designers as cocreatives sets the brand up for a hopeful future. Models from top designers like Dior, Chloé, Balmain, and Prada all sported hybrid events this season, with limited in-person attendance and physically walking runway models, livestreaming the show to others interested. Many designers worked with professional videographers and programmers to format how each show would translate to semionline platforms, all resort collections this summer strictly online. 3 INDEX
Louis Vuitton’s Shanghai show in early August showed the true power of online platforms in fashion, collecting an unprecedented 100 million online views, cementing the medium for years to come. After 50 years in the fashion industry, Jean-Paul Gaultier announced his retirement on social media back in January, taking his final bow in Paris later that month. The King of Haute Couture has stood as a backbone for the industry for half a century, reinventing everything from sailors to cyberpunk in a way that was avant-garde. He pushed the boundaries of fashion and what should be expected of the craft. And despite an outcry from models, friends, and fans of the designer, he assured that “Haute Couture will continue with a new concept” without him. Gaultier has pioneered not only styles from within the industry but moral standards. Within the growing push for sustainable materials and environmentalism, Gaultier has been an advocate for change. Though more conservative than other designers, Gaultier was outspoken about the fashion industry’s waste problem, including the luxury brand practice of burning and trashing unsold stock. In his last show, only a fourth of his looks were “completely new,” he said. Vintage shopping and reusable clothing materials have become very popular within the last few years, at a streetwear level, but it doesn’t always translate to haute couture. Each season brings new designs and new consumerism. Celebrities often are only seen in an outfit once. Child labor and organic materials have also become a debate over the past few decades, as brands have faced scrutiny over the ethics of their physical productions. They see the engrossing new market and what it demands of them, changing to the waves instead of standing tall on their ivory towers. The ideas we’ve proposed as “the future”—from online school and shopping to a climate crisis and hypothetical apocalypse—are happening. 2020 has blurred the lines of reality and normalcy, and there’s no going back. X
photo & light
MERCER WHITFIELD FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO
pink quilt dress KIMCHI BLUE gold bag VINTAGE EFS
stamped shirt CHRISTIAN DIOR patchwork swesater COOGI suede handbag PRADA
printed blazer JPG mesh turtleneck CHRISTIAN DIOR vintage heels YVES SAINT LAURENT
THE SUBURBAN DREAM ON A SUNDAY EVENING
AMAURY BASORA LAUREN DILLOW
MARIELY TORRES RILEY JENSEN
TYLER FOLLMER MARLON POLYCARPE PARKER GRAY
wool newsboy hat GUCCI oversized tennis polo GUCCI
down puffer vest POLO RALPH LAUREN cashmere turtleneck POLO RALPH LAUREN cotton tennis shirt FILA check & leopard sweater BURBERRY cotton knit sweater PRADA triple s sneakers BALENCIAGA quilt puffer vest NOMINEE tennis sneakers NIKE
35 billion tonnes of clothes end up in landfills every year. But how can we fix a problem that massive?
The Aral Sea, once the fourth-largest inland water body in the world, has shrunk. The lake, so large that it was called a sea, is now a minuscule leftover of what it used to be. The massive water resource experienced this as a result of over-irrigation to water cotton plantations. Over the years, plantations like these have led to resource water depletion in India, Indonesia, China, Australia, and more. The fashion industry is notorious for pollution. It harbors a huge chunk of responsibility when referring to industrial pollution. The World Bank estimates that the fashion industry is responsible for 10 percent of global carbon emissions and 20 percent of industrial water pollution worldwide. With the consumer market increasing and fast fashion’s growing popularity, the problem is only escalating. According to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, consumers buy 60 percent more clothes today than they did in 2000. The production has doubled. Moreover, almost 35 billion tonnes of clothes end up in landfills every year. But how can we fix a problem that massive? What comes to mind is “sustainability.” The much-debated term has been thrown around a lot in recent years, meaning merely responsibility for intake. It creates a set of moral standards for brands in terms of environmental consciousness, waste, production, and employee rights. Fast fashion is one of the primary evils to earth health and workers rights. According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, fast fashion is right behind Big Oil in terms of industrial pollution. The market currently contributes to fossil fuel exhaustion and toxic wastewater coming from garment factories. Almost 60 percent of clothing is made of synthetic fibers, releasing microfibres into the water supply. These are nonbiodegradable materials and 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide in polluting the environment. “[They] fragment into very tiny particles that become substrata for microbes, are eaten everywhere in the food web and can leak toxic chemicals into the environment as they break down,” says Les Kaufman, professor of Biology at Boston University. But harmful materials for the environment don’t just include synthetic fabrics. Cotton production is a huge economic commodity for low-income countries. This means that governments will relegate regulations to allow unsustainable cotton production. While cotton production enables weaker economies, they clear large swathes of forest land for agricultural production. Making cotton also requires a huge amount of water. The World Resources Institute found that the amount of water used in the production of one t-shirt is equivalent to an average human’s water consumption for 2 and a half years. Cotton is also a heavily sprayed plant, which can make the soil itself toxic. Run-offs from the plantation release toxins into water bodies causing further pollution. Fast fashion is the leader in unsustainable production and materials. The industry relies on the model of excess. It does not have the concept of seasons as luxury fashion brands do. Instead of two seasons per year, fast fashion has promoted an idea of new styles all year round. Zara has 24 seasons per year. H&M has 12-13 seasons. The price of the clothes at these stores enables people to purchase more clothing at a time and more often, creating an endless cycle of excessive production and consumption. But fast fashion is just that—a passing trend. They are not meant to last and thus discarded when convenient for the buyer. In the United States, the amount of clothing waste produced in one day could fill the Empire State Building. EFS
Tailor Stitch, a sustainable menswear brand in San Francisco, has a unique production cycle to tackle the problem of overproduction and waste. What started as a bespoke custom shirt brand for men and has grown into a one-stop-shop for menswear clothing over the last 12 years.
rebuilt their brand. The company acquires clothes from different sustainable brands in addition to its own collection. All of the brands they source have to meet certain basic requirements that comply with the store’s sustainability standards.
“At Tailor Stitch, we produce clothing that the modern man wants to wear. All the while we are constantly thinking about how to constantly be responsible,” says Luke McAlpine, Partnerships Director at Taylor Switch.
On their website, they have a filter option for customers to shop by impact. So you can shop vegan clothes if that matters to you, or you buy clothes made out of organic materials or grown locally. Not all of their clothes hit all the marks for sustainability but you can choose and filter the ones that matter to you.
Sustainability, a huge part of their brand today, was not something the brand even originally considered, developing a plan over time to improve their environmental impact. Instead of a spring/summer and fall/winter collection, Taylor Stitch comes out with new pieces every week, but in a sustainable way. They launch items through the instock range and the workshop program, with items produced in limited quantities. This could include deadstock fabric they have or just a seasonal style that they want to produce in a known quantity. The workshop program echoes their original custom shirting production model wherein they get paid before they start producing items. Each time a product is launched into a workshop, it goes into a 30-day funding period. All of the materials are platformed at their factory and everything is staged but the final production does not begin until the brand has time to properly gauge customer demand through the funding period. The brand then always carries its “Essentials” range yearround, which includes bestsellers and customer favorites. “One of the biggest things that we do every day is to make sure we don’t overproduce. So much clothing ends up in the landfill,” McAlpine says. “Brands realize they overproduced and they don’t want it to show up on close-up channels because they want to protect their brand integrity. For us, that’s the worst-case scenario. We would never want to do that. We would rather limit our production.” The menswear brand targets sustainability throughout its supply chain from the raw materials they acquire to the finished product. They recently made the switch to using 99 percent organic cotton in their clothes, as well as advocating for sustainable alternatives like hemp and baby yak wool. Apart from incorporating consciousness within their products the brand looks for ways to give back to the community. McAlpine highlighted a volunteer program “Wild for Life,” where they recruit people to go on local clean-up drives. Volunteers pick up trash and clean up sites as appointed by the brand. “Everything we’re doing, we are aiming for the most responsible path to do all those,” McAlpine says. “At the end of the day we know we are ultimately responsible. We are not perfect and we can’t be perfect. For us it is about how do we get better every day, how do we get just 1 percent better every day.” The realities of imperfection in sustainability is something to grapple with. It is not possible to be completely guilt-free and sustainable brands know this. But they also recognize that this mentality is an opportunity for growth, to make sure they are always working toward “better.” Boston based boutique Ash & Rose proudly calls itself “imperfectly impactful.” The boutique suffered losses during a flood in April that caused them to close shop, but have since proceeded online and slowly
“I think there is a difficult thing when people try to balance being perfect and being good,” says Mary Savoca, Co-owner of Ash & Rose. “Sustainable brands get criticized if they are not perfect and if they are not addressing every single injustice in the world. There are a lot of people who have hard lines in their philosophy in what sustainable means. We give people the opportunity to just filter out whatever it is they are looking for.” Sustainability primarily targets the environmental aspects of a brand but sustainability goes hand in hand with social causes. Sweatshop labor might feel like a thing of the past, but it isn’t. The 2013 Rana Plaza incident in Bangladesh was a clear picture of the labor practices of fast fashion. They outsource labor from countries like India, Bangladesh, China, and Indonesia where labor laws are not as strict, so companies can get away without paying garment workers living wages. A 2019 report at the Blum Center for Developing Economies at the University of California Berkeley details that garment workers in India are sometimes paid as little as $0.15 per hour. Savoca believes that fair labor is a baseline requirement for sustainable brands. Sustainability does not just include production and environmental consciousness. The humanitarian crisis within the garment industry goes hand in hand with environmental sustainability. “For a minimum level, for a brand to call themselves sustainable you have to be promoting fair wages and treating humans with dignity and respect,” Savoca says. “If you don’t have that, you are not really meeting the minimum level criteria.”
