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ƋƌŻżƃŽƋ^ƌƉŹŸƅƀƊƄ^ƁƌƅżȆȄȅȆ ƊƋƌŻƀƆźƆƄƇƃżƏźƀƋƀżƊ

Ȇ

ƅŻ

źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR

based on THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR

THESIS of E.C . Kauf fmann


źƆƃƆŽƆƅ żƉƀƂŸźƆƉƅżƃƀŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ ƊƋƌŻżƅƋƅƌƄŹżƉȅȇȆȄȄȊȌ ƄƊźƋſżƊƀƊ ƁƌƅżȆȄȅȆ ȅƊƋƄżƅƋƆƉƀƉŽŽźƆƃƆƄŹƆ ȆƅŻƄżƅƋƆƉƃƄźŸƃŸŹƉżƊż

ŻżƃŽƋƌƅƀƍżƉƊƀƋƐƆŽƋżźſƅƆƃƆžƐ ŽŸźƌƃƋƐƆŽŸƉźſƀƋżźƋƌƉż ŻżƇŸƉƋƄżƅƋƆŽƌƉŹŸƅƀƊƄ źƆƄƇƃżƏźƀƋƀżƊƊƋƌŻƀƆ ƀƅƊƌƇƇƆƉƋƆŽ ƄƊźȇƌƉŹŸƅƀƊƄ ƉżƊżŸƉźſŶŻżƊƀžƅƄżƋſƆŻƊ ŸƉȇƌȄȅȅ žƉŸŻƌŸƋƀƆƅƃŸŹ ŸƉȇƌȄȇȄ


Ȇ

ƅŻ

źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR based on

THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR


Preface

B

›fore I ever visited Scandinavia, the area did ŶŽƚ ĂƉƉĞĂů ƚŽ ŵĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŵƵĐŚ͘ ŌĞƌ Ăůů͕ ŚŽǁ ŽŌĞŶ ĚŽ LJŽƵ ŚĞĂƌ ĂŶLJƚŚŝŶŐ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ǁĞĂůƚŚLJ͕ƐĂĨĞĂŶĚŶĞĂƚĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͍/ǁĂƐĂǁĂƌĞŽĨƚŚĞ ďĞĂƵƟĨƵůŶĂƚƵƌĞ͕ďƵƚŝƚ͛ƐĂůƐŽĐŽůĚĂŶĚŝƐŽůĂƚĞĚ͕ŶŽƚ ƚŚĞĮƌƐƚƉůĂĐĞLJŽƵǀŝƐŝƚŝŶƚŚĞŚŽůŝĚĂLJƐŝĨLJŽƵǁĂŶƚƚŽ ĞƐĐĂƉĞƚŚĞƌĂŝŶLJƵƚĐŚƐƵŵŵĞƌƐ͘ dŚŝƐ Ăůů ĐŚĂŶŐĞĚ ǁŚĞŶ / ǀŝƐŝƚĞĚ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚƟŵĞŝŶƚŚĞƐƉƌŝŶŐŽĨφτυτƚŽǀŝƐŝƚĂĨƌŝĞŶĚǁŚŽ ƐƚƵĚŝĞĚ ƚŚĞƌĞ͘ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ǁĂƐ ĂĐƚƵĂůůLJ ƌĞĂůůLJ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐ͕ǁŝƚŚďĞĂƵƟĨƵůƉĂƌŬƐĂŶĚĐŽŶǀŝǀŝĂůŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŚŽŽĚƐ͘/ƚŚĂƐƚŚĞŵĂũĞƐƟĐǁŝĚĞƐƚƌĞĞƚƐŽĨĞƌůŝŶ͕ ƚŚĞĂůůƵƌĞŽĨWĂƌŝƐĂŶĚƚŚĞůŝďĞƌĂůůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞĂŶĚĐŽnjLJ ǁĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚŽĨŵƐƚĞƌĚĂŵĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ͕ŝƚ͛ƐĂůŝǀĞůLJĂŶĚ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ;ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJͿ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĂƌĞ ĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ ŝƐ ŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚĞǀĞƌLJƚŚŝŶŐǁŽƌŬƐƉĞƌĨĞĐƚůLJ͘ dŚĂƚǁĞĞŬĞŶĚ/ŵĞƚĂŐƵLJ͕ǁŚŽŝƐŶŽǁƐƟůůŵLJďŽLJĨƌŝĞŶĚ͕ ƐŽ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŽŶ͕ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ^ĐĂŶĚŝŶĂǀŝĂǁĞƌĞƐƵĚĚĞŶůLJŵLJĐĞŶƚĞƌŽĨĂƩĞŶƟŽŶ͘ ^ƵĚĚĞŶůLJ / ďĞĐĂŵĞ Ă ƌĞŐƵůĂƌ ǀŝƐŝƚŽƌ ŽĨ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞŝŶƚŚĞƐƉƌŝŶŐŽĨφτυυ/ƐƚƵĚŝĞĚŽŶĞ

ȆƅŻ

Ȉ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig. 1 Bird’s eye view from Helsingborg to Helsingør (source: Helsingborg Kommune)

ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ͕ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕/ǁŝůůĂƉƉŽŝŶƚŝŶƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ĂŶĚĨŽƌĂ ƐŵĂůůƉĂƌƚ/ǁŝůůƚƌLJƚŽĐŽŵĞƵƉǁŝƚŚƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐ͘ ƐĞŵĞƐƚĞƌ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ZŽLJĂů ĐĂĚĞŵLJ ŽĨ ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ ŝŶ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ůƚŚŽƵŐŚƚŚŝƐĂĐĂĚĞŵLJŵĂŝŶůLJĨŽĐƵƐĞƐ ŽŶ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͕ / ĐŽƵůĚ ĂƩĞŶĚ ĂŶ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐ ĚĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƚŚĂƚƉĂƌƚůLJĨŽĐƵƐĞĚŽŶƵƌďĂŶĚĞƐŝŐŶƚŽŽ͘ dŚĞ ƐƵďũĞĐƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐĞŵĞƐƚĞƌ ǁĂƐĨƌĞĞƚŽĐŚŽŽƐĞ͘dŽŐĞƚŚĞƌǁŝƚŚĂĨĞůůŽǁĐŽůůĞĂŐƵĞ ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞdhĞůŌ/͕ĂŵŽŶŐŽƚŚĞƌƚŚŝŶŐƐ͕ŵĂĚĞĂďŝŐ ƐĐĂůĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘  ƚƌĂŶƐĂƟŽŶĂů ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ /ƐůĂŶĚƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƐƚ͕ ^ũčůůĂŶĚ͕ >ŽůĂŶĚͲ&ĂůƐƚĞƌ DƆŶ͕ ŽƌŶŚŽůŵ ĂŶĚƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ^ŬĊŶĞƉƌŽǀŝŶĐĞŝŶƚŚĞƐŽƵƚŚǁĞƐƚ͘ ƌŽƵŶĚ χ͘ϋ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ůŝǀĞ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶŝƐƚŚĞŵŽƐƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĐĞŶƚĞƌ͘ >ĂƚĞƌ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ǁĞ ĨŽĐƵƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ƐĐĂůĞƐ ĂŶĚŶĞǀĞƌƌĞĂůůLJƵŶĚĞƌƐƚŽŽĚƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘/ƌĞŐƌĞƩĞĚƚŚŝƐ͕ĂŶĚ/ƚŽŽŬƚŚĞ ĐŚĂŶĐĞƚŽĐŚŽŽƐĞƚŚŝƐƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŐĂŝŶĂƐƚŚĞŵĂŝŶĐŽŶƚĞdžƚĨŽƌŵLJŐƌĂĚƵĂƟŽŶƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ dŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚŝƐĂƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ǁŝƚŚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŐƌŽǁƚŚĂŶĚĨƵƚƵƌĞƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůŝŶŵĂŶLJǁĂLJƐ͘/ƚ͛Ɛ ŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞŵŽƐƚŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕ǁŝƚŚĂĚǀĂŶĐĞĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ ĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ƐŽĐŝĂů ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ Ƶƚ ŝƚ͛Ɛ ĂůƐŽ ĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ƐĞǀĞƌĂůƉƌŽďůĞŵƐŝŶŝƚƐĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͕ƐŽŵĞ

ȉ

T

«®Ý㫛ݮÝŚĂƐďĞĞŶǁƌŝƩĞŶŝŶƚŚĞĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝƐŵ͘ /ƚ ĨŽƌŵƐ ƚŚĞ ĮŶĂů ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞů ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞŐƌĂĚƵĂƟŽŶƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂƚƚŚĞĨĂĐƵůƚLJŽĨƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞŽĨƚŚĞdĞĐŚŶŝĐĂůhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJĞůŌ͘dŚĞƉĂƉĞƌ ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶƐƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶĂŶĚƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŽĨƚŚĞŐƌĂĚƵĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂŶĚŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐĂƌĞŇĞĐƟŽŶ͘ dŚŝƐĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚŝƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚŽĨƚŚĞŐƌĂĚƵĂƟŽŶƚƌĂĐŬŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝƐŵ͘dŚĞƚŚĞƐŝƐĐŽŵĞƐĂůŽŶŐǁŝƚŚĂƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŐƌĂĚƵĂƟŽŶ͕ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚĂƚƚŚĞƉωĮŶĂůĂƐƐĞƐŵĞŶƚƌĞǀŝĞǁ͘ ƚƚŚŝƐƉŽŝŶƚ/ǁŽƵůĚůŝŬĞƚŽƚŚĂŶŬŵLJŵĞŶƚŽƌ&ƌĂŶĐŝƐĐŽ ŽůŽŵďŽ ĨŽƌ Ăůů ŚŝƐ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĂŶĚ ĂĚǀŝĐĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚŽƌ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͕ ZŽŶĂůĚ :ĂŵďŽƌŐ ,ĂŶƐĞŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƌ͘ <ĂƐƉĞƌ ŝĐŚŵĂŶŶ͕ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ůŝŶŬ ƚŚĞLJ ŽīĞƌĞĚ͕ ŵLJ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ŵĞŶƚŽƌ >ƵŝƐĂ ĂůĂďƌĞƐĞ ĨŽƌ ŚĞƌ ĂĚǀŝĐĞ͕ ŚƌŝƐƟĂŶ ŽƌƵŵ ĨŽƌ Ăůů ŚŝƐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĂŶĚƐĞǀĞƌĂůƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐ͕ZŽďĞƌƚŽZŽĐĐŽŝŶ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌǁŚŽŵĂĚĞĂŐƌĞĂƚŽīĞƌŝŶŽƌŐĂŶŝnjŝŶŐƚŚĞ ƐƚƵĚŝŽ͕ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƐƚƵĚŝŽŽĨŽŵƉůĞdžŝƟĞƐĨŽƌĂůůƚŚĞŝƌ advice. ƌŝŬĂ<ĂƵīŵĂŶŶͮφυͲτϊͲφτυφ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


%106'06

++PVTQFWEVKQP ȅȅ

Introduction

ȅȄ

ȅȆ

Context

ȅȆ

ȅȇ

Problem Field - Problem statement & Aim - Main research question - Research questions

ȅȌ ȅȌ Ȇȅ Ȇȅ

ȅȈ

Relevance

Ȇȇ

ȅȉ

Methodology

ȆȈ

++#PCN[UKU Ȇȅ

Helsingør

ȆȌ

ȆȆ

Current plans for Helsingør

ȇȆ

Ȇȇ

Helsingør in the Øresund region

ȇȈ

ȆȈ

Helsingør in the Capital region

ȈȆ

Ȇȉ

Helsingør vs Helsingborg

ȈȌ

ȆȊ

Conclusions position Helsingør within regional development

ȉȈ

+++6JGQTGVKECNHTCOGYQTM 100

100

100

100

ȇȅ

Cross-border integration

ȉȌ

ȇȆ

Literature review (Abstract)

ȊȄ

ȇȇ

Case study: push and pull - Framework - Conclusions

ȊȆ ȊȊ

+88KUKQPUVTCVGI[

ȆƅŻ

Ȉȅ

General challenges for the region

ȋȄ

ȈȆ

Vision

ȋȅ

Ȉȇ

Regional strategy

ȋȆ

ȈȈ

Regional masterplan

ȋȉ

Ȉȉ

Strategy for Helsingør

ȋȊ

Ȋ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8%QPFKVKQPU ȉȅ

General conditions plan area - Relation 1: Hisotrical city centre - Relation 2: Culture Yard - Relation 3: Suburbs - Other conditions

ȌȄ Ȍȅ ȌȈ ȌȊ Ȍȍ

ȉȆ

Challenges and tools

ȍȉ

8+&GUKIPRTQRQUCN Ȋȅ

Programmatic proposal

ȍȌ

ȊȆ

Spatial proposal

ȅȄȄ

Ȋȇ

Plan

ȅȄȆ

ȊȈ

Housing - housing blocks and courtyards (+ conclusions study) - urban blocks and parking

ȅȄȈ ȅȄȌ

Ȋȉ

Details of the plan

ȅȅȊ

ȊȊ

Phasing and feasibility

ȅȇȄ

8++%QPENWUKQPUGXCNWCVKQP ȋȅ

Conclusions

ȅȇȊ

ȋȆ

Reflections & Recommendations

ȅȇȌ

Bibliography

ȅȈȄ

#RRGPFKZ The Danish planning system

ȅȈȇ

Historical perspective

ȅȈȈ

Literature review paper

ȅȈȊ

Push & pull factors: the cases

ȅȉȅ

Push & pull factors: indicators and comparisons

ȅȉȋ

Design variants (small selection)

ȅȉȍ

Urban plan references

ȅȊȄ

Study: courtyards

ȅȊȆ

ȋ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


I Introduction

Ȇ

ƅŻ Ż

źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR based on

THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR


++0641&7%6+10

Introduction

dŚŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŝƐ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ Ă ŶĞǁ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ůŝŶŬ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚǁŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ Ă ĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ďĞŶĞĮƚ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ DLJ ŝŶƚĞŶƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŽ ĮŶĚŽƵƚǁŚĂƚƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŝƐŽĨĂƐĞĐŽŶĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶŽŶ ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚƚŽĐŽŵĞƵƉǁŝƚŚĂĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĂŶĚƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ / ǁŝůů ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĐŚĂƉƚĞƌƐŽĨƚŚŝƐdŚĞƐŝƐ͘

ŚĂƉƚĞƌυ/ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ /ŶƚŚĞĮƌƐƚĐŚĂƉƚĞƌƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝƐďĞŝŶŐŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐ͕ ďĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚƵĂů ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽďůĞŵ ĮĞůĚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŚŽůĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞĚ ŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJ ĨŽƌ ĞdžĞĐƵƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƌĚŝŶĂů ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƐƵď ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞƐƵďũĞĐƚ͘

ŚĂƉƚĞƌχdŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ dŚĞ ƚŚŝƌĚ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĞdžƉŽƵŶĚƐ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂů ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ͘ dŽ ďĂĐŬďŽŶĞ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ĐĂƐĞ ƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĐŽŶƐƵůƚĞĚ ǁŚŝĐŚŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůďĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚƚŽƚĂĐŬůĞƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJŽĨƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŽŶĂ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐůĞǀĞů͘

ŚĂƉƚĞƌψsŝƐŝŽŶΘ^ƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂů ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ĂƌĞ ďƌŽƵŐŚƚ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŽ ĨŽƌŵ Ă ĐůĞĂƌ ǀŝƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĂŶĚƐƉĂƟĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ

ŚĂƉƚĞƌωŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐΘĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ dŚĞ ĮŌŚ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂ͕ƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚ ƚŚĞďƵŝůĚͲƵƉƚŽƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶƉƌŽƉŽƐĂů͘

ŚĂƉƚĞƌϊĞƐŝŐŶƉƌŽƉŽƐĂůƐ ŚĂƉƚĞƌφŶĂůLJƐŝƐ dŚŝƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶƐ Ă ĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚ ĚĞƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƐĐĂůĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ dŚĞ scales are all to a certain extend approached in ƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ  ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ;ĮŐ͘ ϊͿ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ĂƌĞĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚĂŶĚĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƉůĂŶƐĂƌĞŵĞŶƟŽŶĞĚ͘

ȆƅŻ

ȅȄ

dŚĞƐŝdžƚŚĐŚĂƉƚĞƌƉƌŽƉŽƐĞƐĂƉůĂŶĨŽƌƚŚĞŝĚĞŶƟĮĞĚ ĂƌĞĂ ƚŚĂƚ ĐůĂƌŝĮĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů development on the local scale.

ŚĂƉƚĞƌϋŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐΘǀĂůƵĂƟŽŶ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ĮŶĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ / ǁŝůů ĞǀĂůƵĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ ŵLJ ĚĞƐŝŐŶƉƌŽƉŽƐĂůƐĂŶĚŵLJĚĞƐŝŐŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


>ŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ͗

Fig. 2 Denmark & Sweden

Fig. 3 Scandinavian flags

Fig. 4 Øresund region

Fig. 5 The Øresund bridge

Fig. 6 Helsingør municipality

Fig. 7 Helsingør´s historical city centre

ȅȅ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++0641&7%6+10

Context

'K'ZW,zΘDK'ZW,z dŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ;/Ŷ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ͗TƌĞƐƵŶĚͿƌĞŐŝŽŶŝƐŶĂŵĞĚ ĂŌĞƌƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌŝŶƚŚĞŵŝĚĚůĞŽĨƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͖ŝƚŵĞĂŶƐ ͚ŐƌĂǀĞůďĞĂĐŚͲŶĂƌƌŽǁƐĞĂǁĂLJ͛͘dŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐ ŽĨƚŚĞĂŶŝƐŚ/ƐůĂŶĚƐ^ũčůůĂŶĚ͕>ŽůĂŶĚͲ&ĂůƐƚĞƌDƆŶ͕ ŽƌŶŚŽůŵĂŶĚƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ^ŬĊŶĞƉƌŽǀŝŶĐĞ͘  ĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ ^ƚƌĂŝƚ ŽĨ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŽŶ ^ĞĂůĂŶĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ DĂůŵŽ ŝŶ ^ĐĂŶŝĂ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ Ă ĨĞƌƌLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌƚŚĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐƚŚĞƚǁŽĐŝƟĞƐŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ;^ĞĂůĂŶĚͿ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ;^ĐĂŶŝĂͿ͘ ƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƌŝƟŵĞ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĐĂŶ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ďĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ Ăƚ ƚǁŽ ƉĂŝƌƐ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞƌĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚĐŝƟĞƐŝŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ƌŽƵŶĚ χ͘ϋ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ůŝǀĞ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ŝƐ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĂůƟĐ ^ĞĂ ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƚůĂŶƟĐKĐĞĂŶǀŝĂƚŚĞďĂLJŽĨ<ĂƩĞŐĂƚ͕ŝƚŝƐ ŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞďƵƐŝĞƐƚǁĂƚĞƌǁĂLJƐŝŶƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͘

,/^dKZzK&d,TZ^hEZ'/KE dŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ĂƐ Ă ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ Ă ŶĞǁ ƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶ͘ dŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ǁĂƚĞƌ ǁĂƐ ĂůǁĂLJƐ ƚŚĞ ďĞĂƟŶŐ ŚĞĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ hŶƟů υϊωό͕ ƚŚĞ ĞŶƟƌĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ^ĐĂŶŝĂ ;dŚĞ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ƉĂƌƚͿ͕ǁĂƐƉĂƌƚŽĨĞŶŵĂƌŬ͘ŌĞƌƚŚĂƚ͕^ĐĂŶŝĂĐĂŵĞ ŝŶ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚŚĂŶĚƐ͘ WŽůŝƟĐĂůĐŽŶƚƌŽůŽĨTƌĞƐƵŶĚŚĂƐďĞĞŶĂŶŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ŝƐƐƵĞ ŝŶ ĂŶŝƐŚ ĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘ ĂŶŝƐŚ ŵĂŝ��ƚĂŝŶĞĚŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJĐŽŶƚƌŽůǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐŽĂƐƚĂůĨŽƌƚƌĞƐƐ ŽĨ <ƌŽŶďŽƌŐ Ăƚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ;^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ͗ ůƐŝŶŽƌĞͿ ŝŶ

'ŽĂů͗/Ŷφτφτ͕ƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶ ďĞŝŶŐƵƌŽƉĞ͛ƐŵŽƐƚĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ĂŶĚƐŵĂƌƚĐůŝŵĂƚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĨŽƌ ĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ͕ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐĂŶĚǀŝƐŝƚŽƌƐ͕ƚŚĂŶŬƐƚŽĂŶ ĞĸĐŝĞŶƚƵƐĞŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ͘͞ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͗TZh^φτυτ

ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ <ćƌŶĂŶ Ăƚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŝŶ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ͞ďŽƩůĞŶĞĐŬ͟ ŽĨ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌĂŝƚ ŝƐ ũƵƐƚψ͕ωŬŵǁŝĚĞ͘/ŶυψφύĞŶŵĂƌŬŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ dŽůů͘ ůů ƐŚŝƉƐ ƉĂƐƐŝŶŐ Ăƚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂĚ ƚŽ ƉĂLJ ĚƵƚLJ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƌŽǁŶ͘ &Žƌ ĐĞŶƚƵƌŝĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ dŽůů ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ ŽĨ ƌĞǀĞŶƵĞĨŽƌƚŚĞƌŽǁŶ͘/ŶυϊωόŝƚďĞĐĂŵĞĂďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŌĞƌ ƚŚĞ ^ǁĞĚĞƐ ĐŽŶƋƵĞƌĞĚ ^ĐĂŶŝĂ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ Ă ŵĂƌŬĞĚ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨTƌĞƐƵŶĚ͕ĂƐ^ĐĂŶŝĂďĞĐĂŵĞĂ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌĂůƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘dŚĞĮƌƐƚƉůĂŶƐƚŽďƵŝůĚ ĂůŝŶŬĂĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞ^ƚƌĂŝƚŽĨTƌĞƐƵŶĚŽĐĐƵƌƌĞĚŝŶυόϋφ ĂŶĚŝƐƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞĂůŽŶŐƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůŝƐƐƵĞ ŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ /ŶƌĞĐĞŶƚƟŵĞƐ͕ƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚŽƵŶĐŝůǁĂƐĨŽƵŶĚĞĚ ŝŶ υύϊψ͕ ďƵƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶŝŶĞŶŵĂƌŬĐŝƌĐƵŵǀĞŶƚĞĚĂǁŝĚĞƌ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞ͕ ƐĞĞ K ;φττχͿ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŽŽŬ Žī ŝŶ ƚŚĞ υύότ͛Ɛ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƐƵƉƌĂŶĂƟŽŶĂů ďŽĚŝĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ ůŽďďLJŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ Ă ĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬĂŶĚƚŚĞŝĚĞĂŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶĂƐĂ ŵĂũŽƌŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐŽŶƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶŵĂƉ͘dŚĞĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬ ǁĂƐ ĂŐƌĞĞĚ ƵƉŽŶ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ υύύυ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƐ ƐƵƉƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚ ďLJ Ă ĐŽŵŵŽŶǀŝƐŝŽŶĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶυύύύ͘ KŶ:ƵůLJυ͕φτττƚŚĞĮƌƐƚďƌŝĚŐĞĂĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ ǁĂƐ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͕ ƌĞƵŶŝƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ďLJ ůŝŶŬŝŶŐ ƚŚĞŵ ǁŝƚŚ Ă͕ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ƚƵŶŶĞů ĂŶĚ ďƌŝĚŐĞ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ƵƌŽƉĞ͛Ɛ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ŵĂũŽƌ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬ ƚŽ ĐƌŽƐƐĂƐĞĂĐŚĂŶŶĞů͕ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ^ǁĞĚĞŶĂŶĚEŽƌǁĂLJ ǁŝƚŚĂĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐƌŽĂĚĂŶĚƌĂŝůůŝŶŬǁŝƚŚŵĂŝŶůĂŶĚ ƵƌŽƉĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƐ ƉĂƌƚ ĨƵŶĚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ h ĂƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ dEƐ ;dƌĂŶƐ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ EĞƚǁŽƌŬͿ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͘ &Žƌ ƚŚĞĮƌƐƚƟŵĞƐŝŶĐĞƚŚĞ/ĐĞŐĞ͕ϋ͕τττLJĞĂƌƐĂŐŽ͕ƚŚĞ ƐŝĚĞƐǁŚĞƌĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚĂŐĂŝŶ͘

Fig. 8 Time Proximity from Kastrup Airport. Source: Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs

ȆƅŻ

ȅȆ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


more then 5 million inhabitants 2,5 - 5 million inhabitants relation trade + culture Oslo trade + culture Stockholm

Helsinki

Tallinn

St. Petersburg rich heritage

Riga

London

Hamburg logistics Berlin Rhine-Ruhr creative

Milano

Fig. 9 The Øresund in Europe and its prime connections with other regions. Source: author

ŵŽƌĞƚŚĞŶϱŵŝůůŝŽŶŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ Ϯ͕ϱͲϱŵŝůůŝŽŶŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ďŝŐƐĐĂůĞ͗ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů ŚĂƌďŽƌ h ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ

Fig. 10 Some of the main functions of European regions that are in relation with the Øresund. Source: author

ȅȇ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ

Tricity baltic countires with growing market


++0641&7%6+10

d, TZ^hE /E /d^ /EdZEd/KE> KEdyd ŽƚŚĞŶŵĂƌŬĂŶĚ^ǁĞĚĞŶŚĂǀĞĂǁĞůůͲĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ͘ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ tŽƌůĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ&ŽƌƵŵ;^ĐŚǁĂď͕φτυυͿĞŶŵĂƌŬŝƐόƚŚĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ χƌĚ  ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞ ƌĂŶŬŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ φτυυͲφτυφ͘ ŽƚŚ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ĂŶĚ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ƐĐŽƌĞ ǀĞƌLJ ŚŝŐŚŽŶƚŚĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶŝŶŐŽĨŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ͕ďŽƚŚƉƵďůŝĐ ĂŶĚƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ͘^ǁĞĚĞŶ͛ƐŚĞĂůƚŚĨĂĐŝůŝƚLJŝƐƚŽƉƌĂƚĞĚ͕ƐŽ ŝƚƐƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƌĞĂĚŝŶĞƐƐ;ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĂĚŽƉƟŽŶͿ ĂŶĚ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ŽŶ Ă͘Ž͘ƚ͘ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ŵĂƌŬĞƟŶŐ ůĞǀĞů͘ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ƐĐŽƌĞƐ ŚŝŐŚ ŽŶ ƐĞĐƵƌŝƚLJ͕ũƵĚŝĐŝĂůĂŶĚƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJƌŝŐŚƚ͕ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJƐƵƉƉůLJ͕ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ůĂďŽƌŵĂƌŬĞƚĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ;ŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJͿ͕ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƌĞĂĚŝŶĞƐƐĂŶĚŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐƐĐŽƌĞůŽǁŽŶŵĂƌŬĞƚƐŝnjĞďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨ Ă ƐŵĂůů ĞdžƉŽƌƚ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ 'W͘ ŽƚŚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞǀĞƌLJŚŝŐŚƚĂdžƌĂƚĞƐ͕ƚŚŝƐŚĂƐĂŶĞdžƚĞŶƚĞīĞĐƚŽŶ ƚŚĞƚĂdžĂƟŽŶƌĂƚĞ͘ The main trade partners for import and export are 'ĞƌŵĂŶLJ͕ h<͕ EŽƌǁĂLJ ĂŶĚ &ŝŶůĂŶĚ͘ ;ĐŽŶŽŵŝƐƚ͕ φττύͿ;ĮŐ͘ύͿ  ŵŽƌĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĨƌŽŵ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌĂů ƚŽ ŵŽƌĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ŝŶƵƌŽƉĞĂƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚŽĨƚŚĞh͛ƐĞŶůĂƌŐĞŵĞŶƚŝŶƚŽ ĂƐƚĞƌŶƵƌŽƉĞŝŶφττψ͘;<ŶŽǁůĞƐĂŶĚDĂƩŚŝĞƐƐĞŶ͕ φττύ͕ υωωͲυϊωͿ ƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŽ ĞŶůĂƌŐĞ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂůƟĐ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ƚŽ ĞŶůĂƌŐĞ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͛ƐĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶĂƌĞĂ͘ ĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨŝƚƐƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐ͕ƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂƐ Ă ŐĂƚĞǁĂLJ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ^ĐĂŶĚŝŶĂǀŝĂŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶĂůƟĐĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘/ƚŝƐĂůƐŽĂŐĂƚĞĨƌŽŵƚŚĞ ĂůƟĐ ƐĞĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƚůĂŶƟĐ KĐĞĂŶ͘ &Žƌ ƚŚĞ ĂĚũĂĐĞŶƚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝƚ ŝƐ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƌŽƵƚĞ ĨŽƌĐĂƌŐŽƐŚŝƉƉŝŶŐƚŚĂƚƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐĂůŽƚŽĨĂĐƟǀŝƚLJĨŽƌ ƚŚĞŚĂƌďŽƌƐ;ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕DĂůŵŽĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐͿ ĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚǁĂƚĞƌƐ͘ dŚĞ ŽŶůLJ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŝƌƉŽƌƚ͕ <ĂƐƚƌƵƉ͕ ŝƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ďƵƚĂůƐŽDĂůŵŽďLJƚŚĞƌŝĚŐĞ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚĞ ďŝŐŐĞƐƚĂŝƌƉŽƌƚŝŶ^ĐĂŶĚŝŶĂǀŝĂĂŶĚƚŚĞŵĂŝŶŚƵďĨŽƌ ƚŚĞďŝŐŐĞƐƚĂŝƌƉůĂŶĞĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͕^^͘

d, TZ^hE /E /d^ Έ/ΉEd/KE> KEdyd dŚĞ ŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƚŚĞŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨTƌĞƐƵŶĚĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐƐ͕ ŵŝŐƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͕ďƵƚŝƚŚĂƐƌĞƚĂŝŶĞĚǀĞƌLJ ůŽǁůĞǀĞůƐŽĨŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶ͕ŝŶĨĂĐƚƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƐƟůůĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐŽĨƚǁŽƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞƉĂƌƚƐ͘

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dŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƉĂƌƚ ŝƐ ĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŝƐůĂŶĚ ŽĨ ĞĂůĂŶĚ ;^ũčůůĂŶĚͿ ǁŝƚŚ 'ƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĂŶĚ ŚĂƐψωйŽĨƚŚĞĂŶŝƐŚƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚƉĂƌƚ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐƚŚĞƉƌŽǀŝŶĐĞŽĨ^ĐĂŶŝĂ;^ŬĊŶĞͿ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŚĂƐ υχйŽĨƚŚĞƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ŵĂŶLJ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌŝƟĞƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƚǁŽ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ŵŽƐƚ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ŶĂƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞ ĂŶĚ ĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ƐŽŵĞ ƉĂƌĂůůĞů ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ĂŶĚ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͘ĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ ŝƐ͕ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŚŝůĞ ^ĐĂŶŝĂ ŝƐ Ă ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌĂů ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝŶ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͕ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů capital and for most areas the most important ĐŝƚLJ ŝŶ ^ĐĂŶĚŝŶĂǀŝĂ͘ dŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶĂƌĞĂŚĂƐĂůǁĂLJƐďĞĞŶŵŽƌĞĚŝǀĞƌƐŝĮĞĚ͕ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ĮŶĂŶĐĞ͕ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ĂŶĚƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝnjĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ĂƌĞ ŵƵĐŚ ƐƚƌŽŶŐĞƌ ŝŶ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ͘ dŚĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚŝŶ'ƌĞĂƚĞƌŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝŶφττόĞǀĞŶ ŚĂĚƚŚĞŚŝŐŚĞƐƚƐĂůĂƌLJůĞǀĞůŝŶƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ;ĐŽŶŽŵŝƐƚ͕ φττύͿŚĂƐĨƵĞůůĞĚTƌĞƐƵŶĚŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶďLJƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐ ũŽďƐĨŽƌƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚƐŽĨ^ǁĞĚĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ƐŝĚĞƐ ŽĨ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ǁĂƐ ƉĞƌŚĂƉƐ Ăƚ Ă ŵĂdžŝŵƵŵ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ǀĞƌŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ƌĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶ͘ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ǁĂƐ Ă ǁĞĂůƚŚŝĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůůLJ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝĮĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘ DŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ Ă ĮŌŚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ůŝǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƚŽǁŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ υόττ͕ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ůŝǀĞĚŝŶŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĂůƌĞĂĚLJŚĂĚŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶ υττ͕τττŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͘dŚĞĐŝƚLJǁĂƐƚŚĞĐĂƉŝƚĂůŽĨĂŶ ĞŵƉŝƌĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƐƟůů ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞĚ ŽĨ EŽƌǁĂLJ͕ /ĐĞůĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ Greenland, and some small overseas territories in ƚŚĞtĞƐƚ/ŶĚŝĞƐĂŶĚĨƌŝĐĂ͘ĞŶŵĂƌŬĚŽĞƐŶŽƚŚĂǀĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ŵŝŶĞƌĂů Žƌ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ ďƵƚ ŚĂƐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŵŽƐƚŽĨŝƚƐŚŝƐƚŽƌLJďĞĞŶĂƌŝĐŚĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJƉƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐĂƐƵƌƉůƵƐĨŽƌĞdžƉŽƌƚ͘

dƌĂĸĐ dŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽŐƌŽǁƚŚŝŶƚƌĂĸĐ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĨƌŽŵ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ǀŽůƵŵĞ ŽĨ ĨƌĞŝŐŚƚ ĂŶĚƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƚƌĂĸĐŚĂƐďĞĞŶƐƚĞĂĚŝůLJŐƌŽǁŝŶŐĨŽƌ ŵĂŶLJLJĞĂƌƐ͘;,ĂŶƐĞŶ͕φττύͿ dŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ŚĂƐ Ă ĞĂƐƚͲǁĞƐƚ ĂdžŝƐ ŽƌŝĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŚĂƐ ŚĂĚ Ă ŚƵŐĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŌĞƌ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌŝĚŐĞ ŽƉĞŶĞĚ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ǁĂƐƚƌŝŐŐĞƌĞĚ͘ŽǁŶŝŶƚŚĞƐŽƵƚŚŽĨĞŶŵĂƌŬĂŶĞǁ ƚƵŶŶĞůŝƐƵŶĚĞƌĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƚŚĂƚǁŝůůůŝŶŬĞŶŵĂƌŬ ;ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶŝƐůĂŶĚ͕>ŽůůĂŶĚͲ&ĂůƐƚĞƌͿǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŵĂŝŶůĂŶĚ ŽĨƵƌŽƉĞ;&ĞŚŵĂƌŶ͕ŶŽƌƚŚǁĞƐƚ'ĞƌŵĂŶLJͿ͘dŚŝƐǁŝůů ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂǀĞů ƟŵĞ ĨƌŽŵ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͕ EŽƌǁĂLJ ĂŶĚ

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Fig. 11 The Ã&#x2DC;resund region. source: TendensOresund

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Fig. 12 Municipalities in the Ã&#x2DC;resund region with a few of their main characteristics. Source: author

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ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ^ĞĂůĂŶĚ ĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐůLJ͘ /Ĩ ƚƌĂĸĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚƐ ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ƌĞƉŽƌƚƐ ;;>ĂW͕ φτυτͿ ŵĂŶLJ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐĐŽŶĐĞƌŶŝŶŐůŽĂĚĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJǁŝůůŽĐĐƵƌ͘dŚĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶŶŽǁŝƐŚŽǁƚŚĞĮdžĞĚ&ĞŚŵĂƌŶůŝŶŬǁŝůůďĞ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞĚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶŽĨůĂďŽƵƌŝŶƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ ĂŶĚ ǁŚĂƚ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ĂĐƚ ĂƐ Ă ƚƌŝŐŐĞƌ ĨŽƌ Ă ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů&ĞŚŵĂƌŶZĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͘

^ƉĂƟĂůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ dŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂƌĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ƚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚĂŵŽŶŽĐĞŶƚƌŝĐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘hƌďĂŶƐƉƌĂǁů͕ ĚĞĮŶĞĚĂƐĂƚĞŶĚĞŶĐLJƚŽǁĂƌĚƐůŽǁĞƌĐŝƚLJĚĞŶƐŝƚLJĂƐ ĐŝƚLJĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚƐĞdžƉĂŶĚ͕ŝƐĂĐŽŵŵŽŶƉƌŽƉĞŶƐŝƚLJ͘ ,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĨŽƌŵƚŚĞĐŽƌĞĨŽƌƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌ ƐƉƌĂǁůŝƐƉĂƚŚĚĞƉĞŶĚĞĚĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞƌĂŝůƚƌĂĐŬŽƌŵĂŝŶ ƌŽĂĚƐ͘ ƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ŝŶ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŝƐ ĐůĞĂƌŽƌŝŐŝŶĂƚĞĚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞ&ŝŶŐĞƌƉůĂŶĨƌŽŵυύψϋ;&ŝŐ͘ υχͿ͘ WůĂŶƐ ĂƌĞ ďĞŝŶŐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ƚŽ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐƚŽĂǀŽŝĚĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ͘ Fig. 13 ‘Fingerplan’ Copenhagen 1947 source: ministry of Evironment

WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƚƌĞŶĚƐ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ŝŶ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĨĂŝƌůLJ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ƐŝŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ ŵŝĚͲυύϋτƐ͕ ďƵƚ ŝŶ ��ŝīĞƌĞŶƚůĞǀĞůƐ͘&ŽƌŵĂŶLJLJĞĂƌƐ͕ƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚƐŝĚĞŽĨ TƌĞƐƵŶĚŚĂƐŚĂĚĂƐƚƌŽŶŐĞƌƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƚŚĂŶ^ǁĞĚĞŶŝŶŐĞŶĞƌĂů͘KŶƚŚĞĂŶŝƐŚƐŝĚĞŽĨƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͕ƚŚĞƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ŚĂƐ ǀĂƌŝĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ LJĞĂƌ ƚŽ LJĞĂƌ͘ /Ŷ φτυτ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ďLJ υό͕χττ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞďLJυφ͕χττŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͘

Fig. 14 Current density of population in the Øresund Region’s. Source: www.tendensoresund.org

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DŝŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝŵĞ ĨĂĐƚŽƌ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ŵŝŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƩĞƌŶ ƵƐĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ƚŽ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĐŝƟĞƐ͖LJŽƵŶŐƉĞŽƉůĞĐŽŵŵƵƚĞĨƌŽŵŚŽŵĞ ƚŽƐƚƵĚLJŽƌǁŽƌŬ͕ĂŶĚůŝǀĞŽŌĞŶŝŶƚŚĞďŝŐŐĞƌĐŝƟĞƐ͘ zŽƵŶŐĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŵŽǀĞĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐƚŽƐĞƩůĞŝŶƚŚĞ ƐƵďƵƌďƐ͘,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ĂƚĞŶĚĞŶĐLJŽĐĐƵƌƐǁŚĞƌĞĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ ƐƚĂLJǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝƌĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶŝŶƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐ͘dŚŝƐŵĂLJďĞĚƵĞ ƚŽƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJŚŝŐŚĞƌƉƌŝĐĞƐŝŶƚŚĞƐƵďƵƌďƐĨŽƌŚŽƵƐĞƐ ĂŶĚĂĚĞƐŝƌĞƚŽƐƚĂLJŝŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘;KƌĞƐƵŶĚƐƟĚ͕φττόͿ͘

Fig. 15 Percentage distribution of population growth in the Øresund Region’s municipalities by 2019 according to current forecasts. Source: www.tendensoresund.org

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig. 16 The Oresund bridge, seen from Malmo (source: world travel attractions.com

