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UPPER INTERMEDIATE


TOPIC C: A Changing World

TOPIC B: Science & Technology

TOPIC A: The Environment

CONTENTS 1 Quality of Life

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to evaluate Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening) Warm Up for Unit 2

p. p. p. p. p. p.

4 6 8 9 10 13

2 Natural Resources

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to recommend Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening) Warm Up for Unit 3

p. p. p. p. p. p.

14 16 18 19 20 23

3 Mother Nature

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to warn Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening) Warm Up for Unit 4

p. p. p. p. p. p.

24 26 28 29 30 33

4 Innovation

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to express surprise and disbelief Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening) Warm Up for Unit 5

p. p. p. p. p. p.

34 36 38 39 40 43

5 Communication

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to give advice Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening) Warm Up for Unit 6

p. p. p. p. p. p.

44 46 48 49 50 53

6 What the Future Holds

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to speculate Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening) Warm Up for Unit 7

p. p. p. p. p. p.

54 56 58 59 60 63

7 Poverty & Affluence

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to criticise and justify Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening) Warm Up for Unit 8

p. p. p. p. p. p.

64 66 68 69 70 73

8 Emerging Countries

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to express wishes and preferences Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening) Warm Up for Unit 9

p. p. p. p. p. p.

74 76 78 79 80 63

9 Globalisation

Experience A Experience B How to consolidate your vocabulary / How to express doubt and certainty Check Up Towards Certification (Focus on Writing / Use of English / Listening)

p. p. p. p. p.

84 86 88 89 90

The Inward Eye, pp. 93-96 FCE Practice Test, pp. 97-120 Appendices: 1 Irregular Verbs (p. 121), 2 Multi-part verbs (122-125), 3 Prepositions (p.126), 4 Punctuation (p.127)


Getting to know your workbook Workbook structure .................................................................................................................................... The Change Up! Workbook mirrors the structure of the Student’s Book so it contains a total of 9 units divided into three main topics. At the end of the workbook there are: - The Inward Eye, a series of activities to use alongside The Inward Eye literature section in your Student’s Book - a complete FCE Practice Test - four appendices containing lists of the most common irregular verbs and multi-part verbs, preposition charts and practical guidelines on how to use punctuation

Experience A and Experience B, two pages for each with: - a variety of exercises offering further practice to help you revise and consolidate the Grammar and Vocabulary in the two Experience sections in the Student’s Book Unit - Reading and Grammar based activities - Listening Comprehension activities - a Grammar and Writing task

UNIT

Unit structure .................................................................................................................................... 7 Poverty & Affluence Grammar and Use 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2

the results a study to dream a survey conducted a dream focus 15%

A B C D E F G H

4

of on of of about by of into

in-depth report into 1 We’ll now present an ________ the rise of crime in cities. 2 I think it’s ridiculous that you’ve created all this fuss over a __________ numerical error by a colleague, anyone can make mistakes, you know, and this one isn’t at all important. 3 In this week’s bestseller list our number one from last week has dropped a few positions and now __________ fourth. 4 This film is the __________ of the year, beaten only by Shadows of the Past. 5 We hope to see the __________ of this disease from the whole continent over the next five years. 6 The __________ from our logistics research indicate that it would be better for us to relocate in the city centre. 7 Excuse me Mr Thompson, I have a person on the phone for you who __________ to be an important client, but I don’t recognise his name or his voice. 8 I think winning that competition was a major __________ for your daughter. 9 Don’t be such a snob. Even a __________ office cleaner might be a genius, you can never tell, so stop jumping to conclusions about everyone. 10 We sent out this survey to about a thousand people but the number of __________ is disappointingly low.

Choose the correct preposition in each sentence.

Complete the text with suitable prepositions.

5

into We wanted to do some research (1) ____ spending patterns through the seasons, so we carried out hundreds of interviews with shoppers all (2) _____ the country. We think it’s the first survey (3) _____ its kind. We asked the shoppers to focus (4) _____ their main purchases for the current season. (5) _____ the whole people gave similar answers. I’d say about 85% (6) _____ them gave the same answers. Then we repeated the research three more times, once for each season. Again, nothing came (7) _____ a surprise, all the answers were very similar. The interviews were conducted (8) _____ trained marketing experts, so we think they are very credible.

Complete the sentences with a word or phrase from the box.

Complete the sentences with the correct word or phrase. 1 Look at the findings / success from our latest survey, there are some big surprises. 2 This magazine article claims / classes that we’ll all have more free time in the future. 3 Finding a new job is a popular ambition compared with / aspiring to travelling to another continent. 4 About 67% of people in the country / of the population said they would like more free time. 5 A few people expressed a desire for / excellence in a better home. 6 This candidate didn’t get many votes and came lowly / behind all the others. 7 Rachel and Ken got more votes than Ruth, who arrived in third position / over 33%. 8 A lot of children express as a specific aim / a desire for more time with their parents.

7

Complete the dialogue with words and phrases from the box.

S 2.10 Listen to the interview and choose the correct option. 1 Through history some people have felt that poverty was

I I I

A shameful B an end in itself C an achievement

2 The biggest difference among young people’s dreams is

I I I

A what boys look for in a family. B what girls focus on for their future. C how much money they want to earn.

3 Towards the age of 30

I I I

findings across the country compared with in-depth compare with ends in themselves as a specific aim a desire for Justin

Frances

Justin Frances Justin

Frances

Justin

Frances

Justin

A men start to think about a family. B girls start to want a career. C young people decide to buy a home.

4 In history, the specific aim of most people has always been to be

I I I

Frances, could you tell me about the findings from your survey (1) _________ into children’s attitudes? OK Justin. Well, as you know, the survey consisted of (2) __________ _______ interviews with a number of children. We had (3) _____________ ____ the discovery of what worries children today. Did you interview many children? Where did they come from? Oh, several hundreds from every region (4) _________________ . I see. And how do the children (5) _________________ adults? Are they worried about the same things? Absolutely not. Of course, everyone worries about friends and popularity. But a lot of children express (6) _________________ their parents’ approval. That’s much more important to children (7) _________ ________ adults for example, who worry about friends’ and colleagues’ approval. And what are you going to do with the findings? Are they (8) ________ _________ or are you going to use them for something? I want to put together a series of talks for parents and teachers based on my findings. Good idea!

8

A wealthy. B religious. C happy.

S 2.10 Complete the sentences with a preposition, then listen and check your answers. 1 Thanks ___ for coming along to speak _____ your book. 2 Man has always had a strong impulse _____ attain money and greater wealth. 3 Not just as an end _____ itself, but as a path _____ greater wisdom. 4 The biggest change, _____ course, has been _____ what girls focus _____ . 5 _____ today’s world, most girls still want a family, but they want to combine this _____ a good job.

Grammar and Writing 9

Use the notes below from a survey to write a report. Write at least three paragraphs and remember to: - explain the methods used and the aims; - examine each option and evaluate pros and cons; - make a proposal, recommendation. Write between 120 and 180 words.

Proposal: how to change school timetable: go home 1 Cut breaks and lunch hour and earlier? 2 Start earlier in the morning? cut 3 Or stay later two days a week and one afternoon? of Interviews: 250 students, about 40% option school total, to find out most popular 1, 35% of students’ interviewed, 45% said said 3, 18% said 2, 2% couldn’t decide.

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How to… , a section with suggestions, ideas and activities to help you: - develop and expand your knowledge of vocabulary. - consolidate your knowledge of the functional language presented in the How to... sections of the Student’s Book.

Towards Certification, a section containing FCE Cambridge ESOL style activities.

6 How to... ...consolidate your vocabulary VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT

1

Dan Peter Dan Peter Dan Peter Dan

2

complete failure other people’s advice be more independent demoralised bring some improvements making steps in the right direction

Jeff Jim

Jeff Jim

Jeff

CYCLING ALONG THE DANUBE

Stop at a different four star hotel every night.

Example: 0

I hope Doug will lend me his bicycle to go to town. BORROW I hope I can _____________ to go to town. The gap can be filled by the words “borrow Doug’s bicycle”.

1

I haven’t been to London since 2001 LAST The _____________ London was in 2001.

2

I haven’t got enough money to go to the concert. AFFORD I’m not going to the concert because _____________ it.

3

I’ve lived in London for two years. BEEN For two years _____________ in London.

A It has become indispensable.

My grandfather would take me to school every day in his car.

B It doesn’t work properly.

USED Every day _____________ me to school in his car.

C It has made life more complicated.

I’ve got a train to catch so I should leave soon.

D It has made the speaker more organised.

BETTER I’ve got a train to catch _____________ leave soon.

E The speaker doesn’t know how to use it properly.

With my mobile phone I can take great photographs.

Vegetarian meals?

Why don’t you give us a call or write to us?

Cost of holiday?

Write your letter. You must use grammatically correct sentences with accurate spelling and punctuation in a style appropriate for the situation.

Before Writing… a formal letter

............................................................................................................................

• Read the question carefully in order to understand who you are writing to and what reasons you have for writing the letter. • Read the prompts to understand what information you require. • There are four things that you have to ask. Make a plan using the prompts, and link the questions you must ask in a logical way.

2

Read the letter to the company and match notes A-D to the plan. Plan Introduction I Paragraph 2 I Paragraph 3 I Conclusion I

A Hotels – need information. Also dietary requirements. B Where I saw advertisement, why I am writing. C Please reply soon. D Bring own bicycles or does company provide them? Holiday overall cost?

Dear Sir / Madam, I am writing with reference to your advertisement in Travel Monthly. My husband and I are interested in the holiday you offer but I have some questions that I would like to ask you. Firstly, could you tell me if we have to bring our own bicycles or if they are provided by your company? I would also be grateful if you could give me more information about the overall cost of the holiday. Secondly, you say that we will stop at a different hotel every night while following the route. I would appreciate some information about a website that I could consult to get more details about the hotels. We do not eat meat or fish and I would like to know in advance if the hotels cater for vegetarians. I would be grateful if you could reply as soon as possible. Yours faithfully, Sybil Green

30

F The speaker takes it everywhere with him / her.

Speaker 1

1

AVOID I really _____________ a new laptop.

Speaker 2

2

I’m hungry, I haven’t had enough to eat.

Speaker 3

3

Speaker 4

4

Speaker 5

5

I really don’t want to buy a new laptop.

CERTIFICATION TIP Use of English (Key word transformations) ......................................................... Writing… a formal letter ............................................................................................................................ After reading the first sentence, look at the gapped sentence

A

CERTIFICATION TIP Listening (Multiple matching) .........................................................

• If you are referring to an advertisement, at the beginning of theand letter it is importantwhat to tell reader where you saw try to understand areathe of grammar is being focused on. Once you have written your sentence try not to it. Then you have to explain why you are writing. unnecessary mistakes. For example, check that the • If you are replying to a letter, the first thing you must do is tell make the reader why you are writing. verb agrees withisthemore subject and decide the style noun • In this letter the person you are writing to is not a friend and the relationship formal. Write inwhether a formal to reflect this relationship. Do not use contractions in a formal needs letter.to be in the singular or plural form. • Use the prompts to organise your letter, but remember that they are in note form. Try to be original in developing the prompts. Do not just ask the questions contained in the prompts, provide some detail and context. (I would appreciate some information about a website that I could consult to get more details about the hotels… / We do not eat meat or fish so I would like…) • Be careful about the length of your letter. Write between 120 and 150 words. If you write too little or too much you could be penalised. • When writing questions, avoid making mistakes with word order in indirect questions. (You asked me when we were 42 coming. not … when were we coming.) • Follow your plan and link the ideas together. Remember to use paragraphs. Look at the letter again and see how the writer makes it very clear that he is starting a new paragraph by leaving a space between one paragraph and another.

Need details

Our carefully selected hotels offer a wide selection of local and national dishes.