So what does the future of sustainable fashion look like? That’s an ever-changing answer. But one can only hope that as the earth takes on more and more stress from global warming and carbon emissions, the industry might take an extra look at themselves in the mirror before heading out the door. X
ca me direction
& photo models
SOPHIA KRIEGEL GRACE GUARASCIO
lace shirt VINTAGE overalls LIBERTY mesh shirt ZARA floral dress VINTAGE
dress VINTAGE 31 INDEX
hockney dress HOUSE OF SUNNY
great photo sesh! :) xoxo
TALKING TO TIKESHA!
In conversation 3,451 miles apart YOU SEE ALL THIS FABULOUSNESS, BUT YOU JUST DON’T KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH IT. BUT YOU DON’T NEED TO DO ANYTHING WITH IT, JUST LOOK AND JUST ADORE. JUST KNOW THAT YOU BENEFITTED FROM PASSING ME.
questions answers transcript photos
FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO TIKESHA R. MORGAN ANNA CAPPELLO NAZIH ELIAS @nazihels TURAL NESIBSOY @naturgen
Q: What do you do? A: I am the Senior Student Affairs Officer at Kasteel Well, and one of the senior administrators helping run the program itself. A big part of my job is supervising, but I also teach the students how to be Global Citizens. How to travel well, how to be aware of your surroundings, how to protect yourself. And have a good time, too! I understand and teach that mistakes are often made and that’s okay. Q: How would you define style and fashion separately and how do you describe your own taste? A: I think style is personal and fashion is everything else. I think fashion changes, but as for my style, it can shift but I don’t think it changes. I have that signature ‘you know what Tikesha is probably gonna look like’ vibe. She’s probably gonna have a cool pair of frames, a hat, and a pair of shoes or sneakers that are gonna stand out. I think fashion is more public, and style is more personal. I haven’t really put a name on my style, but my partner calls it avant-garde, and I identified with that. I’m a bit stoic, because I like the classics. But classic with pops of color or design. I love J Crew and Brooks Brothers, but for a few key items I then have to pair with something poppy. J Crew has plus size now, and I’m like you need to jump on that! I love the clean lines. For me, I love those companies for that. The
kind of big chain places that I buy from are Uniqlo, Banana Republic, J Crew, The Gap. They have key signature pieces you need for your wardrobe. I identify as a black queer woman who doesn’t fit into a masculine or feminine mold. I’m in this gray mix in the middle. Society and even our own black and queer cultures sometimes don’t allow us to just be gray. They want us to pick up a pot and put the lid on it. For me that doesn’t work. I’m gonna wear what the fuck I wanna wear. You know, one day I wanna wear a long luxurious african print, big high waisted skirt. And the next day I’m gonna wear my suit jacket, Fedora, and oxfords. I can do that. And I carry them both hella well. So why are you mad? There’s a lot of things that you’re going to perceive about me when I step into the room. My class, and maybe my identity and my orientation. Many of the schools that I used to work at would be many first-generation college students and students of color. And that’s who I am: I’m a first-generation black college student. I feel like I sit in a place of role model when I decide to be my authentic self.My oxfords and my suit jacket and quirky glasses and paperboy hat, for me that’s who I am, that’s me. But I realized that also set a tone for students who were watching me.I’ve had women come up to me, usually black moms and aunties in their 50s, who will say ‘I have a niece, or a daughter, and she’s in college and she’s really struggling around how to present herself,’ and they’re like ‘we’re just happy to see you, because you’re kind of in the middle, and you’re unapologetic about it, do you mind talking to my niece?’ And that’s where my instagram comes in really well, because people can actually go there and I lay out who I wear and what I wear and where I get it from. I love promoting the small, POC, black, and kinda avant garde businesses. One of my favorite company’s is Fluevog. Another shoe company I love is Angela Scott. For me, these are small companies who do great things in what they represent. I like companies that have purpose and meaning and support inclusion and diversity. Social justice is key and important to me, I definitely look for companies that are working hard towards that. But I also love the GAP, and I shop on Amazon, you know. There’s certain things I can’t buy from highend places. Q:____How long have you been into fashion and what was the journey like? A:____When I got to college and out of
my parents’ home, I think that’s when it really started. I remember I started wearing suspenders, and I still love suspenders to this day. So I think it’s always been my journey, but it’s morphed and changed as I come into my true self. New York women, especially women of color, tend to be a bit rougher. We wear the sneakers, we wear the Timberlands, we wear the cool baseball caps. But we’re still women and we’re still feminine. Being a New Yorker also explains your freedom around how you express yourself with your fashion. So I do take it back to where I’m from and I think my home has allowed me to have that confidence that wouldn’t have come from somewhere else. As I get older, I don’t care as much about what others think or say about my fashion, especially when it comes to my kind of grayness between femininity and masculinity. I think I have this gray, beautiful complexity, and I think thats what draws others, especialy black queer women. In Europe when I’m out and about I get stared at, but there’s layers to why. I think Europeans are trying to figure out what kind of black I am. Am I African? Am I American? And I’m avant-garde. They just don’t know. I also usually hire a photographer in the cities that I’m in to get good shots of myself, so I have a photographer following me around and they’re all just like what? What kind of magical black is this? In Europe, from my experience, they don’t really like Africans a lot, but they love black Americans. And I’m just like, you can’t really love one. It doesn’t sit well with me, especially being black American, most of us don’t know our hereditary makeup. But I do know half of mine, and my dad is from the coast of Africa where the slave ships left. So you’re not gonna tell me you love black Americans and then dislike Africans. I look more like my dad’s side and when I’m dressed up and having my pictures taken their first thought is that I’m famous. Would it matter if I was white and this was happening? People don’t know what box to put me in, but I think I get pleasure out of it now. You see all this fabulousness, but you just don’t know what to do with it. But you don’t need to do anything with it, just look and just adore. Just know that you benefitted from passing me. I also understand that I’m in my forties and know that I’ve had time to grow and not care about that anymore. When I’m talking to young adults I’m like, ‘Look I wasn’t born this way. It took time to get to this point of just not giving a fuck.’ But I do feel like with the current generation that’s coming in, they’re giving less fucks at a young age, especially around their
POC and queer identities, which I’m really proud of. And just queer folks period. I love seeing videos of them fighting back, and the people are always shook because the thought is that somehow we’re weak and not gonna fight for ourselves. I know my presence scares people—I’m not a small girl, you don’t know if I’m a boy or girl if you have a very binary perception of men and women. If my presence puts you in your place, good. Q: Your social media promotes ethical shopping and allows other people to be part of it. What values would you like to see companies and consumers move forward with? A: I don’t wear brands like Gucci and Louis, and there’s a few reasons for that. One, why am I going to wear something so mass-produced and costly when I can have something unique and different and put that money towards a black, POC, or small-owned company that can cater it to me. You can buy that $400 jacket from Louis, but someone else is going to buy that too, there’s nothing special about it. But I know people like following trends and fashion, so I do get that. But let’s talk about how these companies also steal from these smaller businesses, especially black and POC designers, and they don’t give them credit. That needs to stop, period. Work with them, contact them, set up a deal with them, sell them in your store. But they just go and steal, knowing that these smaller businesses don’t have the time or money to fight it. So for me that needs to stop. I know it’s hard when young adults and even folks my age wanna be up on the latest thing, but that latest thing tends to be mass-produced. How do we get away from that? I don’t know. You have to do some of your own personal digging there to know you don’t need to look like the folks next door and you can be your own specific, quirky person. When I step out, and I have on custom pieces, people are like ‘Oh my God.’ You can do this too! I also understand the place of privilege from which I am able to do that. But what does your eye for art look like if you just look like the masses? I also have a problem with places like Gucci and Louis Vuitton who have now jumped into sneaker culture. I’m a Nikehead, a Puma, to me these are sneaker companies. LV is not a sneaker company, but now they realize that white culture says they like sneakers, too. Nope, I won’t wear any of their stuff. Will I buy an expensive Nike shoe? Yep, I have and I will. But I come from a place where having a clean, cool, sneaker was everything, so I’ve always been into sneakers and I’m now at an age where I can afford what I want. The big brands that scoffed at