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++0641&7%6+10

Problem field WZK>D^ddDEd dŚŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞƐ Ă ŶĞǁ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ůŝŶŬ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚǁŽĐŝƟĞƐŝŶĂĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƚŚĂƚ ƉŽƐƐŝďůLJďĞŶĞĮƚƐƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘dŚĞƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞǀŽůǀĞƐĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚŽŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞůŽĐĂůĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂƐ ƚŚĂƚĂƌĞŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚ͘DLJŝŶƚĞŶƟŽŶŝƐƚŽĮŶĚŽƵƚǁŚĂƚ ƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐŝŵƉĂĐƚŝƐŽŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚďƵŝůĚƵƉĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĨŽƌƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ dŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ǁŝƚŚŝƚƐχ͘ϋŵŝůůŝŽŶŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͕ ŐƌĂĚƵĂůůLJ ĞǀŽůǀĞƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ŝƐ ŝŶ ŝƚƐ ŝŶŝƟĂů ƉŚĂƐĞ͘ WŽůŝƟĐĂůůLJ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ůŝŐŚƚůLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĞŶŚĂŶĐĞĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌ ŵŽďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ůĂďŽƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ƐŽůǀĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ͕  ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ƐLJŶĞƌŐŝĞƐ ŝŶ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƚŚĞƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƚŽŵƵƚƵĂůůLJďĞŶĞĮƚ ƚŚĞ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ ƚŚĂƚ ďŽƚŚ ƐŝĚĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ channel holds. ^ŝŶĐĞƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚƌŝĚŐĞƐƚŽŽĚĮŶŝƐŚŝŶφτττŝƚŚĂƐ ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞĚ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĮĞůĚƐ ĂŶĚ ĐĂŶ ďĞĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚĂƐĂƌĞůĂƟǀĞďŝŐ ůĞĂƉ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ͘ ŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚŝƐŶŽǁĂŶĂƚƵƌĂůƉĂƌƚŽĨŵĂŶLJƉĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJůŝĨĞ͘ ĞƐŝĚĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ďƌŝĚŐĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƐŚŽƵůĚ͕ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨ/hͲTƌĞƐƵŶĚǻ͕ďĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽŽ͘ĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ;ůƐŝŶŽƌĞͿ ǁŽƵůĚ ďĞ ĂŶ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƐƵĐŚ Ă ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ Ă ŶĞǁ ƌŝŶŐ ;ƌŽĂĚ ĂŶĚ ƌĂŝůͿ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ƚŽ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚ ƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶůŝŶŬƚŽƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĂŶĚŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƚŽƵƌŽƉĞ͛ƐŵĂŝŶůĂŶĚ͘ ǻ +$7´TGUWPFKUCDQWVKPVGITCVKQPQPETQUUDQTFGT EQQRGTCVKQPCPFVQETGCVGCEQPUGPUWUKPVJG´TG UWPFTGIKQPKPVGTOUQHKPHTCUVTWEVWTGCPFUWUVCKPC DNGEQOOWPKV[FGXGNQROGPV6JGRTQLGEVKUCEQN NCDQTCVKQPDGVYGGPFKHHGTGPVTGIKQPCNCEVQTUQPDQVJ UKFGUQHVJG´TGUWPF+VURWTRQUGKUVQRTQXKFGCPGY UVTCVGIKEHTCOGYQTMHQTGPJCPEKPIFGXGNQROGPVQH VJG´TGUWPF4GIKQPHQTDGEQOKPICEQORGVKVKXGCPF CVVTCEVKXGTGIKQP6JGKTRTKQTKVKGUHQTǼǺǽǺKPENWFG CHKZGFNKPMDGVYGGP*GNUKPIDQTICPF*GNUKPIÒTC HKHVJTKPITQCFYGUVQH%QRGPJCIGPOCZKOK\KPIVJG HWNNRQVGPVKCNQHVJG(GJOCTP$GNVUVTGPIVJGPKPI VJGRQUKVKQPQH%QRGPJCIGP#KTRQTVCPFOCMKPIKU COWNVKOQFCNJWDGUVCDNKUJKPICHCUVETQUUDQTFGT VTCKPUGTXKEGHQTVJGGPVKTGTGIKQPVJCVKUNKPMGFVQC EQORTGJGPUKXGTGIKQPCNPGVYQTM

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ůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƌĞĂůŝƐƟĐ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉůĂŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŶĞǁ ůŝŶŬƐ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ĞdžŝƐƚ ;ŵŽƌĞ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ƐĞĐƟŽŶͿ͕ ƚŚĞ ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶ ƚŽ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚ ƚŚĞŵ ŚĂƐŶ͛ƚ ďĞĞŶ ŵĂĚĞ LJĞƚ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŶƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ďŽƚŚ ƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚĂŶĚĂŶŝƐŚ'ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚĂƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚŝŶ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐƚŚĞůŝŶŬ͘/ƚ͛ƐůŝŬĞůLJŽŶůLJĂŵĂƩĞƌŽĨƟŵĞ ĂŶĚŵŽŶĞLJ͘;EŝůƐƐŽŶ͕φτυτ͕,ĂŶƐĞŶ͕φττύͿ ƐƐƵŵŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶŽŶĞĚĂLJǁŝůůďĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͕ ŵĂŶLJ ŶĞǁ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ǁŝůů ĂƌŝƐĞ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŐĂŝŶƐ ĂƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵĂŶĞǁƐŽůŝĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͕ŝƚŝƐĂůƐŽĂďŝŐĞdžƚĞƌŶĂů ƐŚŽĐŬƚŽĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚŝƚƐĐŽŶƐƟƚƵƟŶŐƉĂƌƚƐ͘ dŚĞĐŽŵƉůĞdžƐLJƐƚĞŵƐƚŚĂƚŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůůLJŚĂǀĞĞǀŽůǀĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ŶŽǁ ƌŽŽƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ǁŝůů ďĞ ƐƵďũĞĐƚ ĨŽƌ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ǁŚĞŶ Ă ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ƐƵĚĚĞŶůLJ ŽƉĞŶ Ă ŶĞǁ ƉĂƚŚǁĂLJ ŝŶ ĂŶĚ ŽƵƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůŝĨĞ ŽĨ Ă ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĐƌĞĂƚĞƐŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ͕ďƵƚĂůƐŽƉƌŽďůĞŵƐƚŚĂƚŶĞĞĚ ƚŽďĞĂĚĚƌĞƐƐĞĚ͘ dŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚǁŝůůŝŶƋƵŝƌLJĨƵƌƚŚĞƌŝŶƚŽƚŚĞƐĞĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ͕ ƐƚƵĚLJ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƐĐĂůĞ ĂŶĚ ƉƵƚ Ă ƐƉĞĐŝĮĐ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ Ͳ&ŝƌƐƚůLJďĞĐĂƵƐĞŝƚŝƐŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚŝƐĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ƐŽůŝĚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͖ Ͳ^ĞĐŽŶĚůLJ͕ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJůĂLJƐƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐĂůůLJŝŶůŝŶĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ͚ƌŝŶŐ͛ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŽƵƚĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐ ŽĨ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͖ Ͳ dŚŝƌĚůLJ͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐ Ă ƐŵĂůů ƐĐĂůĞ͕ ůŽǁ ĚĞŶƐĞ ĐŝƚLJ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŵďŝƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐĞĞŵ ƚŽ ďĞ ŽƉƉŽƐŝƚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůĂŶĞǁůŝŶŬĐĂŶŽīĞƌ͘

Fig. 17 current cross-border gateway. (by author)

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ

Fig. 18 planned new cross-border gateway. (by author)


dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ / ǁŝůů ŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ǁŚĞŶ Ă ŶĞǁ ƐŽůŝĚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŵĂĚĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŶ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞ ĂŶ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂů ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŝůů ďĞŶĞĮƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ The ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ŝƚƐ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŝŶŐ ĐŝƚLJ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚƉůĂLJ

an important part, so therefore the scope of this ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĨŽĐƵƐŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƐĐĂůĞƐ ĂƐ ǁĞůů͘ dŚĞ ƉůĂŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ ƚŽ ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ŽĨƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŵƵƐƚďĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ŝŶ ƚĂŶĚĞŵ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂƐ Ă ǁŚŽůĞ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĐƌĞĂƟŶŐ ĐŽŚĞƌĞŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵƉůŝŵĞŶƚĂƌLJ ʹ Ăůů ůĞǀĞůƐ should mutual support each other.

WZK>D^KEd,/dz^>

WZK>D^KEd,Z'/KE>^>

ͻhăòÊ®—ƒ½›‘«ƒÄ¦›Ê¥ÖÊÝ®ã®ÊÄ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ĂŝŵƐ ƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJ ŽŶ ĂƵƚŚĞŶƟĐŝƚLJ͕ ͞ƋƵŝĞƚ͟ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŵŽĚĞƌĂƚĞ ƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ ;,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ<ŽŵŵƵŶĞ͕φττόͿ͘tŝƚŚƚŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJďĞĐŽŵĞƐƚŚĞůŝƚĞƌĂůĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶĨŽƌƚŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ŐĂƚĞǁĂLJ ƚŽ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŝƚ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂŶĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐǁŝůůƵŶĂǀŽŝĚĂďůĞĐŚĂŶŐĞ͘ dŚŝƐǁŝůůĐůĂƐŚǁŝƚŚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛ƐǀŝƐŝŽŶĂŶĚĚĞŵĂŶĚƐ ĂƐƵďƚůĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ͘ ͻÊÃ֛ã®ã®ÊÄó®ã«Ê㫛Ù‘›Äã›ÙÝ  ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ ĐĂŶ ŝŶŇŝĐƚ Ă ǁŝĚĞƌ ƌĂŶŐĞĨŽƌĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐĂŶĚďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ͘ tŝƚŚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŵĂŝŶůLJ ĨŽĐƵƐŝŶŐ ŽŶ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŵŽĚĞƌĂƚĞ ƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ͕ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ƐƵŝƚĂďůĞ ĂŶĚ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ ƚŽ ĚĞĂů ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ͘ KƚŚĞƌ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨƚŚĞĨĂƐƚƌŝŶŐŶĞƚǁŽƌŬůŝŬĞ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐͬ,ŝůůĞƌƆĚͬ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŚĂǀĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƐ ;ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐͿ ĨŽƌ ďĞŝŶŐ Ă ǁĞůůͲĨƵŶĐƟŽŶŝŶŐ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞŐƌĞĂƚĐŽŵƉĞƟƚŽƌƐ͕ŝŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨůĂďŽƵƌĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ ͻEÊ›øփė®Ä¦ÖÊã›Ä㮃½ ĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚďŽƵŶĚĂƌŝĞƐŽĨƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚŶĂƚƵƌĞƉƌĞǀĞŶƚ ƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚĂƌĞĂƐƚŚĂƚŚĂǀĞƌĞĂĐŚĞĚƚŚĞŝƌůŝŵŝƚƐ͕ to expand. ͻhِƒÄÝÖكó½ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂƐ Ă ǀĞƌLJ ůŽǁ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŵŽƐƚ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƐ ĞdžŝƐƚ ŽĨ ĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ĨŽƌŵƐ ĂŶ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŝŵƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ Ă ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ƐĞůĨͲĨƵŶĐƟŽŶŝŶŐ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞůŝĞƐ ŽŶ ƉƵďůŝĐƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͘

ͻ,®›ÙƒÙ‘«®‘ƒ½Ùʃ—ěãóÊÙ»Ý dŚĞ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƚLJƉŝĐĂů ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ƐƵďƵƌďĂŶ ƐƉƌĂǁů ƌŽĂĚ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ͗ ŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚŝĐĂů ƌŽĂĚ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ĐƵůͲĚĞͲƐĂĐƐ͘ DŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ĂƵƚŽŵŽďŝůĞ ŽƌŝĞŶƚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞ ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞŽĨƉƵďůŝĐƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͘ ͻ®¥¥›Ù›Äãٛ¦®Êă½Ö½ƒÄĮĦÝùÝã›ÃÝ dŚĞ ƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ĐĂƵƐĞƐ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ŝŶ ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĂŶĚ ;ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ĮĞůĚƐͿ ĚŝƐƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚƐ ŝŶ ĞŶŵĂƌŬĂŶĚ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘ ͻ›ƒ½®Ä¦ó®ã«ÖÙÊ㛑㛗ƒÙ›ƒÝ ŽƚŚƐŝĚĞƐ͕ďƵƚĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJƚŚĞĂŶŝƐŚŽŶĞ͕ĂƌĞĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ŚŝŐŚůLJ ;ŶĂƟŽŶĂůͿ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ďŽƵŶĚĂƌLJ͕ ĂƌŽƵƐĞĚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĂŶŝƐŚ&ŝŶŐĞƌƉůĂŶ͕ƚŚĂƚƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞƐ ŶĂƚƵƌĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ WŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ Ğ͘Ő͘ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐĂŶĞǁƌŝŶŐƌŽĂĚĂƌĞƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞůŝŵŝƚĞĚ͘ ͻ/đٛƒÝ®Ä¦ƒÃÊçÄãÊ¥ãك¥¥®‘ƒÄ—‘ÊÃÃçã®Ä¦  /Ĩ Ă ĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐ ďƵŝůƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƚƌŝƉƐ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ǁŝůů ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞďLJĂƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞůLJϋτйŝŶ φτχτƚŽƚŚĞ DK ƉƌŽŐŶŽƐŝƐ ƌĞƉŽƌƚ͘ ;>ĂW͕ φτυτͿ͘ dŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůŶĞƚǁŽƌŬǁŝůůďĞƵŶĂďůĞƚŽĚĞĂůǁŝƚŚ ƐƵĐŚŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ͘ ͻ«ƒÄ¦®Ä¦çِƒÄփãã›ÙÄÝ dŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞ ǀĞƌLJ ŵƵĐŚ ŽƌŝĞŶƚĞĚ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ŽĨ DĂůŵŽ ĂŶĚ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘EĞǁŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚŶĞƚǁŽƌŬĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ĐĂŶ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƚŚĞ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůůLJ ĞǀŽůǀĞĚ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĚƌĂƐƟĐĂůůLJ͘ dŚŝƐ ĐĂŶ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐŽĨĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĐĞŶƚĞƌƐƌĂĚŝĐĂůůLJ͘

ȅȍ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


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Fig. 19 Centres around the Oresund water with their most important functions and characteristics. Source: author

^Ž ǁŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƚƐ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͍ tŝůů ŝƚ Ăůů ďĞ ƚŚĂƚ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ Žƌ ĐŽƵůĚ ŝƚ ĂůƐŽ ĂīĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ Ă ŶĞŐĂƟǀĞǁĂLJ͍ ŵŽƌĞĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJŝƐŶĞĞĚĞĚŝŶĂůůĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŽ ƌĞĂĐŚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶŽĨĐŝƟĞƐŝŶƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͕ŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĐŽƉĞ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ͕ ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚƐ͕ ƌŝŐŽƌŽƵƐ ĂĚũƵƐƚŵĞŶƚ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ƐŽůŝĚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚ͘ǀĞƌLJƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚŚĂƚŝƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽ͕ĚŝƌĞĐƚŽƌ ŝŶĚŝƌĞĐƚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƐŚŽƵůĚ ƚĂŬĞƚŚĞƐĞĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐŝŶƚŽĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ͘

ȆƅŻ

ȆȄ

ĂƐĞĚŽŶƚŚŝƐŝƚďĞĐŽŵĞƐŚŝŐŚůLJƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚƚŽĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐĂůůLJ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ƌĞĂƌƌĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĂƚŝƐŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJŝŶƚŚĞǁĂŬĞŽĨƚŚĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨĂŶĞǁƐŽůŝĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Research Questions

dŚĞŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶŽĨĂŶĞǁŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůůŝŶŬďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚǁŽĐŝƟĞƐŝŶĂĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƚŽďĞŶĞĮƚƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƉŽƐƐŝďůLJŚĂƐĂŶĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐŝŵƉĂĐƚŽŶƚŚĞůŽĐĂůĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂƐ͘DLJŝŶƚĞŶƟŽŶŝƐƚŽĮŶĚŽƵƚǁŚĂƚƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐŝŵƉĂĐƚŝƐŽŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞĐĂƌĚŝŶĂů ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶĨŽƌƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝƐ͗

D/EZ^Z,Yh^d/KE͗ tŚĂƚŝƐƚŚĞƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐŝŵƉĂĐƚŽĨĂŶĞǁŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŽŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͍ŶĚǁŚĂƚĂƌĞĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐĂŶĚŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐƚŽďĞƚĂĐŬůĞĚŝŶĂŶĂĚͲ ũƵƐƚĞĚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƐƉĂƟĂůƉůĂŶ͍

^hͳZ^Z,Yh^d/KE^͗ /͘ĞƐĐƌŝƉƟǀĞ υ͘tŚĂƚŝƐƚŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĂŶĚƐƉĂƟĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝŶƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐTƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶ͍;DĞƚŚŽĚ͗ƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĂůLJƐĞƐĂŶĚŵĂƉƉŝŶŐͿ φ͘tŚĂƚĂƌĞƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƉůĂŶƐĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƐĐĂůĞŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚĂŶĚƚŚĞƌŽůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚŝƐƌĞŐŝŽŶ͍;DĞƚŚŽĚ͗ƌĞǀŝĞǁĞdžŝƐŝƟŶŐŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨĐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƚƌĞŶĚƐͿ //͘DĞƚŚŽĚĂŶĚƚŚĞŽƌLJ͗ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƐĨƌŽŵĐĂƐĞͲƐƚƵĚŝĞƐнƚŚĞŽƌLJ χ͘tŚĂƚĂƌĞƚŚĞƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŝŶĂĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶĨŽƌĞŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐƚŚĞƐŽĐŝĂůĂŶĚ ƐƉĂƟĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨǁĞƐƚĞƌŶƵƌŽƉĞĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͍;DĞƚŚŽĚ͗ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞƌĞǀŝĞǁͿ ψ͘tŚĂƚĂƌĞƚŚĞƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŝŶŽƚŚĞƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐŽĨ;ƐƵĚĚĞŶͿĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƐƉĂƟĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͍ŶĚǁŚŝĐŚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐĂƌĞƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚĨŽƌƚŚĞƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚŝƚƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐǁŚĞŶĂĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬŝƐĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͍;DĞƚŚŽĚ͗ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂƟǀĞĐĂƐĞƐƚƵĚLJͿ ω͘tŚŝĐŚƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐĂƌĞƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚĨŽƌƚŚĞƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚŝƚƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ǁŚĞŶĂĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬŝƐĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͍;DĞƚŚŽĚ͗ĚĞƐŝŐŶďLJƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚͿ ///͘/ŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ϊ͘,ŽǁƚŽŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƐŽůŝĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͍;DĞƚŚŽĚ͗ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚďLJ ĚĞƐŝŐŶͿ

Ă͘tŚĂƚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐĂƌĞƚLJƉŝĐĂůŽĨƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƚŚĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂĂŶĚŝƚƐ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐĂƌĞĂƐ͍;DĞƚŚŽĚ͗ƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐͿ ď͘tŚĂƚŬŝŶĚŽĨĚĞƐŝŐŶŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐĂŶĚƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞƐĐĂŶďĞƵƐĞĚƚŽŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶĂŶĚŝŵƉƌŽǀĞƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶĐŽŚĞƌĞŶĐĞŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŌĞƌƚŚĞŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬ͍;ƚŚĞŽƌLJͿ ϋ͘,ŽǁƚŽŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚƚŚĞƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐŝŶͬŽƌĐŽŶŶĞĐƚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂƌĞĂ͍ ;DĞƚŚŽĚ͗ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚďLJĚĞƐŝŐŶͿ

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig. 20 The Ă&#x2DC;resund bridge to tunnel ( source: holidolic.nl)


Relevance

^K/d>Z>sE

^/Ed/&/Z>sE ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ůŝŶŬ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ǁŝůů ĐĂƵƐĞ Ă ďŝŐ ĂůƚĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ǁŚŽůĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ĚũƵƐƟŶŐ ĂŶ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƚŽ ƐƵĐŚĂĐŚĂŶŐĞĐĂŶŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞŶĞǁŝŶƐŝŐŚƚƐĨŽƌƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶĞƌƐŝŶƚŽŚŽǁƚŽĨŽƐƚĞƌĂĨĞƌƟůĞŐƌŽƵŶĚĨŽƌĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝŶĂŶĞǁĂůƚĞƌĞĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘&ƵƌƚŚĞƌŵŽƌĞƚŚĞĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞŽĨŵĞƌŐŝŶŐĂŶĞǁůŽĐĂůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŝŶƚŽĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŽŶĞĚŽĞƐƌĞǀĞĂůǀĂůƵĂďůĞŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ŚŽǁ ƚŽ ŚĂŶĚůĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌŝƐĞƐ͕ ĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŚĞƌĞŶĐĞ͘ /ƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƵƐĞĚ ǁŚĞŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ and principles in a similar context. This could conƚƌŝďƵƚĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĞŵƉŝƌŝĐĂů ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂů ĮĞůĚ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͘ &Žƌ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŵŽƌĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĂůůLJ͕ ƚŚĞĨŽĐƵƐŽŶƚŚĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐŽĨƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ƐLJƐƚĞŵĂŶĚŝƚƐŐƌĂĚƵĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝŶƚŽĂŶĞǁůŽĐĂů ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ƐĞƌǀĞ ĂƐ ĂŶ ĐĂƐĞ ǁŚĞŶ ƐƚƵĚLJŝŶŐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ĂŶĚĂůƐŽŵŽƌĞƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĂůůLJŝŶĂĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ /ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚǁŝůůĚĞĂůǁŝƚŚƚƌĂŶƐŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂƐ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂƌĞ ƵŶĂǀŽŝĚĂďůĞ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ǁŚĞŶ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ the development of the plan.

Ȇȇ

ŌĞƌ ŝŶŝƟĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ Ă ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚǁŝůůĂůƚĞƌƚŚĞůŝĨĞŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ŝƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽƉĂƌƟĂůůLJĚĞǀĞůŽƉƚŚĞĂƌĞĂƐŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝŶĂŶĞǁ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶƐŽƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚŝƚƐĐŝƟnjĞŶŐĂŝŶ ĨƌŽŵ ŝƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůůLJ͕ ƐŽĐŝĂůůLJ ĂŶĚ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ŵŽďŝůŝƚLJ ƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ͘tŚĞŶŽǀĞƌĐŽŵŝŶŐƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůĚŽǁŶƐŝĚĞƐ ŽĨ Ă ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ĂƌĞĂ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƚ ĐĂƌƌŝĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŝƚ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ŚĂƌǀĞƐƚĞĚ͘ /Ĩ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌƐŚŽƵůĚŐĂŝŶĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŶĞǁĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͕ŝƚ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ĂĚĂƉƚ ƚŽ ĞǀĞƌLJ ĂƐƉĞĐƚ ŝƚ ďƌŝŶŐƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͕ Ă ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJƐŵĂůůŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͕ǁŝƚŚŵŽƐƚůLJƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŚŽŽĚƐ͕ŚĂƐŝŶŝƚƐĐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŶŽƚƚŚĂƚ ŵƵĐŚ ƚŽ ŽīĞƌ ƚŽ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͘ /Ĩ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚŝƚƐŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐǁĂŶƚƚŽƉƌŽĮƚĨƌŽŵŝƚƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŐĂŝŶƐ͕ƚŚĞŶŝƚƐŚŽƵůĚŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞŽƵƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĐŚĂŶŐĞƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ͕ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƚ ĚŽĞƐŶ͛ƚ ůŽƐĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ ĂŶĚ Ă ĨĂƐƚ ƚƌĂŝŶ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŽƵůĚ ŶŽƚ ĚƌŝǀĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ďLJ͘ dŚĞ ƚĂƐŬĨŽƌƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚůĂLJƐŝŶŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƟŶŐĂůůƚŚŝƐŝŶĂ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĂŶĚĐŽŚĞƌĞŶƚŵĂŶŶĞƌ͘ dŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬǁŝůůƐƵƉƉŽƌƚŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉŽƐƐŝďůLJ ŝŶŇŝĐƚƐ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͘dŚŝƐĐĂŶŝŵƉŽƐĞŵĂŶLJƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ďĞŶĞĮƚ ƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ͘ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĨŽƐƚĞƌƐ ĂŶ ĞĂƐLJ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ Ă ŇĞdžŝďůĞ ůĂďŽƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ͘ dŚŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ĐŽƵŶƚƐ ĨŽƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ ǁŚĞŶ ƚƌĂǀĞů ƟŵĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĐƵƚ Žī͘ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͛Ɛ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ďĞƩĞƌ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞĨŽƌŵŽƌĞƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ƚŚŝƐŚĞůƉƐƚŽĂĐĐŽŵƉůŝƐŚ ĂƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĞƚLJĨŽƌ ĞǀĞƌLJŽŶĞ͘ /ƚ͛Ɛ ŝŵƉĞƌĂƟǀĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĞƌƐ ŵĂŬĞ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ ƉůĂŶƐ͕ ƐŽ ƚŚĞ ĂŌĞƌŵĂƚŚ ŽĨ Ă ŶĞǁ ůŝŶŬ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ůĞƚ ĂůŽŶĞ ƚŽ ƌĂŶĚŽŵŶĞƐƐ ĂŶĚ Ă ŶĞŽͲ ůŝďĞƌĂů ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͘ dŚĞ ǁŝĚĞƌ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁŝůů ĂůƐŽ ŐĂŝŶ ĨƌŽŵ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵů ĐŽŶƐƟƚƵƟŶŐ ƉĂƌƚƐ ĂƐ ƚŚĞƐĞĂƌĞĂƐƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJĂƩƌĂĐƚŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͕ũŽďƐĂŶĚ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĐŝƟnjĞŶ ĞĂƐŝůLJĐĂŶĂĐĐĞƐƐ͕ĚƵĞƚŽĞĂƐLJĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++0641&7%6+10

Methodology

dŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞdžŝƐƚƐŽĨĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĂŶĚĂůŽĐĂů master plan that are interrelated. Therefore the ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐĂŶĚƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŚĂƐƚŽďĞĚŽŶĞŽŶƚŚĞƐĞƐĐĂůĞƐ ĂŶĚ͕ĂƐŵƵĐŚĂƐƉŽƐƐŝďůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞƐĐĂůĞƐŝŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶ͘ dŽ ŬĞĞƉ ƚƌĂĐŬ ŽŶ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŽŵƉůĞdž ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ͕ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƐĐĂůĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ŝƚƐ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂůƐĐĂůĞĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚĞĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶǁŝůůďĞĚĞĞƉĞƌĞdžĂŵŝŶĞĚ ďLJŐĞƫŶŐŝŶƚŽƚŚĞƚŚĞŽƌLJĂďŽƵƚƚŚŝƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĂŶĚƵƐĞ case studies to translate the results to a concrete ůĞǀĞů͕ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƵƐĞĚ ĨŽƌ ĚĞĮŶŝŶŐ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ ĂŶĚƐƉĂƟĂůŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ͘dŚŝƐƐĞĐƟŽŶĨŽƌŵƐƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ƚŚĞƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ͘

/ƚŝƐďĞƩĞƌƚŽďĞƌŽƵŐŚůLJƌŝŐŚƚ͕ƚŚĞŶ ƉƌĞĐŝƐĞůLJǁƌŽŶŐ͛;ĂǀŝĚƐŽŶ͕υύόψ͕ωϊυͲωϋωͿ

Fig. 21 Helsingørs position in relation to other centres. (source: author)

ȆƅŻ

ȆȈ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


&< ƉƌŽďůĞŵŽƌŝĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ

concept & strategy

s/^/KE

de

ƉƌŽďůĞŵ statement

ƌĞŇĞĐƟŽŶ

s ǁ o t

ANALYSIS

research aims

?

design p ro

context mapping ƐƉĂƟĂů data & trends ƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ

research ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ

ĐŝƚLJƐĐĂůĞ

adjust es

ĚĞƐŝŐŶůĞǀĞů

n sig

s

^tKdͲ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ

ŵŽƟǀĂƟŽŶ

c

ůŽĐĂůƐĐĂůĞ ƐƚƵĚLJůĞǀĞů

ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƐĐĂůĞ

ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞƐ

ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞZĞǀŝĞǁ ĚĞƐŝŐŶƉƌŽƉŽƐĞůĂŶĚ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ

ƚŚĞŽƌLJ͕ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌůŝŶŬŝŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĂƌŝƟǀĞĐĂƐĞͲƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ Windsor-Detroit ůDĂĂƐͲZŚŝŶĞͲZƵŚƌ

ƐƚƵĚLJĂŶĚĚĞƐŝŐŶŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ &/E>WZKhd

Fig. 22 Methodology scheme. (source: author)

dŚĞĐŽƵƌƐĞŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĂƐŝƐƐŚŽǁŶŝŶĮŐƵƌĞφφ ĂŶĚǁŝůůďĞĂƐĨŽůůŽǁƐ͗

ͻƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂ͖ ͻŵĂƉƉŝŶŐŽĨƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƐĐĂůĞƐ͖

ĞĮŶŝŶŐƚŚĞWƌŽďůĞŵ&ŝĞůĚ͗ ͻ dŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƉŚĂƐĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŽƌŝĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ͘ KƌŝĞŶƚĂƟŶŐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚĂƐƵďũĞĐƚŽĨŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ͕ĚŝƐĐŽǀĞƌŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ ĂŶĚĐŽŶƚĞŵƉůĂƚĞĂďŽƵƚĂƐƉĞĐŝĮĐƉƌŽďůĞŵĮĞůĚ͘ ͻ ŌĞƌ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐƵďũĞĐƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽďůĞŵ ƐƚĂƚĞŵĞŶƚ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ĐůĞĂƌĞĚ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨĚĞĮŶŝŶŐƚŚĞƐƚĂƚĞŵĞŶƚǁŝůůĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƵŶƟů ƚŚĞĞŶĚ͕ďƵƚƚŚĞŽƵƚůŝŶĞƐŶĞĞĚƚŽďĞŵĂŶŝĨĞƐƚĞĚŝŶ ĂŶĞĂƌůLJƐƚĂŐĞƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽĚĞĮŶĞƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ ͻ ^ŝŵƵůƚĂŶĞŽƵƐůLJ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ĚĞĮŶŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŽƵƚůŝŶĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĐĂƌĚŝŶĂů ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ ĐƌĞĂƚĞĚ͘zĞƚĂŐĂŝŶ͕ƚŚĞƐĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐǁŝůůĂůƚĞƌĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨĚĞĮŶŝŶŐ͘ ͻdŽŽůƐĂŶĚŵĞƚŚŽĚƐĨŽƌŽďƚĂŝŶŝŶŐƚŚĞƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂů ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬƚŚĂƚĨŽƌŵƐƚŚĞďĂĐŬďŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͗ ͻůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞƌĞǀŝĞǁ͖ ͻĐĂƐĞƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ͖ ͻƚŚĞŽƌŝĞƐƐƚƵĚLJ͖ ͻ  dŽŽůƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ͕ƐƚƵĚLJĂŶĚƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂƌĞĂ͗ ͻĐŽŶƚĞdžƚĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͖ ͻĨĂĐƚƐ͕ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐĂŶĚƚƌĞŶĚƐŽĨĐƵƌƌĞŶƚĂŶĚĨƵƚƵƌĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͖

ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ǀŝƐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƵĚLJ ĂƌĞĂ͗ ͻdŚĞƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƐƚŚĞƐƚƵĚLJ ŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐƚŚĂƚƵŶĚĞƌƉŝŶƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ ͻ dŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĂĐƟĐĂů ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƵĚLJ ƐĐĂůĞǁŝůůďĞĐŽŶǀĞƌƚĞĚŝŶƚŽĂ^tKdͲĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͘ ͻ^ƵďƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJƚŚĞƐĞůĂƐƚƚǁŽƐƚĞƉƐǁŝůůďĞĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ƚŽĨŽƌŵĂǀŝƐŝŽŶĨŽƌĂƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐĂůůLJƉůĂŶŶĞĚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽĨǁĞƌĞƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂƌĞĂŝƐĂŶĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶŽĨ͘

Ȇȉ

ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŽŶĐĞƉƚĂŶĚƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĨŽƌƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ ŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂƌĞĂ͗ ͻdŚĞƚŚĞŽƌĞƟ��ĂůĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƐƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ ŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐƚŚĂƚƵŶĚĞƌƉŝŶƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ ͻ dŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŚĂǀĞ ĐŽŶǀĞƌƚĞĚŝŶƚŽĂƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĂŶĚƐƉĂƟĂůǀŝƐŝŽŶ͘ ͻǀĞŶƚƵĂůůLJƚŚŝƐůĞĂĚƐƚŽĂĐŽŶĐĞƉƚĂŶĚƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĨŽƌ ĂĚĞƐŝŐŶŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂƌĞĂ͘ ǀĞƌLJ ƐƚĞƉ ǁŝůů ĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐ ĐĂƌĞĨƵůůLJ ďĞ ƌĞŇĞĐƚĞĚ ŽŶƚŽŵĂŬĞŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJĂĚũƵƐƚŵĞŶƚĂŶLJǁŚĞƌĞŝŶƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘dŚŝƐ͕ƵŶƟůƚŚĞ&ŝŶĂůWƌŽĚƵĐƚ͕ĂƚƚŚĞĞŶĚŽĨ ƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͕ŝƐĮŶŝƐŚĞĚƚŽďĞĚĞůŝǀĞƌĞĚ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


υ͘ t,d /^ d, WZK'ZDDd/ E ^Wd/> WK^/d/KE K& ,>^/E'TZ /E d, ^dZhdhZK&d,s>KW/E'TZ^hEZ'/KE͍ Dd,K͗^Wd/>E>z^^EDWW/E'

φ͘t,dZd,y/^d/E'W>E^Es>KWDEd^&KZd,Z'/KE>^>K& d,TZ^hEEd,ZK>&KZd,/dzK&,>^/E'TZt/d,/Ed,/^Z'/KE͍ ΈDd,K͗Zs/ty/^/d/E'/E&KZDd/KEEE>z^/^K&hZZEd^/dhd/KEEdZE^Ή


II Analysis

Ȇ

ƅŻ Ż

źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR based on

THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR


++#0#.;5+5

Helsingør

/EdZKhd/KEK&,>^/E'TZ

S

®Ä‘› 㫛 υϊƚŚ ĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐ Ă ƚŚƌŝǀŝŶŐ ĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂů ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĨŽƌ ƚƌĂĚĞ ĂŶĚ ƐŚŝƉLJĂƌĚƐ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ůŽŶŐ ƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĂƩƌĂĐƟŶŐ ŵĞƌĐŚĂŶƚƐ ĨƌŽŵ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƵƌŽƉĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ DŝĚĚůĞ ĂƐƚ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŝƚǁĂƐ;ǁŝƚŚŽŶůLJψŬŵŽĨǁĂƚĞƌŝŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶͿ ƚŚĞĞĂƐŝĞƐƚƉůĂĐĞƚŽĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚƚŽ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘ dŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJŚĂƐĂŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐŵĂƌŬĞƚƚŽǁŶĂŶĚŝƐ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚĞĚ ďLJ ƐĐĞŶŝĐ ŶĂƚƵƌĞ͘ DŽƐƚ ĨĂŵŽƵƐ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ <ƌŽŶďŽƌŐ ĐĂƐƚůĞ ;ĮŐ͘ φχͿ͕ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ hE^KDzƐ ǁŽƌůĚ ŚĞƌŝƚĂŐĞ ůŝƐƚ͕ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ůŽŽŬŝŶŐ ŽƵƚŽǀĞƌƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚǁĂƚĞƌ͘^ŚĂŬĞƐƉĞĂƌĞ͛ƐĨĂŵŽƵƐ ƚƌĂŐĞĚLJ,ĂŵůĞƚƚŽŽŬƉůĂĐĞŝŶƚŚŝƐĐĂƐƚůĞ͘

^ŚĂŬĞƐƉĞĂƌĞ͛Ɛ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ<ƌŽŶďŽƌŐĂƐƚůĞƐƚĂŶĚƐ ĂƐĂƐƚƌŽŶŐďƌĂŶĚŝŶĨŽƌĞŝŐŶƚŽƵƌŝƐƚƐ͛ŵŝŶĚƐ͘ŵŽƌĞ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůĨŽĐƵƐ͕ďŽƚŚŽŶĐŽŵŵĞƌĐĞĂŶĚƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŝŶ ŐŽŽĚ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌͲ ůŽŶŐŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂƐ͕ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ĂĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞŝŶŝƚƐƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJƚŽ ƚŚĞƐĞĂ͕ŶĂƚƵƌĞ͕ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͕^ǁĞĚĞŶĂŶĚŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ dŚŝƐŵĂŬĞƐŝƚƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJĞĂƐLJƚŽĂƩƌĂĐƚŶĞǁĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ͕ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐĂŶĚƚŽƵƌŝƐƚƐ͘

Fig. 23 Kronborg castle. Source: H.C. Steensen. Skypix.dk

ȆƅŻ

ȆȌ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


City center

Recreational area

Housing

Sport & Leisure

Summerhouses

Business

Fig. 24 Municipality of Helsingør. Source: Kommuneplan 2009

'K'ZW,zΘDK'ZW,z

T

«› ÃçÄ®‘®Öƒ½®ãù ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚĂůĂƌŐĞŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨƐŵĂůůĂŶĚŵĞĚŝƵŵƐŝnjĞ ƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂƐ;ĮŐ͘φψͿ͘/ƚŝƐƐƚƌĞƚĐŚĞĚĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞ ĐŽĂƐƚůŝŶĞŽĨƚŚĞŽƵƚĞƌEŽƌƚŚĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞ^ũĂĞůůĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘dŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJŝƐƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚĞĚďLJĐŽĂƐƚůŝŶĞ on the southeast, the east to the north. ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJĐŽǀĞƌƐĂŶĂƌĞĂŽĨυφυ͘ϊυŬŵφ ĂŶĚŚĂƐĂƌŽƵŶĚϊυτττŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͕ύϊйŽĨƚŚĞŵůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĐůŽƐĞƐƚďŝŐŐĞƌĐŝƚLJĂƌŽƵŶĚĂŶĚůĂLJƐŽŶƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌƐŝĚĞ ŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚǁĂƚĞƌ͘

Ȇȍ

(KIǼǿǼȀ*QYDKIKU*GNUKPIÔTEKV[!6JGRKEVWTGQPVJG TKIJVUJQYU*GNUKPIÔTEKV[VJGQPGQPVJGNGȎKU&GNȎ6JG UK\GKUEQORCTCDNGDWV&GNȎKUOWEJOQTGFGPUG

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5 ^dZhdhZEdzWK>K'z ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĐŝƚLJƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝnjĞĚďLJĂŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŽƵƚĞƌ ĞĂƐƚ ƉŽŝŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĐŝƚLJǁĂƐŝŶƚŚĞĞĂƌůLJφτƚŚĐĞŶƚƵƌLJŵĂƌŬĞĚ ďLJ ƐŽŵĞ ŽǀĞƌĐƌŽǁĚŝŶŐ͘ ůů ǀĂĐĂŶƚ ůĂŶĚ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŽůĚ ĐŝƚLJ ďŽƵŶĚĂƌLJ ǁĂƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ĂŶĚ ďĂĐŬ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ĐĞŝůŝŶŐƐ͕ĞƚĐ͘ƵƟůŝnjĞĚĨŽƌŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͘

dŚĞĐŝƚLJŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŚĂƐďĞĞŶƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ŝŶƚŚĞφτƚŚĐĞŶƚƵƌLJǁŝƚŚƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůĂƌĞĂƐŝŶĂƌĂĚŝĂů ƐƉƌĞĂĚŽƵƚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJƐŵĂůůĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ǁŝƚŚ ůĂƌŐĞ ƵŶŝĨŽƌŵ ƌŝƐĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ ůĂƌŐĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů areas. ůƐŽ ƚŚĞ ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ƚŽǁŶƐ ĂŶĚ ǀŝůůĂŐĞƐ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ůŝŬĞ ƐƉĞƌŐčƌĚĞ͕ dŝŬƆď ĂŶĚ ,ŽƌŶďčŬ ŚĂǀĞŽǀĞƌƚŚĞƉĂƐƚωτLJĞĂƌƐĞdžƉĂŶĚĞĚ͕ǁŝƚŚŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶŽĨůŽǁͲĚĞŶƐĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĂŶĚĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚ houses.

,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĮƌƐƚ ŵĂũŽƌ ƐƵďƵƌďĂŶ ƐĞƩůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĞŵĞƌŐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ υύχτƐ͘ dŚĞ ƐĞƩůĞŵĞŶƚ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞĚ ŽĨ ŵƵůƟͲĨĂŵŝůLJ ĂŶĚ ĂĐƚƵĂů ŵƵůƟͲƐƚŽƌĞLJ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͘ dŚĞ υƐƚ tŽƌůĚ tĂƌ ŵĞĂŶƚ ƐƚĂŐŶĂƟŽŶ͕ ůĂĐŬ ŽĨ ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĂŶ ĞǀĞŶ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŶĞĞĚ ĨŽƌ ŶĞǁ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͘ ŌĞƌ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƌ ͞ŐĂƌĚĞŶ ĐŝƚLJ͟ ƚLJƉĞ ĂƌĞĂƐ ǁĞƌĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƐŵĂůů ĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ǁĂƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐ ƚŽ ĂůůĞǀŝĂƚĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƐŚŽƌƚĂŐĞƐ͘

KǀĞƌĂůů͕ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐͬǀŝůůĂŐĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐ ƐŝŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ υύϊτƐ ĂŌĞƌ Ă ŐƌĂŶĚ ĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƐŽĐŝĂů ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕  ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞ ƚŽ ďƌŝŶŐ ƉƵďůŝĐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ŝŶ ĐůŽƐĞ ƐĞůĨͲƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ƵŶŝƚƐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ĂƌĞĂƐ͘  /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ύτƐ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŵŽƌĞ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŽǁŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ Ͳ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟǀĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐŝŶƐƵďͲƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂƐ͘

/Ŷ υύτύ Ă ŶĞǁ ůĂǁ ŵĂĚĞ ŝƚ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJƚŽĐŽŶƚƌŽůůĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ dŚĞĮƌƐƚŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůůĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĨŽƌƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ƌĞĂƐŽŶƐ ŽĐĐƵƌƌĞĚ ŝŶ υύυϋ ŽŶ ůĂŶĚ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ĨŽƌŵĞƌ ŐůĂƐƐĨĂĐƚŽƌLJ͘/ŶυύφωĂŶĞǁƚŽǁŶůĂǁƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJĂĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬĨŽƌƚŚĞƌŽĂĚĐŽƵƌƐĞ͕ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƚLJƉĞƐ ĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶĂŶĚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐůŝŶĞƐ͘ WĂƌŬƐ ǁĞƌĞ  ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ͕ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁůLJĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚĂƌĞĂƐĂŶĚƐƉŽƌƚĂŶĚƐǁŝŵĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͘ /Ŷ υύχό ƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƐŽĐŝĂů ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ developed.

dŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͛ƐŵĂŝŶĐŝƚLJ͕,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͕ŚŽƵƐĞƐƚŚĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞŶƟƌĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐ ŶĞĞĚƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŚĂůů͕ŵĂũŽƌĐƵůƚƵƌĂůŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ͕ƚŚĞŵĂŝŶ ůŝďƌĂƌLJ͕ƐƉŽƌƚƐĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ĐŝŶĞŵĂĂŶĚĂŵƵůƟƚƵĚĞŽĨ ƌĞƚĂŝů ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ďŝŐŐĞƌ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĂůƐŽ ƚŚĞ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ĐůŽƐĞƌ ƚŽ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƐĐŚŽŽůƐ͕ůŝďƌĂƌŝĞƐ͕ŐƌŽĐĞƌLJƐƚŽƌĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ĮŐ͘ φό Θ φύ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƐŚŽǁĞĚ͘ dŚĞ ůŽǁ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ ŝƐ ƐƚƌŝŬŝŶŐ͕ ďƵƚ ƚLJƉŝĐĂů ĨŽƌ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƐƵď ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͘ ƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŵĂŶLJ ŶĞǁ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂƌĞ ďĞŝŶŐ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ

/ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƚƌĂĸĐ ŵĂĚĞ ŝƚ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ Ă ŶĞǁƌŽĂĚƚŽƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJƉŽƌƚ͘ƌŽĂĚǁĂƐƉůĂĐĞĚĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞďĞĂĐŚŝŶυύχόͲχύǁŝƚŚďĞĂƵƟĨƵůǀŝĞǁƐŽǀĞƌƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘

Oxernes Gård Brostræde

Færgestræde

Fig. 27 & 28 Different housing typologies around Helsingør. Source: Bing maps Skt. Annagade

Dommergården

Svaneapoteket Claessens Palæ

Fig. 29 The historical center of Helsingør. Source: Bing maps

ȆƅŻ

ȇȄ

Stephen Hansens Palæ

Fig. 30 Housing of the historical center. Source: Kommune Atlas

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


1450

1550 Skt k . Anna Kloster LLund un ndehav nd eh h e ha

20

20

5 10

25

10

25

5

15

15 St.. Ol O Olai

20

20

St. Nikola k aj A Abbey bbey

Flynd F yn nder castle nd

Fig. 31 The two main streets were laid out and partially developed. The grave was found around the city in several sections, following the structure of streams from the higher-lying countryside behind the town. Three monasteries were under construction and the fortress Krogen lies in its outer ring wall (approx. 80 x 80 m) Source: Helsingør’s kommune atlas

Fig. 32 The 1550th Elsinore was hit by fire twice. The monasteries were closed after the Reformation. St. Nicholas was partially standing and the Carmelite monastery was transformed into a hospital. From 1577 the fortress of Krogen became Kronborg. Source: Helsingør’s kommune atlas

1660

Lappen

1830 Mar arien r lyst rie yt

Lunde Lu d g de garden rd

20

20

5

10

25

15

15

n sio . an h c xp 6t ye f1 Cit nd o e in

10

25

5

20

arbor - expan expansion1827-30

cit

yw

all

20

9 178 oad r s g Kin

Fig. 33 The Swedish Wars were over. The town and Kronborg had to surrender, even though the defenses were reinforced. The city had spread out until Kronborg Fortress, but this expansion disappeared abruptly during military operations. Instead a star shaped castle wall appeared. Source: Helsingør’s kommune atlas

Fig. 34 The city reinforced itself again after the state bankruptcy in 1813 and the end of the war in 1814. Kronborg was rebuilt for the last time in 1819-20, but shortly after it was over, the fort was closed in 1835. Still there was close contact between the city and the water. Source: Helsingør’s kommune atlas

1880

1999

20

20

5

15

15

ho

Tr æk

tra

ck -

Shipyard Sh hipyyard

10

25

k

trac rse

10

25

5

North tr ack 1864

20

20

92 18 7 ck 9 rt a ck 18 rth ltra No asta Co

Fig. 35 The Northern rail track and the shipyard are established. Around the town a road was laid to connect the port and the shipyard. Helsingør had been an industrial city. In 1892 the railroad was constructed to the ferries and a large landfill later changed the coastal profile. Source: Helsingør’s kommune atlas

ȇȅ

Fig. 36 The city center and the original plan are still intact regardless of the urban growth and additional landfill for the new ferry terminal. The rail track has become a circular line. The city’s industries have moved out and the marketplace has been changed into a new shopping center.Source: Helsingør’s kommune atlas

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

Current plans for Helsingør /DE^/KE^ dŚĞŝŶƚĞŶƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĐŝƚLJƉůĂŶŝƐƚŽŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ĂƐ ŝƚ ŝƐ͘dŚĞDƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůWůĂŶŽĨφττψͲφτυϊƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚƐŽŵĞ ŶĞǁƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůĂƌĞĂƐŝŶƐƵďͲƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂƐ;,ŽƌŶďčŬ͕

ůƐŐĊƌĚĞ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĞƌŐčƌĚĞͿ͕ ďƵƚ ŝŶ ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂů ĐŝƟĞƐ ƌĞĂĐŚĞĚ ƚŚĞ ůŝŵŝƚ ŽĨ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ƉůĂŶ͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐ ŵĂŝŶůLJ ůŽŽŬŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ĚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚĂƌĞĂƐ͘ ,>^/E'TZ͛^s/^/KE^Es>h^͗

/DWKZdEd <z tKZ^ &KZ ,>^/E'KZ͛^ /Ed/dz͗

υƵƚŚĞŶƟĐŝƚLJ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛ƐƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚůŝĞƐŝŶƚŚĞůŽĐĂůĂŶĐŚŽƌŝŶŐ͕ƚŚĞ ƌŽŽƚƐ͕ůŽĐĂůƐƚŽƌŝĞƐͲǁŚŝĐŚĐĂŶďĞĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞĚŝŶĂ ƚĂŶŐŝďůĞ ǁĂLJ͘ dŚĞ džƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ǁŝůů ďĞ ƉĞƌŵĞĂƚĞĚďLJƋƵĂůŝƚLJ͕ŚŽŶĞƐƚLJĂŶĚĂƵƚŚĞŶƟĐŝƚLJ͘ /ƚ͛ƐĂƵƚŚĞŶƟĐǁŚĞŶ͗ ͲdŚĞƌĞŝƐŶŽĚŽƵďƚĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞŽƌŝŐŝŶ - it is unique ͲŝƚŚĂƐƐĞŶƟŵĞŶƚĂůǀĂůƵĞ

χYƵŝĞƚŶĞƐƐ hŶĚĞƌ ŵĞŶƟŽŶĞĚ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŬĞLJ ĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĨŽƌ ŚŽǁ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ǁŽƵůĚ ǁĂŶƚ ƚŽ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚ ŝƚƐĞůĨ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƐƵƌǀĞLJƐ ŽĨ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͘;ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͗,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJͿ /ƚ ŝƐ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĨŽƌ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ƚŽ ĞdžƉĂŶĚ ŝƚƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ŝŶƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ƚŚĞĂƩƌĂĐƟŽŶŽĨĂLJŽƵŶŐĞƌƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞĂĐŽŶƟŶƵĂƟŽŶŽĨĂĚLJŶĂŵŝĐĚĞǀĞůopment. ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌDƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͛ƐŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐĨŽƌƵƌďĂŶĚĞǀĞůopment are ͻdŽďĂůĂŶĐĞƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͛ƐƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶĐŽŵƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ĂƩƌĂĐƟŶŐ ŶĞǁĐŽŵĞƌƐ ĂŐĞĚ φωͲψτ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ ͻ ƚŽ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶĚĞŶƐĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůĂƌĞĂƐ͕ƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞŵŽƌĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞ ƌĞƉůĂĐĞŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƐƚŽĐŬ͕ ͻƚŽƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĞƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐŽĨƚŚĞůĂƌŐĞƌĂŶĚ ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ƵƌďĂŶ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJĂŶĚŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͕ ͻƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŶĞǁĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĂƌĞƋƵĂůŝƚĂƟǀĞŝŶĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞǁŝƚŚŽƵƚƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞ ŽƌŝŐŝŶĂůďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ͻ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ��ŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƉƵďůŝĐƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ͻ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƐƚŽĐŬ ƚŽ ĞŶƐƵƌĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨŽǁŶĞƌƐ͕ǁŝƚŚƐƉĞĐŝĂůĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐŽŶĂƩƌĂĐƟŶŐ LJŽƵŶŐĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞĂǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉĞƐ ;ŵƵůƟͲƐƚŽƌĞLJďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ĚĞŶƐĞͲůŽǁďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ĞƚĐ͘Ϳ ͻƚŽŵĂŬĞŝƚŵŽƌĞĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞĨŽƌLJŽƵŶŐƉĞŽƉĞƚŽƐƚĂLJ ŝŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJďLJĞdžƉĂŶĚĞĚĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ͕ ͻ ƚŚĂƚ ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĂƌĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ

ȆƅŻ

ȇȆ

,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŽīĞƌƐŝƚ;ƐĞĚĂƚĞͿƌĞŇĞĐƟŽŶĂŶĚĐƌĞĂƟǀŝƚLJ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŬĞƐ ŝƚ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ƚŽ ƌĞůĂdž͕ ƌĞĐŚĂƌŐĞ ĂŶĚ ŐĞƚ space to live out their dreams. /ƚŝƐƋƵŝĞƚ͕ǁŚĞŶ͗ ͲLJŽƵĐĂŶŝŵŵĞƌƐĞLJŽƵƌƐĞůĨŝŶƚŚĞŵŽŵĞŶƚǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ŶĞĞĚŝŶŐƚŽŐŽĂŶLJǁŚĞƌĞĞůƐĞ ͲLJŽƵŚĂǀĞƟŵĞƚŽŶŽƟĐĞĚĞƚĂŝůƐ ͲŝƚŵĂŬĞƐLJŽƵĨŽƌŐĞƚƟŵĞ

χWƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂƐ Ă ĚŝƌĞĐƚ ŚĞĂƚ͕ Ă ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJƚŚĂƚŵĞĞƚƐŽƵƌďĂƐŝĐĚĞƐŝƌĞĨŽƌĐŽŵĨŽƌƚ ĂŶĚƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌŶĞƐƐ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝŶǀŝƚĞƐƉĞŽƉůĞƚŽĐŽŵĞĐůŽƐĞƌƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͕ŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌƐƚŽƌLJĂŶĚŝŶĚĞƚĂŝů͘ /ƚŝƐŶĞĂƌ͕ǁŚĞŶ͗ ͲĞǀĞƌLJŽŶĞĨĞĞůƐǁĞůĐŽŵĞ ͲLJŽƵĐĂŶƌĞůĂƚĞƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůůLJƚŽŝƚĂŶĚŝŵĂŐŝŶĞLJŽƵƌƐĞůĨ in it ͲŝƚŝƐŝŶĨŽƌŵĂůĂŶĚǁŝƚŚŽƵƚƐƉĞĐŝĮĐƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƟŽŶƐ

ψDŝƐƚĞƌŝŽƵƐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ĚŝƐĐŽǀĞƌĞĚ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐ ƟƟůůĂƟŶŐŝŶƚŚĞŚŝĚĚĞŶůĂLJĞƌƚŚĂƚĐĂůůƐĨŽƌĐƵƌŝŽƐŝƚLJ͗ ƚŚĞ ŵLJƚŚƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĐƌĞƚ ƐƚŽƌŝĞƐ͕ ĂŶĐŝĞŶƚ ĂůůĞLJǁĂLJƐ͕ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐŝŶǀŝƐŝďůĞ͕ŵĂŐŝĐĂůƐĐĞŶĞƌLJ͘ /ƚŝƐŵLJƐƚĞƌŝŽƵƐ͕ŝĨ͗ Ͳ LJŽƵ ĂƌĞ ĐƵƌŝŽƵƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚĂůŬ ĂďŽƵƚ ŝƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ corners Ͳ ŝƚ ŝƐ ƐƵƌƉƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƚĞůůƐ ƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐ LJŽƵ ĚŝĚ ŶŽƚ ŬŶŽǁ ͲLJŽƵǁĂŶƚƚŽŬŶŽǁƚŚĞĞŶĚ͕ďƵƚĚŽŶŽƚǁĂŶƚŝƚƚŽ end

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


1st phase

2nd phase

3rd phase

Political and strategic decisions making on a fixed HH connection

Plan Rationale and retail inquiries regarding. HH connection

Detailed planning and starting the project on solid HH connection

Influence infrastructure decisions for ring 5 and access to new hospital at Hillerød

Focussing on the ‘Lille Nord’ with more departures, etc.

Helsingør Municipality will connect the local ringroad Helsingør Gilleleje-Hill with the circle line and the Elsinore Station

Improvement of public transport Enhancing cooperation with North, Capital Region and Helsingborg in culture, tourism, business, infrastructure and education

Fa s

Fa s

e1

e2

Fig. 37 Latest strategy plan for Helsingor (2011) as a response to the developing plans for the new link Source: Helsingør Municipality (translated by author)

Fig. 38 New library extension and to be developed square by Aart Architects Source: Helsingør Municipality

ȇȇ

Fig. 39 Plan area by landscapearchitect Jeppe Aagaard Andersen Source: Helsingør Municipality

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

Helsingør in the Øresund

,>^/E'TZ/Ed,TZ^hEZ'/KE

EdZ^E&/>/d/^

,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ŝƐ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌƚŚĞĂƐƚ ĞĚŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ĐůŽƐĞ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐĂů ůŝŶŬ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƚŽ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘ŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĐŝƚLJǁĂƐ ĨŽƌŵĂůŝnjĞĚŝŶυύύω͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞĨŽĐƵƐŚĂƐĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJďĞĞŶ aimed at cultural, commercial and infrastructure ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ;Ğ͘Ő͘ĂĮdžĞĚ,,ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶͿ͘/Ŷφττύ ĂŶ ĂŐƌĞĞŵĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ Ă ŶĞǁ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŽƵůĚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘dŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵĚĞĂůƐǁŝƚŚ͗/ŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƐƉŽƌƚƐ͕ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ͕ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘

dŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵĂŝŶůLJ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚ ĂƐ Ă monocentric structure that revolves around the ďŝŐŐĞƐƚ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů͕ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ DĂůŵŽ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŽŶůLJ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ͕ ĂƐ ŝƚ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĞ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌĂů ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ^ŬĊŶĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ƐůŽǁůLJ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵŝŶŐ ŝŶƚŽ ĂƐƵďͲƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŝŶĐĞƚŚĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶďƌŝĚŐĞ͘ DĂůŵŽŚĂƐďĞĞŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐŵĂƐƐŝǀĞůLJŝŶƚŚĞƌĞĐĞŶƚ LJĞĂƌƐ͘dŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJŝŶǀĞƐƚƐĂůŽƚŝŶŵĂŬŝŶŐƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ƉůĂĐĞ͘ EĞǁ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶƐĂŶĚĂŶĞǁůĂŶĚŵĂƌŬ;ĮŐψτͿŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶǀĞƌLJ ĨĂǀŽƵƌĂďůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͕ŝŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ ĂŶĚĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞŶĞƐƐĨŽƌŶĞǁƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͘ dŚŝƐƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŝƐĂůƐŽǀŝƐŝďůĞǁŚĞŶŵĂƉƉŝŶŐŽƵƚ ƐŽŵĞ ŝŵƉĞƌĂƟǀĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ůŝŬĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ͕ĨŽŽĚĂŶĚƌĞƚĂŝůĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ͕ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘ DŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĞƐƐĞŶƟĂůĨŽƌĨŽƌŵŝŶŐƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ĂƌĞ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ Ŷ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚĂŬĞ ƉůĂĐĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĚĞ͘ dŚĞ ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ ǁŝƚŚ other centres is much more unilateral. The other ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŚĂǀĞƚŚĞŝƌůŽĐĂůĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚƉƌŽǀŝĚĞŝŶƚŚĞ ĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ ŶĞĞĚƐ ŽĨ ĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ͕ ĨŽƌ ŵŽƌĞ ǁŝĚĞͲƌĂŶŐŝŶŐ ŶĞĞĚƐ͕ƉĞŽƉůĞŽŌĞŶŚĂǀĞƚŽŵŽǀĞƚŽŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ Žƌ DĂůŵŽ͘ Ƶƚ ŵŽƌĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ͕ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĂƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJŐƌĞĂƚĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞŽĨǁŽƌŬ͘ This puts an enormous pressure on the infrastructure ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŵĂŝŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͘ Ɛ ŵĞŶƟŽŶĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ͕ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͛Ɛ ƌĂĚŝĂů ;ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůͿ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞ ƐĞǀĞƌĞ ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ͕ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ͘ &ƵƌƚŚĞƌŵŽƌĞ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŝƐ ŵĂƌŬĞĚďLJƚŚĞŽƵƚͲĚĂƚĞĚĨĂƌƐƚƌĞƚĐŚĞĚƵƌďĂŶƐƉƌĂǁů͕ that put even more pressure on the main centres.

ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ;ĨŽŽĚͿ ŐƌĞĞŶĂƌĞĂƐ cultural ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ;ƌĞƚĂŝůͿ Fig. 40 “Turning Torso”, by Calatrava in Malmo.

ȆƅŻ

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Fig. 41 Legend for maps on next page

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Fig. 42 From left to right: Density of food consumption, green areas, cultural places, public & private institutions, retail consumption and industry. Maps: by author

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цυό͘τττƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚƐ цυ͘φττĐĂĨĠͬĞĂƚĞƌŝĞƐ

ͻχφŚŽƐƉŝƚĂůƐ ͻυφƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƟĞƐнĚĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ ͻωƐĐŝĞŶĐĞƉĂƌŬƐ χττ ďŝŽͬŵĞĚƚĞĐŚ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ZΘ ĂŶĚͬŽƌ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ

ZĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ цφττŵƵƐĞƵŵƐ цυϋτƚŚĞĂƚƌĞƐͬĐŽŶĐĞƌƚŚĂůůƐ цφττĐĂƐƚůĞƐ DŽƌĞƚŚĞŶωτ͘τττĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂůƐŝŐŚƚƐ

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цωτƐŚŽƉƉŝŶŐĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ŽǀĞƌυτ͘τττƌĞƚĂŝůůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ

υŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůĂŝƌƉŽƌƚ χƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĂŝƌƉŽƌƚƐ

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Fig. 43 ‘Kings roads’ also connecting Helsingør. Source: Orestid

Helsingborg

Helsingør

Hillerød

Høje Taastrop

ZĂŝůǁĂLJƐ dŚĞĂŶŝƐŚŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůƌĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶƐƚĂƌƚĞĚdŚĞĂŶŝƐŚ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ƌĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ ƐŝŵƵůƚĂŶĞŽƵƐůLJ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƚŚĞƌǁĞƐƚĞƌŶƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͖ƚŚĞĮƌƐƚƌĂŝůǁĂLJƐ ǁŚĞƌĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞŵŝĚĚůĞŽĨƚŚĞυύƚŚĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ͘ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŚĂŶĚ ŚĂĚ Ă ŵŽƌĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶĐLJ ŽŶ ĂŐƌŝͲĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ Ă ƐůŽǁ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ŬŝĐŬĞĚ ŝŶ ůĂƚĞƌŝŶƚŚĞυύƚŚĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ͘ EŽŶĞƚŚĞůĞƐƐ͕ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ υόϊωͲόω ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͛Ɛ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ ƌĂŝůǁĂLJ ůŝŶĞƐ ŝŶ ĞǀĞƌLJ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ͘ dŚƵƐ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ǁĂƐ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ďŝŐ ƌĂŝůǁĂLJƐ ĂŶĚ ŚĂĚ ƌĂŝůǁĂLJ ůŝŶĞƐ ƚŽ ^ƚŽĐŬŚŽůŵ͕ 'ŽƚŚĞŶďƵƌŐ ĂŶĚ DĂůŵŽ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ ďŽƚŚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͛Ɛ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛Ɛ ŚĂƌďŽƵƌ ǁĞƌĞ ĞŶůĂƌŐĞĚ ĂŶĚ ŵĂĚĞ ĚĞĞƉĞƌ ǁŝƚŚ ŵŽƌĞ ŶĞǁ ďĂƐŝŶƐ ĂŶĚKƌĞƐƵŶĚ͛ƐĮƌƐƚƚƌĂŝŶĨĞƌƌLJĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƚŽĂďƌŽĂĚ ǁĂƐ ŽƉĞŶĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ,Ͳ,Ͳ ĨĂŝƌǁĂLJ ŝŶ υόύφ͘ dŚŝƐ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƉĞƌƐŝƐƚĞĚƵŶƟůůĂƚĞŝŶƚŚĞφτƚŚĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ͘ dŚĞ ƉŝĐƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉĂŐĞ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƌĂŝů ǁĂLJƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƚLJƉĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝŵĂŐĞ ŵĂƌŬƐ ƚŚĞ ĐƌƵĐŝĂů ůŝŵŝƚĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞ͘ DĂŶLJ ƐŵĂůů ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ůŽĐĂů ƚƌĂŝŶ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ƌĂƌĞůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚǁŝƚŚĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͘ůƐŽƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJůŝŶĞŝƐ ĐŽŶĮŶĞĚďĞƚǁĞĞŶDĂůŵŽĂŶĚZŽƐŬŝůĚĞƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ͘ KƚŚĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĚĞĂů ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ǁŝƚŚ ůŽŶŐĞƌƚƌĂǀĞůƟŵĞƐĂŶĚůŝŵŝƚĞĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ͘ hŶĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚĐƵƌƌĞŶƚƉůĂŶƐƚƌLJƚŽĚĞĂůǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĞ ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ͘

ȆƅŻ

ȇȊ

CPH Norrebro

CPH central

Kastrup Airport

Malmo

local train

local train regional train

local train regional train intercity

local train regional train intercity high way

local train regional train intercity high way highspeed train

Fig. 44 Modalities within the region connecting important centres (by author)

&ĞƌƌŝĞƐ ŌĞƌ :ƵůLJ υύωφ ƉĂƐƐƉŽƌƚƐ ǁĞƌĞ ŶŽ ůŽŶŐĞƌ ŶĞĞĚĞĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ͕ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ĂŶĚ EŽƌǁĂLJ͘ dŚĂƚ ůĞĚ ƚŽĂŵƵĐŚŵŽƌĞŝŶƚĞŶƐŝǀĞƚƌĂĸĐďĞƚǁĞĞŶĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞĂƐŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƚƌĂǀĞů ĚĞƐŝƌĞ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƚĂdžͲĞdžĞŵƉƚĞĚ ƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚƐ ŽŶďŽĂƌĚĂŶĚĂůĂƌŐĞƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞƚƌĂĸĐĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ŝŶƚŽ ƉƵƌĞ ƉůĞĂƐƵƌĞ ƚƌĂǀĞů͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƟŵĞ Ăůů ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ǁĂƚĞƌ ǁĞƌĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐƐ͘ Ƶƚ ŐƌĂĚƵĂůůLJ ƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ ƚƌĂĸĐ ǁĂƐ ŵŽƌĞ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌƚŚ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŚŽƌƚĞƐƚ͘ Ɛ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĞĂƚ ƵƌŽƉĞ ƌŽĂĚƐ ĨƌŽŵ 'ŽƚŚĞŶďƵƌŐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚŽĐŬŚŽůŵ ŵĞƚ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ ŝƚ ďĞĐĂŵĞŶĂƚƵƌĂůƚŽƚĂŬĞƚŚĞĐůŽƐĞƐƚǁĂLJƚŽĞŶŵĂƌŬ͘ /Ŷ υύϋφ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ υυ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐ ƐĂŝůĞĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ υύύό ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ υχ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐ ƐĂŝůĞĚ ƚŚĞ ,Ͳ,Ͳ ůŝŶĞ͘ ŌĞƌ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌŝĚŐĞƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŽŶůLJĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐƐƚŚĞƌĞĂŶĚďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘;KƌĞƐƵŶĚƐƟĚ͕φττόͿ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


high urban center environment

high speed station

sub urban environment

highway

local train station

regional roads

sprinter

local tracks (S-train)

regional train station

general train tracks

intercity station

high speed track

Fig. 45 Current train network with indication of stations. (by author)

ȇȋ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


ĞĨŽƌĞ ц υύωτ͕ ƚŚĞ ŚĂƌďŽƵƌƐ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ǁĞƌĞ ƵƐĞĚ ŵŽƐƚůLJ ĨŽƌ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐƐ ďLJ ĨĞƌƌŝĞƐ͘ ƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ Ă ƚƌĂŝŶͲĨĞƌƌLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ƚŽ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ƚŚŝƐǁĂƐƚŚĞĨĂƐƚĞƐƚǁĂLJ to travel from Northern Scandinavia ƚŽƵƌŽƉĞ͛ƐŵĂŝŶůĂŶĚ WŚĂƐĞττ

dŚĞ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ͕ ƵŶƟů ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐƐ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚ ƐůŽǁůLJ ŽŶůLJ ŽŶƚŚĞŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶͲDĂůŵŽĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐͲ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ůŝŶŬ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŚŽƌƚ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐĂůĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ͘

WŚĂƐĞτυ

/ŶφτττƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚƌŝĚŐĞďĞƚǁĞĞŶ DĂůŵŽ ĂŶĚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ǁĂƐ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͘ĨĂƐƚŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͕ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ƚƌĂǀĞůůĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ďƌŝĚŐĞ ƚŚĂƚĐƵƚƐƚŚĞŝƌƚƌĂǀĞůƟŵĞĚƌĂƐƟĐĂůůLJ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚƚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJ͘

WŚĂƐĞτφ

tŚĂƚ ǁŽƵůĚ ŝƚ ŵĞĂŶ ŝĨ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ƚŽŽ͍ tŚĂƚ ǁŝůů ƚŚŝƐ ŵĞĂŶƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͍ tŚĂƚ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ďŽƚŚ ƐŝĚĞƐ͍ tŝůů ƚŚŝƐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞŝŶƚŽŽŶĞŶĞǁĨƵůůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƌĞŐŝŽŶ͍ WŚĂƐĞτχ

Fig. 46 Changing cross posibilities over the Øresund. Source: author


dƌĂĸĐĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ /hͲ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ;φττύͿ ǁŝůů ĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞůŽŶŐƚĞƌŵƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĨŽƌŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶŽĨƌĂŝůǁĂLJŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŚĞůƉƚŽŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ůŝŶŬƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŝŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ďŝŶĚ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĐůŽƐĞƌ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͘ dŚĞŝƌ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ǁŝůů ĞŶƐƵƌĞ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŽ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŝŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚĨĂƐƚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƚƌĂŝŶƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ ƚŽ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ƚŚŝƐ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ŽŶůLJ ƐŽůǀĞĚ ďLJ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ƚƌĂŝŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĂŝůǁĂLJƐ͕ ďƵƚ ĂůƐŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĂŝů ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͘ /Ŷ ƐŽŵĞ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƌĂŝůǁĂLJƐ ŚĂƐ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ƌĞĂĐŚĞĚ ŝƚƐ ŵĂdžŝŵƵŵĂŶĚƐĞǀĞƌĂůŚƵďƐͲƌĂŝůǁĂLJƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ͲĂƌĞ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŶŐďŽƩůĞŶĞĐŬƐ͘  ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ŝƐ ƚŽ ĞŶƐƵƌĞďĞƩĞƌĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJŽĨƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƚƌĂŝŶƐĂƐĂ ĚŽƵďůŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ ĨŽƌ ĨƌĞŝŐŚƚ ƚƌĂŝŶƐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚŝƐ ǁŝůů ĞŶƐƵƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƐŚŝŌŝŶŐ ĨƌĞŝŐŚƚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚƌƵĐŬƐ ƚŽ ƌĂŝů ĂŶĚ ŝƚ ǁŝůů ŐŝǀĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚďLJƚŚĞ&ĞŚŵĂƌŶůŝŶŬ ĂŶĚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶͲZŝŶŐƐƚĞĚ ǁŚĞŶ ƌĂŝů ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌ ƚƌĂĸĐĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐƚŽŐƌŽǁ͘

Amount of Øresunds commuters

dŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ĂƌĞ ƟŵĞ ƐĂǀŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ĨƌĞŝŐŚƚ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ŝŶĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ƉƌŽĮƚĂďůĞ ĨŽƌ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ͕ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ Ͳ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ůŽǁĞƌ Kφ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ Ͳ ďLJ ƵƐŝŶŐ ĨƌĞŝŐŚƚ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ĨƌŽŵĂŝƌĐƌĂŌ͕ƚƌƵĐŬƐ͕ĐĂƌƐĂŶĚĨĞƌƌŝĞƐƚŽƚƌĂŝŶƐ͘/ƚǁŝůů ĂůƐŽ ƌĞůĞĂƐĞ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƌŽĂĚƐ ĨŽƌ ƚƌƵĐŬ ƚƌĂĸĐ͘ dŚĞ ƟŵĞ ďĞŶĞĮƚ ĨŽƌ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ƐŽ ŐƌĞĂƚƚŚĂƚƐĞǀĞƌĂůŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐĂƌĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůůLJ ǀŝĂďůĞ͘

ZKDDEd/KE^&ZKD/hͳ TZ^hE͗ φτχτ ŝƐ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚŝŶŐ ĨĂƐƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝĨ ƚŚĞ ĚĞƐŝƌĞĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐĂƌĞƚŽďĞƌĞĂůŝƐĞĚŝƚƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐƐĞƌŝŽƵƐ ĞīŽƌƚ ĂŶĚ ũŽŝŶƚ ĂĐƟŽŶ ŶŽǁ͘ /hͲPƌĞƐƵŶĚ ĂŶĂůLJƐĞƐ ŚĂǀĞŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚĞĚƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŝůů ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ŵĂŬĞ ŝƚ ŵŽƌĞĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞŝŶŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůŵĂƌŬĞƚƐĂŶĚƟĞŝƚ ĐůŽƐĞƌƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͘dŚĞƟŵĞƚŽĂĐƚŝƐŶŽǁ͘ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ ǁŝůů ƚĂŬĞ ƟŵĞ͘ /ƚ ǁŝůů ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞ ůĂƌŐĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŝĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ ŐŽŽĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌͲ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJŝŶφτχτ͘

dŚĞƉƌŝŽƌŝƟĞƐŝŶĐůƵĚĞ͗ ʹĂĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬďĞƚǁĞĞŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƂƌ͕ ʹĂĮŌŚƌŝŶŐƌŽĂĚǁĞƐƚŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ŵĂdžŝŵŝnjŝŶŐ ƚŚĞĨƵůůƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůŽĨƚŚĞ&ĞŚŵĂƌŶĞůƚ͕ ʹƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶŝŶŐƚŚĞƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶŝƌƉŽƌƚ ĂŶĚŵĂŬŝŶŐŝƐĂŵƵůƟŵŽĚĂůŚƵď͕ ʹĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐĂĨĂƐƚ͕ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƚƌĂŝŶƐĞƌǀŝĐĞĨŽƌ ƚŚĞĞŶƟƌĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƚŚĂƚŝƐůŝŶŬĞĚƚŽĂĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͘ ;>ŝŶĚƐƚƌƂŵ͕φτυτ͗υϊͿ

50 000 45 000 40 000 35 000 30 000 25 000 20 000

Road and rail

15 000

Rail

10 000

Ferry

5 000

8 20 11 20 14 20 17 20 20 20 23 20 26 20 29 20 32 20 35 20 38 20 41 20 44 20 47 20 50

20 0

20 0

5

0

Year Fig. 47 Expected commuting increase with fixed H-H connection

ȇȍ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

Fig. 48 & 49 New high speed train in European network in red,both after impementing of Femern Bælt connection (square). Right picture shows the 2nd connection along the H-H route (Elipse) For trips between the rest of Sweden beyond Skåne and mainland Europe, using Øresundsbron is 50 km longer than via the Elsinore–Helsingborg ferry route which adds 300/350 DKK to the cost of a lorry trip. Source: IBU

&ĂƐƚ,,ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ

45 thousand vehicles / trips per day

The transport pressure on roads and rail all ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ŝƐ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͕ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJŽŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚďƌŝĚŐĞ͘dŚĞĚĞŵĂŶĚĨŽƌ ĐƵƫŶŐ ƚƌĂǀĞů ƟŵĞƐ ƌŝƐĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ŵĞŶƟŽŶĞĚ ƌĞĂƐŽŶƐ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ Ă ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘  ƐŽůŝĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌͲ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ;,Ͳ,ͿĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ;ĮŐ͘χχͿǁŝůůŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ Ă ĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ Ă ĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŶŐ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐ ƚŚĞ ŵĂũŽƌ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĂůůĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚĐŽĂƐƚ͘ ƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛Ɛ ĐŝƚLJ ĐŽƵŶĐŝů ƐƚƌŽŶŐůLJ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚƐ Ă ĮdžĞĚ ƌĂŝů ůŝŶŬ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ ďƵƚ Ă ĮŶĂů ƌĞƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ĂƐ ƚŽ ǁŚĞƚŚĞƌŝƚƐŚŽƵůĚŽŶůLJďĞĂƌĂŝůůŝŶŬŽƌĂĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ĐĂƌĂŶĚƚƌĂŝŶ͕ŚĂƐŶŽƚďĞĞŶŵĂĚĞLJĞƚ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŝƚLJ͕ZĞŐŝŽŶ^ŬĊŶĞ͕ZĞŐŝŽŶ^ĞĂůĂŶĚĂŶĚƚŚĞŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĂƌĞĂ ĂƌĞ Ăůů ƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ Ă ĮdžĞĚ ,Ͳ, ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͘ Ƶƚ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƟŶŐĐŽƐƚĂŶĚĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ͕ďĞĨŽƌĞŵĂŬŝŶŐ

40 35 30 25 20

Car

15

Public transport

10 5 0 without with ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ Helsingborg Helsingør

without ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ

with ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ

Malmö Copenhagen

Fig .50 Cars and public transport journeys prognosis across the Oresund in 2030, with and without the new H-H connection ĂŶLJĮŶĂůĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶƐ;,ĂŶƐĞŶ͕φττύĂͿ͘ (x1000 per day, annual average).