3

Before listening, look carefully at options A – F to try to predict what key words and phrases could help you to make your choice.

You must answer this question. Write your answer in 120-150 words in an appropriate style. You have read an advertisement in the magazine Travel Monthly, and would like to ask some questions about it. Read the advertisement and the notes you have made. Then write a letter to the company, using all your notes. Spend an enchanting weekend in a historic Scottish castle by Loch Awe. Take the opportunity to try traditional Scottish food.

Available for Christmas weekend?

Treat yourself to a relaxing boat trip on the Loch.

Details

Luxury rooms with en-suite facilities.

Costs extra?

For more details contact Castle Holidays

Single rooms?

After Writing… a formal letter

............................................................................................................................

• Check your work carefully for mistakes and then look at this checklist. • Checklist for a formal letter Have you begun the letter in the correct way, telling the reader where you saw the advertisement and explaining why you are writing? Is the letter written in an appropriate formal style? Is it of an appropriate length? Have you developed the prompts in an original way?

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS: formal informalletter email ............................................................................................................................ Beginning the letter • I saw your advertisement in yesterday’s edition of The Evening Express. • I am writing to complain about... • I am writing to enquire about / in response to / with reference to... Asking for information • Could you provide me with some information about... ? • I would like to ask you if you have some information about... • I read your letter in yesterday’s Daily News and would like to ask...

Jerry

Focus on Listening

TOPIC

Own bicycles?

Jerry Liz Jerry Liz

Oh Jerry, we’ve got that History test with Mr Smart next week, haven’t we? What do you think we’ll be asked to do? (1) I D I might need to study that period then. (2) I I guess you’re right. His tests are always so hard. What kind of test do you think he’ll give us? (3) I Do you think so? (4) I It looks like I’ll have to stay in on Saturday night to study. (5) I

Check Up 1

TOPIC

B

Look at Veronica’s story. Decide which phrases are correct and complete the story, adding any appropriate details.

The other day I came back home earlier than usual because my friend told me that everybody (1) I A was I B is going to a party (2) I A this I B that evening. I arrived at my flat and looked for my keys. To my surprise I couldn’t find them. _________________________________________

Where are the keys?

My flatmate was still at university so I couldn’t ask her for help. I had no money and had left my cell phone at home. I just didn’t know what to do. _________________________________________ . But then I decided that this wasn’t a good idea. I had only just moved into Eat sandwiches the flat, and didn’t know whether they would help me or not. I sat down and thought about what to do next. After about ten in rucksack minutes I (3) I A began I B begun to feel very hungry. ________________________________________________________

Ask a neighbour?

Get jumper

Still time for party

2

When I had finished (4) I A to eat I B eating, I opened up my rucksack again and took out some of my books. I decided to do some studying. In this way at least I could spend my time (5) I A to do I B doing something useful. Half an hour later it was getting cold so I put my books back. _________________________________________ . As I was doing this, I saw my cell phone. How silly of me! It had been in my rucksack all this time and I didn’t know. ________________________________________________________

Cell phone useful in emergencies

I phoned my flatmate immediately and she said that she (6) I A will I B would come back home immediately with the keys. ________________________________________ . I was so relieved. If I (7) I A didn’t have I B hadn’t had the cell phone, I (8) I A would have missed I B would miss the party.

Write about a time in your life when the cell phone, or another gadget, was useful to you in a difficult situation. Use some of the notes below if necessary. Then check your text using the correction grid on p. 9. Late for an appointment In a traffic jam In a boring situation – need to be entertained Need to film / record something Need to wake up earlier than usual Lost – need to get directions Need some information urgently Need to remember something important

Did you Know? .............................................................. • It can be difficult to learn to distinguish between the linkers if and whether. Most of the time either word can be used, but there are some situations where only one is appropriated. Read the examples below that illustrate when this is the case: Only if can be used in conditional sentences. If I had more money, I would buy a house in the country. Only whether can be used with the expression whether or not, or after a preposition. I want to know whether or not you are leaving for Edinburgh tomorrow. I am worried about whether you have had enough to eat.

39

TOO I’m hungry, _____________ little.

Get away from the smog and pollution and take in some breathtaking views while cycling around this beautiful area.

Jerry Liz

S 1.15 You will hear five different people talking about electronic gadgets that they have recently bought. For questions 1 – 5, choose from the list (A – F) how they feel about their recent purchases. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.

8

You must answer this question. Write your answer in 120-150 words in an appropriate style. You have read an advertisement in the magazine Travel Monthly and would like to ask some questions about it. Read the advertisement and the notes you have made. Then write a letter to the company, using all your notes.

Jerry Liz

Check Up, a section containing activities that will give you the opportunity to develop skills needed for checking your own written work and to verify what you have learnt in the Unit.

65

58

POSSIBLE My mobile phone _____________ to take great photographs.

Look at this writing task. Read the advertisement and the notes. What information about the holiday is needed?

Liz

What’s your new flat like? complete failure . So far it’s been a (1) _______________ I thought it’d be much easier to live on my own. Why are you so (2) _______________ _________ ? I should have listened to (3) ___________________ . I live too far from my family and friends. Isn’t it a nice flat though? Yeah, and I thought that it would (4) ___________________ in my life, but I get lonely, especially in the evenings when I’ve got no one to chat to. Well you wanted to (5) __________ _________ , and after a while, I’m sure you’ll feel that you’re (6) ___________ ________ .

Towards Certification

5

Focus on Writing - Formal Letter

A The chances are that it will be an essay question, rather than a multiple choice. B Well, I don’t think he’ll ever make it easy for us so it may be a good idea. C You can bet that we’ll all have a lot of work to do over the weekend.  D Knowing him, he’s bound to ask us something about the Civil War. He’s always going on about that. E In all probability yes, as you know he likes to get us writing.

For questions 1 – 8 complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. Here is an example (0).

7

1

Complete the conversations with phrases A-E.

Focus on Use of English

6

Towards Certification

4

Hi Dan. How is your gym class going ? (1) ______ Quite well, thanks. It’s too early to say though, I’m (2) _______________ . Are you (3) _______________ ? Yes, I’m quite satisfied, so far I’ve (4) _______________ . You certainly have, and you can see that you’ve (5) _______________ . Really? Thanks I’m (6) ____________ _______ that you said that. It seems to me that it has been a (7) _______________ for you. Well, it’s not only the gym class, you know. I’ve started to (8) ___________ _______ as well. None of that junk food for me any more.

Jim is talking to his friend about his new apartment. Complete their conversation.

Jeff Jim

Choose ten new words you have learnt in this unit and write a sentence for each one.

...to speculate

achieved excellent results eat properly going lost weight total success taking one step at a time really chuffed getting fitter Peter

4

4

3

3

Complete the conversation between two friends who are talking about a gym class.

C

Listening 6

in-depth second most popular achievement ranks eradication mere findings respondents lowly claims

1 I believe the Prime Minister has expressed the aspirations to / of the nation. 2 I really didn’t expect such a beautiful present, it came in / as a complete surprise. 3 Your answers are correct on / about the whole, just a couple of mistakes. 4 Your estimate is very low, market research into / by these sales suggests a higher figure. 5 People in towns about / across the nation were glued to their televisions yesterday evening. 6 We think our new 3-seater car is the first of / into its kind. 7 I had an amazing dream of / about a journey last night! 8 Please don’t be irrelevant, I really want to focus on / in just one subject right now.

3

TOPIC

EXPERIENCE A

Vocabulary

Match the words and phrases on the left with a suitable preposition on the right.

Giving information • You asked me to provide information about... • In response / reply to your query / question about... • With reference to your letter of (date)... Complaining • I am writing to complain about... • I would be grateful if you could refund the cost of... • To make matters worse... • I am not completely satisfied with the product / service... Ending the letter • Yours faithfully (if you begin the letter with Dear Sir / Madam) • Yours sincerely (if you begin the letter with the receiveir’s name e.g. Dear Mr Robertson)

31

Warm Up, a special section at the end of each Workbook Unit to help you get ready for what is coming next. This section contains activities to refresh your memory and your knowledge of the functions and vocabulary you may already have studied. It prepares you for new learning experiences and a new Unit in the Student’s Book.

Warm Up for Unit 3 1

Do this section before starting Unit 3!

TOPIC

A

Do this quiz. Can you match each fact with the appropriate animal?

Quiz

How much do you know about animal behaviour? A B C D E F G

Bat Hercules Beetle Camel Chameleon Chimpanzee Crocodile Dog

H Dolphin I Elephant J Goldfish K Penguin L Shark M Giant Tortoise N Wasp

Which...

1 … animal has a sense of smell that is 1,000 times stronger than that of humans’? 2 … is the only animal that can see infra-red and ultraviolet light? 3 … species of this animal can lift as much as 850 times its own weight? 4 … animal is able to change its skin colour to adapt to the environment? 5 … animal is immune to every type of disease and uses two thirds of its brain to smell? 6 … animal can live without food for many days or even weeks? 7 … animal is thought to mourn the death of another animal of the same species? 8 … animal uses signature whistles to communicate with other members of the species? 9 … animal has the longest life expectancy? 10 … animal creates tools from objects in the environment through observing others? 11 … animal is strong enough to hold up its body weight while upside down? 12 … animal always hunts for fish with the same group of ‘friends’? 13 … animal has a symbiotic relationship with a species of fig tree? 14 … animal has a stomach that is so strong that it can digest steel nails? Key: 1G, 2J, 3B, 4D, 5L, 6C, 7I, 8H, 9M, 10E, 11A, 12K, 13N, 14F

2

Match as many as you can of the following adjectives with the nouns below to describe some aspects of the natural world. You can use the words more than once. climate colourful dangerous endangered extreme independent intelligent loyal mild poisonous predatory rapid symbiotic symmetrical tropical wild

animal change climate deforestation pattern pet plant predator relationship species storm weather

symmetrical pattern

23


UNIT

1 Quality of Life -

EXPERIENCE A

Vocabulary

Grammar and Use

1

3

Complete the sentences with the words and expressions in the box.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form, choosing between Present Simple or Present Continuous.

the cost of living leisure and culture the environment health climate infrastructures risk and safety 1 It is vital that governments, both national infrastructures and local, invest in good _______________ for their citizens. It is impossible for a country to develop without them. 2 If __________ increases but salaries do not, then a country will enter into a depression. 3 With urban planning and architecture, it is important to consider both the needs of users and the local __________ – balconies and terraces are great in the sun, but useless in a rainy country. 4 Too many industrial accidents happen because __________ factors are not taken into consideration. 5 It is important to consider investing in both medical assistance and in education about prevention when planning a __________ budget and policy. 6 It is important that people have good __________ facilities to use in their free time. 7 We can all take care of __________ by being careful about what we buy, how we use it, and how we dispose of it.

2

At the moment my sister (7) __________ (study) for an important exam, and she (8) __________ (need) silence, so we can’t go to my house. Anyway, right now we (9) __________ (plan) a party for Dan’s birthday. We (10) __________ (try) to find someone who can be DJ for the evening but it isn’t easy. We (11) __________ (keep) our fingers crossed!

Copy and complete the word map with the words in the box. Try to add other words you know. tax rates unhealthy restaurants pricey greenhouse emissions dangerous temperature species life expectancy spend art gallery clean air motorway museum cell phone living conditions calories subway

Cost of living tax rates

Leisure and culture

Quality of Life Environment

Health

4

see (see) my friends at the weekend. I often (1) ____ We (2) __________ (love) to do things together. Sometimes we (3) __________ (go) round to my friend Dan’s flat, because he has a huge living room where we (4) __________ (can) sit together and chat. His parents (5) __________ (think) of moving to a smaller flat. Dan (6) __________ (be) not very happy about that!