these types of sneakers ten years ago are now making them. It’s all about urban wear and gear, but who are the urban originators? And have the luxury brands given anything back to those same people who they once wouldn’t allow in their stores? So I have my issues with that. And Nike is nowhere near perfect, but at least they’ve always been in the hiphop circles and they know who’s wearing their stuff. Q: Fall or summer? A: Fall, fall, fall. Fall all day long. Fall is my favorite part of the year. I just love the fashion, I love layering. This is the time to wear the fedoras and the paper boy hats, to throw on a shawl or a nice wool suit jacket. I could be totally fine living somewhere with a longer fall. Q:____What cities abroad have influenced your perception of fashion and style? A:____London, Paris, Berlin. Berlin reminds me of old New York. I’m an 80s kid, so it reminds me of that grunge New York, but I would say it’s the old New York without the grime. And Berlin has some really quirky, cool, boutique shops that I really think are dope. When I travel, one of the things I look up first are exclusive sneaker shops.That’s probably the thing I buy the most. There’s something about people and sneaker culture—the connection you can have with someone from any country just through sneakers. I walk in as this American who’s living abroad, who’s from Brooklyn. There’s a lot of respect for being from Brooklyn, because that’s where it all began, this whole New York City sneaker culture. So I wanna make sure I have a fly pair of sneakers when I go into one of these places, because there’s respect you get. Especially as a woman. I’m also not a young woman, so they understand I know what I’m doing here, I know what I’m looking for, I know what’s good. And for me it’s not buying the most expensive shoe, it’s what fits my style. I’ve had some really awesome conversations with people who are really into sneaker culture and shoe culture. I’ve been in Europe for four and a half years. To me, the US tops a lot of places in the world when it comes to fluidity and things like that. We have a more open language than Europeans do around that. So it’s real interesting, we can be more progressive in the US about stuff, but we still have people who are ignorant and asking trans-folks dumb shit at the airport. I think there are levels to it. London is almost up there with New York for me, in terms of style and fashion. I think London would be a great place to shop and
to live for any fluid-dressing person. I’ve been about five times for personal and work visits, and I have a custom leather biker jacket from London that I love. When I first went to Paris I wasn’t a fan. I felt like there was a lot of hype that I didn’t really get. When I travel I try to seek out black experiences in those cities. That first time in Paris, all I saw were black folks selling items on the street. And I was like, is that what we’re worth here? I’m good, I’ll keep going to London. At least in London I see diversity. I see black and brown people doing great things. But I got put on to little Africa in Paris, the 19th District, where there are specifically African cultures and people and shops. My dad is from Sierra Leone, and I grew up in New York, AUDIO Bush which is an uber African and Caribbean area. When I go into Little Africa it reminds me of the area I grew up in. And you have these young black designers who purposefully will not go to other parts of Paris. If you wanna fuck with us, you gotta come down here. That’s what it should be. Now anytime I’m in Paris, I always go there to shop and look around. When I was there in september with the global BFA students, I booked them a tour. There’s a young African woman who created a tour company specifically for Little Africa in Paris. We need to make sure students who are visiting Paris get to see another side of it. Going to these areas, spending my time and my money there, is key. I don’t love Paris but I like it, and I’ll still keep on going. Everytime I go there’s something new to find. I enjoyed both my visits to Morocco. That’s kind of where the traditional kaftans come into play. I got to try on vintage thick silk kaftans. I love to think, ‘who wore this before me?’ With all of Morocco’s history and culture, having that experience was just amazing. You have to barter a lot though, you know because we’re American, we have money. Q:
Any final advice for self-styling?
Be genuine, be yourself. I’ve had to learn that in regards to being
genuine with who I am and how I want to express myself. And I realize it takes time, it doesn’t come overnight, and that it changes and shifts. As you get older, and especially as you enter the workforce, it’s okay to look for sales! I am all about that sale, I won’t pay full price unless it’s custom. So know when some of these companies do sales, keep those emails in your inbox. Don’t just buy because you need something—also keep in mind when the sales are, because you can dress real high end if you know when the sales are happening. And don’t be afraid to have things tailored, especially when you’re gender bending and gender nonconforming. Find a seamstress and invest. I have a beautiful shawl I bought in Greece that I bought as a throw for a couch. I was like, that would make an awesome shawl. I love a good dramatic shawl. So I came back, gave the seamstress the throw, and now it’s a beautiful shawl! I see pieces that I can take and have someone take it apart and make it what I want; I’ve learned that my designer eye is changing. People don’t want to hear it, but what we look like and what we present when we walk in the room before we even speak says a lot. I realize for myself as someone who’s presentation is very fluid, it says a lot when I walk into a room well dressed. I am presented very well. For me, that’s really key and important. Buy with intention, and show up looking sharp. X
“IF MY PRESENCE PUTS YOU IN YOUR PLACE, GOOD.”
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JANE MORITZ LANGLEY CUSTER FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO MAGENTA THOMAS FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO JANE MORITZ LANGLEY CUSTER SERGE GANTHIER SIENNA RADIFERA ETHAN DENK VICTORIA SLES
& R E H
wool coat J.W. ANDERSON lambskin scarf CELINE canvas bag J.W. ANDERSON leather bag TELFAR
printed coat BAUM UND PFERDGARTEN blush trench CORNELIANI feathered sleeve coat SHEIN sneakers NIKE
trench coat LONDON FOG
POLITICIZED FASHION 53 INDEX
patriarchy, gender-based discrimination, and rampant sexual abuse. A editorial
tangible way to combat systemic disenfranchisement through fashion.
And now, during the pandemic, people are using protective face masks as political statements.
There’s more than just one way to be political.
“I have rainbow pride masks, BLM masks, ‘Go Vote!’ masks, feminist masks, etc.,” Easton says.
But this trend didn’t just originate this decade. Fashion and politics have always been somewhat connected. Aesthetics of skinhead culture dominated the fashion spheres in the ’80s and ’90s with Dr. Martens and straight-legged jeans and in the ’70s the Black Panther Movement adopted black berets, curly afros, and powder blue shirts to their
Of course, there are more traditional methods such as newspapers
and magazines where opinion-editorial and columns exist for this very purpose, among others. There are social media apps where one can
“Their outfits didn’t just foster clear organization, but they fostered pride
express their political beliefs. But between these forms of expression lies
as well,” says Jilly Towson, a journalism student and former model. “The
a more creative, artistic method one would rarely think to look at: fashion.
overall cohesion present in their uniform shows the unity within the Black community in our fight for freedom. The use of deep and solid
Now, I know what you’re thinking: how does fashion—with everything
colors shows determination, integrity, pride, and perseverance.”
from designer couture or trademark Levi jeans—have to do with politics? But if politicized fashion has existed everywhere, why isn’t it seen in It’s not that complicated if you ask me. Politicized fashion lies everywhere.
We see it in pussy hats, face masks, and, god-forbid, the Make America Great Again merchandise. All these clothes and accessories make some
Mainstream fashion brands such as H&M, The Gap, Old Navy, and
sort of statement. Fashion is, after all, a form of expression. And that’s
Brandy Melville don’t really feature politicized fashion in their collections.
Don’t get me wrong, political fashion is what you make it—after all, it’s a creative art form that makes a statement. However, basic t-shirts, skinny
“Dress expression ranges the full political spectrum from conformity
jeans, or even Justin Bieber merch isn’t exactly advocating or protesting
to rebellion. Any style that challenges the status quo ultimately obtains
an issue. While there are politicized garments on the racks at mainstream
political meaning,” explains Soleil Easton, a journalism student and
brand stores, most companies are selling these items because of their
Urban Outfitters associate. “Political dressing is a united attempt to
rising popularity and the push to make a sale.
bring awareness to a social issue.” “Mainstream fashion brands, also known as fast-fashion companies, In our divided nation, politicized fashion is becoming increasingly
engage in politicized fashion for the wrong reasons: to make money, a lot
popular. Just two years ago, during The Golden Globes, celebrities from
of it,” Easton says. “Companies could care less about sparking political
Viola Davis to Reese Witherspoon strutted the red carpet donned in all
change, they just see the movement as ‘trendy’ therefore going to bring in
black to show their support for the #MeToo movement and Times Up.
tons and tons of revenue.”
On January 21, 2017, the day after Donald Trump’s inauguration, several thousand people wore pink pussy hats: symbols of defiance against the
To find political fashion, Towson recommends shopping at local brands such as Mess In A Bottle, a t-shirt company that gives a voice to the EFS
voiceless. Some of their pieces feature popular political slogans: “I’m Speaking” or “This expensive t-shirt was made by a Black designer not gooochie,” to name a few.
“When it comes to political fashion, people want to support the brands that give back to individuals affected by current politics,” Towson says. More and more brands are seeing that it’s beneficial to speak up on current issues and use their voice within the clothes that they create as well.”