/ĨƚŚĞ,Ͳ,ůŝŶŬǁŝůůĞǀĞƌďĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͕ƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶƐ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ĂůƐŽ ďĞ ĐĂƉĂďůĞ ŽĨ ĐĂƌƌLJŝŶŐ ƚŚĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞŽĨƚƌĂĸĐƚŚĂƚŝƚǁŝůůďƌŝŶŐ͘^ĞĞĮŐ͘ωτ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƵƐĞ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͘ dŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ŶŽƚ ďĞ ƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ Ă ŶĞǁ ƌŝŶŐ ƌŽĂĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ƌĞůŝĞĨƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞĨƌŽŵƚƌĂĸĐĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶŝŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘

RCUUGPIGTUVTCKP Persontog ECTIQVTCKP Godstog TQCF Motorvej

Fig. 51 Proposed cand for this project assumed onnection between Helsingør and Helsingborg. Two tunnels will connect the binational cities. Source: IBU

ȆƅŻ

ȈȄ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


DK^dWZK>W>E&KZd,&/y>/E<͗ dŚĞ ƉůĂŶŶĞĚ ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŚĂƐďĞĞŶĂŶĂůLJnjĞĚƚǁŽĐŽŶƐƵůƚĂŶĐLJ ĮƌŵƐ͕Kt/ĂŶĚZĂŵďƆůů͘dŚĞLJǁĞƌĞĐŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶĞĚ ƚŽ ĂŶĂůLJnjĞ ďŽƚŚ ďƌŝĚŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚƵŶŶĞů ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ƐŚŽǁ ƚŚĂƚ Ă ƚƵŶŶĞů ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĂŶĚ ůŽĐĂů ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚƐĞŵĞƌŐĞƐĂƐƚŚĞŵŽƐƚĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞĨŽƌŵ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞĚ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌ͕ ĨƌĞŝŐŚƚ ĂŶĚ ƌŽĂĚ ůŝŶŬƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐƵůƚĂŶƚƐ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚ Ă ƐĐƌĞĞŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ χτ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ǀĂƌŝĂŶƚƐĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐƌŽƵƚĞƐ͘

Vejtunneler

dŚĞƌĞƐƵůƚŝƐ͗ ͻƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶůŝŶĞ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐĂŵŽƚŽƌǁĂLJƚƵŶŶĞůŽĨĐĂ͘υωŬŵůĞŶŐƚŚŽĨƚŚĞƚŽƚĂůĂŶĚǁŝƚŚĂƚƵďĞ ĨŽƌĨƌĞŝŐŚƚƚƌĂŝŶƐ͘dŚĞƚƵŶŶĞůĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐƚŚĞŵĂŝŶŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŝŶĞŶŵĂƌŬĂŶĚ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘ ͻĐĞŶƚƌĂůƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƚƌĂŝŶůŝŶĞĨƌŽŵĐĞŶƚĞƌƚŽĐĞŶƚĞƌƚŚĂƚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐƉƵďůŝĐƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͘WĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐĨƌŽŵ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŚƵďǁŝůůďĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽĂŶĞǁƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚƐƚĂƟŽŶŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘dŚĞůĞŶŐƚŚŽĨƚŚĞƚƵŶŶĞů ŝƐũƵƐƚύŬŵ͘ dŚĞƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶƚƵŶŶĞůůŝŶĞŝƐĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ DŽƚŽƌǁĂLJ ;ĂŶĚ ƉŽƐƐŝďůLJ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ƌŝŶŐ ωͿ ĂŶĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞψŽŶƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚƐŝĚĞ͘dŚĞƌĂŝůƌƵŶƐŽǀĞƌƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJ ŝŶ Ă Ƶƚ Θ ŽǀĞƌͲƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ďĞŶĞĂƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞĂƌĞĂďĞƚǁĞĞŶ^ŶĞŬŬĞƌƐƚĞŶĂŶĚ ƐƉĞƌŐčƌĚĞƚŚĞŶĚŝǀĞƐŝŶƚŽĂƚƵŶŶĞůƚŚĞƌĞƐƚŽĨƚŚĞ ǁĂLJƚŽǁĂƌĚƐZĂŵůƂƐĂŽŶƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚƐŝĚĞ͘

Godstunnel

Fig. 52 Southern H-H tunnel with two road tubes and one freight train tube. Source: IBU

Fig. 53 Northern H-H tunnel with two train tube. Source: IBU

Danmark

Sverige

0

0 Kvartær

Øresund -30

-30

-60

Kridt

-60 Jura

Fig. 54 Section of the fairway. Source: IBU

ůŽĐĂƟŽŶŽĨŶĞǁ,,ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƚƌĂŝŶƚƵŶŶĞů ůŽĐĂƟŽŶŽĨŶĞǁĐĂƌŐŽĂŶĚĐĂƌƚƵŶŶĞů ůŽĐĂƟŽŶŽĨĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬ

Fig. 55 Position of tunnel starting points near Helsingor (by author)

Ȉȅ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

Helsingør in the Capital region

,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝƐωτŵŝŶƵƚĞƐďLJƚƌĂŝŶĂŶĚψωŵŝŶďLJĐĂƌ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ tŝƚŚ ŝƚƐ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ŝŶƚŚĞŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶĂƌĞĂ͕ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJƌĞůŝĞƐŚĞĂǀŝůLJŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ƚĂŬŝŶŐ ƉůĂĐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƌĞŐĂƌĚ ƚŽ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ ĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ infrastructure development. dŚĞ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŝƐůĂŶĚ ŽĨ Sealand and is the most populous island of ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ;ƉŽƉ͘ φτυφ ĞƐƚ͘ φ͕ψύυ͕τύτͿ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ;ĂŶŝƐŚ͗<ƆďĞŶŚĂǀŶͿŵĞĂŶƐ͚DĞƌĐŚĂŶƚĐŝƚLJ͛ĂŶĚŝƐ ƚŚĞĐĂƉŝƚĂůĐŝƚLJŽĨĞŶŵĂƌŬ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚĞďŝŐŐĞƐƚĐŝƚLJŝŶ

ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŽĨ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ǁŝƚŚ ωψτ͘τττ ĐŝƟnjĞŶƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůďŽƌĚĞƌƐĂŶĚŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶ υ͘ό ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĂƌĞĂ͘ dŚĞ ŶĂƟŽŶĂůŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚŝƐƐĞƩůĞĚŝŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐŶŽƚŽŶůLJŽŶĂŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚĂůůĞǀĞůĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚĨƌŽŵ ƚŚŝƐĐŝƚLJ͘ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ;ƉŽůLJĐĞŶƚƌŝĐͿ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛Ɛ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů͕ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚŝƐ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ŚĂƐ ƚŽŽīĞƌ͘

Fig. 57 Impression cultural hightlights in Copenhagen (by author)

ȆƅŻ

ȈȆ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


'ƌĞĞŶtĞĚŐĞƐŽĨƚŚĞ&ŝŶŐĞƌƉůĂŶ dŚĞŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚŝĐĂůĂŶŝƐŚƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐƐLJƐƚĞŵĂůůŽǁƐůŝƩůĞ ŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJ͘dŚĞŵŽƐƚƌĞĐĞŶƚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƉŽůŝĐLJƉůĂŶĨŽƌ ƚŚĞĐĂƉŝƚĂůƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ƚŚĞ͞&ŝŶŐĞƌƉůĂŶ͟ŽĨφττϋ͕ƌĞƚĂŝŶƐ ƐƚƌŝĐƚŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐĨŽƌƉƌĞƐĞƌǀŝŶŐƚŚĞŵĂŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ ;ĮŐ͘ωύͿ KŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ͞&ŝŶŐĞƌ ƉůĂŶ͟ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ǁĞĚŐĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ Įůů ƵƉ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂĐĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞ͞&ŝŶŐĞƌƐ͟ŽĨƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘dŚĞƐĞĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƚůLJĚĞƚĞƌŵĞŶƚ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞŶŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝƐ ĂůůŽǁĞĚ͕ƵŶůĞƐƐŝƚŝƐƌĞƐŽůƵƚĞŽŶƚŚĞEĂƟŽŶĂůůĞǀĞů͘ &Žƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͕ƚŚŝƐŵĞĂŶƐŝƚƌĞĂĐŚĞĚŝƚƐĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ďŽƵŶĚĂƌŝĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ /Ĩ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ŐƌŽǁ͕ ŝƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ŽŶůLJ ĚĞŶƐŝĨLJ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ;&ŝŐϊτͿ͘

Fig. 58 Fingerplan from 1947 in current structure (modified by author)

+

ITGGP5VTWEVWTG

+

+

EKV[UVTWEVWTG  DWUKPGUUCTGCU

EKV[UVTWEVWTG  WTDCPK\GFCTGCU

=

VTCȰEUVTWEVWTG

Fig. 59 Fingerplan structures 2007. Source: Danish ministry of Environment

Fig. 60 Green wedges in the North of Sealand, surrounding Helsingør’s urbanized structures. Source: Kommuneplan 2009

Ȉȇ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ

OCKPUVTWEVWTG


++#0#.;5+5

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Helsingør Fredensborg Hillerød Allerød Egedal Ballerup Høje Tåstrup Ishøj Roskilde Greve Solrød Køge

Fig. 62 Current corridor, reserved for a future ring, with municipalities that are involved. (Source: IBU)

Fig. 61 Regional plan 1973 with reserved corridor. (Source: Danish ministry of Environment)

dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌ͗ZŝŶŐω  ĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌ ŽƌŝŐŝŶĂƚĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ĂŶ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ƉůĂŶ ĨƌŽŵ υύϋχ͕ ŽĐĐƵƉŝĞƐ Ă ƐƚƌŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƵŶƚŽƵĐŚĞĚ ůĂŶĚ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŶŽǁ ŐŝǀĞƐ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ Ă ŶĞǁ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJ͕ ŶĂŵĞĚ ƌŝŶŐ ω͕ ĨƌŽŵ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ƚŽ <ƆŐĞ͕ ƐŽƵƚŚǁĞƐƚ ĨƌŽŵ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ dŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ ĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌ ǁĞƐƚ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐ ƌĞƐĞƌǀĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ƉƵƌƉŽƐĞƐ͕ ůŝŬĞ ƌĂŝů ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJƐ͕ ƌƵŶǁĂLJƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽǁĞƌ ůŝŶĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ƌŝŶŐ ǁŝůů ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƚŽƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďůĞĨƵƚƵƌĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞ ĮdžĞĚ,,ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌŝƐĐŽǀĞƌĞĚďLJƚŚĞDz&ŝŶŐĞƌWůĂŶ φττϋDz͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƉůĂŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐ ĐŽǀĞƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ĂůůŽǁĞĚ ƚŽ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌ ĂƌĞĂ͘ EŽǁ͕ χ ŽƵƚ ŽĨ φϋ ŽĨ ^ĞĂůĂŶĚDzƐ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĂŐĂŝŶƐƚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŝƚ ǁŽƵůĚ ĐŽŶŇŝĐƚ ǁŝƚŚ ůĂŶĚ ƵƐĞ ĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌ͘WƌŽƉŽŶĞŶƚƐĂƌĞĐƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJůŽďďLJŝŶŐĨŽƌƚŚĞ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐ ŽĨ ďŽƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ,Ͳ, ůŝŶŬ͘ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĚŝƌĞĐƚŽƌŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͕Z͘:͘ ,ĂŶƐĞŶ;φτυυͿŝƚƐŝŶĞǀŝƚĂďůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐĂŶĚ ĨĂƐƚŐƌŽǁŝŶŐƌĞŐŝŽŶƚŽĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚďŽƚŚƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͘

ȆƅŻ

ȈȈ

Regional road

Transport corridor

Planned extentions of other regional roads Planned roads Distribution road

Fig. 63 Corridor through Helsingor (Source: Helsingor Kommune, 2009)

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


/Ŷ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ψω й ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ǁŽƌŬŝŶĂŶŽƚŚĞƌŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͘dŚĞƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶŝƐůŽǁ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ŝƚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ LJĞĂƌƐ͘ dŚĞ ůŽǁ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ƌĂƚĞ ƌĞŇĞĐƚƐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĚĞƐƉŝƚĞ ŝƚƐ ƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŚĂƐ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ůŽĐĂů ũŽďƐ͘ ŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ŝŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ŚĂƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ƐůŝŐŚƚůLJĂŶĚŶŽǁƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐφόй͕ƚŚĞƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶŝƐ ůŽǁĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚƚŽŵĂŶLJŽĨƚŚĞŵŽƌĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůůLJůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ƐƵďƵƌďƐŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ >ĞǀĞů ŽĨ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ĨŽƌ ŵĂŶLJ LJĞĂƌƐ ďĞĞŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ŝƚ ŝƐ ƐƟůůƐůŝŐŚƚůLJůŽǁĞƌƚŚĂŶĂǀĞƌĂŐĞŝŶƚŚĞĂƉŝƚĂůZĞŐŝŽŶ͘

>KZDZ<dΘKDDhd/E'

A

Ý ››Ä ƐĂŝĚ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĂůĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĂŶŝƐŚĂŶĚ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚƉĂƌƚƐŽĨƚŚĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂƌĞƐŽŵĞŽĨƚŚĞĨĂĐƚŽƌƐƚŚĂƚĚƌŝǀĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌǁĂƌĚ ;ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ͕ ƵƌĂŶĚ Ğƚ Ăů͘ φτυτͿ͘ ZĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŽŶďŽƚŚƐŝĚĞƐŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚŚĂǀĞďĞŶĞĮƚĞĚĨƌŽŵ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘ /Ŷ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ LJĞĂƌƐ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂďŽƵƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ĂƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚŽĨůŽǁĞƌƵŶĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚŝŶĞŶŵĂƌŬ͘ ůĂƌŐĞŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚĐŝƟnjĞŶƐŚĂǀĞĨŽƵŶĚǁŽƌŬ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ ŵĂŶLJ ĂŶĞƐ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ƐƟůů ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ŝŶĞŶŵĂƌŬ͘

ψωй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůůLJ ĂĐƟǀĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝƐĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͕ǁŚŝůĞωωйĂƌĞǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͘ KĨ ƚŚĞ ψω й ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ φτйŝŶEŽƌƚŚĞĂůĂŶĚ͕ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐ ,ŝůůĞƌƆĚĂŶĚ&ƌĞĚĞŶƐďŽƌŐ͕ǁŚŝůĞφωйŝƐǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŝŶ 'ƌĞĂƚĞƌŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ ŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ƚŽ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ĨĞǁ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ǁŚŽ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů͘  ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůLJ ůĂƌŐĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ůŝǀĞƐĂŶĚǁŽƌŬƐŝŶƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͘

dŽƉυτǁŽƌŬĐŝƟĞƐĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐŽƌƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͗ *GNUKPIÔTǿǾȃ -ÔDGPJCXPǻǼǼ *KNNGTÔFǾǿ (TGFGPUDQTI*WONGDÂMǾǼ *ÔTUJQNOǼǼ -CTNGDQǼǻ )GPVQȎGǻȃ .[PID[6CCTDÂMǻȂ $KTMGTÔFǻǿ )TÂUVGF)KNNGNGLGǻǾ 5ÔNNGTÔFǻǽ

Working municipality for commuters from Öresund SE

10 100

18%

10,000 Living municipality for commuters from Öresund SE

10

25% 16%

100

35% 29%

10,000

50 k

m

32%

6% 35% 11% 30%

Fig. 64 Cross-border commuting; 95% of the commuters live in Sweden and work in Denmark. Source Orestat. Map: Region Skane

Ȉȉ

Fig. 65 Percentage of commuting labour force of municipalities to Copenhagen with a similair distance. Source: author

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

dŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ŚĂƐ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ υτ LJĞĂƌƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ψτйƚŽψωй͘/ŶƌĞĐĞŶƚLJĞĂƌƐ͕ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͕ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƐƚĂŐŶĂƚĞĚ͕ƐŽŝƚŵĂLJǁĞůůďĞĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƌĞŵĂŝŶĂƚ ψωйŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŵŝŶŐLJĞĂƌĂƚƵŶĐŚĂŶŐĞĚĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƚƌĂǀĞů ƟŵĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ωχ ƚŽϊυŵŝŶƵƚĞƐĂĚĂLJĨƌŽŵυύύχƚŽφττχ͘dŚĞĚĂŝůLJ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ƚƌĂǀĞůůĞĚ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ χχ ƚŽ χύ Ŭŵ ƉĞƌ ĚĂLJ͘ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ <& ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ŚŽŵĞ ĂŶĚ ǁŽƌŬ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ υχ͘χŝŶυύόυƚŽυϋŬŵƚŽĚĂLJ͘>ŽǁĞƌĞĚƵĐĂƚĞĚƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚƌĂǀĞůĂŶĂǀĞƌĂŐĞŽĨυω͘όŬŵƚŽŐĞƚƚŽǁŽƌŬ͕ǁŚŝůĞ ŚŝŐŚůLJ ĞĚƵĐĂƚĞĚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚƌĂǀĞů φτ͘ύ Ŭŵ Ă ĚĂLJ ƚŽ ǁŽƌŬ͘ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽĞŶŵĂƌŬ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐυτйŽĨƚŚĞ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŚĂƐŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶψτŬŵďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ŚŽŵĞĂŶĚǁŽƌŬ͘ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞƐƵŐŐĞƐƚƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŐĞŶĞƌĂů ƚƌĞŶĚŝƐŶŽƚĂƐƐŝŐŶĂďůĞƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘hŶƟůφττφƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ ŚĂƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĞǀĞƌLJ LJĞĂƌ͕ ďƵƚ ĂŌĞƌ φττφ͕ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ƌĞŵĂŝŶĞĚ ǀŝƌƚƵĂůůLJ ƵŶĐŚĂŶŐĞĚ͘

ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ĚĞŵŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ƉƌĞĚŝĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ;KƌĞƐƚĂƚ͕ φττϋͿ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ǁŝůů ůĂĐŬ ĂůŵŽƐƚ φ͕τττ ƉĞƌƐŽŶƐ ĂĐƟǀĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂďŽƵƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ŝŶ υτ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ƉĂƩĞƌŶ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƵŶĐŚĂŶŐĞĚƐŝŶĐĞφττϊĂŶĚƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ŝƐƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐƚŽŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƚŚĞũŽďŵĂƌŬĞƚǁŝƚŚωй͘  ĚĞĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŽĨ ψω ƚŽ ψτ й ŝŶ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ǁŝůů Įůů υ͕ωττũŽďƐ͘tŝƚŚĂŶĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚƌĂƚĞŽĨϋωйĂŶĚĂ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƌĂƚĞŽĨψτй͕ĂƚůĞĂƐƚυ͕τττƉĞŽƉůĞƐŚŽƵůĚ ŵŽǀĞƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌƚŽĮůůƚŚĞƌĞŵĂŝŶŝŶŐωττũŽďƐ͘ dŚĞƌĞŝƐĂĚĞĮĐŝƚŽĨϋ͕τττũŽďƐŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐǁŽƌŬŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘ƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJŝŶƚŚĞ ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂůĂŶĚďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐĞĐƚŽƌĂŶĚƚŚĞƉƵďůŝĐ ĂŶĚƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐƚŚĞƌĞŝƐƐŚŽƌƞĂůůŽĨůŽĐĂůũŽďƐ͘ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶůĞǀĞůƐĂƌĞůŽǁĞƌƚŚĂŶŝŶŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ďƵƚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌƚŚĂŶƚŚĞŶĂƟŽŶĂůƌĂƚĞ͘dŚĞůĞǀĞůŝƐŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ͘ ĂůĐƵůĂƟŽŶƐƐŚŽǁƚŚĂƚǁŝƚŚũƵƐƚĂƌĂŝůůŝŶŬƚŚĞƚŽƚĂů ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐĂĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚǁŽƵůĚŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞďLJ φτͲφωƉĞƌĐĞŶƚďLJφτωτ͘/ĨďƵŝůƚďŽƚŚĂƌŽĂĚĂŶĚƌĂŝů ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ ^ŽƵŶĚ ĐŽƵůĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ďLJ ψτͲωτ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚ͘ ;dEE^TZ^hE͕ φττόͿ;&ŝŐ͘ωτͿ

Fig. 66 Purpose of cross-border commuting trip. Source: Vecka 9

percentage 6,5 11,3 41,8 23,9

14,3

1,6

commuting - work

leisure

commuting - education

short vacation

business

vacation

0-<15 minutes by car

0-<15 minutes by car

15-<30 minutes by car

15-<30 minutes by car

30-<60 minutes by car

30-<60 minutes by car

45- 60 minutes by car

45- 60 minutes by car

>60 minutes by car

>60 minutes by car

Fig. 67 Proximity from Helsingor without fixed H-H connection. Source: interpreted by author, based on WSP report

ȆƅŻ

ȈȊ

Fig. 68 Proximity from Helsingor with fixed H-H connection. Source: interpreted by author, based on WSP report

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig. 69 Medicon Valley is a leading bi-national life-sciences cluster in Europe, within the Øresund Region. A large number of life science companies and research institutions are located within a very small geographical area. The idea of Medicon Valley slowly emerged during the early 1990s and was formalised and financially supported through the European Union Interreg II programme. Medicon Valley connects academia, hospitals and companies in the Øresund Region. Source: Naestved

h^/E^^s>KWDEdEdKhZ/^D dŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶŝƐĂŚƵďĨŽƌŚŝŐŚͲƚĞĐŚĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ƐĞĐƚŽƌƐ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ƉŚĂƌŵĂĐĞƵƟĐĂůƐͬ ďŝŽƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ;&ŝŐωύͿ͕/dͬƚĞůĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ͕ĨŽŽĚ͕ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ůŽŐŝƐƟĐƐĂŶĚĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ŐƌĞĂƚ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ĨŽƌ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞŶĞƐƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ƉƵďůŝĐͬƉƌŝǀĂƚĞͬƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉƐ ŽŶ ďŽƚŚ ƐŝĚĞƐ ŽĨ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ WƵďůŝĐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ĐŽƵůĚ ǁŽƌŬ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ĞǀĞŶ ŵŽƌĞ ĚŝƐƟŶĐƚůLJƚŚĂŶƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞŝŶƚŚĞƉĂƐƚĂŶĚďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵ ĂŶĚ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĂŶĚ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚŝŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ŝƐ Ă ŵĂũŽƌ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ŝŶ ^ŬĂŶĞ ;ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐ ĞĂƐƚ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐͿ͘ ƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚƌĂĚĞ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ prominent on the Danish side

ƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ KƵƚŽĨĂƚŽƚĂůŽĨχ͕τττďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŽŶůLJ χυ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ υττ ĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͘ &ƌŽŵ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŽŶůLJ υω ĂƌĞ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ůŽŶŐĞƌƚĞƌŵŝƚŝƐĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƌĞŝƐĂŶĞĞĚĨŽƌ ŵŽƌĞŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞũŽďƐƵƉƉůLJ͘ /Ŷ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͕ĮǀĞďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĂƌĞĂƐĐŽŶƚĂŝŶυτйŽĨƚŚĞ ĞŶƚĞƌƉƌŝƐĞƐĂŶĚφτйŽĨƚŚĞǁŽƌŬƉůĂĐĞƐ͘DŽƐƚŽĨƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ŝŶŚŽŵŽŐĞŶĞŽƵƐ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ƚLJƉĞƐ ĂŶĚŵŽƌĞŽƌůĞƐƐůŽĐĂůůLJŽƌŝĞŶƚĞĚ͘DŽƐƚĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ĚĞĂů ǁŝƚŚ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ͕ ǁŚŽůĞƐĂůĞ ĂŶĚ ĂƵƚŽ ƚƌĂĚĞ͘ƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞůLJόττũŽďƐĂƌĞĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚƚŽďĞ ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞͲŝŶƚĞŶƐŝǀĞũŽďƐ͕ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJŽůŽƉůĂƐƚ͘ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛Ɛ ƌĞƚĂŝůŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ LJĞĂƌƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƐĞĐƚŽƌŚĂƐĚƌŽƉƉĞĚ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛ƐŚŝŶƚĞƌůĂŶĚŝƐůŝŵŝƚĞĚ

Ȉȋ

ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚ ĂŶĚ ǁĞƐƚ͘ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ĐŽŵŵĞƌĐĞ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƚŽďĞĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ͕ǁŚŝůĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐŽƵƚŽĨ ƚŽǁŶĂůƐŽŚĂƐĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞĚĞĐƌĞĂƐĞŽĨƵƌďĂŶ ƌĞƚĂŝůŝŶŐ͘ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƌĞƉŽƌƚ;:ĞŶƐĞŶ͕φττϋͿĂŶĂůLJƐĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƚĂŝů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ŝĚĞŶƟĮĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŝnjĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƚŽƌĞƐ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ƌĞĂƐŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ͘^ŵĂůůƐŚŽƉƐŚĂǀĞĂƐŵĂůůƐĞůĞĐƟŽŶ͕ďƵƚƚŚĞ ƚƌĞŶĚĂŵŽŶŐĐŽƐƚƵŵĞƌƐŝƐĂŶŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐĚĞŵĂŶĚŽĨ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŬŝŶĚŽĨƐƚŽƌĞƐ͘hŶĨŽƌƚƵŶĂƚĞůLJ͕ĐŚĂŝŶƐƚŽƌĞƐ ŚĂǀĞŶŽŐƌĞĂƚĚĞƐŝƌĞƚŽŝŶǀĞƐƚŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ŚĂƐ ŶŽƚ ŵƵĐŚ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ŽŶ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶŝŶŐƚŚĞƌĞƚĂŝůƐĞĐƚŽƌ͕ŝŶƐƚĂŝĚŝƚƐŚŽƵůĚĨŽĐƵƐ on related industries such as cafes and restaurants ƚŚĂƚ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ ĐƵƐƚŽŵĞƌƐ͘ ŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ĐĂŶ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ƚƌĂĸĐ ĂŶĚ culture. ŶŽƚŚĞƌƌĞĂƐŽŶǁŚLJƚŚĞƌĞƚĂŝůŵĂƌŬĞƚŝƐĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐŝƐ ƚŚĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞŝŶƚĂdžƌĂƚĞ͘ĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJƚŽ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͕^ǁĞĚĞƐƵƐĞĚƚŽďĞĨƌĞƋƵĞŶƚŐƵĞƐƚƐ͘tŝƚŚ ŚŝŐŚ ƌĞƚĂŝů ĐŽƐƚƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ĚŽŶ͛ƚ ĐŽŵĞ ƚŽ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĂƚƉƵƌƉŽƐĞ͘/ŶƐƚĞĂĚ͕^ǁĞĚŝƐŚƚŽƵƌŝƐƚƐŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ ĐŽŵĞ ƚŽ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĨŽƌ ŵŽƌĞ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘  ŵŽǀĞ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ͕ĂŶĚǁŝůůďĞƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĚďLJƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͛Ɛ ĨŽĐƵƐ͕ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ŽŶ LJĞĂƌͲƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ ŝŶ EŽƌƚŚ ^ĞĂůĂŶĚ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘

dŚĞ,,ƌĞŐŝŽŶƉŽƐƐĞƐƐĞƐĮƌƐƚͲƌĂƚĞƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƐĨŽƌƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨŶĞǁŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJĐůƵƐƚĞƌƐ͕ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĂƩƌĂĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ǁĞůůͲĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ŚŽƐƉŝƚĂůŝƚLJ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐĂů ƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐĂƐǁĞůůĂƐƉŽůŝƟĐĂůĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ ƚŽƉƵƌƐƵĞĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶĂĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞ^ŽƵŶĚ͘;'LJŝŵſƚŚLJ ĂŶĚ>ĂƌƐŽŶ͕φττύͿ 'z/DMd,z͕^͘Θ>Z^KE͕D͘φττύ͘ĞƐƟŶĂƟŽŶEĞƚǁŽƌŬDĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͗ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

Helsingør vs Helsingborg

,>^/E'KZ'ͳ,>^/E'TZ ,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůůLJĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ Ɛ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ŵĞŶƟŽŶĞĚ͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂǀĞĂůǁĂLJƐŚĂĚĂǀĞƌLJƐƚƌŽŶŐĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ͘ƐŝŶƚŚĞďĞŐŝŶŶŝŶŐŽĨƚŚĞυχƚŚĐĞŶƚƵƌLJĞŶŵĂƌŬĐŽŶƋƵĞƌƐƚŚĞƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶƉĂƌƚŽĨ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͕^ŬĊŶĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌŽƵƚĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƚǁŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐ the main access to cross the Oresund. &Žƌ ĐĞŶƚƵƌŝĞƐ ďŽƚŚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝůů ŇŽƵƌŝƐŚ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞƚŽůůƚŚĞLJƌĞĐĞŝǀĞƚŚĂƚŝƐƉĂŝĚďLJƐŚŝƉƐ ƚŚĂƚǁĂŶƚƚŽĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞƐƚƌĂŝŐŚƚ͘ ,ĂǀŝŶŐ Ă ƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ŚĂƌďŽƵƌ ǁĂƐ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƟŵĞĂŶĚƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌĨŽƌƚŚĞƐĞƚǁŽĐŝƟĞƐ͘ŌĞƌυϊωϋ͕ ǁŚĞŶĞŶŵĂƌŬůŽƐƚ^ŬĊŶĞĂŐĂŝŶĨƌŽŵ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͕ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐƐƚĂƌƚĞĚƚŽĐŽŵƉĞƚĞŵŽƌĞ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂĚ ƚŽ ĞŶůĂƌŐĞ ŝƚ ŚĂƌďŽƵƌ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƟŵĞƐ͕ ďƵƚǁĂƐƐƚƌƵŐŐůŝŶŐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĨĂĐƚƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƌĞǁĂƐƐŝŵƉůLJŶŽƚĞŶŽƵŐŚƐƉĂĐĞ͘dŚĞLJĞŶůĂƌŐĞĚƚŚĞĚŽĐŬƐĂŶĚ ĚĞĞƉĞŶĞĚƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͕ĂůůƐŽƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJĐŽƵůĚƌĞĐĞŝǀĞ ŶĞǁ ƐŚŝƉƐ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ďĞĐĂŵĞ ďŝŐŐĞƌ ĂŶĚ ďŝŐŐĞƌ͘ Ɛ ŝƚ ĨĂŝůĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞ͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂƌďŽƵƌ ǁŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞƚŽĂĐĐĞƉƚƚŚĞĨĂĐƚƚŚĂƚƐŚŝƉƐǁŽƵůĚƐĞĞŬŽƚŚĞƌ ŚĂƌďŽƵƌƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĂƐ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJůĂƌŐĞƌ͘

Fig. 70 In March 1892 the ferry berth was brought into service when it was inaugurated by the paddle steamer “Kronprinsesse Louise”. It was run by DSB (the Danish State Railways), and thereby launched the history of the Helsingør-Helsingborg crossing.

/ŶƚŚĞĞŶĚŽĨƚŚĞυύƚŚĐĞŶƚƵƌLJƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐůŽƐƚƚŚĞŝƌ KƌĞƐƵŶĚƚŽůůŝŶĐŽŵĞ͘Ƶƚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŚĂĚďƵŝůƚĂůƵĐƌĂƟǀĞƐŚŝƉLJĂƌĚĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚĨĂƐƚĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ƌĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ŶĂƌƌŽǁ ƐƚƌĂŝŐŚƚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐǁĂƐƐƟůůƚŚĞŵŽƐƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ͘

Fig. 71 Impression cultural hightlights in Helsingborg (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


ƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ φτƚŚ ĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĐŽŶƐŽůŝĚĂƚĞĚ ĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚŝƚƐƉŽƐŝƟŽŶĂƐĂƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚƐŚŝƉƉŝŶŐ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ǁŝƚŚŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͛ƐďŝŐŐĞƐƚƉŽƌƚƐ͘dŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƐƚĞĂŵ ĨĞƌƌLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂĚ ŽƉĞŶĞĚ ŝŶ υόύφ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ ƚƌĂĸĐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ĂŌĞƌ tŽƌůĚ tĂƌ //͘ ^ŝŶĐĞƚŚĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĂŝůǁĂLJƐŝŶďŽƚŚĐŝƚŝĞƐ͕ĞǀĞŶƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶĐŽƵůĚďĞƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĞ ferries.

,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛ƐŚŝƐƚŽƌLJĂƌĞƟŐŚƚůLJĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ͘dŚĞŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐƐŚĂƌĞĂǀĞƌLJƐŝŵŝůĂƌĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ĂůƐŽ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĚŝĂůĞĐƚƐ ĂƌĞ ƐŽ ĐůŽƐĞ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞLJ ĐĂŶ ĞĂƐŝůLJƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌŝŶƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŝƐŵƵĐŚŵŽƌĞŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůŝnjĞĚƚŚĞŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘  dŚĞ ƚƌĂĚĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ŇŽƵƌŝƐŚĞĚĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŐƌĞǁ͘

Fig. 72 From Helsingor to Helsingborg 1658. Source: Buxtehude

Fig. 73 From Helsingborg to Helsingor. Picture by Bertil Alm

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

dŚĞ,,ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂůƐŽŽŌĞŶǁŽƌŬƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͕ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJǁŚĞŶŝƚĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐƚŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬ͘&ŽƌŵĂŶLJ ĚĞĐĂĚĞƐƚŚĞĐŽŶĐĞƉƚŽĨĂďƌŝĚŐĞŽƌƚƵŶŶĞůďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĞdžŝƐƚƐ͘ ƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ υτ LJĞĂƌƐ ŵŽƌĞƐĞƌŝŽƵƐƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŚĂƐďĞĞŶĚŽŶĞƚŽƚŚĞŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨĂŶĞǁůŝŶŬ͘ DŽĚĞů ĐĂůĐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ƐŚŽǁ ĨŽƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ƚŚĂƚ Ă ĮdžĞĚ ,,ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝůůŵĂŬĞĂƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ƚŽƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŽĨůĂďŽƵƌŝŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ;DK͕φττύͿ͘ sŝƌƚƵĂůůLJ Ăůů ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ǁŝůů ĨĂůů Ăƚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ĂƐƚŚĞŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽĨ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJŚĂƉƉĞŶƐŚĞƌĞ͘/ŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ƚƌŝƉƐ ƉĞƌ ĚĂLJ ŝŶ φτωτ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĐĂŶ ďĞ Ă ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ω͕ωττĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƚƌŝƉƐƉĞƌĚĂLJǁŝƚŚŽƵƚĂƉĞƌŵĂŶĞŶƚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƚŽĂƉƉƌŽdž͘φω͕τττĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐƚƌŝƉƐƉĞƌ ĚĂLJǁŝƚŚƌŽĂĚĂŶĚƌĂŝůůŝŶŬďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐ͘KŶůLJ Ă ǀĞƌLJ ƐŵĂůů ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŝƐ ƐŚŝŌĞĚ ƚƌĂǀĞůŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚƌŝĚŐĞ͘

KŶĞ ƌĞĂƐŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƋƵŝƚĞ ĨĂƌ ŝŶ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ TƌĞƐƵŶĚƌŝĚŐĞ͕ƐŽƚŚĞƚǁŽĐŽŵƉŽƵŶĚƐĂƌĞĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌLJ͘dŚŝƐŵĞĂŶƐƚŚĂƚŶĞǁƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐǁŝůůŚĂǀĞ ĂƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJďĞƩĞƌĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJǁŚĞŶĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚƚŚƵƐŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƐĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůLJ͘ /ĨƚŚĞƌĞǁŽƵůĚŚĂĚͲŚLJƉŽƚŚĞƟĐĂůůLJͲƉůĂĐĞĚĂŶĞǁ ďƌŝĚŐĞ ďĞƐŝĚĞ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌŝĚŐĞ͕ ƚŚĞŶ ŝƚ ǁŽƵůĚŶŽƚŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƚŚĞĂǀĂŝůĂďŝůŝƚLJŝŶƐƵĐŚĂǁĂLJ͘ĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞƐĞĂƌĞĂƐĂůƌĞĂĚLJŚĂǀĞŐŽŽĚĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJƚŽ ƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚĂŶĚĂƉĂƌĂůůĞůĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝůůƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞƐĞƌŽƵƚĞƐ͘ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞĂƐŽŶŝƐƚŚĂƚƚŽĚĂLJ͛ƐĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐǁŝƚŚĨĞƌƌŝĞƐŝƐŶŽƚ ŽŶůLJ ĚŽŶĞ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ĨƌŽŵ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJůĂƌŐĞŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƚŽŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂŶĚƚŚĞƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐ͘

Amount of workplaces

Fig. 74 Number of extra jobs which is reached at max 1 hour by car fixed-HH connection. Source: IBU-ØRESUND, DELAKTIVITET 4, 2010

ȆƅŻ

ȉȄ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


1,5 km

Fig. 75 Helsingør-Helsingborg with exisiting infrastructure (train stations incl 300-600m proximity and harbors) and assumed future tunnels (by author)

Fig. 76 & 77 Building structure of Helsingør (left) and Helsingborg (right) (by author)

ȉȅ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

&ƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ƉůĂLJ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶͲǁŝƐĞ ĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚƌŽůĞƐ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝƐƉƌĞĚŽŵŝŶĂŶƚůLJǀŝůůĂŐĞůŝŬĞ͕ ǁŝƚŚĂǀĞƌLJƐŵĂůůĐĞŶƚƌĞǁĞƌĞƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJůŽĐĂůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐƚŚĂƚƐĞƌǀĞƚŚĞůŽĐĂůƐĂƌĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƐƚůLJ ĨŽŽĚ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƚĂŝů ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ͘ 'ĞŶĞƌĂůůLJ ƐŵĂůů ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞũŽďƐ͘KŶĞŽĨƚŚĞĞdžĐĞƉƟŽŶƐŝƐƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŚŽƐƉŝƚĂů ƚŚĂƚ ǁŝůů ĚŝƐĂƉƉĞĂƌ ŝŶ Ă ĨĞǁ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ Ă ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŝŶŐĐŝƚLJ͕,ŝůůĞƌƆĚĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚĂŶĞǀĞŶďŝŐŐĞƌ ŚŽƐƉŝƚĂůƚŚĂƚǁŝůůƐĞƌǀĞƚŚĞǁŚŽůĞŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶƉĂƌƚŽĨ ^ĞĂůĂŶĚ͘dŚĞŽƚŚĞƌĞdžĐĞƉƟŽŶŽƌĞdžĐĞƉƟŽŶƐĂƌĞƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞ<ƌŽŶďŽƌŐĐĂƐƚůĞ͘ DŽƌĞ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ƐĞĐƟŽŶĨƵƌƚŚĞƌŝŶƚŚŝƐƉĂƉĞƌ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐƌĞĂůůLJĂƐĂĐŝƚLJǁŝƚŚĂƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŽǀĞƌυφτ͘τττ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚĐŝƚLJ͕ĂŌĞƌDĂůŵŽ ŝŶƚŚĞ^ŬĊŶĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨŝƚƐŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐĂŶĚůĂƌŐĞŚĂƌďŽƌ͕ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJƐƟůůƉůĂLJƐĂŶŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƌŽůĞ ĨŽƌ ^ŬĊŶĞ ĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞŵĂŶLJũŽďƐ͘ dŚĞ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŽĨƚŽĚĂLJĐĂŵĞŝŶƚŽĞdžŝƐƚĞŶĐĞĂƚƚŚĞ ƚƵƌŶ ŽĨ υύϋτʹϋυ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ǁĂƐ ĂŵĂůŐĂŵĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐŽĨ<ĂƩĂƌƉ͕DƂƌĂƌƉ͕sĂůůĊŬƌĂ ĂŶĚPĚĊŬƌĂ͘dǁĞŶƚLJLJĞĂƌƐůĂƚĞƌ͕ƚŚĞƉƌŝŵŝƟǀĞƐŚƵŶƚŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐĞƚƐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĞŶĚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂĚǀĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞ͞<ŶƵƚƉƵŶŬƚĞŶ͟ƚĞƌŵŝŶĂů͕ǁŚĞƌĞĨĞƌƌLJ͕ ƚƌĂŝŶĂŶĚďƵƐƚƌĂĸĐŵĞĞƚƐ͘ ŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ >ƵŶĚ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ƌĞƐƵůƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŵĞŶƚŽĨĂŵƉƵƐ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŝŶφτττ͘ůƐŽ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ ĚŽŶĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ůŝŬĞƚŚĞƵŶŬĞƌƐƵůƚƵƌĞĞŶƚƌĞ͕ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚŝŶφττφĂĐƋƵŝƌĞĚĂŶĞǁ͕ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĂƌĞŶĂĨŽƌƚŚĞ^ŬĊŶĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘

WƌŽŐƌĂŵ tŚĞŶůŽŽŬŝŶŐĂƚĮŐ͘ϋωǁĞĐĂŶƐĞĞĂƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ ƌĞƐĞŵďůĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ǁŝƚŚŝŶυŬŵƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJŚĂƌďŽƵƌ͕ƚŚĞ

ĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞƐĚŝƌĞĐƚĞĚƚŽǁĂƌĚƐĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŚĂƐƚŚĞďŝŐĐĂƐƚůĞŽŶƚŚĞŽƵƚĞƌĞĚŐĞůŽŽŬŝŶŐŽǀĞƌƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŚĂƐĂĐĂƐƚůĞƚŚĂƚ ůŽŽŬƐŽƵƚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŵĂŝŶƐƚƌĞĞƚ͕ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌŽǀĞƌƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘dŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŝƐďŝŐŐĞƌĂŶĚƚŚĞƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJŝƐĂůƐŽŵŽƌĞŽĨƚŚĂƚĨƌŽŵ Ă ďŝŐŐĞƌ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƐĞƌǀĞƐ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ǁŚŽůĞ ŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞ^ŬĊŶĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĂƌĞĂůƐŽŚŝŐŚĞƌ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ŵŽƌĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJŝƐĂůƐŽǀĞƌLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚŚĂŶƚŚĞ ŽǀĞƌĂůůŝŵĂŐĞŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘tŚĞƌĞǁĞƐĞĞĂŶĞŶĚůĞƐƐ ƵƌďĂŶƐƉƌĂǁůŽĨĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚŚŽƵƐĞƐŽŶƚŚĞ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ƐŝĚĞ͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŝƐ ŵƵĐŚ ŵŽƌĞ Ă ƚLJƉŝĐĂů tĞƐƚĞƌŶ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ŚŝŐŚ ƵƌďĂŶ ŚĂďŝƚĂƚ level at the central parts. The dense areas in and ĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞŵŽƐƚůLJĐŽŶƐŝƐƚŽĨŚŽƵƐŝŶŐďůŽĐŬƐ ͕ŽŶůLJŽŶƚŚĞŽƵƚƐŬŝƌƚƐǁĞĮŶĚŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƐǁŝƚŚ ĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞĚĞŶƐŝƚLJŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐůĂLJƐŵƵĐŚŚŝŐŚĞƌĂŶĚŵĂŶLJŵŽƌĞƵƐĞƌƐĂƐŬĨŽƌ ŵŽƌĞĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŝƐ ŵƵĐŚ ŵŽƌĞ ƐĞůĨͲƐĞƌǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐ͘ /ƚƐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂŶĚ ŚĂƌďŽƵƌ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ŵĂŶLJ ũŽďƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĂůƐŽ ŚĂƐ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌhoods ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŝƐĂŶŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĐŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚŚĂƐƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ LJĞĂƌƐ ƐƚƌƵŐŐůĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĨĂĐƚŽƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ƐƟů�� ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ǀĞƌLJ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉĂƌƚƐ͘ dŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨŵŽǀŝŶŐŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĂƌĞĂƐŽƵƚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ Žƌ ŽƵƚƐŽƵƌĐŝŶŐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ƐůŽǁ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŵŽĚĞƌŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƉƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƉƵƐŚĞĚ ŽīŶĞǁŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŝƐ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐ ŶĞǁ ƉůĂŶƐ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƚŽ ďĞĐŽŵĞ ĂŶ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ͘  ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŚĂƐůĞĚƚŽŶĞǁĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ƉůĂŶƐƚŚĂƚƐĞĞŵƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽƌĞǀŝǀĞƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘;&ŝŐ͘ ϋύΘότͿ