Infrastructure

Risk and safety

Climate

4

Underline the correct option. (1) I called / ’ve called Pat yesterday to ask about her new house. When she (2) was / ’s been a child, she (3) lived / has lived in the country, but she (4) just bought / has just bought a flat in the city. I (5) was / have been curious to know if she likes city life. She says that when she first (6) arrived / has arrived she (7) found / has found the noise disturbing but now she (8) got / has got used to it. She (9) went / has been to the theatre twice last week, and so far this week she (10) went / has been to the cinema and to see an exhibition. She says she (11) loved / has loved the country as a child, but wants a change now.


TOPIC

5

Choose the correct option for each sentence.

6

A

Match each sentence with its function.

A describing a state or permanent fact B talking about habits and routines C talking about events in progress now D talking about present events which are not permanent E talking about past events with a specific time reference F talking about past events with no specific time reference G talking about events which started in the past and are not finished H talking about events in the very recent past A I

I I I I I ‘ve wanted to visit the Far East, All my life (1) I __________ it really fascinates me. So last month when I finally (2) ______________ to save some money, I (3) ______________ to see my travel agent. I now (4) ______________ about seven catalogues to look at! I (5) ______________ the first three, and at the moment I (6) _________ _____ the fourth one. I (7) ______________ of a tour that includes three different countries, but I (8) ______________ yet. I (9) ______________ I have enough money for it! 1 A C 2 A C 3 A C 4 A C 5 A C 6 A C 7 A C 8 A C 9 A C

want wanted manage managed go went have had read (present simple) read (past simple) read (present simple) read (past simple) think thought don’t decide didn’t decide hope hoped

B D B D B D B D B D B D B D B D B D

‘m wanting ‘ve wanted ’m managing ’ve managed ’m going ’ve gone ’m having ’ve had ’m reading ’ve read ’m reading ’ve read ’m thinking ’ve thought ’m not deciding haven’t decided ’m hoping ’ve hoped

I I

1 I really believe public transport should cost less. 2 My sister has visited Japan several times. 3 I always have coffee for breakfast, never tea. 4 We’ve lived in this house for ten years. 5 I’ve just had a call from Peter about the party. 6 Susan’s studying to become a physiotherapist. 7 They put the price of petrol up again last month. 8 I’m staying with my mum until the work on my flat is finished.

Listening 7

S 1.02 Listen to the radio interview with a local town councillor and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F). T F 1 Mr Brown is the local mayor. 2 The local council has decided to raise taxes. 3 The council were happy about this. 4 The council has bought some new buses. 5 Volunteers do shopping for the elderly and people with disabilities via Internet. 6 The council has decided to do more about recycling rubbish. 7 People have to take responsibility for dividing the rubbish into different containers.

 I I I I

I I I I I I I I I I

Grammar and Writing 8

Write a paragraph (about 80 words) about what you think are important factors for a good quality of life. You can use some of your ideas from Pair Work activity 7 on p. 12 of your Student’s Book.

5


1

EXPERIENCE B Vocabulary 1

Complete the adverts with words from the box.

3

cottage garden car park situated flat kitchen / dining room bedrooms floor 1 To rent: small two-bedroom ________ cottage with garden in country village. 2 Fourth floor __________ to rent – four bedrooms, bathroom and living room / kitchen. Ideal for students. 3 Detached house with living room, kitchen, three __________ and two bathrooms for immediate sale. 4 Small detached family house with front and back __________ and garage for sale. 5 Studio flat to rent, ideal for professional person, near city centre on third __________ of new apartment block. 6 Various flats to rent near university, no garage but large free __________ nearby. 7 Semi-detached house with living area, __________ , two bedrooms and two bathrooms, apply for details. 8 For sale – large flat __________ near park ask inside for more information.

detached house, a real We’ve just bought a (1) _________ change from our previous flat. It has a really (2) __________ garden – the previous owners were expert gardeners. On the ground floor there’s a (3) __________ kitchen which I love. My previous one was so small! There’s also a living room which is (4) __________ for the family, lots of space for all of us! We don’t have a garage but we have a (5) __________ parking space in front of the house. There are three bedrooms, two single and one (6) __________ room, and two bathrooms. I hated the noise near our flat, so I’m really happy to live in a (7) __________ area at last. And although it’s quiet, it has (8) __________ shopping facilities nearby, with everything we need.

Grammar and Use 4

2

Read the descriptions of the houses. Underline the adjectives and decide if they describe something or express an opinion.

describe

small

express an opinion

1 This small detached house has a beautiful front garden. 2 Flat situated in city-centre with large rooms and elegant furnishings. 3 Flat with two bedrooms for rent, excellent choice for students. 4 Pretty cottage in the country available for holidays, sleeps six. 5 Spacious flat in quiet area of town, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, double garage, ideal family home. 6 Studio flat with private parking space for sale, interesting price. 7 Eighteenth-century house in rural area for renovation, for sale at auction. 8 Flat in centre of town for rent, local shops and bus stop nearby.

6

Use some of the adjectives from exercise 2 to complete the following text.

Underline the correct form. 1 I have to go, my bus leaves / will leave in five minutes. 2 Did you know that Marta has / is going to have a baby in the spring? 3 Oh no, look at those clouds. If you ask me, it’s raining / it’s going to rain. 4 Susan is moving / will move house next weekend, what a nightmare. 5 Come on, let’s go to the station. Mark’s train arrives / ’s going to arrive in fifteen minutes. 6 Your new job sounds great, I’m sure you’re really enjoying / you’ll really enjoy it. 7 I’m having / I have a party next Saturday, would you like to come? 8 I think computers are being / will be tiny in twenty years.


TOPIC

A

Reading and Grammar 5

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future form. going to hit (hit) that car! 1 Slow down! You ‘re _____________ 2 I think I __________ (go) and see something at the cinema on Sunday. 3 Janet and Amir told me that they __________ (buy) a flat in the centre of town. 4 Katie isn’t feeling too well, but she __________ (see) her doctor after lunch today. 5 I have to go now, my train __________ (leave) in an hour and it takes me fifty minutes to get to the station. 6 I __________ (make) the dinner in a minute, do you fancy pasta or rice? 7 I think technology __________ (concentrate) on saving the environment over the next century. 8 I really want to pass this exam – I __________ (work) really hard on it.

6

Match the sentences and the functions. A future arrangements B future intentions C predictions 1 I have an appointment at the dentist this afternoon. 2 We’ll never finish this on time. 3 I’m going to have a really lazy weekend. 4 Our group is meeting tomorrow to discuss the problem. 5 Pete is seeing Jackie this evening. 6 I think you’re going to do well in this exam. 7 It’ll probably rain tomorrow. 8 I’m going to take some sandwiches tomorrow.

7

A ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Complete the sentences with enough, too or too much. 1 I think this price is low enough for us to make an offer on the house. 2 Do we have __________ money to buy a flat in the centre? 3 Look, it’s just __________ expensive for us, we can’t afford it. 4 I don’t think this house is close __________ to my work for me. 5 The flat is in really bad condition, it needs __________ work on it for me. 6 There’s __________ crime in this area, I don’t want to live here. 7 They have three children, this flat is __________ small for them. 8 If the house isn’t big __________ , you could build an extension.

8

Underline the correct option to complete the text.

Welcome to our web site. Thompson & Winter are the estate agents who know what’s best for you. Here are our top tips for home buyers: • Check out the location. If you can’t get to work and your kids can’t get to school, your house may soon become a very (1) ideal / expensive / spacious nightmare. Get a map, and mark the places where you need to go: (2) city centre / living room / garage? School? Railway station? This is your starting point. • Now think about (3) front gardens / car parks / infrastructure: what do you need? Supermarkets? Hospitals? Public transport? If you have to spend hours travelling to get services you need, it’s going to be a (4) beautiful / big / quiet waste of time. • What quality of life do you want nearby? (5) Quiet / noisy / ideal streets and parks? Pubs and clubs? You (6) are not enjoying / aren’t going to enjoy / don’t enjoy life in your new home if all your neighbours have a completely different lifestyle. • Now, what about the house? How many rooms do you really need? Can you get by without a spare bedroom or a dining room? They add a lot onto the price. Is the garden (7) too / too much / enough big for you? Talk it over with your family. • Price – have you really got (8) too / too much / enough money to make an offer? Remember that buying a house has hidden costs – expert evaluations, legal fees, and so on.

7


1 How to... ...consolidate your vocabulary VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT Revising new vocabulary or expressions by putting them into a context, especially one that is familiar to you, will help you to remember the new words more easily. You will also have more of a chance of understanding them in further reading or listening activities and of using them correctly when speaking or writing.

1

Alan and Susan are going on holiday by coach. Complete their conversation. air conditioning arrive in no time breathtaking view cost an arm and a leg costs next to nothing cramped delay refreshments get the connection hold-ups keeps you fit no room to move around time-consuming traffic jam Alan Susan Alan Susan Alan Susan

Alan Susan

Alan

Susan Alan

2

I can’t wait to start this holiday. How long have we got before we get there? get the connection to Lisbon. About another two hours before we change coach and (1) _________________ There’s (2) ____________________ on this coach. I feel so (3) ____________________ . I know … and I’m so thirsty, there are no (4) ____________________ , we’ve already been travelling for four hours. This journey is just so (5) ____________________ . We should have got the plane, you (6) ____________________ . I know, you’re right but we agreed … you remember? This coach journey (7) ___________________ and at least the coach has got (8) ____________________ , otherwise it would be even more hot and uncomfortable. The plane is more comfortable though, and with these cheap flights they have nowadays, you know … if you book on the Internet, it doesn’t (9) ____________________ . We’ve already talked about this. We weighed up all the options! There’s no point in talking about it now, if we don’t have any (10) ____________________ we’ll be there soon. Why don’t you look out the window, there is a (11) ____________________ ? Yeah, there’s some nice scenery. But we’re stuck on this coach and can’t really enjoy it. Next year we could go on a cycling holiday, or something like that … , something that (12) ____________________ , that would be really great, then we could enjoy the view. Let’s just enjoy this holiday first. Yeah, I suppose you’re right, but ... oh no! We’re stopping again, it’s another (13) ____________________ ! Now we’re going to have another (14) ____________________ .

Choose ten new words or expressions you have learnt in this unit and write a sentence for each one.

...evaluate 3

Complete the conversation with phrases A - E. A Well, weighing up all the options I agree with you. Let’s go and book it. B Anyway we’d have to take some medicine with us just in case, though I don’t think we’ll need it. C That’s a point. On the other hand, it will be in the summer and it is the Mediterranean.  D Well, there are other possibilities, although I think a cruise would be good value for money. E I think it would be the best choice, just taking it easy. We really need a stress free holiday. Jane Well, what do you think? Shall we book this cruise or not? Richard (1) I D Jane Yeah, with these special offers for children it’s quite economical, but what about the kids? If the weather is bad they may get sea-sick. That would really ruin the holiday for them. Richard (2) I Jane Yeah, you’re probably right. Richard (3) I Jane Yeah, it’s probably best to be prepared. Have you read about all the things the ship offers, there’s a gym to keep you fit, the cabins have air conditioning, and the sleeping areas look quite spacious. Richard (4) I Jane: Let’s go. I’m fed up with travelling by plane, all the hold ups and delays … Richard (5) I

8


Check Up 1

TOPIC

A

Look at some phrases from Jacobo’s email to his penfriend Ian, inviting him to come and stay. Decide which phrases are correct and then complete the email, adding any appropriate details.

(1) (2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

I I I I I

A Dear Ian,

I

B Dear Mr Ian,

A I haven’t seen you since ages. B I haven’t seen you for ages.