It’s not just fast-fashion companies who need to engage more with politicized fashion—it’s fashion icons too. Yes, there’s Lizzo and other celebrities who are using their style to endorse women empowerment and their support for Black Lives Matter. Yet, since, when is simply wearing a statement just enough?
Activism, even fashion, needs to be both conversational and actionable. Advocating for change requires more than just one action. Celebrities have a platform, and their fans listen to them; what they say, act, and wear can make a difference in politics and the fashion industry.
“Sure, celebrities can make a difference with the outfits they wear, but they also need to speak up, go out and protest, raise awareness, not be afraid to call out their friends, family, and/or colleagues, etc.,” Easton says. “Celebrities, especially if white, simply wear politicized clothing and claim they’re so woke, but don’t actually do anything, come off as performative activism and that is not doing anyone or anything justice.”
The truth is: whether you’re a celebrity or not, what you wear matters. What you say matters. What you do matters. Just like all other forms of protests, couture and apparel can make a difference too. There’s power in fashion. So the next time you want to protest or show your support for an issue, you have the tools to do so—they’re right in your own closet. X
Activism, even fashion, needs to be both conversational and actionable. Advocating for change requires more than just one action. EFS
JANET COOKE: THE JOURNALIST WHO BROKE DIVERSITY BEFORE IT STARTED
In 1978, the American Society of News Editors pledged to achieve more minority journalists in local and national newsrooms before 2000. 36 years later, a 2014 study by the Radio Television Digital News Association reported that all minority groups accounted for only 22.4 percent of television journalists, 13 percent of radio journalists, and 13.34 percent of daily newspapers. Additionally, a 2016 study from the American Society of News Editors reported Latinx, Black, and Asian women make up less than 5 percent of all newsroom personnel in the United States. While most local and national newsrooms are slowly increasing in diversity, journalism still remains an overwhelmingly white profession. Why is that? The answer—maybe the journalist of color who fabricated a Pulitzer-prize winning story that led to the reinforcement of bias against journalists of color. In the ’80s, newsrooms began to push diversity into their workplace. Then entered Janet Cooke—a woman in her mid-20’s with an impeccable resume with credits from Vassar and Black Journalists Association, or so she said. She broke boundaries by proving white men and women in journalism that a Black woman was just as capable as any other journalist. Her actions opened spaces for women journalists and journalists of color. She was the perfect hire for the Washington Post—smart, diligent, sophisticated, and Black. Nine months later, Cooke proved her worth to the publication by writing “Jimmy’s World,” a heart-wrenching story about an eight-year-old heroin addict living in Washington D.C. Her story was published on the front page and displayed at every newsstand in the country. With reprints circulating around the country and the world, “Jimmy’s World” induced empathy among a variety of readers, both Black and white readers searching for the boy. Concerned readers, healthcare officials, police officers, and even D.C. Mayor Marion Barry hounded the Washington Post for source information and the whereabouts of Jimmy and his guardians, claiming the humanitarian crisis needed intervention. They threatening child endangerment charges, but the newspaper stood behind Cooke. They refused to make her reveal her sources because of Cooke’s promise of confidentiality. When a journalist grants a source confidentiality, an oath is formed; rarely, if ever, will a journalist break confidentiality, even if they face im-
IN THE ’80S, NEWSROOMS BEGAN TO PUSH DIVERSITY INTO THEIR WORKPLACE. THEN ENTERED JANET COOKE—A WOMAN IN HER MID-20’S WITH AN IMPECCABLE RESUME WITH CREDITS FROM VASSAR AND BLACK JOURNALISTS ASSOCIATION, OR SO SHE SAID. prisonment. It’s one of the most basic ethics principals taught in newsrooms. Journalists such as Judith Miller and Vanessa Legget have been imprisoned for their refusal to break the agreement with their sources. So, with Cooke, this just seemed routine, upstanding even. On April 13, 1981, Cooke won a Pulitzer Prize for her story, breaking boundaries again for Black women and journalists of color. As the first African American woman to win the award, The Toledo Blade, a newspaper Cooke once worked for, wanted to write a feature story about her. However, when comparing the resume she gave to The Washington Post and the one they received years prior, there were considerable differences; everything from her graduation magna cum laude from Vassar to her supposed degree in journalism had timeline discrepancies. In reality, according to the Blade’s records of her biography, Cooke attended Vassar for one semester before transferring to the University of Toledo, where she received a Bachelor of Arts—not in journalism. Once the Blade realized the differences in schools and degrees from their records and the Washington Post, they quickly informed the executive editor Ben Bradlee and managing editor Howard Simons, who then took it upon themselves to move against Cooke and find Jimmy personally. EFS
If Cooke was able to easily lie about herself to score a job, how far would she lie for a story? Cooke was interrogated and pressured about the discrepancies on her resume and the whereabouts of Jimmy for nearly 11 hours while the City Editor Milton Coleman surveyed the area, looking for Jimmy. At 1:45 a.m. the next morning, Cooke confessed to the article’s fabrication, saying, “There is no Jimmy and no family,” according to Woodward’s Deputy AME David Maraniss. “It was a fabrication. I want to give the prize back.” Cooke’s fabrication not only shifted journalism ethics and the public’s trust in media but it also changed minority recruitment in journalistic spaces. “Opinions of Black people get passed down through generations,” says journalism student Eryn McCallum. “So, even though I don’t actively think about Janet Cooke every day, there’s definitely stereotypes that people hold against Black women, against Janet Cooke.” “When a story falls through, it falls through and you tell your editor, ‘look I’m sorry it fell through,’” says journalism student Diana Bravo. “And you move on and you put out a better story next time.” She says Cooke’s decision was completely unacceptable, leading to continued limited opportunities for not only women but journalists of color in the newsroom. But while Cooke’s decision to fabricate a story went against every ethical standard of journalism, McCallum says she understands why Cooke decided to make up Jimmy. “I don’t completely blame her,” McCallum admits. “I think what she did was kind of not smart, but I also understand how the pressure could make somebody do what she did.” In 1982, Cooke appeared on the Phil Donahue show and explained how her decision to fabricate her story stemmed from the success of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein—the two journalists who broke the Watergate Scandal. According to Cooke, the pressures from Th ePost for “groundbreaking” stories corrupted her judgment and ethics. Never did she once take ownership for “Jimmy’s World.” Regardless of the lack of accountability, the effect of the fabrication of Jimmy’s World remains the same—the restriction of journalistic spaces for both women and journalists of color. Her decision has impacted the careers of journalists of color for generations. But it’s also important to note that she does not own all of the blame—white journalists continue 59 INDEX
WITH EACH STEP I TAKE, JOURNALISTS ARE WATCHING AND WAITING FOR ME TO FALL OR SLIP— AN ADDED PRESSURE TO BEING A MINORITY IN A MAJORITY WHITE SPACE.