ψ<D

Fig. 78 Google map satelite picture of Helsingør and Helsingborg with 4 km of water in between. (Source: Google. Modified by author)

ȆƅŻ

ȉȆ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig. 79 Schønherr Landscape / ADEPT Architects’ vision for Helsingborg: “The Tolerant City”

Fig. 80 Schønherr Landscape / ADEPT Architects’ vision for Helsingborg: “The Tolerant City”

ȉȇ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


++#0#.;5+5

Conclusions position Helsingør within regional development ^K t,d /^ d, WZK'ZDDd/ E ^Wd/> WK^/d/KE K& ,>^/E'TZ Zͳ ^Wd/s>z t/d,/E d, TZ^hE Zͳ '/KE͕ d, W/d> Z'/KE E /E Zͳ ^WddK,>^/E'KZ'͍

3WCPVKV[QHHWPEVKQPU^*I local

3WCPVKV[QHHWPEVKQPU^%RJ local

4GNCVKQP

international

4GNCVKQP

international

WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ dŚĞ ĮŐƵƌĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉĂŐĞ ŐŝǀĞƐ ĂŶ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŚĂƚŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŚĂǀĞ ǁŝƚŚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŚĂƐ ǁŝƚŚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝƐŵĂŝŶůLJƵŶŝůĂƚĞƌĂů͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝƐďĞLJŽŶĚƚŚĞůŽĐĂůůĞǀĞů͕ŶŽƚǁŝƚŚƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐƚŚĞĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ͕ ǀĞƌLJ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ 'ƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͖ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ ǁŽƌŬ ĨŽƌ ĂůŵŽƐƚ Ă ƋƵĂƌƚĞƌ ŽĨƚŚĞƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͖ƚŚĞĂŝƌƉŽƌƚ͕ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚĂůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ ŵĞĚŝĐĂů ƚƌĞĂƚŵĞŶƚ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ ƌĞƚĂŝů ĂŶĚ ĨŽŽĚ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ Ăůů ƌĞŐƵůĂƌůLJ ƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ &Žƌ ŵŽƐƚ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ;ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽƵƉ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ĂĐƟǀĞ ŽŶƚŚĞůĂďŽƵƌŵĂƌŬĞƚͿǀŝƐŝƟŶŐŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂŶĚƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐƐŝƐƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞŝƌǁĞĞŬůLJƉĂƩĞƌŶ͘ ŽŶǀĞƌƐĞůLJ͕,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŚĂƐŶŽƚŵŽƌĞƚŽŽīĞƌƚŽŐƌĞĂƚĞƌŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶƚŚĂŶĨŽƌƐŽŵĞĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞůŝǀŝŶŐĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ƐŽŵĞ ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂů ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂŶĚ Žī ĐŽƵƌƐĞ ƚŚĞ <ƌŽŶďŽƌŐĐĂƐƚůĞĂƐĂŶĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶŽĨŐƌĞĂƚĞƌŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͛Ɛ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂƩƌĂĐƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŝƐ ǀĞƌLJ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ͘ KŶ ŽŶĞŚĂŶĚ ƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐĂƌĞĐůŽƐĞůLJ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐŽĨ ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͘dŚĞĐŝƟĞƐŽīĞƌĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌũŽďƐ ĂŶĚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ĚĞƉĞŶĚĂŶƚŽŶƚŚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐͲ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝŶĂůĞƐƐĞƌĞdžƚĞŶƚŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŝƐĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůĞ ƐŵĂůůĞƌĂŶĚŚĂƐŶŽƚĂƐŵƵĐŚĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐƚŽŽīĞƌƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞƵƐĞĨƵůĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͛ƐŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐͲ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŚĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĂīĞĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůďĂƌƌŝĞƌĨŽƌŵĞĚďLJƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚ ƚŚĞĨĂĐƚƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJĂƌĞĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƚƌĂŶƐŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐĂŶĚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨƚŚŝƐĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŽĨƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŝŶĂƚƌĂŶƐŶĂƟŽŶĂůƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶĂƌĞĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĞůĂďŽƌĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƐĞĐƟŽŶƐ͗ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂů ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬĂŶĚĐĂƐĞƐƚƵĚLJ͘

ȆƅŻ

ȉȈ

3WCPVKV[QHHWPEVKQPU^*D local

4GNCVKQP

international

Fig. 81 Conclusions for Helsingør (Hg) of programmatic relation with Copenhagen (Cph) and Helsingborg (Hb). (by author)

WƌŝŽƌŝƟĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶďLJ/hͲKƌĞƐƵŶĚ φτχτŝƐĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚŝŶŐĨĂƐƚ͕ĂŶĚŝĨƚŚĞĚĞƐŝƌĞĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐĂƌĞƚŽďĞƌĞĂůŝƐĞĚŝƚƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐƐĞƌŝŽƵƐ ĞīŽƌƚĂŶĚũŽŝŶƚĂĐƟŽŶŶŽǁ͘/hͲTƌĞƐƵŶĚĂŶĂůLJƐĞƐ ŚĂǀĞŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚĞĚƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ ƚŚĂƚǁŝůůƉƌŽŵŽƚĞŐƌŽǁƚŚŝŶƚŚĞZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ŵĂŬĞŝƚ ŵŽƌĞĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞŝŶŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůŵĂƌŬĞƚƐĂŶĚƟĞ ŝƚĐůŽƐĞƌƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͘dŚĞƟŵĞƚŽĂĐƚŝƐŶŽǁ͘ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐǁŝůůƚĂŬĞƟŵĞ͘/ƚǁŝůůƌĞƋƵŝƌĞůĂƌŐĞŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐŝŶƚŚĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶŝƐ ƚŽŚĂǀĞŐŽŽĚŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůĂŶĚŝŶƚĞƌͲƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJŝŶφτχτ͘ dŚĞƉƌŝŽƌŝƟĞƐŝŶĐůƵĚĞ͗ ͻĂĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬďĞƚǁĞĞŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͕ ͻĂĮŌŚƌŝŶŐƌŽĂĚǁĞƐƚŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ŵĂdžŝŵŝnjŝŶŐ ƚŚĞĨƵůůƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůŽĨƚŚĞ&ĞŚŵĂƌŶĞůƚ͕ ͻƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶŝŶŐƚŚĞƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶŝƌƉŽƌƚ ĂŶĚŵĂŬŝŶŐŝƐĂŵƵůƟŵŽĚĂůŚƵď͕ ͻ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐ Ă ĨĂƐƚ͕ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞĞŶƟƌĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƚŚĂƚŝƐůŝŶŬĞĚƚŽĂĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig. 82 Current type and division of centres across the Oresund region, with Copenhagen as the metropolitan hub (by author)

/Ŷ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƐƵď ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŝƚLJ͘ Ƶƚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂůŽŶĞƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽĐŽŵƉĞƚĞǁŝƚŚŽƚŚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚĂƌĞůŝŵŝƚĞĚ͘dτďĞĂďůĞƚŽĐĂƉƚƵƌĞ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ ůĂďŽƵƌ ĨŽƌĐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚƐƟŵƵůĂƚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞƐĞƚŚŝŶŐƐĞǀŽůǀĞĂƌŽƵŶĚƐŚŽƵůĚďĞŵŽƌĞƐƉƌĞĂĚ ƚŽďĞĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞĨŽƌĂŐƌĞĂƚĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͘/ŶƚŚŝƐ ĐĂƐĞŝƚŵŽƐƚůLJƐƟůůƌĞǀŽůǀĞƐĂƌŽƵŶĚŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂŶĚ ŝŶĂůĞƐƐĞƌĞdžƚĞŶƚŽŶDĂůŵŽĂŶĚ>ƵŶĚ͘ƵƚƚŚŝƐŝƐŶŽƚ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ͕ ǁŚĞŶ ůŽŽŬŝŶŐ Ăƚ ƚƌĂĸĐ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐKƌĞƐƵŶĚďƌŝĚŐĞĨŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͘ dŚĞ ƉŝĐƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉĂŐĞ ƐŚŽǁƐ ŚŽǁ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂŶĚŚŽǁƚŚĞLJĂƌĞƉŽƐŝƟŽŶĞĚ͘ tŝƚŚŽƵƚĂƐŽůŝĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚ͕,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŝƐŶŽƚŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶĂŶĨĂƌŽƵƚƐŬŝƌƚŽĨŐƌĞĂƚĞƌŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶǁŝƚŚƐŽŵĞůŝŵŝƚĞĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘

ȉȉ

metropolitan region

mainport

international center

green corridor

high urban center environment

airport

sub urban environment

connecting city and countryside

supra-regional center

highway

tourist center

high speed train

knowledge center

regional train city ring

D/E ,>>E' /^ dK ^dZE'd,E d, Z'/KE> KDWd/d/sE^^ K& d,KZ^hE ͲǁŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞĐŽŵƉĞƟŶŐƌĞŐŝŽŶƐĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝcal development Ͳ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞůŝĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŽŶ ŶŽŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ƌĞsources ͲƐƚĂLJŝŶŐĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŽƵƚƐŝĚĞǁŽƌůĚ ͲŵŽŶŽĐĞŶƚƌŝĐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐĂŶĚďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂŝŶŐůLJŝŶĞīĞĐŝĞŶƚ ͲĐŚĂůůĞŶŐŝŶŐƐƚĂŬĞŚŽůĚĞƌƐĨŽƌƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ͲŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶŝŶŐĂŶĚŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐƚŚĞŐĞŶĞƌĂůǁĞůůďĞŝŶŐ ŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĞƟĞƐ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


χ͘t,dZd,Wh^,EWh>>&dKZ^K&/Ed'Zd/KE/EZK^^ͳKZZ^/dhͳ d/KE&KZE,E/E'd,^K/>E^Wd/>s>KWDEdK&t^dZEhZKͳ WEZ'/KE^͍ΈDd,K͗>/dZdhZZs/tΉ ψ͘t,dZd,Wh^,EWh>>&dKZ^/EKd,ZyDW>^K&Έ^hEΉZK^^ͳ KZZ^Wd/>/Ed'Zd/KE͍Et,/,&dKZ^ZZ>sEd&KZd,^/dhͳ d/KEK&,>^/E'TZE/d^Z>d/KE^,/WdK,>^/E'KZ't,E&/y>/E</^ ^d>/^,͍ΈDd,K͗KDWZd/s^^dhzΉ ω͘t,/,Wh^,EWh>>&dKZ^ZZ>sEd&KZd,^/dhd/KEK&,>^/E'TZ E/d^Z>d/KE^,/WdK,>^/E'KZ't,E&/y>/E</^^d>/^,͍ ΈDd,K͗^/'EzZ^Z,Ή


III Theoretical framework

Ȇ

ƅŻ Ż

źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR based on

THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR


+++6JGQTGVKECNHTCOGYQTM

Cross-border integration

ƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚŽĨƚŚĞŐůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͕ŽŶŽŶĞŚĂŶĚ ƚŚĞĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶŵĂŶLJǁĞƐƚĞƌŶƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐŚĂƐŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚǀĂƐƚůLJ͕ĂƚƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌŚĂŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐ ŐƌĂĚƵĂůůLJ ŝŶƚĞƌůŝŶŬĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŶƵŵĞƌŽƵƐƉĞŽƉůĞůŝǀŝŶŐĂŶĚǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŝŶŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶ ŽŶĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘ dŚŝƐ ƚƌĞŶĚ ŚĂƐ ůĞĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐ ŽĨ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌŝƐĞ ŽĨ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŽŌĞŶ ƚƌĂŶƐĐĞŶĚ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů Žƌ ĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞďŽƵŶĚĂƌŝĞƐ͘dŚŝƐƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŝƐĐŽŵƉůĞdž͕ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞǀĂƌŝŽƵƐŐĂŝŶƐ ĂƌŝƐŝŶŐĨƌŽŵĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂũĞĐƚŽƌŝĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƵƐŚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ĚƌŝǀŝŶŐ ƚŚŝƐ ŬŝŶĚ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ ŝŶŚŝďŝƟŶŐ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ understood. ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ;φτυτͿ ŚĂƐ ĨŽƵŶĚ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶŐŝŶĞ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƚŚĞůĂďŽƵƌĂŶĚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐŵĂƌŬĞƚ͘ dŚŝƐŝŵƉůŝĞƐƚŚĂƚƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ;ƉĞŽƉůĞͿĂƌĞĞdžƉůŽŝƟŶŐƚŚĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŐŝǀĞƚŚĞŵ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ŶŽƚĞĚ ďLJ <ŶŽǁůĞĚ ĂŶĚ DĂƩŚŝĞƐĞŶ ;φττύͿĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐŝŶŐƚŚĂƚŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůďŽƌĚĞƌƐĂůƐŽ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ĂƌƟĮĐŝĂů ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚƌĂǀĞů ďLJ ƚĂŬŝŶŐ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞŽĨĐŚĞĂƉĞƌĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƉƌŝĐĞƐǁŚŝĐŚĂƌĞ ĚƵĞƚŽĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚĂdžůĞǀĞůƐĂŶĚĐƵƌƌĞŶĐLJƌĂƚĞƐ͘dŚŝƐŝƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌƵŶĚĞƌƉŝŶŶĞĚďLJ>ƵŶĚƋƵŝƐƚĂŶĚdƌŝƉƉů;φττύͿ ǁŚŽ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĚƌŝǀŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͕Ğ͘Ő͘ƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŝŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶĐĂƉĂďŝůŝƟĞƐĂŶĚĐŽƐƚ ŐŝǀŝŶŐƌŝƐĞƚŽŶĞǁĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌŝƟĞƐĂŶĚƐLJŶĞƌŐŝĞƐ͕ ŽŌĞŶŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞƚŚĞďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐƚŚĂƚĞdžŝƐƚďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ Ă ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ Ɛ ƚŚĞLJ ƐƚĂƚĞ͗ ͞ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ƚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌƉůĂLJ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ĂƐ ĚƌŝǀŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĐĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞŽŶĞŚĂŶĚĂŶĚĂƐďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐŽŶƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌŚĂŶĚĂĚĚ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͘͟ ^ĂŵĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŚĂƐ Ă ůŝŶĞĂƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͘ ^Ž ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞƌĞŝƐĂĐĞŶƚƌĞͲ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌĂůƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ͕ĂƐĐĂƉƚƵƌĞĚďLJ͘ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ

ȆƅŻ

ȉȌ

ĞƚĂů;φτυτͿ͙͗͞ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶĐĞŶƚƌĞŝƐƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůŇŽǁƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͘͟  dŚŝƐ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ Ă ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƐƵďƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐ ĂƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶŽĨƐƉĂĐĞ͕ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŶŐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂĐƟǀŝƚLJĂŶĚũŽďƐ ǁŚŝůĞƚŚĞƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞŝŶƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ƚĞƌŵƐ͕ŝƐƌĞůĞŐĂƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞƌŽůĞŽĨĂĚŽƌŵŝƚŽƌLJĂƌĞĂ͘ dŚŝƐ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ǀĂƌŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞĚ ďLJ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ ;<ŶŽǁůĞƐ ĂŶĚ DĂƩŚŝĞƐƐĞŶ φττύ͗υωόͿ͘ Ƶƚ ĚĞƐƉŝƚĞƚŚĂƚĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶƐĂŶĚŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶ͕ŝƚĚŽĞƐŶŽƚ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJĞŶƚĂŝůĂŶLJĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞŝŶŵĂŶLJƌĞƐƉĞĐƚƐ ;ĞŽĞ͕'ƌĂƐůĂŶĚ͕ĂŶĚ,ĞĂůLJ͕υύύύͿ͘ /ŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌƐ ƚĂŬĞ ƉůĂĐĞ ŝŶ Ă ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ůĂLJĞƌƐ ŽĨ ƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ ;^ĐŚĂĐŬ͕ φτττ͕ φτφͲ φυύͿ dŚĞƐĞ ĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ǁĞĂ��ĞŶĞĚ ǁŚĞŶ ĂĚĚŝŶŐ ĂƐƉĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͘ ƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĂŝƌƐ ŽĨ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ĂŶĂůLJƐĞĚŝŶĂŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨĂƌƟĐůĞƐƐĞĞĞ͘Ő͘ ŚůĞƌƐĞƚĂů͘;φττυͿ͘ďŝŶĂƟŽŶĂůĐŝƚLJƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ;ůŝŬĞ DĂůŵŽͲŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ Žƌ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌͲ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐͿ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ƐŽĐŝĂů ƟĞƐ͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚĞĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ Ă ĐŽŵŵŽŶ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͘ dŽ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚĞĚ ďLJ &ŝŶŶŝƐŚ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚĞƌ WĂĂƐŝ ;φττφ͗υχϋͲυψόͿ;WĂĂƐŝ͕φττφ͕υχϋͲυψόͿĂƌŐƵŝŶŐƚŚĂƚ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĞƐŝŶĨĂĐƚĂƌĞŶŽƚ͞ƌĞĂů͟ŝŶƚŚĞƐĞŶƐĞŽĨďĞŝŶŐ ǀŝƐŝďůĞĂŶĚƚĂŶŐŝďůĞ͖ŝŶƐƚĞĂĚ͕ƚŚĞLJĂƌĞƌĂƚŚĞƌƐŽĐŝĂů ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ĐƌĞĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐĂŶĚĚŝƐĐŽƵƌƐĞƐ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽWĂĂƐŝƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĞƐĞŵĞƌŐĞ͕ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĂŶĚ ĞdžŝƐƚ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ Ă ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŽĨ ͞ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ͟ that is the outcome of the simultaneous and ŝŶƚĞƌĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĨŽƵƌ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ Ă ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂůƐŚĂƉĞ͕ĂƐLJŵďŽůŝĐƐŚĂƉĞ͕ĂŶŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĂů ƐŚĂƉĞĂƐǁĞůůĂƐĂƐŚĂƉĞƚŚĂƚŚĂƐƚŽĚŽǁŝƚŚƐŽĐŝŽͲ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͘ :ŽŝŶƚůLJ͕ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞ ǁŚĞƚŚĞƌĂŶĂƌĞĂĚŽĞƐĞdžŝƐƚ;ŽƌŶŽƚͿĂŶĚŝƚƐĐŚĂŶĐĞƐ for future development. DĞŝũĞƌƐ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ĂĚĚƐ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ŶŽƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ĂƌŐƵŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚĞ ŚŽǁ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƉůĂĐĞƐ ŵƵĐŚ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ͘ ,ĞƌĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶŝƐĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĨĞĞůŝŶŐŽĨ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌŶĞƐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƐLJŵďŽůƐ ƚŚĂƚŚĞůƉŝŶƉĞƌĐĞŝǀŝŶŐƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶĂƐĂŶĞŶƟƚLJ͘ ;DĞŝũĞƌƐĞƚĂů͕͘φττχ͗φτφͿ͘ ƵŝůĚŝŶŐĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƐŽĐŝĂůƟĞƐĂŶĚĂĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ŝƐ Ă ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐǁŝƚŚĞĂĐŚƚŚĞŝƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůůLJĚĞĮŶĞĚ ŚŝŶƚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ ĂĚũŽŝŶ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ĐůĞĂƌƚŚĂƚĂĐŽŵŵŽŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŝƐĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐŝŶ ƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞƌƐ ĂƐ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞǀŝĞǁ ƉĂƉĞƌ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŝŶ ĂŶLJǁĂLJ ŝŵƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ĂŶĚ ƵŶĨƌƵŝƞƵůƚŽƉƵƚƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐŝŶƚŽ͞ĂƌƟĮĐŝĂůůLJ͟ĨŽƌŐŝŶŐ ĂŶŝĚĞŶƟƚLJĨƌŽŵƚŽƉͲĚŽǁŶ͘ /Ŷ ƐƉŝƚĞ ŽĨ ŶƵŵĞƌŽƵƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŝnjĞĂďůĞ ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐ ƚŽ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĞŶůĂƌŐĞŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐĞŐƌĞŐĂƟŶŐ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ŶĂƟŽŶĂůďŽƌĚĞƌƐĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐƚŽďĞĂŚĂnjĂƌĚƚŽĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ͘ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŝƐ ĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŝƚƐ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚ͕ďƵƚĂĨƵůůŵĂƚĐŚĨŽƌƚŚŝƐůŽĐĂů ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ĞŶůĂƌŐĞŵĞŶƚ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ƉĂƟĞŶĐĞ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĞŶůĂƌŐĞŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ǁŝůů

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ĞǀŽůǀĞ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ŚŽůĚƵƉ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ƵƌďĂŶ ĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌĞŶůĂƌŐĞŵĞŶƚ͘;^ĐŚŵŝĚƚ͕φττω͕φψύͲφωόͿ dŚĞ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŝƐĐŽŵƉůĞdžĂŶĚŵƵůƟĨĂĐĞƚĞĚ͘dŚĞĂďŽǀĞ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚĞĚ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ ŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĂƟŽŶ͘ &ŽƌƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƉůĂŶŶĞƌŝƚďĞĐŽŵĞƐǀĞƌLJĐŽŵƉůŝĐĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ Ă ƉƌŽĮƚĂďůĞ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ͕ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞĂƐŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞŵĞŶƚ ŝƐ ǀĞƌLJ ŵƵĐŚ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĂŶĚͬŽƌ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐŽǀĞƌƟŵĞ͘ĞƐŝĚĞƐ͕ŝƚŝƐĂůŽŶŐƚĞƌŵƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŬĞƐ ƉƌĞĚŝĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ǀĞƌLJ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚ ƚŽ ŐƌĂƐƉ͘  ŇĞdžŝďůĞ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ ŽĨ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞŵĞŶƚ ŝƐ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŝŶĞǀŝƚĂďůĞ ƚŽ ŶĂǀŝŐĂƚĞ ƟŵĞĂŶĚĂůůƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌĂďŽǀĞĐĂůůĞĚĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ĂƩĂĐŚĞĚ ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ ƌĞǀŝĞǁ ;ĂƉƉĞŶĚŝdžͿ͕ / ĞůĂďŽƌĂƚĞ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ŽŶ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ĂďƐƚƌĂĐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ƌĞǀŝĞǁ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĨŽƵŶĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉĂŐĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ ďLJ Ă ĐĂƐĞ ƐƚƵĚLJ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŝůů ĞůĂŶďŽƌĂƚĞĨƵƌƚŚĞƌŽŶƟŚƐƐƵďũĞĐƚ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


+++6JGQTGVKECNHTCOGYQTM

Litereture Review (Abstract)

͞Wh^,EWh>>/EZK^^ͳKZZZ'/KE͟ /ŶƋƵŝƌŝĞƐŝŶƚŽƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŽĨĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ

ƌŝŬĂ<ĂƵīŵĂŶŶ ϭϯϮϬϬϲϴͺĞĐŬĂƵīŵĂŶŶΛŐŵĂŝů͘ĐŽŵ ĞůŌhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨdĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŽĨhƌďĂŶŝƐŵ 9th'ƌĂĚƵĂƟŽŶ>ĂďhƌďĂŶŝƐŵŽŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ

ďƐƚƌĂĐƚ͗dŚŝƐůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞƌĞǀŝĞǁĞdžƉůŽƌĞƌƐ;ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůͿƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͕ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJĚƌŝǀŝŶŐŽƌŝŶŚŝďŝƚŝŶŐƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘/ƚĮƌƐƚŝŶƋƵŝƌĞƌƐŝŶƚŽŐĞŶĞƌĂůƉƵƐŚĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŝŶĂďƌŽĂĚĞƌƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĚŝƐĐƵƐƐƚŚĞƐĞĮŶĚŝŶŐƐǁŝƚŚĂŶĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐŽŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶĞŶŵĂƌŬĂŶĚ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘dŚĞůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƌĞǀŽůǀŝŶŐĂƌŽƵŶĚĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐƚŚĂƚĨŽƐƚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJŶŽƚĞ ƚŚĂƚĂƐLJŵŵĞƚƌŝĞƐĂŶĚĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŝŶůĂďŽƵƌĂŶĚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐŵĂƌŬĞƚĐƌĞĂƚĞƐƐƚƌŽŶŐŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞƐĨŽƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂůŽŶŐǁŝƚŚŽƚŚĞƌĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŽĨĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌ͘DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌĚŽĞƐŝƚŝŶƋƵŝƌĞƌŝŶƚŽƚŚĞĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶĂďŽƵƚ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞĂŶĚǁŚĂƚƌŽůĞŝƚƉůĂLJƐŝŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶʹƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůůLJĂŶĚŝŶƉƌĂĐƟĐĞ͘dŚĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŽŶƚŚŝƐĮĞůĚĚŽƉŽŝŶƚƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĂƚĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚŝĚĞŶƟƚLJŵĂƩĞƌƐ͕ďƵƚĂƐƐŽŵĞĂƵƚŚŽƌƐƉƌŽƉŽƐĞ ŝƐŝĚĞŶƟƚLJĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞĚŝĸĐƵůƚƚŽŽďƚĂŝŶŝŶƉƌĂĐƟĐĞĂŶĚĨƌŽŵƚŽƉĚŽǁŶĂŶĚĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂůůLJŝƚŝƐĨŽƵŶĚƚŽďĞĂůŽŶŐƚĞƌŵƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘

<ĞLJǁŽƌĚƐʹĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ͖ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ͖ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͖ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞŶĞƐƐ͖ƉƵƐŚͲĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͖ďŝŶĂƟŽŶĂůĐŝƟĞƐ

dŚĞĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞƌĞǀŝĞǁĐĂŶďĞĨŽƵŶĚŝŶƚŚĞĂƉƉĞŶĚŝdž͘

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Case study: push and pull

ω͕t,dZd,Wh^,EWh>>&dKZ^/EKd,ZyDW>^K&Έ^hEΉZK^^ͳ KZZ^Wd/>/Ed'Zd/KE͍Et,/,&dKZ^ZZ>sEd&KZd,^/dhͳ d/KEK&,>^/E'TZE/d^Z>d/KE^,/WdK,>^/E'KZ't,E&/y>/E</^ ^d>/^,͍ ΈDd,K͗^/'EzZ^Z,͕KDWZd/s^^dhzΉ

Fig. 94 The Øresund bridge

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


+++6JGQTGVKECNHTCOGYQTM

Fig. 83 “Push” and “pull” factors (by author)

This research is relevant to understand what functions and developments are recommendable in the region and in Helsingør to improve the integration of the region and cities that could benefit the possibilities of sustainable cooperation on both sides of the water. In this chapter the research on the “push and pull factorsǻ͟ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚ͘dŚŝƐƉĂƌƚŝƐŝŶĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞƌĞǀŝĞǁŝŶǁŚŝĐŚƚŚŝƐƐƵďũĞĐƚĨŽƌŵƐƚŚĞŵĂŝŶ ƚŽƉŝĐ͘/ŶƚŚĞĐŽŶƚĞdžƚŽĨƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͞ƉƵƐŚĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͟ ĐĂŶďĞĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚĂƐƚŚĞĚƌŝǀŝŶŐĨŽƌĐĞƐĨŽƌĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ǁŚŝůĞ͞ƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͟ŝŶŚŝďŝƚĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌder inclusion . dŚĞ Ăŝŵ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŝƐ ƚŽ ŐƌĂƐƉ ƚŚĞ ŝŶŝƟĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨƚŚĞĨƵůůLJĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ďŽƚŚ ƐŝĚĞƐ ďĞŶĞĮƚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘ tŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ůĞĂĚƚŽĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐďĞŶĞĮƚƐĂŶĚŝŶƚŚĞƐĂŵĞƟŵĞ ƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶ͍tŚĂƚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐĚƌŝǀĞƚŚĞƐĞƚĞŶĚĞŶĐŝĞƐĨŽƌǁĂƌĚ͍tŚĂƚƐƉĂƟĂůŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚĨŽƌŵƚŚĞďĂƐŝƐŽĨƐŽŵĞŽĨƚŚĞƐĞĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͕ĂƌĞ ŵŽƐƚďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂůĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚŝƚƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂŶĚƚŚĞĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚŝŶŐĞŶĞƌĂů͍

dŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĂƌĞ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ƚĂŬĞŶ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŽĨ ͞ƐƉĂƟĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͟ďLJ;ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞĞƚ͘Ăů͕͘ϮϬϭϬͿ͘&ŽƌƚŚĞŝƌƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƚŚĞLJƋƵĂŶƟĮĞĚƚŚƌĞĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͗ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐ͕ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐĂŶĚ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂů ŚŽŵŽŐĞŶĞŝƚLJ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ǁĞƌĞ ǀĂůƵĞĚŽŶĂƐĐĂůĞĨƌŽŵϭƚŽϱƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽŵĞĂƐƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞ ƚŚĞŵ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂůůLJ ǁŝƚŚ ĐĂƐĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ h ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŽĨ ^WKE ;ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ dŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƚǁŽŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞĚŝŶƚŚŝƐƐƚƵĚLJ͘/ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ / ŚĂǀĞ ĂĚĚĞĚ Ă ĨĞǁ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞŵĞĂƐƵƌĂďůĞďLJƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐĂŶĚŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ĐŚĞĐŬͲƵƉƐ͘ These indicators are then measured on their ͚ƉƵƐŚ͛ ĂŶĚ ͚ƉƵůů͛ ǀĂůƵĞ͘ DŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞ-

WWZK,K&Z^Z, &ŽƌƚŚŝƐƐƚƵĚLJ/ƋƵĂůŝƚĂƟǀĞůLJŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ͞ƉƵƐŚĂŶĚ ƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͟ďLJƵƐŝŶŐĐĂƐĞƐƚƵĚŝĞƐƚŽƋƵĂŶƟĨLJƚŚĞ ůĞǀĞůŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĐŽŵƉĂƌĞƚŚĞŵǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ĐĂƐĞŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐͲ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŵĞĂƐƵƌĂďůĞŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐĂƌĞƉŽƐĞĚ͘ ǻ +PIGQITCRJ[VGTOUpRWUJCPFRWNNHCEVQTUqCTGFG UETKDGFCUHQNNQYU6JGRWUJHCEVQTKPXQNXGUCHQTEG YJKEJCEVUVQFTKXGRGQRNGCYC[HTQOCRNCEGCPFVJG RWNNHCEVQTKUYJCVFTCYUVJGOVQCPGYNQECVKQP6JKU RTQLGEVENGCTN[WUGUCFKHHGTGPVKPVGTRTGVCVKQP

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FIg. 84 Cross-border commuters and differentials of GDP per capita (2000, 2006) from study Decoville et.al. (2010)

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


FIg. 85 Development of cross-border commuting in Europe’s cross-border metropolitan regions (2000, 2006) From study Decoville et.al. (2010)

ŵĞŶƚƐĂƌĞĂƐǁĞůůƚĂŬĞŶĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĞĂƌůŝĞƌŵĞŶƟŽŶƐ ƌĞƉŽƌƚĂŶĚďLJƐƵďũĞĐƟǀĞŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĂƟŽŶƐďĂƐĞĚŽŶ ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘dŚŝƐŝƐĚŽŶĞƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽĐŽŵƉĂƌĞ ƚŚĞŵ ĂŶĚ ƚĞƐƚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ƚŽ ĚƌĂǁ ĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĂůůLJ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐĂƐĞƐ͘&ŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞŝƚ ǁŽƵůĚĐůĂƌŝĨLJƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉďĞƚǁĞĞŶĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚĞŐƌĞĞ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘ŽĞƐƚŚĞĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƚŚĞ ƉŽůŝĐLJŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶƚŚĂƚƚƌŝŐŐĞƌĞĚƚŚĞŵŚĂǀĞ ĂŶLJŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞŽŶƚŚĞĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͍ ƌĂǁŶ ĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐ ǁŝůů ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŝŶ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌǁŝƚŚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ǁŚĞŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ Ă ƐƉĂƟĂů ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ĂŶĚ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘ dŚĞ ĂĚĚĞĚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐĂƌĞ͗ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ŝƚƐĞůĨ͕ ƐƉĂƟĂů ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ cultural factors.

/E/dKZ^ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶs and ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ͗ /Ŷ ŽƌĚĞƌ ƚŽ ĞdžĂŵŝŶĞ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌŝƐĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŽƌŝŐŝŶĂƟŶŐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŝŶŐĐŽƵŶƚƌLJĨŽƌĞĂĐŚĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ĂƌĞĞdžƉƌĞƐƐĞĚŝŶĂďƐŽůƵƚĞƚĞƌŵƐ͕ŝŶĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚůLJŽĨ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ĚĞŵŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ͘ dŚĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶŽĨĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐŵƵƐƚ

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ƚŚƵƐďĞŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞĚŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽƚŚĞƚŽƚĂůƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĂƌĞĂŝŶƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ;ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ ĞƚĂů͕͘φτυτͿ'WĚŝƉĂƌŝƟĞƐĂŶĚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƉƌŝĐĞƐĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽĐŽŵƉĂ��ĞĚƚŽƐƚƵĚLJƚŚĞŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞŽŶƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘ Ɛ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƉƌĞǀŝŽƵƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌƐ͕  ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ĂŶĚĞŶŵĂƌŬŚĂǀĞůĞƚƚŽĂĐĞƌƚĂŝŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘,Žǁ ĚŽĞƐƚŚŝƐǁŽƌŬŝŶŽƚŚĞƌĐĂƐĞƐ͍tŚĂƚĚŽĞƐŝƚŵĞĂŶ ĨŽƌƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚ͍

ƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞůĂƚĞĚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͗dŽƉĚŽǁŶƉŽůŝĐLJ͕ ĐŽŵŵŝƩĞĞƐĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌƉĂƌƟĞƐƚŚĂƚƐƚƌŝǀĞĨŽƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŽŶĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚůĞǀĞůƐ͕ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŵŽƐƚůLJ ĨŽƌŵĂůůLJ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ h͕ ŝŶƚƌĂͲŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉƐ ŝŶ ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞ͗ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƐĂŶĚŵĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵƐŽĨŐŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞĞdžƉĂŶĚ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌƐ ĂƐ Ă ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŽĨ ůŽĐĂů ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚƐ ƐĞĞŬŝŶŐƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐĂŶĚŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐŝŶƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ ƚŽ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬƐ͘;ƌƵŶĞƚͲ:ĂŝůůLJ͕ φττψͿ/Ŷ Ăůů ƚŚĞƐĞ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐ͕ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐŚĂǀĞůĞĚ ůŽĐĂůŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚŽĸĐŝĂůƐƚŽƐĞƚƵƉŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐŽĨ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƚŚĂƚƐƉĂŶƚŚĞďŽƌĚĞƌ͘ ĚŝƐƟŶĐƟŽŶĐĂŶďĞŵĂĚĞďĞƚǁĞĞŶƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ůŽĐĂů ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJ ďĞŶĞĮƚ ƚŚĞǁŚŽůĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ŝŶŽƚŚĞƌǁŽƌĚƐƚŚĞƐĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ŚĂǀĞƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐƚŽŽīĞƌƚŽƚŚĞƌĞƐƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚŝƐĐĂŶďĞĞ͘Ő͘ĂŶĂƟŽŶĂůĂŝƌƉŽƌƚŽƌƉƵďůŝĐͬƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐ ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ͘ KŌĞŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨƵŶĐ-

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


+++6JGQTGVKECNHTCOGYQTM

FIg. 86 Three models of cross/border metropolitan integration by Decoville et.al. (2010)

ƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ ďLJƚŽƉ ĚŽǁŶ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ŽƌŝĞŶƚĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ Ă ĞĐŽŶŵŝĐ ďŝŶĂƟŽŶĂůƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘dŚĞůŽĐĂůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂƌĞĂŝŵĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶǀŽůǀĞ ĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͕ƐŽƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJĐĂŶĂůƐŽďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐ ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ;ŽŌĞŶͿ ƉƵďůŝĐ ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ ĂƐ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐ ƐĐŚŽŽůƐ ;ůŝŬĞ ŝŶ DĂůŵŽ ĂŶĚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŽƌƵƌŽĚĞ͕ǁŚĞƌĞĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶƚŚĂƚůŝǀĞŝŶƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJƚŚĞŶǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞLJĨƌŽŵƚŚĞLJĂƌĞƐƟůůĂďůĞ ƚŽ ůĞĂƌŶ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŽƌŝŐŝŶĂů ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͘Ϳ >ŽĐĂů ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚƚŚĞƐĞƚĞŶĚĞŶĐŝĞƐŽŌĞŶ͕ďƵƚŵĂŶLJŽĨƚŚĞƐĞ ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐƐƚĂƌƚƐĨƌŽŵďŽƩŽŵƵƉ͘

ƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞĚĞŐƌĞĞŽĨĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͘ŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĂŶĚ;ƵŶͿŶĂƚƵƌĂůďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐĐĂŶ ŚĂǀĞ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ;ƐƉĂƟĂůͿ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘ ,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůůLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ĐŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ͕ďƵƚĚƵĞƚŽĞdžƚĞƌŶĂůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐďĞĞŶ ƐĞƉĞƌĂƚĞĚ Žƌ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ǁĂLJ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ͘ ^ŽŵĞƟŵĞƐ ƌĞĐĞŶƚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƐƵďƵƌďƐĂƌĞďƵŝůƚƚŽǁĂƌĚ ƐƚŚĞďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶŐĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘tŚĞŶĐŽŵƉĂƌŝŶŐƚŚŝƐǁŝƚŚ ŽƚŚĞƌĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͕ƚŚĞĐĂƵƐĞƐĐĂŶďĞƉĞƌĐŝĞǀĞĚ͘tŚĂƚ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĐĂŶďĞĨŽƵŶĚĂůŽŶŐĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƌŽƵƚĞƐƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ĂůƐŽƚŚŝƐĐĂŶďĞĂŶ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ͘ŽƚŚĞƐĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĨŽƌŵďĂĐŬƐŝĚĞƐĨŽƌ ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŽƌĂƌĞƚŚĞĂǁĞůĐŽŵŝŶŐĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞ͍

ƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ͗dŚĞĂĐƚƵĂůĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐĂŶĚƚŚĞĞīŽƌƚƚŚŝƐ ƚĂŬĞƐĨŽƌĐƌŽƐƐĞƌƐŝƐĂǀĞƌLJĚŝƌĞĐƚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌŽĨƚŚĞ ĞīĞĐƚƐŽĨƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐĂƐĞƐ͘dŚĞ ĞīŽƌƚ ŝƐ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƐƚƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŝƚLJ ďŽƌĚĞƌƐ͘ dŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐĂƌĞŶĞŐůŝŐŝďůĞďĞĐĂƵƐĞĂůůĐĂƐĞƐ ĂƌĞǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞh͕ƚŚŝƐŵĞĂŶƐŽƉĞŶďŽƌĚĞƌƐĂŶĚ therefore no direct.