A The last time I saw you has been in the Spring of 2007. B The last time I saw you was in the Spring of 2007. _________________________________________________________________

Tell Ian you live in a new town

I I

Invite Ian

I I

Give more details to describe the house

A You haven’t seen ever my new house. B You haven’t ever seen my new house. _________________________________________________________________ A My house is enough big for guests. B My house is big enough for guests. _________________________________________________________________

I I I I

A B A B

I

A Yours sincerely,

The area I live in is not too chaotic. The area I live in is not too much chaotic. (7) As you are from London, I think you would appreciate this peaceful area. As you are coming from London, I think you would appreciate this peaceful area. _________________________________________________________________

(8)

I

B Best wishes,

Ask Ian to reply

Jacobo

2

Look at the picture of this house and the notes below and write a description. Then check your text using the correction grid. ion – Situated in centre – near railway stat five minutes from park Two bedrooms – two floors – one – fully bathroom – lounge – dining area ago – r yea one d ture furnished – restruc t fron – car garage – space for one – garden – peaceful neighbourhood price negotiable

– spelling mistake

WO

– word order – grammar error – missing word(s) – extra word – punctuation

Did you Know? ............................................................................................................................. • Many grammar errors are made in making the choice between the Present Perfect and the Past Simple. Look at these two sentences and compare their meaning. I worked at the factory for two years. (= The person no longer works at the factory.) I have worked at the factory for two years. (= The person is still working at the factory and began working there two years before.)

9


1

Towards Certification Focus on Writing – Introduction 1

Read this review. Are there any ways you think it can be improved? Make some notes of your observations. Notice that some mistakes are highlighted. I like Ice Extravaganza. The dancers are really good and even if I have heard the songs many time before I really enjoy to listen them again. The performance is certainly spectacular as the performers are profesional dancers. They are much better, than me. I always fall over. For the dancers it rappresents an opportunity to show their skills without to have the pressure of a competition. They're relaxed and it looks like they're having a great time. It's also great fun to hear such great music, and to admire their great clothes. The atmosphere in the place is great, and people of all ages come to the show. There are some things that could be improved, however. I feel that more time should be dedicated to the actual dancing. After each song the presenter comes on to tell jokes and this takes too much time up and is frustrated for the audience who have come to see the dancers and not comedian. The performance was entertaining for young and old people. After the show I had an enjoyable dinner at a nearby restaurant where I talked with the my friends about the performance. Maybe they will come next year.

2

Now look at these comments on the review and see if they are similar to your observations.

What type of text are you writing? A person reading this review would expect to read a description of the show, to learn about the good points and the bad points, and to be given a recommendation in order to know if it is worth seeing. Although this review highlights the good points and bad points, a conclusion that provides a recommendation is missing. The following conclusion would be more appropriate. Having said this, I would recommend this performance to anybody who wants a couple of hours of entertainment. The show is appropriate for all ages and is good, harmless fun. In general, when writing a text remember - each text type has a specific format and its own set of conventions - an email or letter requires you to ask the reader questions and supply information - a report provides the reader with the details of an investigation and gives opinions on any action that needs to be taken - a short story has to attract the reader’s attention by using an interesting plot, colourful language and creating suspense and / or humour - an article is written for readers of a newspaper or magazine and should catch the attention of the reader, and include the writer's personal opinions - an essay develops ideas on a particular subject in a logical and objective manner

Should I use formal or informal English? In this review the writer uses both styles and is therefore inconsistent. Look at some examples taken from the text: I really enjoyed listening to them again (formal alternative: It was really enjoyable to listen to them again) They're relaxed (formal alternative: They are relaxed) There are some things that could be improved (informal alternative: They could improve some things) Maybe they will come next year (informal alternative: Maybe they'll come next year) In general, when writing a text remember - some texts require informal language, others a more formal style - some of the features of formal written English are: contractions (I’m, you’re) are not used the style is more impersonal the passive form is more common formal linkers are used (however rather than but) - reviews, articles and stories can be written in either formal or informal language, as long as the style is consistent - an email or letter can be written in formal or informal English, depending on who the reader is (formal style for a college principal, informal style for a friend) - in essays and reports formal English is more appropriate

10


TOPIC

A

Who are you writing for? The first paragraph of this review gives the reader no idea of where the performance took place, who the dancers are and what songs the writer is referring to. The following introduction would be much more appropriate. I saw the musical Ice Extravaganza recently. It is a live show that attracts people from all over the country, who come to see talented skaters dancing to songs that have been successful over the previous year. In general, when writing a text remember - always bear the reader in mind - do not assume he / she knows things you do not refer to explicitly - decide what he / she needs to know in order to understand the text (e.g. if you are writing to a potential employer, you need to give more information about yourself than you would to a friend)

Does your writing have a clear structure? This review is not divided into paragraphs and this makes the text difficult to follow. For example, a new paragraph would be appropriate when the writer starts describing the show and when he / she talks about the negative aspects. Another paragraph is needed at the end of the review to gather the writer’s concluding comments and recommendations. In general, when writing a text remember - it is necessary to guide the reader, for example by organising the content into paragraphs - it is necessary to connect the various parts of the text, for example by using linkers (moreover indicates that extra information has been added, however expresses a contrast)

Is your writing accurate? The following mistakes are highlighted in the review: Grammar: many time before – many times before; enjoyed to listen them – enjoyed listening to them; without to have – without having; frustrated – frustrating Word missing: not comedian – not a comedian Extra word: I talked with the my friends – I talked with my friends Spelling: profesional – professional; rappresents – represents Punctuation: They are much better, than me. – They are much better than me. Word order: this takes too much time up – this takes up too much time In general, when writing a text remember - always leave time at the end to check for errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, word order, missing or extra words - be aware of habitual mistakes that you make, so that you can check for them when you finish

Are you using a variety of vocabulary and grammatical structures? An example of lack of variety of vocabulary in the review is the repeated used of the word great, which could be avoided in the following way: It is also great fun to hear such wonderful (instead of great) music and admire their stunning (instead of great) costumes. More specific vocabulary could also have been used in the following cases: costumes instead of clothes, arena instead of place, skaters instead of dancers. The opening paragraph proposed in the section Who are you writing for? illustrates how a varied range of structures could be used. In general, when writing a text remember - it is important to use a range of vocabulary and to demonstrate a good command of different grammatical structures - it is important to use topic-related vocabulary - a knowledge of collocations is also useful (electric atmosphere).

Is your writing interesting and relevant? The following parts of this review are unnecessary because they do not provide any useful information: They are much better than me. I always fall over. ... After the show I had an enjoyable dinner at a nearby restaurant where I talked with some friends about the performance. Maybe they will come next year. In general, when writing a text remember - give your written work enough details to make it interesting - at the same time, be careful not to write irrelevant content which lengthens the text and makes it more difficult to follow.

11


1

Towards Certification Focus on Use of English For questions 1 – 12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A new start suitable accommodation. Although My first days at University were both exciting and worrying. My first task was to find (0) _________ it was my first (1) _________ at living on my own, I had a (2) _________ of adventure and I chose a place far from the familiarity of home. My advice is firstly to look (3) _________ university accommodation as it is usually more affordable. If this is not possible read the notice boards in the University campus. You will find a considerable (4) _________ of messages offering a wide variety of (5) _________ accommodation. If you value your privacy, you could look for a bedsit. As you can (6) _________ , bedsits in University towns do not come cheap but there are many (7) _________ that you can turn to if you are interested in this option. Finally another thing that you could consider is to find lodgings outside town, where accommodation is cheaper. If you want a peaceful neighbourhood where you can do your studying, this could be the (8) _________ for you. Be careful, however, to (9) _________ that the area you are interested in is well (10) _________ by public transport. You need to find something that is only a bus ride (11) _________ from the University. This is the kind of accommodation that I found and I felt that I was able to study better in a rural (12) _________ , far from the distractions of student life.

Example: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A A A A A A A A A A A A A

right effort feeling for amount divided imagine offices choice check organised far context

B suitable B trial B sensation B through B degree B combined B realise B salesmen B selection B verify B connected B long B background

C correct C attempt C passion C around C number C shared C feel C companies C decision C control C furnished C along C setting

D exact D struggle D sense D over D total D group D know D agencies D action D see D provided D away D environment

CERTIFICATION TIP Use of English (Multiple-choice cloze) .......................................... Read the text through to understand the general meaning. While reading a second time, fill in the gaps which are easiest first. This will give you more context with which to understand the text, and the more difficult gaps should be easier to fill.

Focus on Listening S 1.03 You will hear a radio show about favourite holiday destinations. For questions 1 – 10, complete the sentences. 1

According to the radio poll, the Maldives and the Seychelles were preferred by who are more adventurous.

2

Spain was chosen by Danielle Barton, because of the In Spain the

3 are also very sophisticated. 4

The most popular region in Spain is the Andalusia region because of its Sean Rogers, the travel advisor for the programme, recommends going to

6 in Malaga.

To get from A to B there is an It manages

areas.

5

7

in the region. However,

8

are quite expensive. Although Spain is a large country it has a population of only Sean Rogers advises listeners not to think of Spain in terms of its

9 10

CERTIFICATION TIP - Listening (Sentence completion) ............................................................................................................................. Before listening, make use of the time given to you to read through and predict which missing information is required. This will help you to decide what you have to focus on when you listen. For example, you may have to find the name of a place, an object or you may need to understand a number.

12


Warm Up for Unit 2 1

Do this section before starting Unit 2!

TOPIC

A

Do this quiz to find out how much you know about how we waste and misuse natural resources. Choose the correct option.

Quiz

How much do we waste?

1 Over

a 30% b 50% of household waste can be recycled.

2 The average American consumes a four b five times more energy than the average global citizen.

3 Indoor lighting use is highest during the hours of a 9am to 5pm b 5pm to midnight.

4 Every year, the average dustbin contains enough unused energy for a 2500 b 3500 showers.

5 Between 1850 and 1970, the number of people living on Earth more than a doubled b tripled – yet the energy they consumed was 12 times higher.

6 Glass can be recycled again and again with no loss in quality or purity. Glass containers go from recycling bin to store shelf in as little as a 30 b 40 days.

7 The average global temperature in 2005 was 14.6 degrees Celsius, making it the warmest year ever recorded on Earth’s surface. The five warmest years since record keeping began in 1880 have all occurred since a 1997 b 1998.

9

It is estimated that almost one million plastic bags are used a a minute b an hour in the world we live in today.

10 130 million a cell phones

b televisions are thrown away each year in the world.

11 The electrical appliance in the home that uses the most electricity is the a dishwasher b refrigerator.

12 Global wind power capacity jumped 24 percent in 2005, to nearly 60,000 megawatts. The growth in wind power capacity was nearly a three b four times the growth in nuclear power capacity.

13 Over Christmas, as much as a 33 b 83 square kilometres of wrapping paper will end up in UK rubbish bins.

14 A tap that is not turned off properly can waste as much as a 80 b 90 litres of water a week.

15 The energy saved from recycling one glass bottle will light a 100-watt light bulb for a three b four hours.

8 Economic damage from weatherrelated disasters hit an unprecedented $204 billion in 2005, nearly a double b three times the previous record of $112 set in 1998.

2

Key: 1b, 2b, 3a, 4b, 5b, 6a, 7b, 8a, 9a, 10a, 11b, 12b, 13b, 14b, 15b.

How do you use natural resources? Match as many as you can of the following words and expressions to illustrate ways that you use energy on a daily basis. catch a bus catch do drive have listen to make phone play recharge turn on wash

the lights the TV a / the bus the car the washing up a shower a bath a video game (the) music a / the battery the computer a / the train the housework a / the tap the cell phone a friend the camera the MP3 player (the) dinner a phone call

13


UNIT

2 Natural Resources -

EXPERIENCE A

Vocabulary 1

Complete the sentences with an expression from the box.