to use this as an excuse to not trust or hire journalists of color. It’s been over 20 years since “Jimmy’s World” was published and the spaces for journalists of color remain few and far between. At Emerson, while there are on-campus cultural magazines such as Raiz and Flawless Writes that cater to journalists of color, the majority of journalists of color feel isolated and alone in our desired profession, at Emerson, and in the overall career community. The small spaces for journalists of color, specifically Black journalists, is a lot to handle, McCallum says. “It makes me feel like there’s a lot of pressure on me to represent Black women or Black people when I’m in journalistic spaces.” As a journalist of color, not only do I have to work 10 times as hard to take a step inside the door, but I bear the responsibility and the pressure of leading a path for the women and journalists of color who follow behind me. The stereotype of “Janet Cooke” looms under me with many people expecting to fall into the same footsteps. With each step I take, journalists are watching and waiting for me to fall or slip—an added pressure to being a minority in a majority white space. “I know that there are walls put up to make sure I can’t get in but that’s not going to stop me from keeping on,” McCallum says. “Being a Black journalist is like—there’s so much power in those two words being put together because there’s so much I could do with that. I just wish all Black journalists, especially Black female journalists, know that.” X
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SIERRA ASHLEY LILY WALSH ANNA CAPPELLO FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO ANNA CAPPELLO JOSÉ BARRERA-AGUIRRE SABRINA HARRIS SIERRA ASHLEY AMANDA BENAVENTE SIERRA ASHLEY
Prelude (former aspiring socialite) : the door is closed and the walls are wet, nobody in the crumbling house thinks to bother her floating there with hooded eyes and heady thoughts, almost romantic watching the drugstore candle eat itself, almost aromatic naked girl, not naked enough. feels herself turn crustacean scared to be alone with a choked up drain shut down brain, oh it’s tomorrow’s mess let the room fill with minutes or a month, painless in a breath of smoke she takes herself apart and then far away to where it’s custom to bathe in creeks of green orphaned buttons… berries that stain EFS
Cadenza (i can’t sing but i hate the quiet) : i thought once that if i scrubbed hard enough maybe i’d find a secret treasure still sounds like the best thing you can be the prom i pretend i had is pirate themed
we sneak out the back to drink rum from a handsome cask
everyone tells forgettable lies and no one cries — there’s a hot wind
anyways my skin is red raw, stings in the wind coming under the door in through the cracks in the tile and there is no treat or magic or message in this body or yours so i’m eating my lips with teeth that could be surgical instruments listening to a city stuck on loop, the sound gets caught in the pipes so loyally under construction so royally feasting on itself, madness demolish that and nail this together again — it’s performance art it’s opera ghosts evicted, vows forgotten, dust cleared for just a breath — maybe a kiss
watch! as the players delight in changing their containers
clap! as they rip away the green carpet someone once loved fiercely; behold,
the parched hardwood beneath — naked as night and asking to be holy i’m asking for company and pretending i’m not i’m crying to myself and lying to the phone under the sink a bin of rubber turtles and headless barbies make progress on their moldy sweaters. i can admire this now
there’s a mood ring stuck on my pinky; it oscillates through jewel tones that
all mean i’m anxious. underneath it the skin has gone green, showing off
layers, dirt. salt scum barnacles, blood dried brown. grease soot rust. these are the textiles of age. I’m trying to get to know it all better — take it up under my nails for later
it’s these things that knock around my head, putting cracks in the tile
i would try to explain but i left the bath running
dress shirt CALVIN KLEIN silk slip OSCAR DE LA RENTA 69 INDEX
TAYLA DIXON SABRINA HARRIS
HAWA KAMARA AUSTIN HAND
QUEER! PUNK! FANTASY! RORY WILLARD
Queerness is a statement. Not one of disgrace, nor with less inherent value than non-queerness. It is simply a declaration of inner truth. Oftentimes the statement is warped by oppressive constructs and ideals imposed upon—and internalized by—the LGBTQ+ community, marking it with a sense of shame. For centuries the statement has been met with relentless stigma and vexation; yet, time and again, queerness refuses to succumb. At its core, queerness is a proclamation of unmitigated, unabashed, wall-to-wall liberation. The freeing state of true queerness is not something that meshes well with the constricting cultures of hetero- and/or cisnormativity. Despite claims born out of the domineering culture of “allyship,” the widespread “acceptance” of queerness hinges on a long list of conditions that keep the spotlight palatable for normative ideals. In the wake of ’80s LGBTQ+ uprisings against the establishment, normative culture spared no time refining queerness to fit society’s predetermined “rules,” drawing up a new set of identity politics under the guise of advocacy. From that point on, to be queer was to be gay; and to be gay was to conform to a reversed version of the gender binary. Erroneous as it was, the embrace of queer identity was grossly undermined by mainstream gay culture—one that kicked its own kin to the curb. But it wasn’t long until queer refugees found solace: just around the bend was the world of hardcore punk, the crowd of antagonists embodying all of gay culture’s greatest fears. From art to politics, punk offered a freedom that the liberal gay crowd never could. It was anarchy; it was the rage of the proletariat against the bourgeoisie; it was the reclamation of being cast away; it was the battlefield for anti-establishment assailants; it was the hidden space between all binaries of the world. Queer people were finally able to find power in their rage—a rage that had been forbidden by the well-behaved gay culture from which they had come. Through the do-it-yourself dogma of the punk scene, queers nose-dived into self-expression, reveling in their freedom to provoke and disgust without fear. Yet the empowerment at the heart of this culture would eventually fall short of universality as it expanded. Soon enough, queerness became a threat to the skinheads, macho-punks, and overall neo-nazi ideology beginning to usurp punk ideology. Queer punks were either “too queer” for punk, or “not queer enough” for the gay community. They were left with no option but to pretend
J.D.S ALONG WITH THE COUNTLESS OTHER ZINES IT INSPIRED PLASTERED THEIR PAGES WITH PORNOGRAPHIC PICTURES— PARTICULARLY OF MEN, DEBASING THE UBIQUITOUS SEXUALIZATION OF WOMEN’S BODIES. THEY WERE OFFENSIVE, AND THAT’S HOW THEY LIKED IT.
there was a world in which they belonged: so, they did. The mid-’80s saw the cultivation of Queercore: the subculture within a subculture, set upon restoring and amplifying the queerness of hardcore punk. It started with two queer punk outcasts, filmmaker Bruce LaBruce, and punk band Fifth Column’s frontwoman G.B. Jones, who took to the Toronto hardcore scene with nothing but a zine and a rumor. Copy after copy of their new publication, dubbed J.D.s, floated around the hardcore network, quickly forming what was an abstract idea into an actual community. And carrying out its most daunting feat,J.D.s and all subsequent Queercore outlets made specific efforts to repulse; to avoid being consumed.
Queercore dug down to the true roots of punk, unearthing the anti-homophobia, anti-transphobia, anti-racism, anti-sexism, anticorporatism, anti-cop, and general anti-assimilation attitudes that defined it. More importantly, it externalized the ruthless abjection that has swallowed queerness throughout time—and in this new world, nothing was off-limits. They echoed the slurs that had been thrown at them, made spectacles of their bodies, and paraded sexuality & gender fluidity in every conceivable form from music gigs to cinema. Lynn Breedlove, the front musician of Queercore band Tribe 8, famously wore a strap-on while performing and would invite straight men from the audience to suck on it as she performed. Vaginal Davis, an experimental Queercore performance artist, pushed drag to new levels with “terrorist drag,” stripping the art form of its glamour-camp characteristics. And, of course, J.D.s along with the countless other zines it inspired plastered their pages with pornographic pictures—particularly of men, debasing the ubiquitous sexualization of women’s bodies. They were offensive,
Queercore communities in the U.S., queer punks used high heels as tools of destruction, smashing cop cars at pride parades and dancing on their roofs. A $2,000 pair of shoes is hardly a tribute to Queercore’s anti-establishment, anti-bourgeois praxis.
The commercialization of Queercore by any means is a paradox. The imagelessness of the subculture and of punk as a whole is not
only a device to avoid capitalist exploitation. It is part of an effort to promote inclusivity. Queercore specifically belongs to those who have been exiled from society, looking only to express themselves
freely. The act of creating a standard to adhere to, no matter how
insignificant or unintentional it may be, is directly undermining that
principle—and undermining the very soul of queerness and punk.
The “queer” statement and the “punk” statement are one and the same: to embrace being a social deviant. They promote accessibility
for all, the fight against assimilation, and attempt to flip all designs
and that’s how they liked it.
of normativity on their head. The liberation of queerness, of punk,
Contrary to many punk subcultures of the late-20th century that closely
instead to become your truest most unashamed self. X
paralleled Queercore, Riot Grrl being one example, the movement’s aesthetic has stood its ground in the face of pop culture appropriation. Its deliberate work to uphold the anti-consumerist values have largely kept it out of reach. Even Kathleen Hanna herself, Bikini Kill front musician and creator of Riot Grrl, notes Queercore’s offensive anticapitalist design as a tool that kept it immune to the exploitation that movements like Riot Grrl suffered. They were proud deviants, contrary to their gay activist counterparts. And, unlike gay activism affiliates, Queercore evades any kind of branding, trademark, or icon. Granted, there are certain qualities and forms of self-expression that are considerably common within the subculture, but never has there been any set aesthetic or identity criteria to define it: nothing to exploit. It is a philosophy, a state of mind, and a way of life that cannot be successfully captured by outsiders. That said, there are many who attempt to recapitulate Queercore in some way or another, regardless of the inaccurate results—that is, if they even aim for accuracy at all. With the popularization of LGBTQ+ virtue-signaling, the word “Queercore” itself can be assigned market value—another component of queer culture, ripe for the plucking. The instances of Queercore appropriation are scarce, as many have come to understand it is a losing game, but they are not nonexistent. The most heinous occurrence could arguably be the 2017 Gucci resort collection fiasco. Gucci released a line of shoes literally entitled the “Queercore Collection”, though its connection to the subculture is rather questionable. The series of high heels and flats are made of colorful leather and snakeskin and adorned with several straps and ornamented buckles that share no apparent connection to Queercore. As it happens, G.B. Jones herself revealed in an interview with LGBTQ Nation that she received no notice nor compensation for the collection, despite being the co-creator of the movement. It was a disrespectful, inaccurate, and highly ironic move on Gucci’s part. During the early formation of
and of Queercore is the objection to worshipping any sole image,
QUEERCORE IS A PHILOSOPHY, A STATE OF MIND, AND A WAY OF LIFE THAT CANNOT BE SUCCESSFULY CAPTURED BY ITS OUTSIDERS.
SELFSTYLED e t r h a e kids t a h w ring these da y a s? e w
MERCER WHITFIELD MEERA SINGH
AMARÍS RIOS AMOGH MATTHEWS DOM LETTERII EVONNE JOHNSON GREG GAGER MARI CARDENAS MERCER WHITFIELD MONICA KEIPP NALANY GUERRIER NEIKO PITTMAN RACHEL GOMES RYAN RINALDI SABRINA HARRIS SEPTEMBER SCHULTZ SERGE GANTHIER TAYLA DIXON VICTORIA INTERIANO WESLEY DAYS EFS
TAYLOR YOUNG SABRINA HARRIS LAUREN DILLOW
Hookup culture has always been trendy in college. It’s one’s first bite of freedom, being out of the house with no parental supervision. Why have a relationship and be tied down to someone when you’ve only just begun living? After all, college is about exploring yourself and trying new things.