ƵůƚƵƌĂů ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͗ dŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞĚ ŝŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ǁĂLJƐ͖ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ Ă ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞůŝƐƚŝƐƉŽƐĞĚ͘/ƚŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐƐŽĐŝĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ĚĞŵŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ĂŶĚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ;ďĂƌƌŝĞƌͿ͘ŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂƟŽŶƐĂƌĞďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶĞ͘Ő͘ƚŚĞ&ŝŶŶŝƐŚŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚĞƌWĂĂƐŝ;φττφ͗υχύͿ ĂƌŐƵŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ ĨĂĐƚ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ͞ƌĞĂů͟ ŝŶ ƚŚĞƐĞŶƐĞŽĨďĞŝŶŐǀŝƐŝďůĞĂŶĚƚĂŶŐŝďůĞ͖ŝŶƐƚĞĂĚ͕ ƚŚĞLJĂƌĞƌĂƚŚĞƌƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĨŽƌŐĞĚ ŝŶƉŽůŝƟĐĂů͕ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞ ƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐĂŶĚĚŝƐĐŽƵƌƐĞƐ͘DĞŝũĞƌƐĞƚĂů͘;φττχ͗φτφͿ ĂĚĚƐ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ŶŽƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ĂƌŐƵŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ

^ƉĂƟĂů ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ͗ dŚĞ ƐƉĂƟĂů ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ ƌĞǀŽůǀĞƐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĞ ;ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůͿ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ

ȆƅŻ

ȊȈ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


DĂůŵŽͲŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ Eurode >ŝĞŐĞͲĂĐŚĞŶͲDĂĂƐƚƌŝĐŚƚ ƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂͲsŝĞŶŶĂ

FIg. 87 Map of case studies (by author)

ŶŽƚĞŚŽǁƌĞĐĞŶƚƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐŽŶƵƌďĂŶĂŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů development places much emphasis on the culƚƵƌĂůĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ͘,ĞƌĞ͕ƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶŝƐ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌŶĞƐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶŽĨĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƐLJŵďŽůƐƚŚĂƚŚĞůƉŝŶƉĞƌĐĞŝǀŝŶŐƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶĂƐĂŶĞŶƟƚLJ͘'Ğƌƚ:͘,ŽƐƉĞƌƐ;φττϊͿĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐĞƚŚĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ŽŶ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĚƌĂǁŝŶŐ ŽŶ ĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶ ĨƌŽŵĂŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨƐƚƵĚŝĞƐŶŽƟŶŐƚŚĂƚĂďŝŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŝƚLJƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐƐŽĐŝĂůƟĞƐĂŶĚĂƐŚĂƌĞĚŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͘ /Ŷ ƐŚŽƌƚ͕ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ;ůŽĐĂů͕ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĂŶĚŶĂƟŽŶĂůͿ͕ƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶĂŶĚŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůƐŽĐŝĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶĂƌĞĂůůĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚĂƐĐƵůƚƵƌĂů indicators. ĚĚŝƟŽŶĂůŝŶŇƵĞŶĐŝŶŐĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ dŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶ ĞŵďŽĚŝĞĚ ďLJ ĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐĂŶĚƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůĚŝƐƉůĂĐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĨƌŽŵ ŽŶĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ƚŽ ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĂďƐƚƌĂĐƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚƌĞĞ ŵŽĚĞůƐ ;ĮŐ͘ χͿ ;ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ďLJ ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ͘Ăů͕͘ φτυτͿ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘ ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ ƵƐĞƐ ŝĚĞĂů ƚLJƉĞ ĚĞƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶƐ͗ ͞ƚŚĞ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ĞĂĐŚ ŵŽĚĞů ĂƌĞ ƵŶĚĞƌůŝŶĞĚ͖ŝŶƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŽŵƉůĞdžĐŽŶĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶƐĨŽƵŶĚŝŶƌĞĂůŝƚLJĂƌĞĚŝƐƌĞŐĂƌĚĞĚ͘͟dŚĞĐĂƐĞƐƚƵĚŝĞƐƚŚĂƚƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ;ƚŽ Ă ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ĞdžƚĞŶĚͿ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞƐĞŵŽĚĞůƐ͘/ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞƐĐŚĞŵĂ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ƉƌĞũƵĚŐĞ ƚŚĞ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ

Ȋȉ

ŽƌŝŐŝŶĂƟŶŐ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚĞŵŽĚĞůƐǁŝůůďĞĨƵƌƚŚĞƌĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚŝŶƚŚĞƐĞĐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐĂƐĞƐ͘ dŚĞƐƚƵĚLJĐĂƐĞƐĐŽŶƐŝƐƚŽĨχĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĚĞĮŶĞĚĂƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůƵƌďĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶƐǁŚŝĐŚĐƌŽƐƐŽŶĞŽƌŵŽƌĞŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůďŽƌĚĞƌƐ;,ĞƌnjŽŐυύύτ͖^ŽŚŶĨŽƌƚŚĐŽŵŝŶŐͿ͘&Žƌ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ χ ^WKE ĐĂƐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƵƐĞĚ͗ ƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂͲ sŝĞŶŶĂ͕ ĂĐŚĞŶͲ >ŝĞŐĞͲ DĂĂƐƚƌŝĐŚƚ ĂŶĚ DĂůŵŽͲ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘dŚĞĨŽƵƌƚŚĐĂƐĞ͕ƚŚĞĐĂƐĞŽĨƵƌŽĚĞ ;<ĞƌŬƌĂĚĞͲ,ĞƌnjŽŐŽƌĂƚŚͿŝƐĂĚĚĞĚ͕ƚŽĐĂƉƚƵƌĞƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘EŽƚŽŶůLJƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽŐƌĂƐƉ͕ďƵƚĂůƐŽ ůŽĐĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ǁŚĞŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ Ă ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ͘ ƵƌŽĚĞĚŽĞƐŶŽƚĨŽƌŵĂƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ďƵƚƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐĚŽ ŚĂǀĞĂƐƚƌŽŶŐĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƚŚĂƚŝƐĐŽŵƉĂƌĂďůĞǁŝƚŚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŝŶĞ͘Ő͘ƐŝnjĞ͕ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJĂŶĚ distance. dŚĞ ĐĂƐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĂďůĞ ĚĂƚĂ ĐĂŶďĞĮŶĚŝŶƚŚĞĂƉƉĞŶĚŝdžŽĨƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘

sĂƌŝĂďůĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞƵƐĞĚĂƌĞĨŽƌƚŚĞĐĂƐĞƐƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ͗ sŝůůĂŐĞ͗фφτ͘τττ ^ŵĂůůĐŝƟĞƐ͗φτ͘ττυͲυττ͘τττŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ DĞĚŝƵŵĐŝƟĞƐ͗υττ͘ττυͲωττ͘τττŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ >ĂƌŐĞ;DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶͿĐŝƟĞƐ͗хωττ͘ττυŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


+++6JGQTGVKECNHTCOGYQTM

Conclusions on push and pull factors &/Z^dEKd^KEd,KEKD//^WZͳ /d/^E/Ed'Zd/KE͘

yW>Ed/KEWZ'ZW, ŽŵŵƵƟŶŐǀƐ͘'WĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƚLJǀĂůƵĞ

dŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŽĨ ŵĞĂƐƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ;ƐĞĞ ĂƉƉĞŶĚŝdžͿ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶďƵŝůĚƐŽŶŝŶŵĂŶLJĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨƚŚĞƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŽĨĞ͘Ő͘ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞĞƚ͘Ăů͘ĂŶĚƚŚĞK͘ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽ ƚŚĞƐĞƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞƐĂƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞĨŽĐƵƐŽŶ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŝƐĐŽŶĮŶĞĚƚŽĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͕ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŐĂŝŶƐǀĞƌLJŶĂƌƌŽǁůLJ͘ƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝƐƐƉĂǁŶĞĚďLJƌĂƟŽŶĂůĂĐƚŽƌƐ͛ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞŶůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ůĂďŽƵƌŵĂƌŬĞƚ͕ĂƐƉĞŽƉůĞĞdžƉůŽŝƚĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŽŶƚŚĞƐĞ ƚǁŽŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ͘ ^ĞĞŶĨƌŽŵĂŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂŶŐůĞƚŚŝƐĐŽƵůĚďĞďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂůĂƐƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐĂƌĞďĞŶĞĮƫŶŐ ĨƌŽŵĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͛ƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐŽƌŝŶŽƚŚĞƌǁŽƌĚƐ͗ƚŚĞŝƌ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞƐ͘ ƵƚŝŶƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƚŚŝƐŝƐŶŽƚĂĨĞƌƟůĞŐƌŽƵŶĚĨŽƌƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ǁŚĞŶŽŶĞƉĂƌƚLJŝƐĂůǁĂLJƐĚĞƉĞŶĚĂŶƚŽŶƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌƐǁĞĂůƚŚ͘ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞĞƚĂů͘;φτυτͿŚĂƐ ĨŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶŐŝŶĞƐ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƚŚĞůĂďŽƵƌĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝŵƉůŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ;ƉĞŽƉůĞͿ ĂƌĞ ĞdžƉůŽŝƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶƐŐŝǀĞƚŚĞŵ͘dŚŝƐŝƐĂůƐŽŶŽƚĞĚďLJ <ŶŽǁůĞƐĂŶĚDĂƩŚŝĞƐĞŶ;φττύ͗υωόͿĞŵƉŚĂƐĞƐƚŚĂƚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ďŽƌĚĞƌƐ ĂůƐŽ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ĂƌƟĮĐŝĂů ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚƌĂǀĞů ďLJ ƚĂŬŝŶŐ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĐŚĞĂƉĞƌ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƚĂdž ůĞǀĞůƐĂŶĚĐƵƌƌĞŶĐLJƌĂƚĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐŝƐĨƵƌƚŚĞƌƵŶĚĞƌƉŝŶŶĞĚďLJ>ƵŶĚƋƵŝƐƚĂŶĚdƌŝƉƉů ;φττύ͗ύͿǁŚŽĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĚƌŝǀŝŶŐĨŽƌĐĞƐĨŽƌ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͕ Ğ͘Ő͘ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĐĂƉĂďŝůŝƟĞƐĂŶĚĐŽƐƚŐŝǀŝŶŐƌŝƐĞƚŽŶĞǁĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚƐLJŶĞƌŐŝĞƐ͕ŽŌĞŶŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞƚŚĞďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐƚŚĂƚĞdžŝƐƚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ Ă ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ƐƚŚĞLJƐƚĂƚĞ͗͞ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕ƚŚŝƐƚĞŶƐŝŽŶĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌƉůĂLJ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ĂƐ ĚƌŝǀŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĐĞŽŶƚŚĞŽŶĞŚĂŶĚĂŶĚĂƐďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐŽŶƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌ ŚĂŶĚĂĚĚĨƵƌƚŚĞƌĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJƚŽƚŚĞƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŽĨĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͘͟;^ĞĞƚŚĞůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞƌĞǀŝĞǁĨŽƌĂŵŽƌĞĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĂƟŽŶͿ ŌĞƌƚŚĞƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĂĚĚĞĚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͕ƐŽŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƉƌĂĐƟĐĂů ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵĂĚĞ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĨŽƌĂƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŽĨĞ͘Ő͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘

ȆƅŻ

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dŚĞĐŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶŽĨ'WĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂůƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚLJŚĂƐĂůƐŽďĞĞŶ ŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ͘Ăůů͘ ;φτυτͿ͘ /ƚ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƌĞĞdžŝƐƚƐĂĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶĂ͘ /Ŷ ŽƚŚĞƌ ǁŽƌĚƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂů ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ǁĞĂůƚŚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚǁŽ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ĨĂǀŽƵƌĂďůĞůĂďŽƵƌŵĂƌŬĞƚĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐǁŝůůƚĞŶĚƚŽĂƩƌĂĐƚĂ ŚŝŐŚŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͘ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ ĐůĂŝŵƐ͗͞ĂƐƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐǁŚŝĐŚĂƌĞďĞƐƚŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚŝŶƚŽ ŐůŽďĂůŝƐĞĚ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ĐŝƌĐƵŝƚƐ ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ƚŚŽƐĞ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƐƚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝƌƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘͟ ZĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͕ ǁŚĞŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂůƐ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐŽĨƚŚĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶŽĨǁĞĂůƚŚĂƌĞůŽǁ;ůĞƐƐƚŚĂŶŽƌ ĞƋƵĂůƚŽψτƉĞƌĐĞŶƚͿ͕ƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶĚĞĐůŝŶĞƐ͘dŚĞĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉďĞƚǁĞĞŶǁĞĂůƚŚĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂůƐ ĂŶĚ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ĞdžŝƚƐ͕ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŽ ďĞ ƐƵďũĞĐƚ ƚŽ ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐ ůŝŵŝƟŶŐ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͘ &ŝƌƐƚůLJ͕ ĂƉĂƌƚ ĨƌŽŵŝŶĐŽŵĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂůƐ͕ŽƚŚĞƌĨĂĐƚŽƌƐĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞůĂďŽƵƌŵĂƌŬĞƚĂƌĞŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚŝŶĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶŝŶŐ ƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂů ƉĂƚŚƐ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ ďŽƌĚĞƌ͘ Ɛ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞƌĞƉŽƌƚďLJD<ttŝƌƚƐĐŚĂŌƐĨŽƌƐĐŚƵŶŐ ĂŶĚŵƉŝƌŝĐĂ;φττύͿ͕ƚŚĞĂǀĂŝůĂďŝůŝƚLJŽĨũŽďƐ͕ƚŚĞŝƌĂƚƚƌĂĐƟǀĞŶĞƐƐ͕ƚŚĞĐĂƌĞĞƌƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝŽŶƉƌŽƐƉĞĐƚƐĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJŽĨŶĂƟŽŶĂůυτƐŽĐŝĂůƐĞĐƵƌŝƚLJƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽƚĂŬĞŶŝŶƚŽĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ͘;ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞĞƚ͘Ăů͕͘φτυτͿ sŝĞŶŶĂƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂŝƐĂŶĞdžĐĞƉƟŽŶĂůĐĂƐĞ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ƐĞĞŵ ƚŽ ďĞ ĐĂƵƐĂůŝƚLJ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ŐƌĞĂƚĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͘dŚŝƐ ĐĂŶďĞĞdžƉůĂŝŶĞĚďLJƚŚĞĨĂĐƚƚŚĂƚŶĞǁhŵĞŵďĞƌ ƐƚĂƚĞ ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞ Ă ǁŽƌŬ ƉĞƌŵŝƚ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞLJ ǁĂŶƚƚŽǁŽƌŬŝŶŽůĚĞƌ;ďĞĨŽƌĞφττψͿŵĞŵďĞƌƐƚĂƚĞƐ͕ ƚŚŝƐďůŽĐŬƐƚŚĞŇŽǁŽĨĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͘ /ŶƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚƚŚĞ'WĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƚLJĚŽĞƐĂƚƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌ ŚĂŶĚ ƉůĂLJ Ă ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ƌŽůĞ͘ ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƚLJ ŽĨ 'W ŝƐ ůŽǁ͘ ^Ɵůů ƚŚĞ ĐůĞĂƌ ƵŶŝůĂƚĞƌĂů ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ŇŽǁ ;ĨƌŽŵ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ƚŽ ĞŶŵĂƌŬͿĐŽƵůĚďĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶĞĚ͘ƐŝƐƐŚŽǁŶŝŶƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŵŽĚĞůƐŽĨĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ͕ƚŚŝƐƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŝƐĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞŝŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƚĞƌŵƐ͕ĂƐ ŝƚŝƐďĂƐĞĚŽŶƚŚĞĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌŝƚLJŽĨƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĞƐĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞƐ͘ /ƚ ƌĂŝƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĂŶĚ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂů ĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ŇŽǁ ĨƌŽŵ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝƐůŽǁĞƌ͖ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ŝƐ ŵŽƌĞ ďĂůĂŶĐĞĚ͕ ďƵƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ƚŽ ŐĂŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ ŶŽǁ ŝƐ ƚŽ ŵĂŬĞ ďŽƚŚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƉƌŽĮƚ ĞƋƵĂůůLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ͕ ĨŽƌ Ă ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚĂŶŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞŝŶƚŚĞƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶ͘

^ƉĂƟĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐǀƐ͘ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ The economic indicator implies various factors that ďƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĐĂƐĞƐ ĐůŽƐĞƌ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ŝŶ ͚ƉƵƐŚ ĂŶĚ ƉƵůů͛ ǀĂůƵĞ͘ ƉƉĂƌĞŶƚůLJ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ Ă ƉƌĞƩLJ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂƟĂů ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝƌďŝŶĂƟŽŶĂůŽƉƉŽŶĞŶƚƐƌĞůĂƟǀĞƚŽ ĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͕ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ/ŶƚŚĞĐĂƐĞŽĨƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂͲsŝĞŶŶĂĂŶĚƚŚĞƵƌĞŐŝŽ;DĂĂƐƚƌŝĐŚƚͲĂĐŚĞŶͲ>ŝĞŐĞͿ͘ dŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŝŶƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚƐĐŽƌĞƋƵŝƚĞŚŝŐŚŽŶƚŚŝƐ ůĂƐƚĨĂĐƚŽƌ͖ƚŚĞĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞŝƐƚŽĞdžƉůŽŝƚƚŚŝƐƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚ͕ ƉŽƐƐŝďůLJďLJŵŽƌĞĂŶĚĨĂƐƚĞƌĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐƚŽďĞŶĞĮƚ ĨƌŽŵŝƚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůůLJ͘

ƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐǀƐĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ dŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚƚŽƚŚĞ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌ͛Ɛ ǀĂůƵĞ ŚĂǀĞ Ă ǀĞƌLJ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ͘ dŚŝƐĐŽƵŶƚƐĨŽƌĂůůĐĂƐĞƐ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞĂƐƚƌŽŶŐĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶĐĂŶďĞŵĂĚĞ͗dŚĞŵŽƌĞĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĞŵŽƌĞĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐŝƚĂƩƌĂĐƚƐ͕ƚŚĞŵŽƌĞƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŝƐ ƉƵƐŚĞĚ ĨŽƌǁĂƌĚƐ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂƌĞǀĞƌLJŵƵĐŚŝŶůŝŶĞǁŝƚŚƚŚŝƐŝŶĚŝĐĂƟŽŶ͕ďƵƚĂƌĞďĞŚŝŶĚŽŶDĂůŵŽĂŶĚŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘^Ž ĨŽƌƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂƐĂǁŚŽůĞƚŚĞƌĞƐĞĞŵƚŽďĞ ƚŚĞĨĞƌƟůĞŐƌŽƵŶĚĨŽƌĂďĂůĂŶĐĞĚŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞůŝŬĞŝŶƚŚĞ DͲĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶ͕ďƵƚŽŶďŽƚŚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞ ǁŽƌŬĞĚ͘

ƌŽƐƐŝŶŐĞīŽƌƚǀƐ͘ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐǀĂůƵĞ dŚŝƐĐŽŶƚĞdžƚĂƉƉĞĂƌƐƚŽŚĂǀĞŶŽƌĞĂůƐƚƌŽŶŐĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶĞdžĐĞƉƚĨŽƌƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚĐĂƐĞƐ͘dŚŝƐŝƐŶŽƚĂďůĞ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŝƚ ƐĞĞŵƐ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ŐůĂŶĐĞ ŽďǀŝŽƵƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ĞīŽƌƚ ŝƐ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ĚƌŝǀĞ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŵŵƵƚŝŶŐ͘/ƚƐĞĞŵƐƚŚĂƚƐĞǀĞƌĂůŽƚŚĞƌĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŚĂǀĞŵƵĐŚ ŵŽƌĞŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞŽŶƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐĨĂĐƚŽƌ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐƐĐŽƌĞƐůŽǁŽŶďŽƚŚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͕ďƵƚ ĂƌĞŝŶƚŚĞƐĂŵĞůŝŶĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞďĂůĂŶĐĞĚDĂůŵŽĂŶĚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͖ŝƚĐŽƵůĚďĞŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞĚĂƐŚĂǀŝŶŐƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ͘

ƵůƚƵƌĂůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐǀƐ͘ƐƉĂƟĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐ dŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĂƌĞ ĐůĞĂƌůLJ ƐƚƌŽŶŐůLJ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ͘ dŚĞ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌͲ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐƌĞůĂƟŽŶĞǀĞŶƐĐŽƌĞƐƐƚƌŝŬŝŶŐ ŚŝŐŚ͕ŵŽƐƚůLJĞdžƉůĂŝŶĞĚďLJŝƚĐůŽƐĞŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘dŚĞŝŶĚŝĐĂƟŽŶƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƐĞĐŝƟĞƐĂƌĞŝŶůŝŶĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝƌƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘

Ȋȋ

ŽƚŚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĂƌĞ ĨŽƌ ,Ͳ, ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ƉƵƐŚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚƐŚŽƵůĚďĞƚŽƚŚĞƵƚŵŽƐƚĞdžƉůŽŝƚĞĚ͘

ƌŽƐƐŝŶŐĞīŽƌƚǀƐ͘ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ĚŽŶ͛ƚ ƐĞĞŵ ƚŽ ďĞ ŽŶ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ĞīŽƌƚ͘ KŶůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƚĞĚ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ,Ͳ,ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞDĂůŵŽŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ͕ĐƌŽƐƐĞƌƐŚĂǀĞƚŽƉĂLJƚŽůůĨŽƌĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͖ ƚŚĞLJĂƌĞĂůƐŽƚŚĞŽŶůLJφĐĂƐĞƐǁŚĞƌĞǁĂƚĞƌŚĂƐƚŽ ďĞĐƌŽƐƐĞĚ͘dŚĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐƐĞĞŵƚŽŚĂǀĞĂĚĂƉƚĞĚƚŽ ƚŚĞƐĞĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ͘/ŶƚŚĞŶĞǁƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽĨ,Ͳ, ǁŝƚŚĂŶĞǁůŝŶŬ͕ƚŚĞƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶǁŝůůĐŚĂŶŐĞĚƌĂƐƟĐĂůůLJ͕ ǁŚĞŶƚŚĞĞīŽƌƚďĞĐŽŵĞƐůĞƐƐ͘ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĚĞŵĂŶĚƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘

ƵůƚƵƌĂůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐǀƐ͘ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐǀĂůƵĞ dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ǀŝƐŝďůĞ ǁŚĞŶ ǁĞ ůŽŽŬ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͘ dŚĞ ƐŵĂůů ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ŽĨƵƌŽĚĞĂŶĚ,Ͳ,ĂƌĞŚĞƌĞĂůŝƩůĞŽĨĂŶĞdžĐĞƉƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƐĞ ŽĨ ƵƌŽĚĞ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ĂƐƚƌŽŶŐƚĞŶĚĞŶĐLJƚŚĂƚƐƚĂƌƚĞĚǁŚĞŶƚŚĞƚǁŽĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŚĞƌĞĚŝǀŝĚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞŝƌĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘&ŽƌŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶυωτ LJĞĂƌƐƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶŽƌŝĞŶƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞŝƌĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ŝŶƐƚĞĂĚ ŽĨ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ͕ ƐƟůů ŽŶ Ă ůŽĐĂů ůĞǀĞů ĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ ŚĂǀĞǀĞƌLJŵƵĐŚŝŶĐŽŵŵŽŶĂŶĚĞǀĞŶƐŚĂƌĞĂƐƚƌĞĞƚ͘ :ƵƐƚ ůŝŬĞ ,Ͳ, ƚŽƉ ĚŽǁŶ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ƚŽ ŵĂŬĞŝƚŵŽƌĞĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞƚŽĐŽŵŵƵƚĞĂŶĚŵĂŬĞƵƐĞ ŽĨĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͛ƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĂďŝůŝƟĞƐ͘

^ƉĂƟĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐǀƐ͘ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐĞīŽƌƚ dŚĞƌĞŝƐŶŽĐůĞĂƌĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ĞīŽƌƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂƟĂů ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ͖ ĞdžĐĞƉƚ ĨŽƌ DĂůŵŽ ĂŶĚŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘dŚĞĐĂƐĞƐƚĞŶĚƚŽďĞŶŽƚƚŚĂƚŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞĚďLJƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐƌĞůĂƟǀĞƚŽĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ͘tŚĞŶƚŚĞĞīŽƌƚƚŽĐƌŽƐƐŝŶƚŚĞ,Ͳ,ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞƐ͕ŝƚǁŝůůůŝŬĞůLJĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐ͕ƐŝŵŝůĂƌƚŽDĂůŵŽͲŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘

dŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ĞdžƉůĂŝŶ ŚŽǁ ƚŚŝƐ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚĂŶĚǁŚĂƚŝƚƉŽƐƐŝďůLJŵĞĂŶƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ ŚŽǁ ŝƚ ǁŝůů ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


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IV Vision & strategy

Ȇ

ƅŻ Ż

źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR based on

THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR


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General challenges for the region dŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ŵĂŶLJ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĞǀĞƌLJ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ĂƌĞĂ ĐŽƉĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ͕ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚŽŶĞƐ͗ Ͳ tŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞ ĨĂƐƚ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĞƟŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ Ͳ ŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞůŝĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŽŶ ŶŽŶͲƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ƌĞsources Ͳ^ƚĂLJŝŶŐĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŽƵƚƐŝĚĞǁŽƌůĚ ͲDŽŶŽĐĞŶƚƌŝĐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐĂŶĚďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJŝŶĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ Ͳ ŝǀŝƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ ŝƐ ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ ŽƵƚside the main centres Ͳ dƌĂǀĞů ƟŵĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ůŽŶŐ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ centres. ͲWƵďůŝĐƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚŝƐůŝŵŝƚĞĚ ͲŚĂůůĞŶŐŝŶŐƐƚĂŬĞŚŽůĚĞƌƐĨŽƌƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ͲDĂŝŶƚĂŝŶŝŶŐĂŶĚŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐƚŚĞŐĞŶĞƌĂůǁĞůůďĞŝŶŐ ŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĞƟĞƐ

maintain and improve life quality

local food production

trade + culture Oslo trade + culture Stockholm

logistics Berlin Rhine-Ruhr creative

Tricity baltic countires with growing market

Fig. 88 Position of the Oresund in the region (by author)

Ͳ/ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐƚŚĞǁŽƌŬĨŽƌĐĞƚŽĐŽƉĞǁŝƚŚĂŐŝŶŐ ͲĮŶĚŝŶŐƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐƚŽĐŽƉĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƐƉƌĂǁů Ͳ ŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĨŽƌŵ ďŽƵŶĚĂƌŝĞƐ ĨŽƌĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ - Etc.

economical sustainability

aging population

shortage drinking water

migration

biodiversity

cope with losing non-renewable resources

stimulate public transport

stimulate cycling

ȋȄ

St. Petersburg rich heritage

Milano

Fig. 89 Overall challenges for regions

ȆƅŻ

Tallinn Riga

equal legal affairs

stimulate workforce

Helsinki

Hamburg

London

equal currency

from mono- to polycentricism

stimulate growth

strenghten existing centres

more then 5 million inhabitants 2,5 - 5 million inhabitants relation

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ

densification

being competitive

general increasing population

using clean tech


Vision

s/^/KE&KZd,Z'/KE

s/^/KE&KZ,>^/E'TZ

dƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶĨƌŽŵŵŽŶŽͲĐĞŶƚƌŝĐƚŽƉŽůLJĐĞŶƚƌŝĐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝŶĂŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚŝĐƐLJƐƚĞŵƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŐƌŽǁƚŚ

ŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƌŽůĞĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ

/ŶƐƚĞĂĚ ŽĨ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ďĞŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŽŶůLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ŽŶ Ăůů ůĞǀĞůƐ ;ĨƌŽŵ ůŽĐĂů ƚŽŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐͿ͕ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĐĂŶďĞŵŽƌĞ ƐƉƌĞĂĚŽǀĞƌŽƚŚĞƌĐĞŶƚƌĞƐƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽĐŽƉĞǁŝƚŚ ĨƵƚƵƌĞŐƌŽǁƚŚĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘/ƚǁŝůůĂůƐŽďĞŵŽƌĞ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ĨŽƌ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŐƌŽƵƉƐ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞƐĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͘dŚĞĚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶŽĨĐŝƚLJƉĞŽƉůĞĂŶĚƐƵďƵƌďĂŶƉĞŽƉůĞĐĂŶďĞĚĞĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ͕ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐƚŚĞ ƉƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŽĨůŝǀŝŶŐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͘

^ƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟǀŝƚLJďĞƚǁĞĞŶĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ tŚĞŶƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŵŽƌĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƚŚĂƚƉůĂLJĂŶŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƌŽůĞŝŶŽŶĞŽƌ ŵŽƌĞĮĞůĚƐ͕ŝƚŝƐĞƐƐĞŶƟĂůƚŽĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƚŚĞŵǁĞůů͘^Ž ƚŚĞĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞŽĨŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ͕ůĂďŽƵƌ͕ĞƚĐ͘ŝƐŶŽƚŽďƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚďLJĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞƚƌĂǀĞůƟŵĞ͘

ĞĐĂƵƐĞ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝƐĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŶĞǁƌŝŶŐĂŶĚƚƵŶŶĞůďƌŝŶŐƐ͕ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJƐŚŽƵůĚďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵƚŚŝƐ͕ďƵƚŝƚƐŚŽƵůĚĂůƐŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ dŽ ƌĞĂĐŚ ƚŚŝƐ ŐŽĂů͕ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ĂŶƟĐŝƉĂƚĞŽŶƚŚĞŶĞǁĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚǁŝƚŚĂƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵĂŶĚĂĚĂƉƚĞĚƐƉĂƟĂůƉůĂŶ͘

DĂŬŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĞĂƐŝĞƌĂŶĚĨĂƐƚĞƌĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ  ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƚƌĂŝŶ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŝŶ ωτ ŵŝŶƵƚĞƐ͕ Ă ĨĞƌƌLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƚŽ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂŶĚĂůŽĐĂůƚƌĂŝŶĂŶĚƐĞǀĞƌĂůƌŽĂĚƐĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƐŵĂůů ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͕ďƵƚǁŝƚŚĂŶĞǁƚƵŶŶĞůĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĞǁƌŝŶŐ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐƚŚĞŽƵƚƐŬŝƌƚƐŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĂŶ ďĞŵƵĐŚŵŽƌĞĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ͕ǁŚĞŶĂƉƉůLJŝŶŐƚŚĞƌŝŐŚƚ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ͘

ĞŶƐŝĨLJƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂƐ dŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞ͕ ŝƐ ŵĂƌŬĞĚďLJƐƵďƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂƐĂŶĚƵƌďĂŶƐƉƌĂǁů͘ŝƚŝĞƐ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ͘ ZĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ĂƌĞ ŽŌĞŶ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĐĂƌƐ ǁŚĞŶ ƚƌĂǀĞůůŝŶŐ ƚŽ ďŝŐŐĞƌ centres. /ƚ͛ƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽĚĞŶƐŝĨLJƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘

sĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ƉƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ džŝƐƟŶŐĂŶĚŶĞǁĐĞŶƚƌĞƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƵƌďĂŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐŚŽƵůĚďĞŵŽƌĞĚŝǀĞƌƐĞƚŽĂƩƌĂĐƚĂŚŝŐŚĞƌ ǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƐ͘/ŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞĂŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ĂŶƐǁĞƌƐ ƚŚĞ ŶĞĞĚ ŽĨ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŐƌŽƵƉƐ͕ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐĂŚŝŐŚǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨƉƵďůŝĐ ƐƉĂĐĞĂŶĚĂŵŝdžŽĨƵƌďĂŶƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ;ĨƌŽŵůŽĐĂůƚŽƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐͿƚŚĂƚǁŝůůĐŽǀĞƌĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŶĞĞĚƐĐĂŶďĞĐƌĞĂƚĞĚ

ȋȅ

ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂůƉůĂŶĨŽƌĐƵƌƌĞŶƚƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͕ĂŶ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞƉůĂŶĨŽƌŶĞǁƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ ůŝǀĞ ŵŽƐƚůLJŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞŵŽƌĞŽƌůĞƐƐǀŝůůĂŐĞͬ ƐƵďƵƌď ůŝŬĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ǁŝƚŚ ŵĂŝŶůLJ ĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ůĞƐƐ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘ŵŝdžĞĚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ĐĂŶ ďƌŝŶŐ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĐůŽƐĞƌ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞĂƌĞĂƐŽŶƚŽŐĂƚŚĞƌ͘dŚĞƉůĂŶƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĂŶ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞůŝǀŝŶŐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĨŽƌĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŐƌŽƵƉƐŽĨ people.

ĞĐƌĞĂƐĞďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐĂŶĚŵĂŬŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĨĂďƌŝĐ ŵŽƌĞĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ hƐŝŶŐĚĞƐŝŐŶŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐƚŚĂƚĮƚĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŐƌŽƵƉƐŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞĂŶĚĚĞŶƐŝĨLJƚŚĞĐŝƚLJƚŽďƌŝŶŐƚŚĞŵĐůŽƐĞƌƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͕ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚůŽƐŝŶŐƚŚĞƋƵŝĞƚĂŶĚƉĞĂĐĞĨƵůŝĚĞŶƟƚLJŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


+88KUKQPUVTCVGI[

Regional strategy

/Ŷ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂů ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ŝƚ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƚŚĞ ƌŝŐŚƚ ƐƚĞƉ ƚŽĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚƚŚĞŶĞǁŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ,,ůŝŶŬĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĞǁ ƌŝŶŐ ƚŽ ĨŽƐƚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟǀŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ ŝŶĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞŶĞƐƐŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘

/ŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟǀŝƚLJ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ ŝƐ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů͘ƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJƚŚĞĨŽĐƵƐŝƐŵŽƐƚůLJŽŶƚŚĞŵĂŝŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ <ĂƐƚƌƵƉ ĂŝƌƉŽƌƚ ĂŶĚ DĂůŵŽ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ Ă ůĞƐƐĞƌ ĞdžƚĞŶƚ ZŽƐŬŝůĚĞ͕ ,ƆũĞͲ dĂĂƐƚƌƵƉ͕ >ƵŶĚ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚƐŝƚĞĂƌĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽŚŝŐŚƐƉĞĞĚŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ ƚŚĂƚ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ KƐůŽ ĂŶĚ ^ƚŽĐŬŚŽůŵ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ĞŶŵĂƌŬƚŚĞŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŝƐĐƵƚŽīŝŶ<ĂƐƚƌƵƉĂŝƌƉŽƌƚ͘ /ƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽĐŽŶŶĞĐƚŵŽƌĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐƚŽƚŚĞŚŝŐŚ ƐƉĞĞĚŶĞƚǁŽƌŬĂŶĚͬŽƌƚŚĞĨĂƐƚŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJƚƌĂŝŶ͘

Fig. 90 Abstract current infrastructural situation. (by author)

ȆƅŻ

ȋȆ

dŚĞ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŝƐ ƐŚŽǁŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůŽǁĞƌ ŵĂƉ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉĂŐĞ͘ dŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĨŽĐƵƐƐŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĨĂƐƚ ƚƌĂŝŶ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͘  dŚĞ ŽƵƚƐŬŝƌƚƐ ŽĨ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŵƵĐŚ ďĞƩĞƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ǁŝůů ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ďĞĐŽŵĞ ŵƵĐŚ ůĞƐƐ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ŽŶ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƚƐ ƌĂĚŝĂů ĂĐĐĞƐƐ͘ ,ƆũĞdĂĂƐƚƌƵƉ͕,ŝůůĞƌƆĚ͕ĂůůĞƌƵƉ͕,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŽŶƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚƐŝĚĞĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐǁŝůůŚĂǀĞĂŚŝŐŚƐƉĞĞĚ ƐƚĂƟŽŶĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚ>ƵŶĚ͕DĂůŵŽ͕<ĂƐƚƌƵƉĂŶĚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂŶĐĞ ƚŽ ďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵƚŚŝƐŶĞǁůŝŶŬ͘ /ŶƚŚŝƐǁĂLJƚŚĞƌĞǁŝůůďĞĂŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚLJŝŶĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ŵŽƌĞ ĞƋƵĂůůLJ ƐƉƌĞĂĚ ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ DƵůƟͲĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ǁŝůů Žī ĐŽƵƌƐĞ ďĞ ďĞƩĞƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŚĞŶ ƐŵĂůůĞƌŽŶĞƐ͘ƵƚƚŚĞŐŽĂůŝƐƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽƌĞĂĐŚĂůů ƚŚĞďŝŐŐĞƌĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŝŶĂŶĞƋƵĂůƟŵĞ͕ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJƚŽƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚ ƐŽ ŵƵĐŚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚLJ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ the important centres. dŚŝƐŶĞǁƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐǁŝůůŚĂǀĞĂŵĂũŽƌŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞŽŶ ƚŚĞƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐŽƌ͘ƐŝƚŶŽǁǁŝůůďĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͘

Fig. 91 Abstract new infrastructural situation: connecting copenhagen’s outskirts. (by author)

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Helsingborg

Helsingør

Hillerød

Høje Taastrop

CPH Norrebro

CPH central

Kastrup Airport

Malmo

local train

local train regional train

local train regional train intercity

local train regional train intercity high way

local train regional train intercity high way highspeed train

local train regional train intercity

local train regional train intercity high way

local train regional train intercity high way highspeed train

Fig. 92 Current public transport network (by author)

Helsingborg

Helsingør

Hillerød

Høje Taastrop

CPH Norrebro

CPH central

Kastrup Airport

Malmo

local train

local train regional train

Fig. 93 new strategy of public transport network with HHconnection and new ring

high urban center environment

regional train station

regional roads

new regional connection

sub urban environment

intercity station

local tracks (S-train)

new high speed and intercity

local train station

high speed station

general train tracks

sprinter

highway

high speed track

ȋȇ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


culture & re cre

+88KUKQPUVTCVGI[

ion t a

re

Fig. 95 Degree of research and development (by author)

a rc

h&

develo p m

e

Fig. 96 Division of programmatic focus (by author)

DŽƌĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ĮŶĚŝŶŐ Ă ďĂůĂŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ƉůĂLJŝŶŐ Ă ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƌŽůĞ /ƚ ǁŝůů ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJ ďĞĐŽŵĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ ŵŽƌĞ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞŶĞǁƌŝŶŐŽƌĐůŽƐĞƚŽĂŚƵďůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ƚŽƚŚĞƐĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐǁŚĞŶƚŚĞƐĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŽīĞƌĂǀĂƌŝĞƚLJ ŽĨĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘dŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶǁŝůůĂůƐŽďĞůĞƐƐĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ŽŶĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐ͘ƐǁĞŚĂǀĞƐĞĞŶ ŝŶƚŚĞƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ͕ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ ŝŶŇŝĐƚ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ;ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ͕ Ğƚ͘Ăů͕͘ φττύͿ͘ Ƶƚ ǁŚĞŶƚŚĞƐĞĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐĚŝŵŝŶŝƐŚŽƌĐŚĂŶŐĞƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌ ǁĂLJĂƌŽƵŶĚ͕ƚŚĞŶĞǁƐƌƚƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐůĞƐƐŝŶƚĞƌƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůĐŚĂŶŐĞ͘dŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĐĂŶŚĂǀĞƚŚĞĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽĐŽƉĞǁŝƚŚĚĞǀŝĂƟŽŶƐǁŚĞŶĐĞŶƚƌĞƐďĞĐŽŵĞŵŽƌĞ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚŽŶĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌĂŶĚŶŽƚŽŶůLJŽŶƚŚĞŵĂŝŶ ŚƵď͘/ŶĂƐĞůĨͲƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŚĂǀĞĞĂĐŚ Ă ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ Ă ĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŶŐ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ͘ ;DĞŝũĞƌƐ Ğƚ Ăů͕͘ φττχͿĞŶƚƌĞƐǁŝůůďĞůĞƐƐĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚŽŶŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĂŶƐ ůĂďŽƵƌŽŶůLJ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞLJĐĂŶŚĂǀĞĂƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚŝƐĂůǁĂLJƐĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞƐƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘

ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƉĂƚŚǁĂLJ͕ZΘƉĂƚŚǁĂLJ dŽ ĨŽƌŵ Ă ďĂƐŝƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƌŽůĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͕ĂĐŽŶĐĞƉƚŝƐĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͘ dŚĞĐŽŶĐĞƉƚĨŽƌƚŚĞŽǀĞƌĂůůƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJŝƐƚŽĚŝǀŝĚĞƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶŽƌĂĐƚƵĂůůLJƚŚĞ͚ƌŝŶŐ͛ƚŚĂƚŝƐĞŵďŽĚŝĞĚďLJƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĂŶĚŶĞǁŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĨĂƐƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ͕ŝŶ ƚŽƚǁŽƐĞŵŝĐŝƌĐůĞƐ͘ŽƚŚǁŝůůŚĂǀĞƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶŐƌĂǀŝƚLJ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐĞŵŝĐŝƌĐůĞƐ ǁŝůů ƉĂƌƟĂůůLJ ŽǀĞƌůĂƉ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞ ŽĨĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘KŶĞǁŝůůĨŽĐƵƐŵŽƌĞ ŽŶ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌǁŝůůƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ͘ ;^ĞĞ ĮŐƵƌĞ ύϊͿ dŚĞ ŽŶĞ ƐĞŵŝĐŝƌĐůĞ ǁŝůů ďĞ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ĂůŽŶŐ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƉůĂĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂůŽŶŐ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƌĞůĂƚĞĚŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ͘

ȆƅŻ

se

nt

Fig. 94 Degree of research and development (by author)

ȋȈ

dŚĞ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞůŝŶŬƐŝŶŶŽƌƚŚĂŶĚƐŽƵƚŚǁŝůůŽǀĞƌĂůů ďĞƵƐĞĚĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚůLJ͘dŚĞƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶůŝŶŬǁŝůůďĞŵƵĐŚ ŵŽƌĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ͕ ǁŚŝůĞƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶŝƐŵƵĐŚŵŽƌĞƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚƐ ǁŚŽ ǁĂŶƚ ƚŽ ƐĞĞ Ă ůŝƩůĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŽŶůLJ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ ďƵƚ ĂůƐŽ ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚƐ ;ĨƌŽŵ ŝŶůĂŶĚ Žƌ ĂďƌŽĂĚͿ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ƉĂƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ůŝŬĞ ^ǁĞĚĞƐ Θ EŽƌǁĞŐŝĂŶƐ ƚƌĂǀĞůŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚ ǁŚŽ ǁĂŶƚ ƚŽ ŵĂŬĞ Ă ŶŝĐĞ ƐƚŽƉ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞŝƌ ůŽŶŐ ũŽƵƌŶĞLJ ƚŽ ƐĞĞ ƐŽŵĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞŽƌŐĞƚƐŽŵĞƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚŽƵƚŐŽŝŶŐ ŝŶƚŽƚŚĞďŝŐĐƌŽǁĚĞĚŽĨĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ Ƶƚ ŽǀĞƌĂůů͕ ďŽƚŚ ůŝŶŬƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ ŐŽŝŶŐĨƌŽŵǁŽƌŬƚŽƚŚĞŝƌŚŽŵĞĂŶĚƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌǁĂLJ around.

ƵůƚƵƌĂůŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ ͲZĞůŝĞĨƐƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞƚŽƵƌŝƐƚŇŽǁƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶďƌŝĚŐĞ Ͳ&ĂƐƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͕ĐƵƚƐƚƌĂǀĞůƟŵĞ ͲDŽƌĞĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚĐƵůƚƵƌĞŝƐĞĂƐŝĞƌĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞĨŽƌ visitors ͲƩƌĂĐƚƐŵŽƌĞǀŝƐŝƚŽƌƐ Ͳ^ǁĞĚĞŶΘĞŶŵĂƌŬĐĂŶďŽƚŚďĞŶĞĮƚ ͲхƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ;ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůͬƐŽĐŝĂůͿĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ

WŚĂƌŵĂĐĞƵƟĐĂůĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐĂŶĚƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ ͲŽŶƐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶŵĞĂŶƐĞĂƐŝĞƌĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐĂŶĚŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ Ͳ&ĂƐƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͕ĐƵƚƐƚƌĂǀĞůƟŵĞ ͲĂƐLJĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ ͲŽƚŚĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐĐĂŶďĞŶĞĮƚ ͲхƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ;ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůͿĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Regional masterplan ddZd/sΘKDWd/d/s

dŚĞŶĞǁƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŵĞĂŶƐŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞĨŽƌŵŽƌĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͘ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶǁŝůůŚĂǀĞƚǁŽĐŽƵŶƚĞƌƉĂƌƚƐŝƚ ǁŝůů ĐŽŵƉĞƚĞ ǁŝƚŚ ŝŶ Ă ŚĞĂůƚŚLJ ƉŽůLJĐĞŶƚƌŝĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͗ DĂůŵŽĂŶĚ>ƵŶĚǁŝůůďĞĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐĂŶĚŐƌŽǁĐůŽƐĞƌ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͖ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ǁŝůů ďĞ Ă ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐ ĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂƐ ƚŚĞLJ ƐĞƉĞƌĂƚůLJ ůĂĐŬ ĐƌŝƟĐĂů ŵĂƐƐ ƚŽ ĨŽƌŵ  ǁŽƌƚŚLJ ĐŽƵŶƚĞƌƉĂƌƚƐ͕ ŝŶ ƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ;&ŝŐ͘ύόͿ͘dŚĞƐĞƚŚƌĞĞŵĂŝŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ǁŝůů ƐƉƌĞĂĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů͕ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐŽǀĞƌĂ ůĂƌŐĞƌĂƌĞĂĂŶĚďĂůĂŶĐĞŽƵƚƚŚĞŝƌĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞƉŽƐŝƟŽŶǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘

ŝŶĂĚĞŶƐĞƵƌďĂŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĐĂŶĮŶĚƚŚĞŝƌƉůĂĐĞ͕ ƐŽĐĂŶĂŶŽůĚĞƌĐŽƵƉůĞƚŚĂƚůŝŬĞƐƚŚĞƋƵŝĞƚŶĂƚƵƌĞ͘ ƐůŽŶŐĂƐŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐĂƌĞĂĚĂƉƚĞĚƚŽǀĂƌŝŽƵƐ ŐƌŽƵƉƐ͕ĂůůƐŽƌƚƐŽĨĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐ͕ŝŶĂůŝƩůĞŵŽƌĞŽƌ ůĞƐƐĞƌ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ͕ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĐƌĞĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞǁĞůůͲĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͘/ŶƚŚŝƐǁĂLJƚŚĞƌĞǁŝůůďĞ ŵŽƌĞƐƉĂĐĞůĞŌƚŽďĞŐŝǀĞŶďĂĐŬƚŽŶĂƚƵƌĞ͕ŽƌƚŽƵƐĞ ĨŽƌƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶŽƌ;ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞͿĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͘

/ƚŝƐƉƌŽďĂďůĞƚŚĂƚƉĞŽƉůĞŵŽǀĞĐůŽƐĞƌƚŽƚŚĞƐĞĐŽƌĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŽƌŽƚŚĞƌĐĞŶƚƌĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞǁĞůůĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞŵĂŝŶŚƵďƐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŝƚǁŝůůďĞƐŽŵƵĐŚĞĂƐŝĞƌƚŽ ŚĂǀĞĂůůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐǁŝƚŚŝŶĂƐŚŽƌƚƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJ͘ŶĚďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞ;ŵĂŝŶͿĐĞŶƚƌĞƐǁŝůůŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶ ŽƌĐƌĞĂƚĞƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌͬŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͕ƚŚĞƌĞǁŝůůďĞ ĂƉůĂĐĞĨŽƌĞǀĞƌLJŽŶĞ͘zŽƵŶŐƉĞŽƉůĞƚŚĂƚůŝŬĞƚŽůŝǀĞ

Fig. 97 Old situation with one main centre (by author)

Fig. 98 New situation: H&H are cooperating to compete with other centres (by author)

Fig. 99 New strategy for the region’s centres (by author) metropolitan region

tourist center

connecting city and countryside

international center

knowledge center

highway

high urban center environment

mainport

high speed train

sub urban environment

green corridor

regional train

supra-regional center

airport

city ring

ȋȉ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


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Strategy for Helsingor ,>^/E'TZ͛^EtWK^/d/KE Ɛ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ůŝŶŬ ǁŝůů͕ ďĞƐŝĚĞƐ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐ ĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͕ ĂůƐŽ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƌĞůŝĞĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞ ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶďƌŝĚŐĞ͕ĂƐĂŶĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ƌŽƵƚĞ ĨŽƌ ƚƌĂǀĞůůĞƌƐ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ^ǁĞĚĞŶͬEŽƌǁĂLJĂŶĚ'ĞƌŵĂŶLJͬƚŚĞƌĞƐƚŽĨ ƵƌŽƉĞ͕ƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂƌĞĞǀĞŶ ŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ͘/ƚŝƐĐŽƵůĚŶŽƚũƵƐƚďĞĐŽŵĞĂĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐĞŶƚƌĞ͖ŝƚĐĂŶďĞƚŚĞŐĂƚĞǁĂLJĨŽƌƚŽƵƌŝƐƚĞŶƚĞƌŝŶŐƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ ^Ž͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ǁŝůů ďĞ ƉůĂLJŝŶŐ Ă ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƌŽůĞŝŶƚŚĞŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘Ƶƚ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨŝƚƐůĂĐŬŽĨĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ;ƚŚĞƌĞŝƐŶŽƐƉĂĐĞĂŶĚ ǁŝůůƚŽĞdžƉĂŶĚŽƌĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶƚŽŚŝŐŚƵƌďĂŶƐƉĂĐĞͿƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJǁŝůůŶĞǀĞƌďĞĂƐĞůĨͲƐĞƌǀŝŶŐŵƵůƟͲĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůĐĞŶtre. tŝƚŚƚŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬ͕ωŵŝŶƵƚĞƐĂǁĂLJƚŚĞƌĞǁŝůůďĞĂ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ǁŝƚŚ ŵŽƌĞ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ͗ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘ dŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ƚŽ ĨŽƌŵ ĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘EŽǁƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJǁŝůůďĞƐŽĐůŽƐĞůLJĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ͕ ƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĐĂŶĨƌŽŵĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞĂůƐŽďĞ considered as one. dŚŝƐ ŵĂŬĞƐ ƐĞŶƐĞ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŽŐŚĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ φωτ͘τττ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ;ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞŶ ŵŽƌĞ ǁŝƚŚ

ǁŝůůďĞĂďŝŐĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐĞŶƚƌĂů͘KŶŽƚŚĞƌĂƌĞĂƐ͕ŝƚǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞ Ă ůĞƐƐĞƌ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚĐŽƵůĚŝŶƐŽŵĞǁĂLJƐĞǀĞŶďĞŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞĚĂƐĂŶ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘EŽŶĞƚŚĞůĞƐƐ͕,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌǁŝůů ďĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞ ŶĞǁůŝŶŬĂŶĚƌŝŶŐĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐǁŝůůďĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽƚŚĞŚŝŐŚƐƉĞĞĚŶĞƚǁŽƌŬĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĂŶŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞ͘^ŽƚŚĞƌĞŝƐƐƟůůĂůŽƚƚŽŐĂŝŶĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ dŽƐƟůůďĞĂďůĞƚŽŐĞƚĂƐŵƵĐŚŽƵƚŽĨƚŚĞůŝŶŬƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĂůůLJ͕ďĞƐŝĚĞƐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚ ŽŶůLJ ďĞŝŶŐ Ă ƐƵďƵƌď ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ Žƌ ĂŶ ŽƵƚƐŬŝƌƚ ŽĨ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞ ƐŽŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŝƚLJ ůŝŬĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ LJŽƵŶŐƉĞŽƉůĞǁŚŽƉŽƐƐŝďůLJǁŽƌŬŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŝƚƐĞůĨ͘dŚĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ ƐŚŽƵůĚĂůƐŽĮƚƚŚŝƐƐŽƌƚŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͘>ŝŬĞǁŚĂƚǁĞĮŶĚ ŝŶŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘ dŽĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚƚŚŝƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĞŶĞĞĚƐƚŽďĞĂƉůĂĐĞƚŚĂƚŝƐ ƐƵŝƚĂďůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞƐĞŬŝŶĚƐŽĨĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͘/ŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚ ƐĞĐƟŽŶƐƚŚŝƐƉůĂĐĞĂŶĚŝƚƐĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐĂƌĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚĂŶĚĂŶĂůLJƐĞĚŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞ ƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĚĞƐŝŐŶĨŽƌƚŚŝƐƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂ ĂƐƚŚĞĮŶĂůƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘

ƚŚĞƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ ƐŵĂůůĞƌĐĞŶƚƌĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞƚŽĂŶĞdžƚĞŶĚĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚŽŶƚŚĞƐĞĐŝƟĞƐŝŶĐůƵĚĞĚͿ͕ŵŽƌĞĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ŵŽƌĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚŚĂƐŵŽƌĞƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐƚŽ ĞdžƉĂŶĚ͘dŚĞĐŝƟĞƐǁŝůůďĞĐůŽƐĞůLJĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚĂŶĚŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ǁĂLJ͕ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĂŶ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŽŶĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůůĞǀĞů͘ĞĐĂƵƐĞ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚŚĂǀĞƚŚĞĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJƚŽĐŽŵƉĞƚĞǁŝƚŚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĞdžĐĞƉƚŽŶŽŶĞŝƐƐƵĞ͗ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŚĂƐ ƐŽ ŵĂŶLJ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ŽŶ ŝƚƐǁĂLJ͕ĂŶĚŚĂƐƚŚĞ<ƌŽŶďŽƌŐĐĂƐƚůĞĂƐŝƚƐŵĂŝŶĂƚƚƌĂĐƟŽŶ͘ ^Ž ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ

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Fig. 99 & 100 If Helsingør and Helsingborg were paste toghether... Source: Google maps, modified by author

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d,^/'E>Kd/KE dŚĞƐŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚĞƌŶƐŚŽƌĞŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ;υωω͘τττŵφͿŝƐ ƚŚĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶĨŽƌŵLJƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ dŚĞŵŽƐƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƌĞĂƐŽŶƐĂƌĞ͗ υ͘ďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞŶĞǁƚƵŶŶĞůǁŝůůŐŽƌŝŐŚƚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚŝƐ area φ͘ŵŽƐƚŽĨƚŚĞĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞĐƵƌƌĞŶƚĨĞƌƌLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŚĞƌĞ͘ dŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ ǁŝůů ůŝŬĞůLJ ĚŝƐĂƉƉĞĂƌ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ǁŝůů ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ǁŝůůŵĂŬĞĂůŽƚŽĨƐƉĂĐĞĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘ χ͘ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĨĂǀŽƵƌĂďůĞ ƉĞƌƚĂŝŶŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJŽĨƚŚĞŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ƚŚĞ<ƌŽŶďŽƌŐ ĐĂƐƚůĞ͕ƚŚĞŵĂŝŶƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĂĚũĂĐĞŶĐLJŽĨ ƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚǁĂƚĞƌ͘

/Ŷ ƚŚĞ ǁĂŬĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ĂŶ ĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐĂů ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ǀĞƌLJ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͛Ɛ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƐŽĐŝĂů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů coherence. dŚĞ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĨĂĐŝŶŐ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĨŽƌŵ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ Ă ŶĞǁ ƉůĂŶ͘/ŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƐĞĐƟŽŶƚŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐĂƌĞďĞŝŶŐ discussed. ŌĞƌƚŚĂƚ͕ƚŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵǁŝůůďĞŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ͕ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ ďLJƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶƉƌŽƉŽƐĂůĨŽƌƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂ͘

20

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92

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ŵ Fig. 102 The plan area with its main dimensions and the proximity from the train station (by author)

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źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR based on

THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR


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Conditions plan area KŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉĂŐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ψ ĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚĂƌĞĂƐĂƌĞďĞŝŶŐŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂ͘dŚŝƐŝƐĚŽŶĞƚŽŐĞƚĂďĞƩĞƌƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŽĨƚŚĞƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ŝƚ ŚĂƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ǁŝƚŚ ŝƚƐ ŽǁŶ ƐĞƫŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĐŝƌĐƵŵƐƚĂŶĐĞƐ ĨŽƌŵƚŚĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐĨŽƌƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘

dŚĞŵĂƉďĞůŽǁƐŚŽǁƐƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐŝŶƚŚĞ ψĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĂƌĞĂƐ͘dŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞǀĞƌLJĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚŝŶĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͕ƐƉĂĐĞĂŶĚƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ͘

  

ƌĂŝů ƚƌĂ ĐŬ



Fig. 103 An abstract impression of the project area. 4 main spatial areas can be distinguished: the historic city centre, the castle and its surroundings, the infrastrucutral functions (now the ferry harbour and the train, in the future the project area and the train) and the surrounding sprawl of (mainly) detached houses. (by author)

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ȌȄ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Z>d/KEυ͗,/^dKZ/>/dzEdZ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŚĂƐƐĞǀĞƌĂůƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐ͖ŵŽƐƚŽĨƚŚĞƐĞƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐĂƌĞĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚŝŶĂŶĚĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘ dŚĞƚŽǁŶĐĞŶƚĞƌŝƐĂĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ͕ƌĞĮŶĞĚ͕ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐ͕ǁĞůů ƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĞĚ ƚƌĞĂƐƵƌĞ ƚƌŽǀĞ ŽĨ υϊƚŚͬ υϋƚŚ LJĞĂƌ ŽůĚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĂŶĚŚĂƐŵĂŶLJƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐ͘KƌŝŐŝŶĂůƚŚĞĐĞŶƚĞƌ ǁĂƐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĚĞ͘ƵƚĂƐƐŚŽǁŶŝŶƚŚĞŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĐŚĂŶŐĞŽĨƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞ͕ƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚŵŽǀĞĚŽƵƚƚŽ ĞdžƉĂŶĚƚŚĞŚĂƌďŽƌĨŽƌůĂƌŐĞƌĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨĐĂƌŐŽƐŚŝƉƐ͕ ĨĞƌƌŝĞƐ͕ƌĂŝůƚƌĂĐŬƐĂŶĚƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘

dŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚĞƌĐĂŶďĞĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝnjĞĚĂƐĂŵŽŶŽƚŽŶĞ ƋƵŝƚĞĐůŽƐĞĚƵƌďĂŶĚĞƐŝŐŶǁŝƚŚŶĂƌƌŽǁƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ďLJ 'ĞŚů ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ ;φτυυͿ͕ ŝŶǀŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJ ĨŽƌ ƉĂƐƐŝǀĞ ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ;ƐŚŽƉƉŝŶŐĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĞͿƌĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂŶĂŵŽƌĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐĞƵƌďĂŶůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞ͘dŚĞƌĞŝƐĂǁĞĞŬĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƵƌďĂŶƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘dŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƉĞĚĞƐƚƌŝĂŶŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŝƐƵŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚĂŶĚŶŽƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌŽƌĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͛ƐŽƚŚĞƌĚĞƐƟŶĂƟŽŶƐ͘dŚĞ ĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞƉŽŝŶƚƐƚŽǁĂƌĚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚĞƌĂƌĞƵŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ͘;ĮŐ͘υτψͿ



ƌĂŝů ƚƌĂ ĐŬ

ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚĞƌ

City centre entrance points

Secondary entrance points

Entrance points development area

Main entrance points development area

Fig. 103 Area 1: The historical city centre (by author) Fig. 104 Unclear entrances and barriers around the city centre and plan area (by author)

Ȍȅ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8%QPFKVKQPU

dŚĞƵŶĐůĞĂƌĂŶĚƵŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐĂƌĞǀĞƌLJ ŵƵĐŚǀŝƐŝďůĞŽŶƚŚĞƐƚĂƟŽŶĂƌĞƐŝĚĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚĞƌ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĨŽƵŶĚ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƌĞĂƐŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚŝƐƵŶĐůĞĂƌŶĞƐƐ͗ WŚLJƐŝĐĂůďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ͕ůŝŬĞǁĂůůƐ͕ďĂĐŬƐŝĚĞƐŽĨŚŽƵƐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚǀĞŐĞƚĂƟŽŶďůŽĐŬƚŚĞǀŝƐƵĂůĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ EĂƌƌŽǁƐƚƌĞĞƚƐĂŶĚĂůůĞLJƐĂƌĞƚŚĞŽŶůLJĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞƐƚŽ ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͖ƚŚŝƐĮƚƐƚŚĞŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ͕ŶŽŶĞƚŚĞůĞƐƐ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĮƌƐƚƉŽŝŶƚŝƚĚŽĞƐŶ͛ƚĨĞĞůŝŶǀŝƟŶŐ to enter. ^ĞǀĞƌĂů ƚƌĂĸĐ ŇŽǁƐ ŽĐĐƵƌ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ ĂŶĚƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘ĂƌƐ͕ďƵƐƐĞƐ͕ĂůŽĐĂůƚƌĂŝŶ͕ĐLJcles and pedestrian all use the same routes. dŚĞĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĞŵŽĚĂůŝƟĞƐŽŶůLJĂŐŐƌĞŐĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ďĂƌƌŝĞƌ ĞīĞĐƚ͘ dŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ďƵƐ ƐƚŽƉƐ ĂƌĞ located here, the end stop of the local train, several ďŝĐLJĐůĞƐŚĞůƚĞƌƐĂŶĚĂŶĞǀĞŶďŝŐŐĞƌĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƉĂƌŬŝŶŐƉůĂĐĞŵĂŬĞƚŚĞĂƌĞĂďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĐĞŶƚĞƌĂŶĚƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂĂǀĞƌLJƵŶĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞƉůĂĐĞ

Fig. 105 One of the narrow entrances to the historical centre (by author)

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20

20

5

10

25

15

15

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10

Shipyard Shipy yard

25

k

trac rse

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25

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North tr ack 1864

20

20

92 18 7 ck 189 a tr ck rth ltra No asta Co

Fig. 106 - 109 The historical development of the city and the reducing relation of the centre with the water (source: Kommuneplan, 2009. Modified by author)

ȆƅŻ

ȌȆ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


local train ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƚƌĂŝŶ road ďƵƐƌŽƵƚĞƐ ďŝŬĞůĂŶĞƐ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ Fig. 110 Traffic flows between the plan area and inner city (by author)

Fig. 112 The busstation (picture by author)

Fig. 111 The local train (picture by author)

Fig. 113-116 No real physical connections between the centre and plan area (pictures by author)

Ȍȇ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8%QPFKVKQPU

Z>d/KEφ͗h>dhZzZ

<ƌŽŶďŽƌŐ <ƌŽŶ ŽŶ



ƌĂŝů ƚƌĂ ĐŬ

ĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚ

EŽƌƚŚĞĂƐƚŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞƚŚĞ<ƌŽŶďŽƌŐĐĂƐƚůĞŝƐ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ͘&ŽƌŵĂŶLJLJĞĂƌƐ͛ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĂŶĚŚĂƌďŽƵƌƌĞůĂƚĞĚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐůĂLJďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĐĂƐƚůĞĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͕ ďƵƚĂƚƚŚĞŵŽŵĞŶƚƚŚĞƉůĂĐĞŝƐŐĞƫŶŐƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƚƵƌŶĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŽ Ă ͞ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ LJĂƌĚ͘͟ dŚĞƐĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐĞŶƌŝĐŚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞĂŶĚŝƚĂĚĚƐĂĨĂŶƚĂƐƟĐ ĨƌĂŵĞ͘ KŶ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƉ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉĂŐĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŶĞǁƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐƉƵďůŝĐŽƉĞŶƐƉĂĐĞ͕ĂƌĞŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞĚ͘dŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐŽĨĞ͘Ő͘ĂŵĂƌŝƟŵĞ ŵƵƐĞƵŵ͕ĂŵŽĚĞƌŶƉƵďůŝĐůŝďƌĂƌLJ͕ĂŶĂƋƵĂƌŝƵŵ͕ĐĂƐƚůĞƌĞůĂƚĞĚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞƉƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞ͘džpected is an increase of visitors as is also indicated in the map. dŚĞŶŽƌƚŚĞĂƐƚƐŝĚĞŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂŽǀĞƌůŽŽŬƐƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ LJĂƌĚ͘ dŚĞ ĨƌŽŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĂůƐŽ ŽǀĞƌůŽŽŬƐ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ LJĂƌĚ͘ dŚŝƐ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽƚŚĞŽƵƚĞƌĞĚŐĞŽǀĞƌůŽŽŬŝŶŐ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘

Fig. 117 Area 2: Culture yard and Kronborg castle (by author)

dŚŝƐĂƌĞĂďƌŝŶŐƐŵĂŶLJƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĂŶĚ ŝƚ ĂůƐŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĂƌĞĂ͘dŚĞĞdžŝƐƚĞŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞďĂLJ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂƐ ŚĂǀĞ ǁŝƚŚ ĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͘dŚĞƚǁŽĞĚŐĞƐŽĨƚŚĞďĂLJĂƉƉĞĂƌĂƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƉůĂĐĞƐ͘KŶĞĞĚŐĞďĞůŽŶŐƐƚŽƚŚĞ<ƌŽŶďŽƌŐ ĐĂƐƚůĞ͖ƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌĞĚŐĞ;ŶŽǁƚŚĞĂƌƌŝǀĂůƉŽŝŶƚŽĨƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌŝĞƐͿĐĂƌƌŝĞƐƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJƚŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉĂďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚĂƐŝŵŝůĂƌĂƉƉĞĂƌĂŶĐĞ͘

Fig. 118 The new culture yard (source: Damvad)

ȆƅŻ

ȌȈ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


NORTH HARBOR 22,000 annually (2004)

ØRESUND UN AQUAR AQUARIUM QUAR M 55.0 000 annually annua (200 09))

KRONBOR KRO ONB O ON N NB B G 209,000 20 ,00 0 annually (2009 0 09) 09 9) 34,000 3 ,000 0 annua aann n nn nnuallyy (200 (20 2009) 2 0 009) 0 (Will be significa ificantly fican fic fi ficantly a tl an t y higher hig err fo forr the t n new wm museum) useeu useu us e

KRONBO KRONBOR K KR RONBOR ORG PUBLIC LIB BRA BRA ARY AR &C CULTU TU U EY URE YA ARD 330,0 33 30,00 0,000 000 00 00 aan annua nnu nually nua u y (2004, 00 04, est 04, esti esti estim es stim im mated) mated) te )

VOR OR FRU UE A ABBEY ABB BB BB Y & SK SSKT KT. MA ARI ARIÆ R Æ CH RIÆ CHURCH C U CH

c chapel

AXEL AX EL SQ SQUARE SQU QUA ARE R

CITY CI CIT C I Y MU M MUSEUM SEEUM EUM M SKTT.. OLAI SK A CHURCH CHU HUR H

CITY C IT H HALL ALL shopping sh shoppin ho oppi ping p ing ng sstr streets trreets eettss

Walking Walk alk alking lkking in ng from ng f om the fr he fferry, errryy, tr erry ttrain rai ain in and aan nd bus TTourist ourist Offi O Office ffice ffi

about ab ou out utt 8 m million. illllion. n. yyear eaar (e (est (esst stim imated))

34.400 34 3 4 400 4 0 annua annual annually uallly ((2 ual (2009) 20 200

HELS H LSIN NGØ GØ G ØR STATION

HEELS LS NG LSI NGØ ØR CITY TY Y MALLLL

STEN NGA NG GA GA GAD AD DE FFERRY RY TERMINAL T RMINALL TE

appr prox. p pr ro 3 millio million on. n.. ann n annually nnually n nua lyy

Destinations Development projects upcoming urban space

C Fig. 119 Existing and new destinations for visitors of Helsingor (by author)

Fig. 120 Towards the culture yard (by author)

Ȍȉ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8%QPFKVKQPU

Z>d/KEχ͗^hhZ^ dŚĞƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚĂƌĞĂƐŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞĐĂŶďĞ ŵĂŝŶůLJ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚ ĂƐ ƐƵďƵƌďĂŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ dŚĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐŵĂŝŶůLJŽĨĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘dLJƉŝĐĂů ĨŽƌƚŚĞƐĞŬŝŶĚƐŽĨŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƐŝƐƚŚĞŝƐŽůĂƚĞĚŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůŝƐƟĐĂƉƉĞĂƌĂŶĐĞ͘ZĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐůŝǀĞŝŶƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶ ůŝƩůĞƉƌŝǀĂƚĞǁŽƌůĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝƌƉƌŝǀĂƚĞŐĂƌĚĞŶƐ͘WƵďůŝĐ ƐƉĂĐĞƐĂƌĞŶŽƚƵƐĞĚĨƌĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJĂŶĚƉĞŽƉůĞŵŽƐƚůLJ ŵĞĞƚǁŚĞŶƐŚŽƉƉŝŶŐ͘ ĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞƐŽƵƚŚǁĞƐƚƐŝĚĞŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂŶĚƚŚĞ ƐƵďƵƌďƐĂƉŽǁĞƌƐƚĂƟŽŶŝƐƉůĂĐĞĚ͘/ƚŝƐŵĂŝŶůLJŐƌĞĞŶ ĞŶĞƌŐLJƚŚĂƚŝƐďĞŝŶŐĐŽŶǀĞƌƚĞĚĂŶĚĚŽĞƐƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŶŽƚŚĂƌŵƚŚĞƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐƐŽƌĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘

dŚĞĂƌĞĂŝƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚŽǀĞƌφτŵĞƚĞƌƐŚŝŐŚĞƌƚŚĂŶƚŚĞ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĐĞŶƚƌĞĂŶĚƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂ͘;^ĞĞĮŐυφωͿdŚĞ ĞĚŐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŽǀĞƌůŽŽŬŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ ŐŝǀĞƐ ĂůƐŽ ƐŽŵĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ͗ ŶĞǁ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĂƌĞĂǁŽƵůĚŶŽƚĞĂƐŝůLJďůŽĐŬƚŚĞǀŝĞǁŽĨƚŚĞƐĞŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘ůƐŽĂǀŝƐƵĂůĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶĐŽƵůĚďĞŵĂĚĞ͘ dŚĞƐĞĐƟŽŶƐŽŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞŐŝǀĞĂĐůĞĂƌŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŚĞŝŐŚƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ ƉůĂŶ ĂƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌƚǁŽŽƌĐƵƚ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ƌŽĂĚ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĂůƐŽ ƐŚŽǁ ĐůĞĂƌůLJ ŚŽǁƚŚĞƌĂŝůƚƌĂĐŬƐĐƵƚƚŚĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘

ĞƐŝĚĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞ͕ƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚŝƐĂƌĞĂĚŝƐƟŶĐƚƚŚŝƐƉůĂĐĞĞǀĞŶŵŽƌĞĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘

ƌĂŝů ƚƌĂ ĐŬ



Fig. 121 Area 3: The sub urbs (by author)

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Fig. 122 the south east coastal area of Helsingør with indicated sections (by author)

Ͳ͛

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Fig 123 -124 Sections of the south east coastal area of Helsingør (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8%QPFKVKQPU

+2m

+3m m +2,5m

+3 +3m

+2m

+2m +2 +5m 0m +14m

+18m

+9m +12m

Fig 125 The height differences around the paln area. (Source: Helsingor municipailty, modified by author)

Fig 126The transition of the suburbs to the train and ferry area. (Source: Bing maps)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


KE/d/KE^͗WZ</E' dŚĞ ĞĚŐĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐƐ ĂƌĞ ŵĂƌŬĞĚ ďLJ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ƋƵĂŶƟƚLJ ŽĨ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ ůŽƚƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŵĂŬĞƐƚŚĞĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞƐŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞƵŶĐůĞĂƌĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŽǀĞƌĂůů ǀŝĞǁ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐƐ ƵŶĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ͘ dŚĞƉĂƌŬŝŶŐůŽƚƐƚĂŬĞŝŶĂůĂƌŐĞĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƐƉĂĐĞĂŶĚ ĂƌĞ ƐƉƌĞĂĚ ĞǀĞƌLJǁŚĞƌĞ͘ KďǀŝŽƵƐůLJ ƚŚŝƐ ĚĞŵĂŶĚƐ Ă ƉŽŝŶƚŽĨŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶ͘

Fig 127 Parking lots around the city centre and plan area (by author)

Fig 128 Images of parking lots around the area. by author

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8%QPFKVKQPU

KE/d/KE^͗dZ/EZ dŚĞυύƚŚĐĞŶƚƵƌLJƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶŝƐĂŵŽŶƵŵĞŶƚĂůƉŝĞĐĞ͘ dŚĞ ŶĞǁ ůŝŶŬ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ǁŝůůĐĂƵƐĞĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞĐŚĂŶŐĞƐƚŽƚŚĞƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĞdžŝƐƚƐŽĨĂŵĂŝŶŚĂůů͕ǁŚĞƌĞƐƚĂŝƌƐůĞĂĚƵƉ ƚŽƚŚĞƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ͘KŶŽŶĞƐŝĚĞƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƉƌŽĐĞĞĚƐ ĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞƉůĂƞŽƌŵ͕ƚŚŝƐŝƐƵƐĞĚĨŽƌŽĸĐĞĂŶĚƐŚŽƉƐ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ƚŚƌĞĞ ƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ͘ dǁŽ ĂƌĞ ŵĞĂŶƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƚƌĂŝŶĂŶĚŽŶĞĨŽƌƚŚĞůŽĐĂůƚƌĂŝŶƚŚĂƚůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶ ǀŝůůĂŐĞƐ ĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽĂƐƚůŝŶĞ͘ KƵƚƐŝĚĞƚŚĞƐƚĂƟŽŶĂƐĞĐŽŶĚůŽĐĂůƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬůĞĂĚƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌŶŽƌƚŚƚŽĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƚŚĞǀŝůůĂŐĞƐĂůŽŶŐƚŚŝƐƐŝĚĞ of the coastline.

Fig 130 train station interior( picture : municipality Helsingør)

Fig 129 the train buildings (by author)

Fig. 131 Helsingør’s 19th century train station (picture from google)

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Fig. 132 longitudinal section of current situation of train tracks (by author)

ƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶŝƐƚŚĞĞŶĚƐƚĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬ͘dŚŝƐŵĞĂŶƐƚŚĂƚŝƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽƐƚŽƌĞĂŶĚƐǁŝƚĐŚƚƌĂŝŶƐĞĂƐŝůLJ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƚƌĂĐŬƐĂƌĞůĂŝĚŽƵƚŽǀĞƌĂďŝŐĂƌĞĂ͘ƵƚďĞƐŝĚĞƐƚŚŝƐ͕ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƵŶƵƐĞĚ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ƐƟůů ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ͘ >ŝŬĞ ƚŚĞƚƌĂĐŬƐŝŶĨƌŽŶƚŽĨƚŚĞŽůĚƚƌĂŝŶĚĞƉŽƚĂŶĚƚƌĂĐŬƐ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJĂƌĞĂ͕ǁŚĞƌĞŽŶĐĞƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶǁĞŶƚ ŽŶƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJ͘ dŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵĂĚĞ ŵƵĐŚ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJ ŝƐ ĚĞŵĂŶĚĞĚ ĨŽƌƵŶĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚŶĞĐĞƐƐŝƟĞƐĂŶĚĨƵƚƵƌĞĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶƐ͘

Trough Cu t & cover

+20 0

Bor ed tunnel

Cu t & cover

Station

Station

25

-20 -40

DĂdž͘ƐůŽƉĞŽĨƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƚƌĂŝŶ͗υ͗χττͲυ͗φττ dƵŶŶĞůŵŝŶŚĞŝŐŚƚ͗ϊŵ dƵŶŶĞůǁŝĚƚŚƉĞƌƚƌĂŝŶ͗ψ͕ωŵ ;ďĂƐĞĚŽŶƵƌŽĐŽĚĞͿ The tunnel under the TƌĞƐƵŶĚŶĞĞĚƐƚŽďĞĂƚůĞĂƐƚ ϊŬŵƚŽƐŝŶŬĚĞĞƉĞŶŽƵŐŚƵŶƟů,ĞůƐŝŶŐŽƌƐƚĂƟŽŶ

Helsingborg

Helsingor

2, 5 ‰

25

25

-60

0

1

Limestone Upper and middle Jurassic Lower Jurassic

2

3

Postglacial sand Postglacial clay Glacial deposits

4

5

6

Melt water deposits Fill Water

ŽƌĞĚdƵŶŶĞů͕ŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶĂůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚ͘ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͗Kt/

Fig. 133 section of the oresund straight with indication of what depth the tunnels can be placed (Source: IBU)

ůŽĐĂƟŽŶŽĨŶĞǁ,,ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƚƌĂŝŶƚƵŶŶĞů ůŽĐĂƟŽŶŽĨŶĞǁĐĂƌŐŽĂŶĚĐĂƌƚƵŶŶĞů ůŽĐĂƟŽŶŽĨĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬ Fig. 134 Location of existing and estimated future rail tracks (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8%QPFKVKQPU

ƐƐĂŝĚďĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌƐƚƌĂŝŐŚƚďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞƚǁŽ ĐŝƟĞƐŝƐǀĞƌLJĚĞĞƉ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞƚƵŶŶĞůŚĂƐƚŽƐƚĂƌƚ ŝƚƐ ĚĞƐĐĞŶƚ ŽŶ Ă ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ϊ ŬŝůŽŵĞƚƌĞƐ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ƌĞĂĐŚŝŶŐƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶ;&ŝŐ͘υχψͿ͘ dŚĞƉůĂƞŽƌŵƚŽƚŚĞƌĂŝůƚƌĂĐŬƐŽĨƚŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬǁŝůůďĞ ƉůĂĐĞĚφτŵĞƚĞƌƐƵŶĚĞƌƚŚĞƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ͘dŚŝƐĚĞŵĂŶĚƐ Ă ƐŵĂƌƚ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŽŶ ŚŽǁ ƚŽ ƌĞĂĐŚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ĂīĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ǀĂůƵĂďůĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞƐƵƌĨĂĐĞŽĨƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶĂƌĞĂŝƐυͲυ͕φτŵĞƚĞƌŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚƚŚĂŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞĂŶĚƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJĂƌĞĂ͘

Fig 137 the train driving through the suburbs towards the train station

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Fig. 135 section trough city centre, train station and ferry area showing the different heights (by author)

Fig 136 The train station an its dimensions (in meters) by author

dŚĞƚƌĂŝŶĂƌĞĂĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐŽĨƌĂŝůƚƌĂĐŬƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĂƌĞŽŶůLJ ƉĂƌƚůLJŝŶƵƐĞ͘dŚĞLJƚĂŬĞŝŶĂŐƌĞĂƚĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƐƉĂĐĞ͘ ŶŽůĚƵŶƵƐĞĚƚƌĂŝŶĚĞƉŽƚŽŶƚŚĞǁĞƐƚĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞ plan area and several old trains are stored here.