3

preparing food using electrical equipment shopping having a bath throwing away rubbish washing clothes cleaning the house travelling preparing food 1 People responsible for ______________ should always wash their hands. 2 I always wear an old tracksuit when I’m __________ , and then I change afterwards. 3 Take bags with you when you go __________ and avoid using supermarket plastic bags. 4 Keep water away from you when __________ , contact can be very dangerous. 5 If you can do your __________ by public transport, you pollute less than with your car. 6 When __________ don’t use more than ten centimetres of water. 7 If you are __________ , try to use natural soaps and avoid bleach. 8 Remember to respect recycling categories when __________ .

2

Look at the words below and transform them into nouns with one of the endings in the box. -ment -ion -ation -ence / -ance -ity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

14

opportune generate heal authorise pollute different situate apply consumer govern

-ism -th

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Choose the correct word, ending in -ing or -er, in each sentence and decide for each word if it is a noun, a verb or an adjective. 1 If you exercise regularly, you’ll feel much fitting / fitter. 2 There are many natural remedies to help sufferings / sufferers of various illnesses. 3 The new heating / heater is broken already; take it back to the shop. 4 We should really try to avoid using plastic carrying / carrier bags. 5 Try to buy fittings / fitters in natural or recycled materials for your home. 6 A lot of unnecessary environmental suffering / sufferer is caused by our waste products. 7 When it’s a little cold, try putting on a sweater instead of turning up the heating / heater. 8 If you aren’t carrying / carrier heavy loads, try walking instead of driving to places.

4

Complete these sentences with words from exercises 2 and 3. 1 A poor diet can cause unnecessary suffering _________. 2 It’s important that the __________ passes laws protecting the countryside. 3 I’m sure we could turn down the __________ a little and just put on more clothes. 4 If you follow the logic of __________ , you just keep buying endless products you don’t really need. 5 Get __________ by doing two things: eat better and exercise more. 6 You can’t build a house in a rural area without __________ from local government. 7 Perhaps the next __________ will be more careful about the environment than their parents. 8 Unfortunately, industrial exploitation of our resources creates __________ in the atmosphere.


TOPIC

Grammar and Use

Reading and Grammar

5

7

Match each sentence with its function, A or B. A speaks about habitual actions or states in the present which are normal for the speaker B speaks about habitual actions or states in the past 1 I used to love ice cream as a child. 2 Don’t worry about the dog. It’s used to sleeping in the garden. 3 I’m used to getting up early for work. It doesn’t bother me. 4 People used to get by with less; now there’s more consumerism. 5 People in cold countries are used to wearing a lot of clothes. 6 Some kinds of technology used to cost more than they do now.

6

A

Read the text and complete with words from the box.

reducing turning pollution fill

taking heaters suffering difference insulation

Reduce your water consumption!

B ____ ____

Get used to reducing your (1) _________ water consumption: you help the environment and you save money at the same time! Here are some simple ideas to save water at home without (2) __________ !

____ ____ ____ ____

Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verbs from the box.

Check your taps – just one small drip can make a huge (3) __________ in your consumption, using up dozens of litres a day. To check for hidden leaks, read your water metre a couple of times during a period when you don’t use any water – if the numbers increase, you have a leak. Only flush your toilet when you have to, and avoid using it as an ashtray or a rubbish bin. Make sure the family gets used to (4) __________ off the tap while cleaning their teeth, it’s all water saved. Get pipe (5) __________ for your hot water pipes. It helps to stop water cooling in the pipe and the hot water arrives faster. And while you’re waiting for the hot water to arrive, collect the cold water in a jug or basin and use it to rinse the dishes or water your plants. Try to limit your hot water use – water (6) __________ all use fuel, and this causes (7) __________ that we can cut. Perhaps as a child you used to (8) __________ the bath up to the top. Well, try getting used to (9) __________ a shower, which uses much less water.

live go walk wait walk organise choose buy (x2) carry walking everywhere because I’m used to (1) ________ I don’t have a car. Luckily this is not a problem for me because I live in a small town. I used to (2) __________ out in the country and of course it was impossible there. Then I moved here and I got used to (3) __________ everywhere quickly. The school is in the centre of the town, so all the children are used to (4) __________ on foot. We asked the teachers to keep the books at school. My daughter used to (5) __________ about 10 kilos on her back, but now her bag only weighs 2 kilos. It’s just a question of getting used to (6) __________ which books you really need at home every day. Obviously the shopping can be a problem. With a family to feed I’m used to (7) __________ large quantities of food, which I then have to get home. But I’ve discovered that it costs less to take a taxi twice a week than own a car! The taxi drivers are now used to (8) __________ quite near the supermarket: there’s always someone who wants a lift home with the shopping. I’ve also become more selective with my shopping. I used to (9) __________ a lot of superfluous things, but I’ve got used to (10) __________ carefully before I buy.

Grammar and Writing 8

Write a short leaflet similar to the one in exercise 7, explaining some ideas for how to waste less energy in your day-to-day life. Use the ideas you had in the Pair Work activity 11 on p. 24 of your Student’s Book. Write about 100 words.

15


2

EXPERIENCE B Vocabulary 1

Complete the sentences with the words and phrases in the box.

3

1 My family are going to try use solar panels next year. using 2 I enjoy find out information on certain subjects. __________ 3 If we all look into save water, I think we can find some good ideas. __________ 4 Stop to leave the TV on when you’re in another room. __________ 5 I was really shocked when I saw how much water we’re use every day. __________ 6 The subject of renewable energy is quite interested. __________ 7 Manage energy is a specialised job. __________ 8 I’m sorry, I get really depressed to talk about energy sources. __________

energy crops inland areas lack of sunshine make investments non-polluting renewable energy source of energy toxic waste 1 We could generate natural energy by energy crops . growing ____________ 2 We need to think about a new __________ ______ instead of believing that oil and coal will last forever. 3 We can all do our bit at home, but if governments don’t ________________ in cleaner energy, our private efforts just aren’t going to be enough. 4 There are a lot of ________________ which can’t generate wind power, which is easier to generate nearer the coast. 5 Nuclear power is a possibility but it generates ________________ which we then have to dispose of. 6 Areas with a ________________ can’t possibly generate enough solar power to be self-sufficient. 7 A lot of research must be made into ________________ energy which leaves the environment clean. 8 ________________ , which is generated from natural sources such as sunlight and wind, has a lot of potential for the future.

Grammar and Use 2

Match each example of verb +ing in the sentences with its description. A B C D B I

I I I I I

16

verb + -ing = noun verb + -ing after a preposition verb + -ing after another verb verb + -ing = adjective 1 We’re all responsible for trying to reduce energy consumption. 2 Stop wasting water when you wash the dishes. 3 I hope government spending on research will increase soon. 4 Please try to avoid using so much electricity if possible. 5 Public interest in developing renewable energy is certainly growing. 6 We had some surprising news about the rubbish collection today.

Cross out the incorrect verb forms and correct them.

4

Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs from the box. tell know collect think hear work occur try I (1) ______________ ’ve been trying to find out about solar panels all week. I (2) __________ about them for some time, but it (3) __________ to me only recently that I could really use them in my home. We do try to have an environmentallyfriendly home. For example, we (4) __________ rainwater for our garden since last year. But it isn’t easy. My cousin (5) __________ in the energy sector for ten years. She says that she (6) __________ so many bizarre solutions to the energy crisis, you wouldn’t believe some of them. But she (7) __________ me about some great ideas. For example, I (8) __________ about putting an LPG tank into my car and my cousin confirmed that it’s not only good for the environment, but I’ll also save money.


TOPIC

A

Listening 5

Underline the most appropriate form of the verb, choosing between Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous.

7

1 I’ve been doing / done exercises all day, and now I’m exhausted. 2 The government has invested / been investing in more research over recent months. 3 I’ve lived / been living in this house for two years now and I’ve managed / been managing to cut costs by a quarter. 4 I think habits have changed / been changing since I was a child. 5 Our family has believed / been believing in saving energy for years. 6 I’ve never tried / been trying a car that runs on methane, have you?

6

1 Katie Forster works for the government / an environment agency. 2 Katie says we all need to buy / think about our fridges. 3 She believes that few / many people have thought about packaging. 4 Katie says that using plastic boxes is something to avoid / a great idea. 5 Katie says you should store liquid foods in glass jars / cans. 6 It takes three years / eight hundred cans to make a bicycle. 7 The interviewer asks Katie to talk about the bathroom / kitchen sink. 8 She suggests using more traditional / modern products for cleaning.

Complete the dialogues with the appropriate form of the verbs from the box, choosing between Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. try (x3) see 1 Jane

Liz Jane Liz

2 Nick Jill Nick

Jill

have build

buy visit

do try read

’ve been trying to connect to I ______________ Internet for ages but there’s a problem with the server. (you) _________________ restarting the computer? I _________________ it three times, but it just doesn’t connect. Then it’s probably the server’s problem, not yours. I _________________ a couple of wind farms, they’re an amazing sight. What on earth is a wind farm? You know, those windy places where they put big white windmills that capture the wind’s energy. They _________________ quite a lot recently. That’s funny. I _________________ a lot about alternative energy sources over the past few weeks, but I (not) _________________ any mention of wind farms.

3 Kerry My boss _________________ that new electric car. He says it’s not bad. Ben Oh really? (he) _________________ it? Kerry No, he did a test drive. He (always) _________________ a passion for cars. Ben Well, he’s the opposite to me! I _________________ to avoid using a car for ages.

S 1.05 Listen to the interview about recycling and underline the correct option for each sentence.

8

S 1.05 Listen again and complete the sentences from the interview. as simple as they say to recycle? 1 Is it really ____________ 2 Do we all _______________ new fridges? 3 Try not to cook _______________ for each meal. 4 Please remember that aluminium _______________ very easily. 5 What can we do with aluminium? _______________ ? 6 _______________ in which we can avoid wasting materials. 7 Well, first of all _______________ you use. 8 We’ll definitely _______________ to tell us more about being environmentally-friendly.

Grammar and Writing 9

Write a short article (about 100 words) for your local newspaper suggesting ways that we can all try to recycle at home. Use your ideas from Group Work activity 14 on p. 29 of your Student’s Book.

17


2 How to... ...consolidate your vocabulary VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT

1

2

Alan and Susan are going on holiday by coach. Complete their conversation.

additives by a workers’ co-operative Enumbers natural materials toxin free diet

100% fruit clinically tested environmentally flavouring free of artificial preservatives friendly good for you homeopathic organically recyclable container Shop Assistant Good morning, how can I help you? Customer I’m looking for a present for my friend. She likes homeopathic (1) ____________ products ... could you give me any ideas on something that is (2) ______________ ? Shop Assistant Well, there are lots of things I could recommend to you. For example, aloe vera is very popular, very good for you, and it has no harmful chemicals. It is (3) ______________ ______________ , so there are no Enumbers in this product. It also has natural (4) ___________________ . Customer What is it for? Shop Assistant It’s a pleasant tasting drink that you take every day, for your digestion. It has been (5) _____________ by experts. Customer Oh, I see. What flavours are there? Shop Assistant They are all made of (6) ______________ and there are many different flavours. I think you should try the one made of (7) ______________ grown blackcurrants. I can’t recommend that highly enough. Customer Is it environmentally (8) ______________ ? My friend is really into recycling and things like that. Shop Assistant Oh yes, it comes in a (9) ______________ and has (10) ______________ sound packaging. I think your friend would be very happy with this. Customer OK, I’ll take it.

18

Two friends are talking about a new shop. Complete their conversation.

Laura Those crisps are full of (1) ______________ . You should get yourself on a healthier diet. David I’m no good at cooking, you know… Laura You can start with some ready made meals that don’t have any (2) _______ ___________ in them. I’ve tried some and they are really nutritious. Why don’t you go to that new shop … you know … the one that sells natural products. David I suppose I could go and have a look … It’s a big store, isn’t it? I mean it sells clothes and stuff like that as well. Laura Yeah, all made of (3) _____________ and they are made (4) __________ _______ . I think you should try it out. You’ll feel much better if you go on a (5) ______________ , and maybe you could buy some decent clothes as well!