These casual sexual encounters are for the specific purpose of pleasure without emotional attachment. For many students, hooking up is the norm, everyone claiming “I’m in college right now. I’m not ready for anything serious.” But with multiple strings of partners and expectations, the dating style can often brew negative assumptions about those involved. Straight men who want to “just hookup” are often called “fuckboys” and women “sluts.” When they date around, they bring the assumption that they lie for sex, dress basic, and have misogynistic tendencies. And when they do end up wanting a monogamous relationship, they’re often perceived as incapable of being faithful. For women, there’s an air of being used and shameful, of oppressing one’s sexuality when they actually decide to use it. And ironically it is often these “fuckboys” that name women sluts in the
Is it part of “living your best life”? Is it the noncommitment? Is getting to know a person the problem? Or is it maybe an excuse to just have sex?
first place for the same unabashed enjoyment of sexual pleasure. The word “fuckboy” itself dates back to 2002 with the song “Boy Boy” by Cam’ron, rapping about how cool it is to be rich, do drugs, and sleep with a bunch of women. Since then, it’s spiraled into the guy who incorrectly believes they’re the epitome of cool, now titling songs by Hey Violet and BAUM.
But what is so alluring about the “hookup lifestyle”? Is it part of “living your best life”? Is it the non-commitment? Is getting to know a person the problem? About 80 percent of students hookup over the course of their college career, according to 2017 research by Occidental College in California, but few do it consistently, either sustaining long dry EFS
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LET’S GET REAL. WHAT NORMALLY HAPPENS IS YOU MEET SOMEONE, YOU LIKE THEM, YOU HOOK UP, AND ONE OF YOU GHOSTS THE OTHER. WHY DOES THIS HAPPEN?
spells or forming monogamous relationships at some point.
sometimes this lack of connection can lead to awkward situations when it comes to pleasuring your partner. “I’ve hooked up only once, and it was
Looking for love in sex tends to be a win or lose situation (mostly lose).
terrible,” Cason adds. “It was so boring because the person only knew
Let’s get real. What normally happens is you meet someone, you like
one position. And when I asked to change positions, the person was so
them, you hook up, and one of you ghosts the other. Why does this
happen? From my experience, it’s mostly caused by avoiding having to think about the encounter any more than the one night in question.
For others, hooking up just doesnt have that certain sparkle of appeal it
Especially if it wasn’t all that great.
does for those who partake, and that’s okay. “I’ve been in a relationship for two years, and it’s the happiest I’ve been,” says Peyton Longo. “Sure
“I’ve had mostly good experiences, and some not so great,” says August
there are ups and downs in our relationship, but as long as we have trust
Myers*, a student at Emerson College. “It’s very awkward to see them
and communication, it’s all worth it. I’ve never hooked up with someone
before, but I know friends who have. It honestly doesn’t turn out too well for them.” Casual hookups are not all bad. There’s no need to buy roses and chocolates on Valentine’s Day. No need to spend money on dates, transportation, or romantic gestures. People fit hookups into their busy lives because sometimes they simply don’t have the time for a serious relationship and all the effort and time it requires.
“When I came to college, I ended my serious relationship because I could not handle being in a long-distance relationship,” says Myers. “I mean, it’s hard. I respect people who can do it. But here, I’d rather fuck
In college, people are still trying to figure out who they are and what they need.
and get it over with. I just want to have fun.” Therefore, their relationship (or lack thereof) structures are based on Relationships may come with obstacles, but it is the people in the relationship that choose to make it work. Some people believe that dating and having a serious relationship is how we ultimately find our
what they desire at that time. And it’s bound to change a lot. If you want to hookup, go do it! If you want to be in a relationship, go find your person! Who are we to judge? X
future spouse. Scary. However, in a relationship, if you manage to find the one, why not give it your all? The con with relationships is always the effort, the uncertainty, and the vulnerability.
“I’d much rather have a relationship, but in the society we live in, college is a time to experiment. And by experimenting, they mean have sex with no emotional connection with different people,” says Noah Cason*. But 97 INDEX
*This is a pseudonym. The person indicated has chosen to remain anonymous.
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AMAYA INTERVIEWS AUGUST question
*August wishes to keep her last name anonymous
Why did you start stripping?
It’s an easy way to get money
And how long have you been in this business?
Two years, almost three.
How does one go about becoming a stripper?
In order to do it, you have to try out whatever club, whatever the
requirements are. It varies. In some clubs, you have to get a license or you go to the state and they take your fingerprints. Other states, other cities, don’t require that, so you can just walk into a club and try out. If you make it, you make it. You don’t, you don’t. Q:
And is there any training involved? And how long would that take?
No training. You do it all yourself.
Oh, wow. So did you take classes on the side to get better?
No. It’s just something you have. I don’t know. I feel like you’re born
with rhythm or you’re not. Q:
What does your average day look like?
I usually go into the club at 9 p.m. and work until about 4 a.m., on
weekends. Every now and then I’ll go in for a day shift, but it’s rare. A day shift is more mellow or calm. More businessmen on a lunch break or coming home from work or the retired crowd. The night shift is more of the party crowd. It’s packed. There are more people. They’re younger too. Q:
Okay, okay. And how much do you make in a night, on average?
It varies per night. It varies per person. You can leave with fifty dol-
lars or with two grand. It just depends on who’s there. Q:
Do you have a signature move or routine that you like to perform?
Haha. No, not really. It’s usually the same thing every time. I mean,
you get a little routine and you kinda just do the same thing. Q:
And are you friends with your fellow strippers or is there a community
within the industry? A:
Not really. You kinda just do your own thing. I mean, you’ll make a
couple of friends, don’t get me wrong. But strippers know people go to different clubs, people move, people stop dancing. Someone turns 18 every day. Q:
And would you consider stripping part of the sex industry?
Yes, I do. I mean, what sells more than anything? Sex and women, you
know. People come for that. You may not be having sex, but it’s all in the same kind of nature. It’s all some type of intimate interaction. It’s very hands-on. Q:
Do you think movies about stripping are accurate?
No. One hundred percent not.
What do you think they miss out on?
care what color you are. I mean, it has nothing to do with that. You have
I think the staple strippers in movies look like they do crack.
to look clean, present yourself, stuff like that. You can’t look dirty and
Most of them look like they don’t have any money or do anything. I think
work. Appearance has a lot to do with it. Personality—can your mind
a “normal” stripper is a normal person. I mean, half of them have normal
really do the job? Some girls get hired and then they cry their first night
jobs. You’ll have a lot of girls in there that are nurses. I worked with one
and never come back.
girl that was a f *cking kindergarten teacher during the day. A lot of them just do it for the extra cash.
Would say it takes a lot of courage and self-confidence to strip?
Yeah, I would say you have to have a lot of self-confidence. If
Do you think these misconceptions come from a lack of education?
you’re not really self-confident, I don’t see you doing well in this industry
I think it’s how media depicts strippers. I mean, a lot of people
think we’re very uneducated, not smart, but most people you see have college degrees.
Lastly, has the stripping industry changed since you’ve started?
Have you or others had to switch things up to keep the same flow of customers Q:
What are some things people assume about you because your job?
or has it stayed pretty consistent?
Oh, most people assume you’re very promiscuous or nasty.
Since I’ve started, California has implemented more laws for
That’s a good word—nasty. I get that a lot. A lot of people don’t want
stripping such as most clubs are now making it so that dancers have to be
you around their kids, just weird stuff like that. I mean, I’m not gonna tell
on payroll making minimum wage instead of keeping their own money.
your five-year-old, “Hey I’m a stripper. You wanna lap dance?” but… it’s a
I’m fortunate enough to work at a club where that isn’t a thing yet. As
very common thing. I’m pretty used to it by now. At first, it kinda used to
far as customers go, I’ve had the same regulars since I started, but like,
irritate me, but now I’m at the point where I mean it doesn’t really matter.
gained some more over the years. X
How do people react when you tell them about stripping?
My situation is very different from other people’s. My family
didn’t really care. I pay my own bills. I do my own thing. It’s not their business. I already lived on my own. A lot of girls that I know, they get disowned. Their family doesn’t really want them around anymore or they’re not allowed at family events. But my family is very open. Some of my family members have danced in the past, so they have no room to really say anything. Q:
What do you see for your future? Does it involve stripping?
I’ll probably dance for another five to 10 years. I mean, it’s all
just based on your looks: how healthy you are, how good you stay in shape, if you take care of yourself. Some women can do it up to almost 40 and they look great. You’re thinking that they’re in their late 20s. It’s all how you take care of yourself. Q:
Is there a specific routine that you or other dancers you know do to
stay in shape? A:
I think it varies. Some women work out at the gym. Some do
botox or lipo. It varies on what you really need. Personally, I think diet is a really big thing, too. Q:
Do you think that the stripping industry is diverse, in terms of
the people and body types you work with? A:
I think it is quite diverse. I mean, we have really, really skinny
girls. We have some thicker girls. Tall girls. Short girls. They don’t really 103 INDEX
“I MEAN, WE HAVE REALLY, REALLY SKINNY GIRLS. WE HAVE SOME THICKER GIRLS. TALL GIRLS. SHORT GIRLS. THEY DON’T REALLY CARE WHAT COLOR YOU ARE. I MEAN, IT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THAT. YOU HAVE TO LOOK CLEAN, PRESENT YOURSELF, STUFF LIKE THAT.” EFS
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There’s something about mid-to-late 20th-century cinema that simply can’t be matched in the modern age. The soft look of film stock and early digital cameras, the effortless yet nuanced color palettes, and the absence of modern communication technology grants us a nostalgic viewing experience—even for young Millennials & Gen Z’ers. But there’s one specific chapter of cinema that particularly generates this hypnotic effect: ’80s Hollywood. That is, the phasing out of romanticized domesticity in film. With the rise of blockbuster features and high concept plots, ’80s cinema was iconic for its exploration of sci-fi and thriller themes. Many of the most acclaimed feature films of the ’80s focused on new inventions and journeys across time—often to short-term futures like the ’00s and ’10s. The prospect of new technologies, intelligence, and social norms were fascinating to the creatives of the time; the 21st century was a terrain that had been little explored prior and with the growing boom of popularized technology filmmakers were eager to speculate the changes of the near future. Through set design, makeup, and costuming, the creative minds behind many cult films artfully relayed their predictions of future trends: some of the forerunners being the “Back to the Future” franchise and “Blade Runner.” These two represent a unique dichotomy, representing dystopian predictions of 21st-century politics and fashion. But while
both “Blade Runner” and “Back to the Future” have successfully inspired many Halloween costumes and concepts for modern films—how many of the featured looks are actually true to today’s styles? “Back to the Future” is one of the most beloved blockbuster sagas of the ’80s. The quirky franchise follows the adventures of an average teen, Marty McFly, and his mad scientist friend, Doc Brown, as they travel through time, solving several paradoxes doomed to alter the lives of generations past and present. Its sequel, “Back to the Future: Part II” partially takes place in the year 2015, where Doc and Marty find themselves in a futuristic Hill Valley, CA, on a mission to rescue Marty’s future son. But other than the flying vehicles, flashy buildings, and a “retro” ’80s-themed café, the 21st-century appearance of Hill Valley is frankly identical to Hill Valley circa 1980. The most significant change to indicate time has passed in the film are the outlandish wardrobes of 2015 Hill Valley citizens. The costume department spared no expenses in the production, dressing everyone in a cacophony of bizarre ensambles. The extras donned boldly garments in a variety of wild colors and prints, all embellished by some combination of shoulder pads, spandex, tulle, and eccentric accessories. They wore sash-type pieces made out of a rubber hose, hats designed to look like car spoilers, and high-tech body armor strapped to their legs and chests. The menacing antagonist gang are dressed to stand out among the extras, their ensembles display much edgier, even apocalyptic auras. Their dark and severe-looking clothing
The principle idea was that garments would adjust themselves to fit the
is ornamented with high tech gadgets, armor, and complementary
consumer’s body through sensory technology, as opposed to selecting
makeup. I’ve yet to witness the incorporation of metal panels, helmets, or
from various sizes and styles, so everyone could buy the same styles, was
tube sashes into streetwear, but that doesn’t mean all the styles of the film
way before it’s time. Marty McFly’s A.I. Nike shoes were a staple piece
can be written off as misconceptions. Several examples of the streetwear
in his trip to the year 2015, sizing perfectly to his feet to the amazement
in the movie can be seen today, though less extreme.
of movie-goers. The creative minds behind the film were incorrect with their deliberate fashion forecasts of techno-gear-meets-colorful-’80s-
Throughout the decade, runways were consistently packed with
streetwear but managed to accidentally envision 21st-century styles
inventive looks: the range in texture, color, and shape rapidly expanding.
through the technological advancements they assumed of our time.
From Vivienne Westwood’s new romantic style to Gianni Versace’s experimentation with metallics, ’80s high fashion exhibited an eclectic
Ridley Scott’s “Blade Runner” (1982) serves as a more successful
variety of experimentation. Designers bagan to play with gender neutral
example of ’80s fashion forecasting. Based in 2019, the film follows
styling and sexual liberation—one particular icon being designer
former policeman Rick Deckard as he hunts down a gang of dangerous
Jean Paul Gaultier. Famous for designing Madonna’s iconic cone-bra,
bioengineered humanoids who live concealed throughout society. The
Gaultier made several advances in bold gender expression before this
film emerged victorious in the pursuit to pin down futuristic fashion. Its
time (e.g., his legendary man-skirt featured in the 1985 collection “And
wardrobe and general art direction famously inspired a legion of 21st-
God Created Man”). This display of fluidity was rare during the ’80s, and
century runway looks, including John Galliano’s 2006 Dior collection
it goes without saying that such pieces made waves throughout several
and Raf Simons’ spring/summer 2018 menswear show. The city dwellers
generations of fashion. Even though it might not stand out as much as it
in “Blade Runner” are primarily dressed in dark colors, wearing either
did on the ’80s runway, the costume designers of7 “Back to the Future”
boldly constructed suits and long coats or glam rock-inspired streetwear,
undeniably used gender neutrality as a basis for their looks. The way
all of which were clearly derived from ’80s high fashion yet successfully
they saw it, gender neutrality in clothing was a measure of practicality.
reworked into innovative designs of today. EFS
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Obviously, “Blade Runner” didn’t achieve 100 percent accurate fashion forecasting. Actual time-travel would be required for that. The film’s major costume and makeup pieces (various trench coats, Rachel’s shoulder-padded blazer, or Pris’ ghostly skin and smokey eye look, etc.) do have a presence in contemporary “retro-inspired” collections, but they weren’t prevalent among 2019 fashion trends. But at the end of the day, the film’s costuming team must be given ample praise for their predictions. What’s more perplexing is that “Blade Runner” and “Back to the Future: Part II” were made within just seven years of each other. How is it possible that one film was so much more accurate than the other in terms of future fashion? To understand this, it’s crucial to look at our society as a whole rather than simply clothing itself. “Blade Runner” constructed its costumes upon two key concepts: ’40s and ’50s film noir and a near-future post-apocalyptic dystopian society. Though the two ideas lack temporal and stylistic correlation, together they illustrate the film’s premise—the intersection of technology and societal structures. Whether or not we’re aware of it, fashion has always been a political and social issue. Whether it means discussion of class, the distribution of goods, or freedom of expression, the world of fashion acts as a mirror to what’s going on in the world. Marketing professionals and creative developers take into account the economic, social, and political climate of their location and target audience for their company and individual stores, then translate their research into potential short and long-term style trends. Rather than just reviewing aesthetic trends of the past and present, trend forecasters put fashion into a larger cultural context. This can be a difficult task when attempting to look decades ahead, and requires developers to take multiple perspectives on how fashion is embodied in society. The burgeoning forecasters of the ’80s did what they could to peer into the future, taking special note of technological trends—and in many ways their predictions were accurate. But the reason for their overall failure was not related to ignorance or wishful thinking. There’s simply no way of knowing the state of humanity that far ahead in time. The designers of the time, for film and runway alike, gave all that they had to create original and fresh looks that embraced stepping into the unknown future of fashion. X
WHETHER OR NOT WE’RE AWARE OF IT, FASHION HAS ALWAYS BEEN A POLTICAL AND SOCIAL ISSUE.
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THE 1969 MOON LANDING DEFIED REALITY. Society limited itself to the narrow world around, never understanding what might be beyond, until the day when Apollo 11 touched the surface of the moon. Before that, popular culture was centered around cowboys and the idea of the wild west. But, when the eyes of the country started looking toward the stars, when the American obsession with the moon and the desire to beat the Soviet Union surfaced, American culture craved the impossible. They wanted to conquer space, a frontier never touched by those on our planet, fascinated by the concept of aliens, astronauts, and the wide-open hole of space. Americans craved a new type of future: a world with high technology and regular space travel. The unknown attracted our minds, our culture, and our fashion.