3

Choose ten new words or expressions you have learnt in this unit and write a sentence for each one.

...recommend 4

Complete the conversation with phrases A – E. A Why don’t you give Spanish lessons a try? B Well, ... you can’t go wrong if you learn a new language. C I would say film making and photography, but you have to choose what’s best for you.  D Well, if I were you, I’d look through our brochure. We offer many different courses. E That’s great, but I think you should consider another language, like German, or Spanish. Kathy I’d really like to learn a new skill, … something to help me find a good job. Could you point me in the right direction? D Receptionist (1) I Kathy What would you recommend? I mean … what are the most popular courses? Receptionist (2) I Kathy Well, I’m not really interested in those kinds of courses. Receptionist (3) I Kathy Well, I studied French at school and I’m quite good at that. Receptionist (4) I Kathy I suppose it would be good to be able to speak another foreign language. Receptionist (5) I Kathy OK, could you sign me up for that, please? I’ll see what it’s like.


Check Up 1

TOPIC

Look at some phrases from Katia’s letter to a newspaper asking for some recycling tips. Decide which phrases are correct and then complete the letter, adding any appropriate details.

(1) Dear

I

Advice help centre Improve your recycling habits. Write to us for informati on and

A

advice.

I B Mr Editor, interesting I B interested in this idea of recycling that

A Sir / Madam,

I am very (2) I A (3) I A in your newspaper was mentioned last week. Need advice I B was mentioned in your newspaper last week. ___________________________________________________ because (4) I A I am not used to recycling I B I am not used to recycle ___________________________________________________ and I have a small flat but Living in Glasgow (5) I A I don’t have enough room for six months I B I don’t have room enough to have lots of different bins. Like everybody, I have so much paper and plastic to dispose of. Could you tell me what I can do (6) I A to avoid to waste it? I B to avoid wasting it? I am sure there are many ways I can use paper and plastic Also want (7) I A without throwing it away. information I B without to throw it away. about

shopping habits ___________________________________________________ I have difficulty (8) I A in understanding I B in understand what products I should buy when I go to the supermarket. Could you tell me how I can tell which products are environmentally sound? ___________________________________________________

Also which shops are best

I would be grateful if you could answer my questions so that I can play my part in helping the environment. I look forward to receiving your reply, Yours sincerely, Katia Erzhibov

2

Now write a letter to Katia giving her some tips that would help her to improve her recycling habits. Then check your text using the correction grid on p. 9.

Did you Know? ............................................................................................................................ • It is easy to forget the difference in meaning between the two forms, used + infinitive and to be used to + gerund, and to make mistakes. Look at these two sentences and compare their meanings: I used to live in the country. (= the person lived in the country in the past but now lives somewhere else) I am used to living in the country. (= the person lives in the country at the moment and does not find it difficult or strange)

19


2

Towards Certification Focus on Writing – Informal Email 1

Look at this writing task. Read the email and the notes at the end of each paragraph. What information does Philip need from his friend Jon? You must answer this question. Write your answer in 120-150 words in an appropriate style. You have received an email from a friend, Philip who is planning his holiday. Read Philip’s email and the notes you have made. Then write an email to Philip, using all your notes. email From: Philip Grice Sent: 18th June 2010 Subject: Holidays! Dear Jon, How are you? I thought I’d tell you about my plans. The summer is approaching and I think I’m ready for that holiday by the beach that I always talk about. I’m going to apply for a part-time job in a hotel. It will pay for my holiday and in my free time I can relax. Sounds good, doesn’t it? I wanted to ask you for some advice. What job do you think would be most suitable? I could be a porter, clean the rooms, a waiter, or even work at reception. Another thing I wanted to ask you is, as you’ve been to this area do you know what the best hotels are? Now that I think of it why don’t you come as well? Together it would be more fun. Let me know if you think it’s a good idea.

Yes! Tell him Victoria Hotel near centre because... No, can’t come because...

Take care, Philip

Write your email. You must use grammatically correct sentences with accurate spelling and punctuation in a style appropriate for the situation.

Before Writing… an email

............................................................................................................................

• Look carefully at the question. Make sure you understand exactly what you have to do. You will lose marks if you write about something that is not relevant to the task. • Read the prompts. It is important that you understand them because they will form the basis of your reply. • Always make a plan that you can refer to as you write. A plan will help you to link your ideas together.

2

Read the reply to Philip’s email and then match notes A – D to the plan. Plan Introduction Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Conclusion

I I I I

A B C D

should work at reception, Victoria Hotel, very big say hello to family can’t come – going to France tell Philip about my exams – holiday a great idea

Hi Philip, Thanks for your email. It was great to hear from you. I’m fine, although I have to prepare for my final exams and it’s quite stressful. The idea of taking that holiday sounds wonderful. It’s a pity that you have to work though, to pay for it. In my opinion you should try to get a job as a receptionist. I think it’s less tiring than cleaning rooms or being a waiter. Why don’t you see if you can get a job at the Victoria Hotel, near the centre of the town. It’s the biggest hotel. I worked there two years ago and they pay quite well. This year I can’t make it unfortunately. Although I would love to be there with you, I’ve already made plans to go to France with my family. Anyway, let me know what you decide. Give my love to your family, Jon

20


TOPIC

A

Writing… an email

............................................................................................................................

• Imagine that you are really writing to Philip and not for an examiner. It will help you to get ideas. Remember he is a friend, so you can refer to shared experiences. Write in an informal style, as you would to a friend. • When using the prompts to reply to the email try to develop them a little, to make them as original as possible. For example when you suggest which hotel is best explain why. It could be because you have stayed there before or even worked there. Use your imagination but maintain control of the language that you are using. Be careful about using the prompts when writing your reply because they are in note form. • You must write an email using from 120 to 150 words. If you write too little, you will be penalised for lack of content. If you exceed 150 words, the last part of your email will not be taken into consideration. • Although you are writing an email, use correct English. Avoid emoticons or abbreviations, otherwise the examiner will not be able to evaluate your level of English. • Follow your plan so that your email is clear and easy to follow.

3

You must answer this question. Write your answer in 120-150 words in an appropriate style. You have received an email from a friend, Kate who wants to come and visit you. Read Kate’s email and the notes you have made. Then write an email to Kate, using all your notes. How are you doing at University? Are you getting used to living in a new town? I’ve got great news. I’m coming to see you at the beginning of May. Are you around at that time? We would have a chance to talk and spend some time together. Another thing I would like to ask is if you know of any cheap bed and breakfast accommodation? I’m coming with my family so there will be five of us. We’ll be staying for five days so it’ll give us plenty of time to be together. While I’m there I want to take my family somewhere special. What places would you recommend so I can look them up on the Internet? Can you contact me as soon as possible to give me this information? I’m really looking forward to seeing you again.

Yes, will be free Good place Bury Street. Castle, art gallery

Me too!

Kate

After Writing… an email

............................................................................................................................

• Check your work carefully for mistakes and then look at this checklist. • Checklist for an email Is the email written in an appropriate informal style? Have you written 120 – 150 words? Have you developed the prompts in an original way?

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS: Informal Email ............................................................................................................................ Opening • How are you doing? / How is it going? • It’s ages since I last saw you / heard from you. • I thought I’d write to ask you… / let you know how I am / see how you are Asking questions • Can you give me some information on / about… • Have you got any ideas about… ? • Sounds good, doesn’t it? / It’s a good idea, isn’t it? Answering questions • You asked me if / whether… well, I think that you can / should / must… • You can either do A or B… • If I were you, I would choose…

Inviting • Why don’t you come (along) as well? • Shall we go together? / Let’s go together. Accepting the invitation • I’d love / I’d be happy to come / do it. • Count me in, I’ll be there. Refusing the invitation • I’m afraid I can’t make it because… • I’m sorry but I haven’t got the time / money, … Closing • Well, I’d better stop now because… • Let me know if you can come / make it. • Keep in touch.

21


2

Towards Certification Focus on Use of English

Focus on Listening

For questions 1 – 12, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

S 1.06 You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1 – 8, choose the best answer, (A, B or C).

by many experts to be Wind power is considered (0) ___ the least expensive form of renewable energy. It is certainly the fastest growing energy source in the world. There are many examples of how wind energy is (1) _________ utilised by different nations. The USA has the largest number of wind farms in the world. Denver for example hosts (2) _________ world’s biggest wind turbine maker. Germany (3) _________ has many wind farm projects and is the second biggest producer of (4) _________ type of energy. In 2006 the British government gave its consent to construct the world’s largest offshore wind farm. It is built on the coast, (5) _________ wind energy is more efficient. In spite of these positive aspects there are some critics of wind power. They argue (6) _________ the supply of energy is not always constant and depends very much (7) _________ climatic conditions. Other critics have (8) _________ forward the idea that wind farms are ugly and unpleasant to look (9) _________ in otherwise scenic areas. They are also vulnerable to damage (10) _________ thunderstorms, make a considerable amount of noise and can cause interference (11) _________ television reception. Although it is considered to be a safe and clean form of energy the turbines (12) _________ also harm the bird life of the area.

CERTIFICATION TIP Use of English (Open cloze) ........................................................ In this exercise most of the time there is only one possible answer. A good knowledge of how words are ordered in a sentence is very useful for this activity. When looking at the sentence look at the gap and ask yourself what kind of word is missing. For example, if there is the infinitive of a verb after the gap, the word needed could be a modal or auxiliary verb.

CERTIFICATION TIP Listening (Multiple choice) ........................................................ Examine the questions carefully before listening. Every question deals with a different topic so it is important to read the introduction to every task in order to get a clear idea of the context.

22

1 You hear a young man complaining to his friend. Why do people take the car on short distances according to the speaker? A It’s not necessary to walk. B There are not enough buses. C People do not care enough. 2 You overhear a man and a woman talking about how to get to the airport. Why does the man not want to get a taxi again? A Last time they missed their flight. B Last time it was expensive. C Last time it arrived late. 3 You hear a campaigner on the radio talking about recycling. According to the campaigner, what should people do? A stop thinking that recycled goods are expensive B promote environmentally friendly products C buy more recycled products 4 You overhear a young man talking to a foreign friend about the weather in his country. What is the young man’s main point? A It doesn’t rain that much. B The weather is variable. C There are no extremes of weather. 5 You listen to a friend talking about a house she has seen. Why does the speaker think that her husband wants a big garden? A He could do some gardening. B He would spend a lot of time there. C It reminds him of his childhood. 6 You hear a young girl talking about her birthday plans. What is the young girl looking forward to the most on her birthday? A going to Edinburgh B having a party C receiving presents 7 You hear a woman talking about a job interview. Why did the woman think that the interview went badly? A She is unqualified. B The interviewer didn’t like her. C She was nervous. 8 You hear a lecturer speaking about different factors that determine one’s quality of life. What does the lecturer feel about having a stress-free life? A It is just as important as factors such as the cost of living. B It is more important than factors such as the cost of living. C It is less important than factors such as the cost of living.


Warm Up for Unit 3 1

Do this section before starting Unit 3!

TOPIC

A

Do this quiz. Can you match each fact with the appropriate animal?

Quiz

How much do you know about animal behaviour? A B C D E F G

Bat Hercules Beetle Camel Chameleon Chimpanzee Crocodile Dog

H Dolphin I Elephant J Goldfish K Penguin L Shark M Giant Tortoise N Wasp

Which...