In 1968, Stanley Kubrick released “2001, a Space Odyssey.” The film explored how humanity could evolve in a world where evolution is survival. The movie followed a crew of astronauts foraging through space, and how the mission to reach the unknown became absolute. The movie followed David Bowman and Frank Poole as they are
sent into space, the film quickly becoming a battle between man and
moon landing, it gave Americans a sense of what space travel meant
the moon, with psychedelic cinematography that enticed the young American hippie population. The movie wanted the American people to engage with the concept of a life beyond. The inclusion of extraterrestrials in the film evoked a sense of an eerie evolution about human culture in space. The film breaks beyond our expectations for our own world. The birth of a sci-fi world evokes the question of what it’s like to leave our safe haven. The “Space Race” culture influenced the infatuation with the unknown universe. Even when the moon landing became successful, space still consumed popular culture.
The same year that Apollo 11’s 72-hour mission proved successful, David Bowie released the song “The Space Oddity.” The lyrics showed that Americans had a tangible way to picture the universe outside of earth. When Bowie performed “The Space Oddity,” he clothed himself in latex pieces that exhibited the idea of gender ambiguity and the unknown. He wore a black and white striped latex jumpsuit that flared out from the waist, creating an oval effect on the legs. This piece cemented itself in space fashion.
One of the pioneers of space fashion was André Courrèges. In 1969, Courrèges created collections dubbed “Space Age,” consisting of pieces that resembled the limitless possibilities of space through fashion. He created pieces that incorporated an astronaut’s suit while adding space-age themes that included a flair for space. They contained impressionable pieces that fused the future and the past, such as a sateen bunny white jumpsuit, a polka dot dress accompanied by a harness around the shoulder with sunglasses that resemble eyelashes, a white tank coupled with shorts as a two-piece with a bubble barrier surrounding it. He created the sateen bunny white jumpsuit accompanied by brass polka dots, which included two pronounced gold dots specifically over the breast. Not even a year later, in 1970, he developed a black and gold polka dot dress that resembled an eclipse. The black circle hugged the gold circle,
AMERICAN CULTURE CRAVED THE IMPOSSIBLE.
for human exploration. The film mirrored the arduous journey to
technology. Although the movie came out a year prior to the actual
shifting closer to it, but not fully covering it. Gold and black contrast each other, gold symbolizing the earth’s revolution around the sun. While the black patchwork circle curled around the gold orb, as if to remind everyone that they cannot control what happens in space. Its gold harness over the chest is mirrored in today’s fashion accessories with the harnesses people wear around their shoulders. But, each look needed a signature piece that forced critics and designers alike to take notice. Sunglasses with a closed eyelid and lengthy black lashes that dripped down the face became the obvious choice. This dramatic eyepiece became a staple in Courrèges brand. Over the top, as he created a dichotomy between earth and space. The eyelashes hint at the hypothetical alien form and curiosity with extraterrestrial life. They humanized fashion’s limitless idea of space. Later in his career, he created a piece that consisted of a white skin-tight twopiece. The tight white tank morphed seamlessly into the white shorts as if to replicate what astronauts’ space suits would look like as summer wear. He added flair to the ensemble with two transparent bubbles replete with blue polka dots that covered the head and torso. A nod to the astronaut helmets, Courrèges modernized them into cutting edge fashion. Americans followed suit in their own daily ensembles with skin-tight pieces being a favorite, the jumpsuits, or the mini skirt, which he is said to be the founder of.
The 1960s shifted fashion in American culture as clothing tried to keep up with the scientific advancements. The mini skirt, shift dresses, and knee-high boots altered the way women dressed entirely. Women were left behind in many space-age achievements, but as men ventured into the unknown, where did that leave women? With these pieces, women received a piece of clothing that allowed them to show more of their bodies. They defied the priggish American lifestyle, crossing over into unknown fashion territory for women at the time. Their bodies were on display. Bare legs jutted out from skirts, sexuality uncovered for the first time in contemporary fashion. The mini skirt became an instant staple of modern fashion, greeting space with uncovered legs. Mary Quant, a fashion icon of the 1960s, believed strongly in the youth movement about young people dressing to please themselves. It symbolized the concept that people in space and in the modern world are allowed the same liberations, and for 137 INDEX
America to finally realize that by breaking Earth’s fetters, they too
shattering space travel helped revolutionize female clothing as
could travel somewhere unknown. And so did the hemline. Popular
designers embraced the idea of going beyond the norm.
shift dresses sat freely above the knee, continuing the trend of women being allowed to embrace their shape. Shift dresses didn’t accentuate
Since “the Space Race,” America has engrossed itself with the
the feminine form, drawing a connection to the ambiguity of space.
possibility of more. Technology allowed us to do the unthinkable:
The 1960s waistless tent dress brought upon the idea that fashion
touch the moon. An obsession with space was born in pop culture,
was short, it freed women from a culture that stymied their bodies. A
the opportunity to showcase fashion helped fuse the reality with
shift dress diminished the idea of what women needed to look like to
the unimaginable beyond. We struggled to cope with the idea of
fit the patriarchal standards. Rather it gave power to the women and
a universe of possibilities beyond our tangible reality. The moon
began the 1960s venturing into the unknown of fashion and equality.
landing gave pop culture an opportunity to explore the niche subject of the unknown. The ideas were limitless. America obsessed over the
Equality can be seen through the invention of the knee-high boots. These shoes serve a utilitarian purpose as women could walk down any street with grime or filth and be protected. Women dared to walk the same path as men and feel like a fierce feminist. That form of fashion became desired as they began to embrace their potential to rival men. That idea began with the desire to get to space. The
possibilities of no confinements. X
AN OBSESSION WITH SPACE WAS BORN IN POP CULTURE, THE OPPORTUNITY TO SHOWCASE FASHION HELPED FUSE THE REALITY WITH THE UNIMAGINABLE BEYOND.
shoulder minidress PROENZA SCHOULER liza sequin dress STAUD 141 INDEX
n e m
m e l t n e e n G
direction & photo manage style
FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO JANE MORITZ FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO MAGENTA THOMAS JOSÉ BARRERA-AGUIRRE LAUREN DILLOW FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO CEDRICK EKRA JOSHUA CHWAN-EN SUN SERGIO CANA RODRIGUEZ PAYTON ANDISMAN
handmade jewelry by RAW INTENTION @rawxintention DIFFERENT BUGS @differentbugs OK OK TAY @tay.erianna
shirt COTELAC boxers CALVIN KLEIN boots LANGSTON
jewelry RAW INTENTIONS suit blazer BROOKS BROTHERS
dress BALENCIAGA necklace RAW INTENTIONS
beaded necklace OK OK TAY charmed necklace DIFFERENT BUGS bandana HERMÉS tulle shirt SHEIN tweed pants MARNI mesh top JEAN PAUL GAULTIER dress shoes BARNEY'S knit vest GEOFFREY BEENE chaps HARLEY DAVIDSON boots NEW ROCKS
direction photo style
ZACK LESMEISTER LETAO CHEN LETAO CHEN LAUREN DILLOW CHLOE WEISBERG TIANNA LOVERDE LORI LIU
YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT
NOW direction & photo
ROBERTO GENAO IVANIA RODRIGUEZ
NOB 163 INDEX
direction photo poetry manage makeup aura layout model
ANNA HAMRE JALISSA EVORA REJEILA FIRMIN FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO ANNA BROSNIHAN MAGIC JEWELRY NYC ZOË FENN FRANCISCO GUGLIELMINO REINA GARCIA
Passion Flower Underneath the moon you reside Your silk scarf, waist beads, high tide. The shore reflects a purple hue from the passiflora, as it fades to blue like your aura, you are an aurora.
Like the voice of Tanerélle, You’ve traveled through parallels, You must know the very pattern, Of Mama Saturn.
Your hands give life to the tarot cards you hold, As your inner wisdom and intuition, bring things to fruition.
Looking into your eyes, I am caught in a trance. The gateway to a constellation of limerence, a sensation so rigorously divine. Could it be that your femininity, has a luminous effect on me?
An ethereal woman, with a dreamy soul, holding her crystals, Manifesting her goals. r.f.
bandana VERSACE earrings SHEASOUL
Lotus Ponds With your palms open like a lotus, you invite the universe inside you. You are vast. Omnipresent. Yet only truly felt by a few. Don’t apologize to those who get lost in you. Every part of you has a story like a tattoo. Define your own femininity, or it’s theirs to misconstrue. Your lotus is a blessing, giving grace to everything you do. r.f.
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CO G FRANCIS
MOND TTE DRU O L R A H C LD WHITFIE MERCER A L NI LE KEO MICHEL SO A DONO CAROLIN S PERKIN RACHEL MINO L UGLIE JUANA G CAO GLORIA MANN LEA NEU RLY MKENNE CHANEL LINO LA AVE GABRIE ES R HODG ELEANO DALE ANYA TIS
dress SHERRI HILL
jeans ABERCROMBIE & FITCH boots H&M
coat DKNY jacket ANTHROPOLOGIE EFS
dress VINTAGE heels POLO RALPH LAUREN fur GARMENT DISTRICT
dress VINTAGE boots FASHION NOVA
jacket MAC TOOLS lace corset PERIME
sweater CLUB ROOM jeans RIDERS boots DOC MARTENS
tabi boots MAISON MARGIELA
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