1 … animal has a sense of smell that is 1,000 times stronger than that of humans’? 2 … is the only animal that can see infra-red and ultraviolet light? 3 … species of this animal can lift as much as 850 times its own weight? 4 … animal is able to change its skin colour to adapt to the environment? 5 … animal is immune to every type of disease and uses two thirds of its brain to smell? 6 … animal can live without food for many days or even weeks? 7 … animal is thought to mourn the death of another animal of the same species? 8 … animal uses signature whistles to communicate with other members of the species? 9 … animal has the longest life expectancy? 10 … animal creates tools from objects in the environment through observing others? 11 … animal is strong enough to hold up its body weight while upside down? 12 … animal always hunts for fish with the same group of ‘friends’? 13 … animal has a symbiotic relationship with a species of fig tree? 14 … animal has a stomach that is so strong that it can digest steel nails? Key: 1G, 2J, 3B, 4D, 5L, 6C, 7I, 8H, 9M, 10E, 11A, 12K, 13N, 14F

2

Match as many as you can of the following adjectives with the nouns below to describe some aspects of the natural world. You can use the words more than once. climate colourful dangerous endangered extreme independent intelligent loyal mild poisonous predatory rapid symbiotic symmetrical tropical wild

animal change climate deforestation pattern pet plant predator relationship species storm weather

symmetrical pattern

23


UNIT

3 Mother Nature -

EXPERIENCE A

Vocabulary

Grammar and Use

1

3

Use the prefixes in the box to make new words from these nouns, verbs and adjectives. co- disil- in1 2 3 4 5 6

2

7 8 9 10 11 12

____ responsible ____ patient ____ correct ____ sense ____ understand ____ typical

Complete the sentences with the new words from exercise 1.

1 We have to work together and really cooperate if we want to get a result. _________ 2 Nature is not obedient, it often _________ us. We are not its master. 3 I don’t understand you, you’re talking ____________ . Your reasoning is totally ____________ . 4 Look, I have very little time and I’m ____________ to reach a conclusion. 5 I’m sorry, but your information is ____________ . It’s very ____________ of you to say things you haven’t checked. 6 If you don’t speak clearly people will ____________ you. 7 I didn’t hear the beginning of the CD, could you ____________ the recording? 8 It’s ____________ that we’ll solve this problem today. I suggest meeting again tomorrow. 9 He does the strangest things; I really can’t understand his ____________ behaviour. 10 ____________ is a difficult word, but it means unusual or not standard. 11 What he’s saying is foolish and ridiculous and complete ____________ . 12 Clouds are beautiful because they have very ____________ shapes.

24

1 Bill loves mountaineering. ¨ Martin said that Bill loved mountaineering. Present Simple ¨ Past Simple 2 The information is arriving right now. ¨ I heard that the information was arriving at that moment. ____________ ¨ Past Continuous 3 Kieran studied at the new Polytechnic. ¨ I discovered that Kieran had studied at the new Polytechnic. Past Simple ¨ ____________ 4 Sarah has written a new report. ¨ Tom told us that Sarah had written a new report. Present Perfect ¨ ____________ 5 “Make sure you call Vicky about this,” said Frank. ¨ Frank told me to make sure I called Vicky about this. Imperative ¨ ____________ + obj. + infinitive 6 “Don’t switch off your computer,” said Frank. ¨ Frank told me not to switch off my computer. Negative imperative ¨ ____________ + obj. + ____________ infinitive 7 I can’t come in early tomorrow. ¨ I explained I couldn’t come in early the next day. Can ¨ ____________

im- mis- re- unir- (2x) non- a-

dis obey ____ ____ likely ____ operate ____ start ____ logical ____ regular

Look at the sentences transformed into reported speech and fill in the gaps describing the changes.

4

Complete the table. Direct speech

Reported speech

today

that day

yesterday the next day next that at the moment / now those


TOPIC

5

Transform these sentences into reported speech.

7

1 Danny

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

I really believe it’s an important new breakthrough in climate research. Danny said he really believed it was an important new breakthrough in climate research. Anne I’m thinking about changing my job. Anne said ____________________________ Goran I went to the Amazon Rainforest several times for my studies. Goran told us __________________________ Yemma We’ve adjusted this computer to cope with the programme. Yemma remarked that __________________ ______________________________________ Ben Take this up to the boss right now. Ben told ______________________________ Tricia Don’t make so much noise in here. Tricia said ____________________________ Ursula I’m sorry but you can’t borrow the car this evening. Ursula said ____________________________ Matthew Why don’t you listen to your colleagues? Matthew suggested _____________________

S 1.08 Listen to the presentation and put the sentences in order to form a summary of it. 1 A I

I I I I I I I

The speaker explains what symbiosis is. B The speaker talks about man being parasitic rather than symbiotic. C The speaker talks about the consequences of man’s behaviour for the planet. D The speaker gives an example, talking about termites and minute organisms. E The speaker gives examples of how man exploits nature. F The speaker mentions deforestation. G The speaker provides an example of symbiosis between coral and algae. H The speaker talks about the possibility of improving the situation.

Read these sentences and correct them. 1 The speaker said that symbiosis means three organisms coexisting. No, the speaker said that symbiosis means two organisms coexisting. 2 The speaker said that in symbiotic relationships one organism gives and one takes. No, the speaker said that _____________________________________ . 3 The speaker said that algae provide a safe home for coral. No, the speaker said that _____________________________________ . 4 The speaker said that termites host minute organisms that help them to see better. No, the speaker said that _____________________________________ . 5 The speaker said that we are likely to have a symbiotic relationship with nature. No, the speaker said that _____________________________________ . 6 The speaker said that man is more symbiotic than parasitic. No, the speaker said that _____________________________________ . 7 The speaker said that we have given and the planet takes. No, the speaker said that _____________________________________ . 8 The speaker said that we can reverse some of the effects of water pollution if we act now. No, the speaker said that _____________________________________ .

Listening 6

A

Grammar and Writing 8

Write an email (about 100 words) for your friends reporting this brief conversation you had with your local Mayor. Mayor, we have some environmental problems in our town. For example, our town transport is dirty. Can we get rid of the old buses? Mayor I don’t think I can do that now, but I’m planning to invest in gradually changing to electric buses. You You have given planning permission to build on green areas, but many buildings in our town centre need renovating. Mayor This is definitely the last permission I’m going to give. I’ve been thinking about a renovation project for some time. In fact, last week I held a meeting about this. You

25


3

EXPERIENCE B Vocabulary 1

Complete the sentences with the words in the box. communication speech

sense of direction intelligence sense of smell instinct

communication 1 I’m convinced that meaningful _______________ is possible between people and animals. 2 There is no doubt that many animals have a higher level of ____________ than we imagine. 3 Animals have a very fine ____________ , they just seem to know things. 4 I have a terrible ____________ , I’m always getting lost. 5 Many dogs are used to trace lost people because of their incredible ____________ . 6 Perhaps we have the power of ____________ , but animals are able to make themselves understood just as well as us.

2

Complete the table with words which derive from the same root as the one given.

Noun

Adjective

Adverb

Verb

privacy

private

privately

privatise think

thought

argue reveal anger –

intelligence

expand provision category necessary

3

Underline the correct option for each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

We held a privacy / private / privately meeting to discuss the matter. It was so thought / thoughtful / think of you to call me. I’m really upset about the argument / argumentative / argue that I had with Pat. I think this animal’s behaviour revelation / revealing / reveals a lot about its condition. Jackie shouted really anger / angry / angrily at those men. I’ve just had an interesting thought / thoughtful / thoughtfully about the new project. We can argument / argumentative / argue until we are blue in the face, but we’ll never agree. Catherine seems to be very anger / angry / angrily about the mistake.

Grammar and Use 4

Underline the correct options. We were carrying out this research and at the same time we (1) exchanged / were exchanging results with another lab. It (2) was / was being a very interesting period. It was team work of course. All day I was carrying out the experiments while Marian (3) noted / was noting the results on our computer programme. One day I (4) interrupted / was interrupting her by accident, and she (5) had to / was having to start all over again. I was so embarrassed! Another time I (6) cleaned / was cleaning all the equipment when I realised that Kevin (7) did / was doing exactly the same thing. What a waste of time! Luckily we usually all just (8) laughed / were laughing when something like that happened. Once Kevin and I discovered that we (9) planned / were planning a surprise birthday party for Marian while her sister (10) did / was doing the same thing!

26


TOPIC

A

Reading and Grammar 5

Match the relative clauses in the sentences with their descriptions.

7

A non-defining relative clause: tells us more about the person / animal / thing that has just been mentioned B defining relative clause: gives us vital information about the person / animal / thing that has just been mentioned 1 My sister, who is a really funny person, has decided to take a drama course. 2 We spoke to the teacher who created the project on animal intelligence. 3 These are the animals which were studied in the documentary. 4 These monkeys, which live in Asia, are considered to be as intelligent as teenagers. 5 I thought about the fact that some animals seem to have a sort of language. 6 I finally found the film that I had been looking for.

6

Scientists have observed intelligent and cooperative animal behaviour. An older chimp, raised in captivity, voluntarily helped a new chimpanzee with poor eyesight find her way around the chimpanzee house. Chimpanzees seem to be sensitive to the feelings of others. When they perceive a threat they behave so as to suggest “danger”, warning other chimpanzees.

A ____

Some parrots’ ability to answer questions about size, colour, shape and difference between objects is surprising. Some of the parrots’ abilities are similar to that of a very young human. For example, the famous parrot Alex was able to use words to answer questions about what he saw in front of him. Faced with a tray of green and blue blocks and toy cars, he was able to count the green blocks. He was also able to ask for water when he was thirsty, and to go back to his perch when he was tired of answering questions.

____ ____

____

Scientists, however, disagree about the question of whether animals can recognise themselves in mirrors. So far, they believe that chimpanzees are the only species that can do this. Some scientists are testing birds and dolphins with mirrors, but haven’t yet had any conclusive results. It appears, though, that birds and dolphins are interested in the mirror and can use information from it.

____ ____

Make the sentences into one single sentence by using relative clauses. 1 I read the book. My old school friend wrote it. I read the book that my old school friend wrote. 2 Pete is my tutor. He is very well-informed. _____________________________________ 3 This technique is very innovative. It allows us to study animal language. _____________________________________ 4 I called the head of the department. He produced the case study. _____________________________________ 5 We need to study more about dolphins. South-East Asia dolphins to be precise. _____________________________________ 6 This man sold me my car. He has a collection of vintage cars. _____________________________________ 7 Katie told me about a new course. It studies animal psychology. _____________________________________ 8 Housework is unfortunately necessary. It is totally boring. _____________________________________

Read the text and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).

So what makes us different to animals? Scientists don’t agree. Some think that human language makes us unique. Other species have their own communication systems and can perhaps learn some of our language, but their systems are not as rich as ours.

T

1 Scientists have seen animals work together. 2 Parrots seem to be as intelligent as adult humans. 3 Alex could indicate water with his beak. 4 Apparently only one species is capable of recognising itself in a mirror. 5 Scientists all agree that animals have no language.

8

F

 I I

I I I I I I I I

Look at the text and complete the strings with words deriving from the same root. 1 intelligence – intelligent – intelligently 2 behaviour – ___________ – ___________ 3 captivity – ___________ – ___________ – ___________ 4 agree – ___________ – ___________ – ___________

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3 How to... ...consolidate your vocabulary VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT

1

Complete the conversation between two friends who are hiking in the countryside. a rest a sense of achievement boots into trouble keep an eye on the weather rambling the right equipment to do something challenging watch out Andrew John Andrew John Andrew John Andrew John Andrew John

2

We’ll never find our way back home. Keep an eye on the weather . If it rains, we haven’t even got an Don’t start nagging. (1) _________________________ umbrella. Let’s have (2) ____________________ , I’m getting so tired. Not yet, just (3) ____________________ for a car. We can ask the driver for directions. All I want is to get back to civilisation. We’ll find the right road, I love (4) ____________________ … and not knowing what you’re going to see next. I love (5) ____________________ . Yeah, but next time, I’ll make sure I have (6) ____________________ , I mean, look at my (7) ____________________ , they’re falling to pieces with all this walking. You’re going a bit over the top. If I don’t get back home by this evening I’ll get (8) ____________________ with my girlfriend. We are going out tonight. Look, over there! I recognise that road, I know the way back now. We’ll be home in two hours. You see, don’t you feel (9) ____________________ , we’ve finally found our way home.

Two friends are at a camping site near the mountains. Complete their conversation. take a map know what you’re doing Suzanne Claire Suzanne Claire Suzanne Claire Suzanne

3

keep an eye on the time get in touch with nature

go hiking run into bad weather

go hiking I don’t think I’ll come hiking with you in the mountains. I’ll stay at the site and (1) __________ another day. Are you sure, it’ll be great, we’d have a chance to (2) ____________________ . I can do that here as well. You go, I’ll stay here. And don’t forget to (3) ____________________ with you. Suzanne! I know these mountains so well. OK, I know. But don’t forget your cell phone, and if you (4) ____________________ turn back immediately. Oh, and another thing, (5) ____________________ as well, if it gets dark. Don’t go on, you’re worse than my mother! Wait … I’d better come with you. I’m not sure if you (6) ____________________ .

Choose ten new words you have learnt in this unit and write a sentence for each one.

...warn 4

Complete the conversation with phrases A-E. A Then you’ll get ill, like her, and you’ll have to take some time off school. What then?

 B Wait a minute, put a coat on, otherwise you might get a cold.

C Maybe, but I’m your mother and I’m just concerned, that’s all. D There’s always a first time. You have to be careful, you know. E Don’t you realise there’s a flu bug going around? Daughter I’m going out. I’ll be back at around eight. B Mother (1) I Daughter It’s not that cold out, my jumper’s warm. Anyway, I’ll be indoors most of the time. Mother (2) I Daughter I know, Sarah’s in bed with the flu at the moment, but don’t worry, I know what I’m doing. Mother (3) I Daughter I won’t get ill mum. I never get the flu. Mother (4) I Daughter You’re going a bit over the top, aren’t you? Mother (5) I

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Check Up 1

TOPIC

A

Look at some phrases from Mara’s email to a Canadian friend. Decide which phrases are correct and then complete the email, adding any appropriate details.

Dear Sarah, __________________________________________________________ Guess what? I’ve got to write a presentation for my English class next week. (1) I A I must to find I B I must find some facts about an animal and then present them to the class. Do you have any suggestions about what animal (2) I A should I I B I should choose? My knowledge about the animal kingdom is really (3) I A uncomplete I B incomplete. The only animal I know something about is my pet dog, Ben. ______________________________________________________

Ask Sarah how she is

Give details I looked (4) I A in I B on the Internet and then, about Ben (5) I A while I was thinking about what animal to focus on, I had the idea of e-mailing you. I B while I thought about what animal to focus on, I was having the idea of e-mailing you. You know a lot about animals, don’t you? My teacher (6) I A told me I B told to me that it could be any animal. Luckily, I have about a week to complete the presentation. Can you give me some ideas about an animal that I could do some research on? __________________________________________________________ The armadillo, My dad (7) I A said to me I B said me that he would help. He loves nature and often goes fishing. He knows everything about fish, but I find it quite boring when he talks about them. __________________________________________________________ because I want to make (8) I A a really good presentation I B a presentation really good. As you know, I like English and I don’t want to get a bad mark.

an interesting animal? Please help!

Best wishes, Mara

2

Write a presentation about the armadillo, using the notes below to help you. Then check your text using the correction grid on p. 9. Armadillos around 17 pounds; so heavy will sink in water: weighs sex identical quadruplets, from female always gives birth to same same egg; ng feet; has short legs, moves quickly, stro eants for armadillos, have races; pag uty bea hold many towns in Texas be eaten eats worms, ants – carnivore – can

Did you Know? ............................................................................................................................. • The most common negative prefix is un-. However, there are many others and it is important to make a note of them while you are reading so that you can avoid errors. The more you read, the more you will develop the capacity to choose the correct prefix when you need it. Read this description and notice the different negative prefixes that are used: My friend Harry is so unreliable because he’s always in a rush and is so disorganised. Many people misunderstand him. They think he is incompetent or even impolite when he makes a mess of something or arrives late for an appointment, but he’s a nice guy, really.

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3

Towards Certification Focus on Writing - Formal Letter 1

Look at this writing task. Read the advertisement and the notes. What information about the holiday is needed? You must answer this question. Write your answer in 120-150 words in an appropriate style. You have read an advertisement in the magazine Travel Monthly and would like to ask some questions about it. Read the advertisement and the notes you have made. Then write a letter to the company, using all your notes.

CYCLING ALONG THE DANUBE Get away from the smog and pollution and take in some breathtaking views while cycling around this beautiful area. Stop at a different four star hotel every night.

Own bicycles? Need details

Our carefully selected hotels offer a wide selection of local and national dishes.

Vegetarian meals?

Why don’t you give us a call or write to us?

Cost of holiday?

Write your letter. You must use grammatically correct sentences with accurate spelling and punctuation in a style appropriate for the situation.

Before Writing… a formal letter

............................................................................................................................

• Read the question carefully in order to understand who you are writing to and what reasons you have for writing the letter. • Read the prompts to understand what information you require. • There are four things that you have to ask. Make a plan using the prompts, and link the questions you must ask in a logical way.

2

Read the letter to the company and match notes A-D to the plan. Plan Introduction I Paragraph 2 I Paragraph 3 I Conclusion I

A B C D

Hotels – need information. Also dietary requirements. Where I saw advertisement, why I am writing. Please reply soon. Bring own bicycles or does company provide them? Holiday overall cost?

Dear Sir / Madam, I am writing with reference to your advertisement in Travel Monthly. My husband and I are interested in the holiday you offer but I have some questions that I would like to ask you. Firstly, could you tell me if we have to bring our own bicycles or if they are provided by your company? I would also be grateful if you could give me more information about the overall cost of the holiday. Secondly, you say that we will stop at a different hotel every night while following the route. I would appreciate some information about a website that I could consult to get more details about the hotels. We do not eat meat or fish and I would like to know in advance if the hotels cater for vegetarians. I would be grateful if you could reply as soon as possible. Yours faithfully, Sybil Green

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TOPIC

A

Writing… a formal letter

............................................................................................................................

• If you are referring to an advertisement, at the beginning of the letter it is important to tell the reader where you saw it. Then you have to explain why you are writing. • If you are replying to a letter, the first thing you must do is tell the reader why you are writing. • In this letter the person you are writing to is not a friend and the relationship is more formal. Write in a formal style to reflect this relationship. Do not use contractions in a formal letter. • Use the prompts to organise your letter, but remember that they are in note form. Try to be original in developing the prompts. Do not just ask the questions contained in the prompts, provide some detail and context. (I would appreciate some information about a website that I could consult to get more details about the hotels… / We do not eat meat or fish so I would like…) • Be careful about the length of your letter. Write between 120 and 150 words. If you write too little or too much you could be penalised. • When writing questions, avoid making mistakes with word order in indirect questions. (You asked me when we were coming. not … when were we coming.) • Follow your plan and link the ideas together. Remember to use paragraphs. Look at the letter again and see how the writer makes it very clear that he is starting a new paragraph by leaving a space between one paragraph and another.

3

You must answer this question. Write your answer in 120-150 words in an appropriate style. You have read an advertisement in the magazine Travel Monthly, and would like to ask some questions about it. Read the advertisement and the notes you have made. Then write a letter to the company, using all your notes. Spend an enchanting weekend in a historic Scottish castle by Loch Awe. Take the opportunity to try traditional Scottish food.

Available for Christmas weekend?

Treat yourself to a relaxing boat trip on the Loch.

Details

Luxury rooms with en-suite facilities.

Costs extra?

For more details contact Castle Holidays

Single rooms?

After Writing… a formal letter

............................................................................................................................

• Check your work carefully for mistakes and then look at this checklist. • Checklist for a formal letter Have you begun the letter in the correct way, telling the reader where you saw the advertisement and explaining why you are writing? Is the letter written in an appropriate formal style? Is it of an appropriate length? Have you developed the prompts in an original way?

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS: formal informalletter email ............................................................................................................................ Beginning the letter • I saw your advertisement in yesterday’s edition of The Evening Express. • I am writing to complain about... • I am writing to enquire about / in response to / with reference to... Asking for information • Could you provide me with some information about... ? • I would like to ask you if you have some information about... • I read your letter in yesterday’s Daily News and would like to ask...

Giving information • You asked me to provide information about... • In response / reply to your query / question about... • With reference to your letter of (date)... Complaining • I am writing to complain about... • I would be grateful if you could refund the cost of... • To make matters worse... • I am not completely satisfied with the product / service... Ending the letter • Yours faithfully (if you begin the letter with Dear Sir / Madam) • Yours sincerely (if you begin the letter with the receiveir’s name e.g. Dear Mr Robertson)

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3

Towards Certification Focus on Use of English For questions 1 – 10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). behaviour The wild boar is the ancestor of the domestic pig, but it is very different in terms of its (0) _________ and appearance. The boar is distinguished by its large, sharp and strong tusks, which serve as weapons and tools. They are quite (1) _________ animals in terms of their size and (2) _________ and Romanian and Russian boars can reach up to 300 kilograms. They generally live in woodland areas and although many people fear this animal and its (3) _________ , it tries to keep humans at a distance. These animals are admired for their (4) _________ . They are masters of survival, hiding out in areas that are (5) _________ by man, and their life expectancy is between fifteen and twenty years. However, the boar is vulnerable to hunters. The pig’s primary (6) _________ is its speed but when they are cornered they can be ferocious. Wild boars are not usually (7) _________ but they are aggressive, especially if they are injured, or if the animal is a female, defending its young. Another interesting fact about these animals is that they are quite vocal (8) _________ , and are constantly grunting to each other, and squeal when alarmed. They are omnivorous animals that have a (9) _________ diet. During the summer they generally eat green plants, nuts and fruit. In winter, when the rain (10) _________ the ground they dig to find insects and vegetables.

BEHAVE IMPRESS WEIGH STRONG INTELLIGENT INHABIT DEFEND DANGER COMMUNICATE VARY SOFT

CERTIFICATION TIP - Use of English (Word formation) ............................................................................................................................. After reading the text decide what part of speech is missing in each gap. You must understand whether you need to form a noun, a verb, an adjective or an adverb. If the missing word is a noun, it may need to be in the plural or negative form.

Focus on Listening S 1.09 You’ll hear an interview with Julie Matthews, a vet with an important job to do. For questions 1 – 7 choose the best answer (A, B or C). 1 Why did Julie become a vet? A There was nothing better to do. B She loves animals. C She earns a lot of money.

5 Why is Julie’s lab so difficult to maintain? A She has a lot of clients. B The equipment is expensive. C The machinery is new.

2 Why doesn’t Julie have direct contact with the animals? A She works late at night. B She works in the country. C She works on samples.

6 What is meant by the term Zoonosis? A how disease spreads from man to animals B how disease spreads from animals to man C how disease spreads among animals

3 Julie generally thinks that her job is A hard work. B enjoyable. C frustrating.

7 According to Julie why do animals live longer? A Medicine has improved. B Man lives longer. C She keeps constantly updated.

4 The vets who send their samples to Julie sometimes make mistakes because A they have no training. B they think her job is easy. C they don’t care.

CERTIFICATION TIP - Listening (Multiple choice) ............................................................................................................................. Read the questions carefully before listening. It is normal to have difficulty with some parts of the dialogue, especially in the middle of the conversation, where it is easy to lose track. Even if you have this problem during the first listening, try to locate the parts of the dialogue which will be important to focus on during the second listening so that you can answer the more difficult questions the second time you listen.

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