Fig 138 the old train depot and vacant area in front of it. Picture by author

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


KE/d/KE^͗&ZZzZ dŚĞĨĞƌƌLJĂƌĞĂŝƐĞŶĐŝƌĐůĞĚďLJƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚ ĂƌŽĂĚƚŚĂƚƐƚĂƌƚƐǁŝƚŚĂƌŽƵŶĚĂďŽƵƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶƐŚŽƌĞ͕ƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJĂƌĞĂĂŶĚƚŚĞŵŝĚĚůĞŽĨƚŚĞ ƐƵďƵƌďƐƵƉƚŽƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚƐŝĚĞŽĨƚŚĞĂƌĞĂƚŽƚŚĞƌŽĂĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞĂŶĚƚƌĂŝŶĂƌĞĂ͗ƚŚĞ:ĞƌŶďĂŶǀĞũ͘ dŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ ŝƐ ƚŽ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƚ ŶŽƚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ͕ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶĨŽƌƵƐĞƌƐŽĨƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJ͘ĂƌƐĂŶĚƚƌƵĐŬƐŚĂǀĞƚŽ ƉĂƐƐĂƐĞĐƵƌŝƚLJƉŽŝŶƚďĞĨŽƌĞĞŶƚĞƌŝŶŐƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJ͘dŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ ŝƐ ŵĞĂŶƚ ĨŽƌ ƚƌĂĸĐ ǁĂŝƟŶŐ ƚŽ ĞŶƚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ͘ dŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ ŝƐ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŶĞdžƚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ͘ ŌĞƌ ďƵLJŝŶŐ ĂƟĐŬĞƚĂůŽŶŐĞůĞǀĂƚĞĚƚƌƵŶŬ͕ůĞĂĚƐƚŽƚŚĞĚĞĐŬŽĨ ƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJ͘KƚŚĞƌďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĂƌĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJŝŶƚŚĞŚĂƌďŽƌ͘KŶůLJŽŶƚŚĞƚŽƉĞĚŐĞ͕ ŝŶĨƌŽŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶ͕ĂƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚŝƐƉůĂĐĞĚ͘ dŚĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶĨŽƌƚŚŝƐƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚŝƐǀĞƌLJŶŝĐĞ͕ǁŝƚŚĂ ďĞĂƵƟĨƵůǀŝĞǁŽǀĞƌƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͕ďƵƚĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚŽŶŝĐƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĐŽƵůĚƵƐĞĂƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ͘

Fig 139 The ferry related buildings (by author)

ŌĞƌƚŚĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƚƵŶŶĞů͕ƚŚĞƌĞǁŝůůďĞ ŶŽŶĞĞĚĂƚĂůůĂŶLJŵŽƌĞĨŽƌƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƚŽ ĞdžŝƐƚ͘ dŚŝƐ ŵĞĂŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĐŽƵůĚďĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞĚŽƌĚĞŵŽůŝƐŚĞĚĂŌĞƌ ƚŚŝƐĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŵĞŶƚ͘ƐƐƵŵĞĚĨŽƌƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝƐƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞǁŚŽůĞĂƌĞĂĐĂŶďĞƐƉĂƟĂůůLJƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞĚ͘

Fig 140 Several ferry related buildings, with on the top left, the main building attatched to the train station (by autohor)

ȍȇ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8%QPFKVKQPU

KE/d/KE^͗^hE͕t/EEtdZ dŚĞŐƌĂƉŚƐĂŶĚƉŝĐƚƵƌĞƐŽŶƚŚŝƐƉĂŐĞƐƐŚŽǁƚŚĞĞdžƚĞƌŶĂůĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐƚŚĂƚŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘

dŚĞ LJĞĂƌůLJ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŝŶĚ ĂůƐŽ ĚĞƌŝǀĞƐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƐŽƵƚŚǁĞƐƚ͘

dŚĞĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐƵŶŝƐĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞŽƵƐŝŶĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚƚŚĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƚŽĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƐƉĂĐĞƐƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌŽŶƚŚĞƐŽƵƚŚǁĞƐƚƐŝĚĞ͘

The TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ĂƐ Ă ƐĞĂ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ůĞƐƐ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ŽŶ LJĞĂƌůLJ ǁĂƚĞƌ ůĞǀĞů ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ͘dŚĞĚĂŝůLJƟĚĞŝƐƐŚŽǁŶŝŶƚŚĞŐƌĂƉŚŽŶƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞ͘

Fig 141 The tide changes on 18 april 2012 (close to average) Source: Danish Weather Institute (DMI)

Fig 142 Average wind direction around Helsingor Source: Danish Weather Institute (DMI)

Fig 143 Direction of the sun in the plan area. Images by author

ȆƅŻ

ȍȈ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Design challenges & tools dŚĞŶĞdžƚƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƉƌŽƉŽƐĞƐĂĚĞƐŝŐŶĨŽƌƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ĂƌĞĂ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ dŚĞ ĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŽŽůƐ ĨŽƌŵ ƚŚĞ ďĂƐĞ ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ͕ ďĂƐĞĚŽŶƉƌĞǀŝŽƵƐĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ͘

WZK'ZDDd/,>>E'^

^Wd/>,>>E'^͗

WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂƌĞ͗ Ͳ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƚĞ ǁŝƚŚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ďLJ ũŽŝŶŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ŽŶ ƐĞǀĞƌĂůĮĞůĚƐ͗,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂƐĂŶĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶ Ͳ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƐƵƉƉůLJ ĂŶĚ ŵĂŬĞ ŝƚ ŵŽƌĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞĨŽƌŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ͲŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞǀŝƐŝƚŽƌƐĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚ ͲĂƩƌĂĐƚĂŐƌĞĂƚĞƌǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ ͲĂƩƌĂĐƚLJŽƵŶŐƉĞŽƉůĞ ͲĂƩƌĂĐƟŶŐƋƵĂůŝĮĞĚůĂďŽƵƌĨŽƌĐĞ ͲĂĚĚƋƵĂůŝƚLJƚŽůŝǀŝŶŐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ Ͳ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ Ă ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŶŐ ǁĂLJ ŽĨ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ĞdžŝƐƚLJĞƚŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ͲĐƌĞĂƚĞĂŶƵƌďĂŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ͲĂĚĚǀĂůƵĞƚŽĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ ͲƉƌĞƐĞƌǀŝŶŐĂƵƚŚĞŶƟĐŝƚLJĂŶĚƋƵŝĞƚŶĞƐƐ ͲĐŽƉĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞŽĨĞůĚĞƌůLJ ͲĂƩƌĂĐƚŶĞǁďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞĞŵƉƚLJĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂů ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŝŶĂŶĚĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞ

^ƉĂƟĂůĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂƌĞ͗ ͲĚŝŵŝŶŝƐŚďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐĂŶĚĐůŽƐĞĚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ centre ͲĐŽŶŶĞĐƚǀŝƐƵĂůůLJĂŶĚƐƉĂƟĂůůLJǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚ ͲƵƐĞŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƚŚĂƚĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƐŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ͲĐŽŶŶĞĐƚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝƐŽůĂƚĞĚƐƵďƵƌďƐ ͲĐƌĞĂƚĞŝŶǀŝƟŶŐĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞƐĐŝƚLJĂŶĚƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂ ͲĮŶĚƉĂƌŬŝŶŐƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐĨŽƌƉƌŝǀĂƚĞĂŶĚƉƵďůŝĐƵƐĞ Ͳ ĐŽƉĞ ǁŝƚŚ ŚĞŝŐŚƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐƵƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŝŶ pieces ͲĚĞĂůǁŝƚŚŝŶƚĞƌƐĞĐƟŶŐƚƵŶŶĞů ͲĚĞĂůǁŝƚŚĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƚƌĂŝŶďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ͲĚĞĂůǁŝƚŚĨĞƌƌLJďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ

dKK>^͗ dŽŽůƐƚŚĂƚǁŝůůŚĞůƉŽǀĞƌĐŽŵŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐĂƌĞ͗ ͲƌĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌŝŶŐƚƌĂĸĐŇŽǁƐ ͲƉƌĞƐĞƌǀŝŶŐ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƐƉĂƟĂůůLJ ĂŶĚͬŽƌ ǀŝƐƵĂůůLJ ͲĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ;ǀŝƐƵĂůͿ ͲƵƐĞǀŝĞǁĂŶĚĞdžƚĞŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐƚŽĐŽŶŶĞĐƚ ͲƌĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƚƌĂĸĐĂŶĚŽƉĞŶƵƉǁŚĞƌĞƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ͲƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚƉĂƌŬŝŶŐĂŶĚƌĞĂůůŽĐĂƚĞƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ ͲƵƐĞ ŚĞŝŐŚƚƐ ƚŽ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚ ĂŶĚ ĐůĞĂƌ ƵƉ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ areas ͲƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶ Ͳ;ƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ǁŝůů ĞǀĞŶƚƵĂůůLJ ĚŝƐĂƉƉĞĂƌͿ ƌĞŵŽǀĞŽƌƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞdžŝƐƟŶŐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ͲĚĞǀĞůŽƉĚĞƐŝŐŶŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐĨŽƌŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐ

ȍȉ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


 ͘ t,d </E K& ^/'E 'h/>/E^ E WZ/E/W>^ E  h^ dK D/Ed/E E /DWZKs d, hZE K,ZE K& ,>^/E'TZ &dZ d, /DW>DEdd/KE K&d,Et>/E<͍Έd,KZzΉ ϋ͘,KtdK/DW>DEdd,WKdEd/>^Wd/>EWZK'ZDDd/&hEd/KE^/Eͬ KZKEEdt/d,d,WZK:dZ͍ΈDd,K͗Z^Z,z^/'EΉ


VI Design Proposal

Ȇ

ƅŻ Ż

źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR based on

THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR


8+&GUKIPRTQRQUCN

Programmatic proposal

KŶĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůůĞǀĞů,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌďĞĐŽŵĞƐĂŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘/ƚǁŝůůďĞĨĂƐƚĞƌĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽŵĂŝŶ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ďĞƩĞƌ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ ĨƌŽŵ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘ /ƚǁŝůůĞǀĞŶďĞƐŽǁĞůůĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ͕ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĂŶ ďĞƐĞĞŶŽĨĂŶĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘ŽŵďŝŶŝŶŐ ƚŚĞŝƌĨŽƌĐĞƐ͗,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌǁŝƚŚŝƚƐĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ͕ďƵƚƋƵŝĞƚ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐ͖ ŝƚƐ ďĞĂƵƟĨƵů ŝŶŶĞƌ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ŵƵƐĞƵŵƐĂŶĚ<ƌŽŶďŽƌŐĐĂƐƚůĞ͗ƚŚĞƚŽƵƌŝƐƟĐŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŚĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƚLJƉŝĐĂů ;ŚŝŐŚͿ ƵƌďĂŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞǁŝƚŚƐĞǀĞƌĂůĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐǁŽƌŬƉůĂĐĞƐ͕ŝƚ ŽīĞƌƐ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŵĂŶLJ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚƐĞƌǀĞƚŚĞůŽĐĂůƵƉƵŶƟůƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƐĐĂůĞ͘ dŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ƚŽ ĨŽƌŵ Ă ŵĂŝŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞŝŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘

ƵůƚƵƌĂůďƌĞĞĚŝŶŐŐƌŽƵŶĚ /ĨƚŚĞƌŽƵƚĞĨƌŽŵ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂŶĚďĂĐŬ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐƚŚĞƚŽƵƌŝƐƟĐŐĂƚĞǁĂLJŽŶƚŚĞEŽƌƚŚŽĨƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͕ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJƐƟůůŶĞĞĚƐƐŽŵĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͘dŚĞĐƵƌƌĞŶƚŶĞǁĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐŝŶƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚƐĞĞŵƚŽďĞĚŝƐĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĐůŽƐĞĚ ŶĂƌƌŽǁ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƟŶĐƚ ĂƉƉĞĂƌĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐƵďƵƌďƐ͘ dŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂƐŚŽƵůĚďĞƐĞĞŶĂƐƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞƐĞŵŝͲƚŽƵƌŝƐƟĐĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞƐƚ ŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘ dŚŝƐĂƌĞĂƐŚŽƵůĚďĞŵŽƌĞĨŽƌƚŚĞŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͕ƚŽďĞ ĂďůĞ ƚŽ ůŽĐĂůůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůͬŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ďĞŝŶŐ Ă ƚŽƵƌŝƐƟĐ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘/ƚĐĂŶďĞĂďƌĞĞĚŝŶŐŐƌŽƵŶĚĨŽƌƚŚĞŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͗ tŚĞƌĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂŶĚůŝǀŝŶŐĐŽŵĞƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͘

ŶĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚ dŚĞĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͕ŽǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŝŶŐƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ ĐůŽƐĞƐƚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂ-

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ƟŽŶ͕ŝƐƚŚĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶǁŚĞƌĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐͬĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚ ƐĞƌǀĞďŽƚŚƚŚĞůŽĐĂůƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐĂŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůͬƚŽƵƌŝƐƟĐ ƵƐĞƌƐ͘  ŵƵůƟĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ͕ ĂŶ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂů ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚ͕ ŽǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ďĂLJ͗ &ƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚĂƐůŽĐĂů͕ďƵƚǁŝƚŚĂƟŶLJďŝƚŽĨĞdžƚƌĂǀĂŐĂŶĐĞ͗  ƐǁŝŵŵŝŶŐ ƉŽŽů͕ ŇŽĂƟŶŐ ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ͖ Ă;ĨĂŶĐLJͿƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚ͖ĂŶĂƌƚͲŚŽƵƐĞĮůŵƚŚĞĂƚĞƌĂŶĚ Ă ůĞĐƚƵƌĞ ƌŽŽŵ͗ Ăůů ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ ĨŽƌ Ă ǁŝĚĞ ƌĂŶŐĞ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ĂƉĞƌĨĞĐƚƉůĂĐĞƚŽĂƌƌĂŶŐĞĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐƚŚĂƚĐĂŶ ĞdžƚĞŶĚƚŽƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚŽƌŝŶƚŽƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘dŚĞƌĞŝƐĂ ƉůĂĐĞĨŽƌĞǀĞƌLJŽŶĞ͘

DĂŝŶŚƵď dŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐƌŝŶŐωĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐǁŝůůĂƩƌĂĐƚĂůŽƚ ŵŽƌĞ ƵƐĞƌƐ͘ tŚĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ ƚĞƌŵŝŶĂů ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ŝŶ ƵƐĞ ĂŶLJŵŽƌĞ͕ƉƌĞƐƵŵĂďůLJƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶǁŝůůďĞĐŽŵĞ ĂŶ ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝǀĞůLJ ƵƐĞĚ ƚƌĂĸĐ͘ dŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞŶĞĞĚƐ͕ďĞƐŝĚĞƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽ ĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŚĞφτŵĞƚĞƌůŽǁĞƌƉůĂƞŽƌŵ͕ĂůƐŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽ receive more people.

DŝdžĞĚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ dŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵĨŽƌƚŚĞůĂƌŐĞƐƚƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞĂǁŝůů ďĞĂŵŝdžŽĨŚŽƵƐĞƐĂŶĚƐŵĂůůďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ͘ /ƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌƚŽĂƩƌĂĐƚĂƐƚĂďůĞǁŽƌŬ ĨŽƌĐĞ͘dŚŝƐŵĞĂŶƐLJŽƵŶŐĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͕ĐŽƵƉůĞƐĂŶĚǁŽƌŬŝŶŐƐŝŶŐůĞƐ͘dŚĞƌŽůĞĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌǁŝůůďĞƐŵĂůůŝŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐŶĞǁǁŽƌŬƉůĂĐĞƐ͘dŚĞƉĞŽƉůĞƚŽĂƩƌĂĐƚĐĂŶ ǁŽƌŬŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͕ďƵƚŵĂŶLJǁŝůůĂůƐŽǁŽƌŬŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ Žƌ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ /ƚ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ ĂŶ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ĐŝƚLJƚŽůŝǀĞŝŶ͕ƚŚĂƚŝƐŶŽƚŽŶůLJůŝǀĞůLJŝŶƚŚĞǁĞĞŬĞŶĚƐ͘ zŽƵŶŐ ;ƵƌďĂŶͿ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĂůƐŽ ŶĞĞĚ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ ďĞLJŽŶĚ ƚŚĞƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚůŽĐĂůŽŶĞƐ͘ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJŝƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ ŶŝŐŚƚ ůŝĨĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ŚŽƐƉŝƚĂůŝƚLJ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ĂŶĚ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞ Θ ĐƌĞĂƟǀĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ŬĞĞƉƐ ƚŚĞ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƐĂůŝǀĞ͕ĂůƐŽĚƵƌŝŶŐƚŚĞǁĞĞŬĚĂLJƐ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig 144 Impression the new plan area along the coast (by author)

,ŽƵƐŝŶŐ dŽĂƩƌĂĐƚĂǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐŽĨĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƐŝnjĞƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ͘ &ůĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJŝŶƐŝnjĞĂŶĚƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJŝƐĚĞƐŝƌĞĚ͘dŚĞŚŽƵƐĞƐ ĐĂŶďĞĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚĂƐŵĂŶƐŝŽŶƐ͕ŽƚŚĞƌƐĂƐ;ƐƚĂĐŬĞĚͿ apartments. dŚĞ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ĂĚĚ ƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞĂŵŽƌĞƵŶŝƋƵĞƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJƐŚŽƵůĚďĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚƚŚĂƚĮƚƐƚŚĞƋƵŝƚĞǀŝůůĂŐĞůŝŬĞůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ ďĞ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ĨŽƌ LJŽƵŶŐƵƌďĂŶŐƌŽƵƉƐŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞƚŚĂƚƐĞĞŬĂĐŝƚLJůŝŬĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘dŚĞƐĞĐƟŽŶƚŚĂƚĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐƚŚĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ ǁŝůů ŐŽ ĚĞĞƉĞƌ ŝŶƚŽƚŚŝƐŵĂƩĞƌďLJĚĞƐĐƌŝďŝŶŐĚĞƐŝŐŶŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐĨŽƌ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ dŚĞĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨŚŽƵƐŝŶŐǁŝůůĂůƐŽďĞŇĞdžŝďůĞ͘Ɛǁŝůů ďĞĐŽŵĞĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚŝŶƚŚĞƉŚĂƐŝŶŐĂŶĚĨĞĂƐŝďŝůŝƚLJƐĞĐƟŽŶ͕ŝƚǁŝůůƚĂŬĞŵĂŶLJLJĞĂƌƐďĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞĂƌĞĂŝƐĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞƌĞƐŚŽƵůĚŶŽƚďĞƐƚƌŝĐƚƉůĂŶƐĨŽƌ ƚŚĞƋƵĂŶƟƚLJŽĨŶĞǁŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘dŚŝƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĚĞĐŝĚĞĚ further into the development . ƵƚƚŽŵĂŬĞƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŵŽƌĞĐŽŶĐƌĞƚĞ͕ĨŽƌƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ ŝƐ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ωττĂŶĚϊττŚŽƵƐĞƐ͕ĚĞƉĞŶĚŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞĚĞŵĂŶĚĨŽƌ ƐŝnjĞ͘dŚĞƐŝnjĞĐĂŶĚŝīĞƌďĞƚǁĞĞŶότŵφƵƉƚŽυότŵφ. ŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ŽǀĞƌ ƐƵďĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ƐŽƚŚĂƚĞǀĞƌLJĂƌĞĂŚĂƐĂŶŽǁŶŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ

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hŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ ǁŝůů ďĞĐŽŵĞ Ă ŵĂŝŶ ŝƐƐƵĞ͘ ǀĞƌLJŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐŚŽƵůĚŚĂǀĞƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJƚŽƉĂƌŬ υ͕ωĐĂƌƐ͘dŚŝƐŵĞĂŶƐƵƉƚŽύττƉĂƌŬŝŶŐůŽƚƐ͕ǀŝƐŝƚŽƌƐ not included. ƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞůLJϊτ͘τττŵφŽƵƚŽĨƚŚĞυωω͘τττŵφǁŝůů ďĞ ƌĞƐĞƌǀĞĚ ĨŽƌ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƐŵĂůů ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ;ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJωτ͘τττŵφĂŶĚυτ͘τττŵφͿ͕ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚƐƉĂĐĞĂŶĚŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘dŚŝƐŵĞĂŶƐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐǁŝƚŚĂŶĂǀĞƌĂŐĞŽĨχƚŽψŇŽŽƌƐ͕ƚŚĞ'&ǁŝůůďĞ ĂƌŽƵŶĚφυτ͘τττ͕Ă'^/ŽĨτ͘χόĂŶĚĂ&^/ŽĨυ͘χω͘ KƚŚĞƌĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚŽƌƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞĚĂƌĞ͗ - Restaurant Ͳ>ŽĐĂůĐĂĨĠ - Child care ͲůŽĐĂů;ĞǀĞŶŝŶŐͿƐŚŽƉ ͲWƌŝŵĂƌLJƐĐŚŽŽů Ͳ^ƉŽƌƚĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ ͲhŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚƉƵďůŝĐƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ ͲdƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞďƵƐƐƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚůŽĐĂůƚƌĂŝŶ͗ ĐůŽƐĞƚŽƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶ ͲŝƚLJƐƋƵĂƌĞ ͲDĂƌŝŶĂ ͲŝŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƐŚŽƉĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƚŽƵƌďĂŶŐĂƌĚĞŶƐ dŚĞƐĞĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐƐŚŽƵůĚŶŽƚĐŽŵƉĞƚĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƚŝŶŐ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͖ ƚŚĞLJ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ Ă ƐƵƉƉůĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĂŶĚĂĚĚƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞŶĞǁƉůĂŶ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


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Spatial proposal

Fig. 145 Existing urban structure used to obtain spatial guidelines (by author)

Fig. 146 Java Island, Amsterdam, by Soeters & van Eldonk

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Fig. 147 Sluseholmen, Copenhagen, by Soeters & van Eldonk

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


dŚĞ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ŝƐ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚĂƐƉĞĐƚƐ͕ŵĂŶLJŽĨǁŚŝĐŚŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚŝŶ ƚŚĞƉƌĞǀŝŽƵƐƐĞĐƟŽŶƐ͘

ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂů ŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ ƚŽ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŚĞŝŐŚƚƐ͕ƐƉĂƟĂůĞīĞĐƚƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƵƐĞŽĨĂůŝŐŚƚǀŝƐƵĂů ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶŝŶŐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ͘

dŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ ĂƌĞĂ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ Ă ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ χ ĂƌĞĂƐ͗ ƚŚĞ ƐƵďƵƌďƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞĂŶĚƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚ͘ ,ĞŝŐŚƚƐ͕ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚǀŝĞǁƐĨŽƌŵƚŚĞŵĂŝŶ ŐƌŝĚŽŶǁŚĞƌĞƚŽďƵŝůĚŽŶ͘dŚĞĂŝŵŝƐƚŽĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞ ƚŚĞ ŽƌŝŐŝŶĂů ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝ��Ś ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ĞǀĞŶ ďƌŝŶŐƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĞĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘ dŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐŝŶƐƉŝƌĞĚďLJƐĞǀĞƌĂůƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ;ƐĞĞ ĂƉƉĞŶĚŝdžͿ͕ ďƵƚ ŵĂŝŶůLJ ŝƚ ŝƐ ĞŶƚŚƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ĂƐƐĞŵďůLJ ŽĨ ƚǁŽ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ^ŽĞƚĞƌƐ͗ ƚŚĞ :ĂǀĂ ŝƐůĂŶĚ͕ŝŶŵƐƚĞƌĚĂŵ;&ŝŐ͘υψϊͿĂŶĚ^ůƵƐĞŚŽůŵĞŶŝŶ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘;&ŝŐ͘υψϋͿ Fig. 148 Seperating the ferry area to create an independent area directed to the waterfront (by author)

Fig. 149 Bringing the water into the plan area unto the historical centre and smoothing the north east egdes and remove all unused tracks and reduce and compress the rest to a minimum (by author)

Fig. 150 Cutting out exisitng strucutral lines from the city centre and sub urbs. Connecting the ‘islands’ with the relocated road (by author)

Fig. 151 Adding bike and pedestrian roads, move the busstation (by author)

Fig. 152 Place facilities on strategic locations around the area (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8+&GUKIPRTQRQUCN

Plan

dŚĞŵĂƉŽŶƚŚĞƌŝŐŚƚƐŚŽǁƐƚŚĞƉůĂŶĨŽƌƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͘ dŚĞƐĞĐƟŽŶƐďĞůŽǁƐŚŽǁƚŚĞǁŝĚƚŚŽĨƚŚĞĂƌĞĂƐŽŶ ƚǁŽƉůĂĐĞƐ͘KŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞƐ͕ŽŶĞďLJŽŶĞĂůůƚŚĞ ĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶǁŝůůďĞĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ͘

fig. 153 & 154 sections through the middel of the plan and trough the station (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


mansion with green roof mansion mixed (housing and business) public building other buildings bus & local train station/ stop cycle shelter entrance square urban farming public green pedestrian area cycle and pedestrian lane secondary road local road main road regional train track high speed train track local train track underground parking entrance

fig. 155 New plan area (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8+&GUKIPRTQRQUCN

Housing

ŶŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŚĞŵĞŝŶƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝƐƚŚĞůŝǀŝŶŐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘dŚĞǁĂLJŽĨůŝǀŝŶŐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚĂĚĚƐĂŶĞǁĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƚŽƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘ dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJƵƐĞĚĨŽƌƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŚĂƐƚŽĮƚ ƚŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵĂŶĚƚŚĞƐƵŐŐĞƐƚĞĚǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶŽĨƚĂƌŐĞƚ ŐƌŽƵƉƐ͘/ŶŐĞŶĞƌĂůƚŚĞƐĞĂƌĞLJŽƵŶŐŚŝŐŚĞƌĞĚƵĐĂƚĞĚ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ƉŽƐƐŝďůLJǁŝƚŚĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͘ /Ŷ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ƚŚŝƐ ŐƌŽƵƉ ƉƌĞĨĞƌƐ Ă ŵŽƌĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ dŽ ƌĞĂůŝnjĞ ƚŚŝƐ / ůŽŽŬĞĚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ďŝŐŐĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ ǁŚĞƌĞ ŵĂŶLJ LJŽƵŶŐ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ůŝǀĞ͘ DLJ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ĨĞůů ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ďůŽĐŬƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƐŽŵĞƟŵĞƐ ĐůŽƐĞĚ͕ƐŽŵĞƟŵĞƐŚĂůĨŽƉĞŶĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚďůŽĐŬƐĂƌĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝnjĞĚďLJƚŚĞŝƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͘dŚĞLJŽŌĞŶĞdžŝƐƚŽĨďŝŐLJĂƌĚƐŽƌƐƋƵĂƌĞƐǁŝƚŚ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͛Ɛ ƉůĂLJŐƌŽƵŶĚƐ͕ ĐLJĐůĞ ƐŚĞůƚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŐĂƌďĂŐĞ

ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂů͘^ŽŵĞŚĂǀĞƐŵĂůůƉƌŝǀĂƚĞƚĞƌƌĂĐĞƐƚŚĂƚůŽŽŬ ŽƵƚ ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚ͘ ůŵŽƐƚ ĞǀĞƌLJ ďůŽĐŬ ŝŶ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶǁŽƌŬƐǁŝƚŚƚŚŝƐƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞĂŶĚŵŽƐƚŽĨƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐŽĨƚŚĞƐĞďůŽĐŬƐ͘ DŽƐƚŽĨƚŚĞƐĞĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚďůŽĐŬƐĂƌĞďƵŝůƚďĞƚǁĞĞŶ υύττ ĂŶĚ υύφύ͘ ŌĞƌ ƚŚŝƐ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƵƐĞĚŝŶƚŚĞůŝŐŚƚŽĨůĞŽƌďƵƐŝĞƌ͛ƐŝĚĞĂƐĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌƐ͕ ĂƐŝŶŵĂŶLJĐŝƟĞƐƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚƚŚĞǁĞƐƚĞƌŶǁŽƌůĚ͘/Ŷ ƚŚĞĞŝŐŚƟĞƐƚŚĞƐƵĐĐĞƐƐŽĨƵƌďĂŶďůŽĐŬƐǁĂƐƌĞĚŝƐĐŽǀĞƌĞĚ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞƌ ƐŝŶĐĞ ŵĂŶLJ ŶĞǁ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ĂƌĞ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŚŝƐ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ďůŽĐŬ ƉƌŝŶciple. /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ĂƉƉĞŶĚŝdž ƚŚĞ ;ĨŽƌ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŵŽĚŝĮĞĚͿ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŽĨ Ă ƐƚƵĚLJ ďLJ 'ĞŚů ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ ŝƐ ĂĚĚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐƚŚĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͛ƐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐďůŽĐŬƐ͘dŚĞĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐŽĨƚŚŝƐ ƐƚƵĚLJĐĂŶďĞĨŽƵŶĚŝŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƐĞĐƟŽŶ͘

Fig 156 Vesterbro, Copenhagen. source: Bing maps

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


υύττĐůŽƐĞĚďůŽĐŬƐ ŌĞƌŝƚǁĂƐƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƚŽĞdžƚĞŶĚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJďĞŚŝŶĚƚŚĞ ƌĂŵƉĂƌƚƐ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨďůŽĐŬƐŝŶƚŚĞŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶďƌŝĚŐĞŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŚŽŽĚƐ ǁŚĞƌĞĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚ͘ĞĐĂƵƐĞŵŽƌĞůŝŐŚƚĂŶĚĂŝƌǁĂƐ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶǁĂƐŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞĚĂŶĚƚŚĞďůŽĐŬƐ ďĞĐĂŵĞůĂƌŐĞƌǁŝƚŚĨĞǁĞƌďĂĐŬďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĂŶĚǁŝƚŚŽƵƚŝŶŶĞƌďůŽĐŬƐ͘

υύφτŽƉĞŶďůŽĐŬ ƌŽƵŶĚυύφτƚŚĞďůŽĐŬƐďĞĐĂŵĞŵŽƌĞŽƉĞŶŝŶŽŶĞ ĐŽƌŶĞƌ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŚĞ ůŝŐŚƚ ŝŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ďĂĐŬLJĂƌĚƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ďĞŐŝŶŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŽĨƚŚĞďůŽĐŬͲĨŽƌĂǁŚŝůĞ͘

υύχτdĞƌƌĂĐĞĚŚŽƵƐĞƐ /ŶƚŚĞυύχτƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůŝƐŵĐƌĞĂƚĞĚƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨƚĞƌƌĂĐĞĚŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘͘dŚĞĐůŽƐĞĚďůŽĐŬĚŝƐƐŽůǀĞƐĂŶĚ ďĂůĐŽŶŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĂĚĚĞĚ Ͳ Ă ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚ ŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞĚ ŝŶƚŽĂůĂƌŐĞƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞĨƵƚƵƌĞƐĞƩůĞŵĞŶƚƐ͘

υύωτƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŇĂƚƐ;ƉŽŝŶƚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐͿ DƵůƟƐƚŽƌLJĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂƌĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJƵƐĞĚ ĂƐĂƐŽůƵƟŽŶĨŽƌƚŚĞŵĂƐƐĞƐƚŚĂƚŝŶƚŚŝƐƟŵĞĚĞƐŝƌĞ a form of detached houses as the most radical move ĂǁĂLJĨƌŽŵƚŚĞďůŽĐŬ͘^ŝŶĐĞƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĂƉƉĞĂƌĂƐ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ͕ ŶŽƚ ĨŽƌŵĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƚŽ ďĞĂƐŽůƵƟŽŶĂƚƚŚĂƚƟŵĞ͘

υύϋτĂĐŬƚŽĐůŽƐĞĚďůŽĐŬƐ /ŶƚŚĞůĂƚĞυύϋτƐƚŚĞƌĞǁĂƐĂƌĞǀŝǀĂůŽĨƚŚĞĐůĂƐƐŝĐ ŝĚĞĂů ŽĨ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĂůƐŽ ƚŚĞ ďůŽĐŬƐ ǁĞƌĞ ƌĞŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞĚʹďŽƚŚƚŚĞĨƵůůLJĂŶĚƉĂƌƟĂůůLJĐůŽƐĞĚ͘ dŚĞƌĞǁĂƐĂůƐŽĂĐŽŶǀĞƌƐŝŽŶŽĨĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͕ ǁŚĂƚĐĂƵƐĞĚŵŽƌĞďĂĐŬďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐƚŽďĞĚĞƐƚƌŽLJĞĚ͘ dŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐǁĂƐƐƵďƐŝĚŝnjĞĚ ďLJƚŚĞĨŽƌŵĞƌ'ƌĞĞŶ'ĂƌĚĞŶŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ͕ǁŚŝĐŚǁĂƐ ĨƵŶĚĞĚďLJƵƌďĂŶƌĞŶĞǁĂůĨƵŶĚƐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞ^ƚĂƚĞĂŶĚ ƚŚĞDƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘dŚĞƐĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ǁĞƌĞƚLJƉŝĐĂůůLJĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚĂƐĐůŽƐĞĚĨŽƌƚŚĞƉƵďůŝĐ͘

φτττdŚĞďůŽĐŬŝƐŽƉĞŶĞĚĂŐĂŝŶ ƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞLJĞĂƌφτττŽƉĞŶĞĚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐďůŽĐŬƐƚƵƌŶ ƵƉŝŶŵĂŶLJŶĞǁĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐĞǀŝĚĞŶƚŝŶ ŶĞǁŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŚŽŽĚƐůŝŬĞTƌĞƐƚĂĚĂŶĚ^ůƵƐĞŚŽůŵĞŶ͘ ^ŝŵƵůƚĂŶĞŽƵƐůLJ͕ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĞƌƐ ĞdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂŶĚĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƚLJƉĞƐ͕ďƵƚƚŚĞŽƉĞŶĨŽƌŵŝƐ ƉƌŽŵŝŶĞŶƚŝŶŶĞǁĞƌĞƐƚĂƚĞƐ͘

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8+&GUKIPRTQRQUCN

KE>h^/KE^&ZKDd,^dhzz',> Z,/dd^Έ^WWE/yΉ ͲtŚĞŶĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐĂƌĞŽƉĞŶĨŽƌƉƵďůŝĐ ŝƚďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚƚŽŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞǁŚŽ͛ƐŽǁŶŝŶŐƚŚĞƉůĂĐĞ͕ƚŚŝƐĐĂŶ ůĞĂĚƚŽĐŽŶŇŝĐƚŽƌůĞƐƐƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘ŝŐĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐĨĞĞůĂůƐŽŵŽƌĞƉƵďůŝĐƚŚĞŶƐŵĂůůĞƌŽŶĞƐ͘ůƐŽ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƐƉĂĐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƚŚĞƵƐĞ͘

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ͲZĞĐŽƌĚƐŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶnjŽŶĞƐĂƌĞĐƌƵĐŝĂůƚŽǁŚĞƚŚĞƌƚŚĞŽƉĞŶĨŽƌŵǁŽƌŬƐ͘ŶĚƉĞƌŚĂƉƐ ƚŚĞ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐ ŽĨ ŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŇŽŽƌƐ ŝƐ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚ ǁŚĞƚŚĞƌƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŽƉĞŶŽƌĐůŽƐĞĚƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘ Ͳ KƉĞŶ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ Ă ůŝƩůĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƵŶƐĂĨĞ ĨŽƌ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͘ dŚŝƐ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ŵŽƌĞ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƌƐ ǀŝƐŝƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂĐĞ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ůŝŬĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ Žƌ ďƵƐLJ roads. Ͳ KƉĞŶ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ƚŽ ƐƚĂLJ͕ ďĞcause of more life and the open character that it has ƚŚĂƚŵĂŬĞƚŚĞƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐĂĐĐĞƉƚƚŚŝƐůŝǀĞůŝŶĞƐƐ͘ Ͳ /ŶŽƉĞŶĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐŝƚŝƐŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽƐŚŽǁ ǁŚĂƚƉůĂĐĞƐĂƌĞƉƌŝǀĂƚĞĂŶĚǁŚŝĐŚĂƌĞƉƵďůŝĐ͘^Ɵůůŝƚ ŝƐĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞĨŽƌƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐƚŽŚĂǀĞĐĞƌƚĂŝŶĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJĨŽƌƚŚĞŵ͕ƐŽƚŚĂƚŝƚŝƐŶŽƚũƵƐƚĂ ĐŝƚLJƉĂƌŬ͕ƚŚŝƐŝƐǁŚĂƚĐůŽƐĞĚĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐŚĂǀĞŵƵĐŚ more. Ͳ WůĂLJ ŽƉƟŽŶƐ ƉůĂLJ Ă ǀĞƌLJ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ƚŽ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͘ ĞƉĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŽŶ ǁŚĂƚ ŝƐ ĚĞƐŝƌĞĚ͕ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ ĐĂŶ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ ŵŽƌĞ Žƌ ůĞƐƐ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƌƐ͘ ŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͛Ɛ ƉůĂLJŐƌŽƵŶĚ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ life. Ͳ ^ĞǀĞƌĂů ĞdžƚĞƌŶĂů ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ůŝŬĞ ƐƵŶůŝŐŚƚĂŶĚƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƚŚĞ ƵƐĞŽĨĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͘

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ

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Fig .157 - 160 Courtyards of Copenhagen. source: google

,KtEth^d,/^&KZ,>^/E'TZ͍ &ŽƌƚŚĞ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌƉůĂŶƚŚĞǀŝƐŝŽŶŝƐƚŚĂƚŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ĞŶũŽLJ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŽǁŶ ůŝƩůĞ ƉŝĞĐĞ ŽĨĐŝƚLJƚŚĂƚŝƐďƌŽƵŐŚƚŝŶďLJƚŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬ͘dŚĞĂƌĞĂ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶŽĚ ŚĂƐ Ă ǀĞƌLJ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƩƌĂĐƚƐ ;ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůͿ ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚ͘ dŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶ ĂƌĞĂ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚŝƐ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŝŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂůĂƌĞĂƐǁŝůůďĞƌĞŇĞĐƚĞĚŝŶƚŽƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶĂƌĞĂ͘dŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐďůŽĐŬƐƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƚŚŝƐƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞǁĂLJ ŽĨŚŽǁƚŚĞŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐĐŽƵůĚŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƚ͘dŚĞLJŐĞƚƚŚĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽŐĂƚŚĞƌŝŶĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐĂŶĚ are therefore less inclined to retreat to there more ŝƐŽůĂƚĞĚĞƚĂĐŚĞĚŚŽƵƐĞƐ͕ůŝŬĞŵŽƐƚŽĨƚŚĞŚŽƵƐĞƐŝŶ ƚŚĞƐƵďƵƌďƐŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ LJŽƵŶŐ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ƉĞŽƉůĞƚŚĂƚŽŌĞŶŚĂǀĞĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͕ƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶďůŽĐŬĮƚƐ ǀĞƌLJǁĞůůǁŝƚŚƚŚŝƐŐƌŽƵƉŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͘dŚĞŝĚĞĂŝƐƚŽ

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ŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶ Ă ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĞǁ͘dŚĞƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐƐŚŽƵůĚŶŽƚďĞĨĞĞůŝŶŐĞdžĐůƵĚĞĚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŶĞǁ ĂƌĞĂĂŶĚĂƌĞƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞǁĞůĐŽŵĞŝŶŵĂŶLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŶĞǁ ďůŽĐŬƐ͘  ŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĂďůĞƚŽƉůĂLJŚĞƌĞĂŶĚĂĚƵůƚƐĐĂŶƵƐĞƚŚĞŵĂŶLJƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐŽĨƐĞǀĞƌĂůĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚǁŝůůďĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ ŝŶƚŚĞŶĞǁĂƌĞĂ͘ dŚĞ ƐĐĂůĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďůŽĐŬƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ǁŝůů Žī ĐŽƵƌƐĞ ďĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ďůŽĐŬƐ͘ dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐǁŝůůďĞůŽǁĞƌĂŶĚƚŚĞLJĂƌĚƐĐĂŶƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞďĞƐŵĂůůĞƌƚŽƐƟůůƌĞĐĞŝǀĞĞŶŽƵŐŚƐƵŶůŝŐŚƚ͘dŚŝƐ ĐĂŶĂůƐŽŵĂŬĞŝƚŵŽƌĞƉůĞĂƐĂŶƚĨŽƌƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐƚŽĨĞĞů more safe and contained. dŚĞŶĞdžƚƐĞĐƟŽŶǁŝůůĚŝƐĐƵƐƐƐŽŵĞŵŽƌĞĂƐƉĞĐƚƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽƚŚŝƐƐƚƵĚLJĂŶĚŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8+&GUKIPRTQRQUCN

hZE>K<^EWZ</E' dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐŝŶƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͘ dŚŝƐŝƐĚŽŶĞďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞǀŝƐƵĂůŶĞĐĞƐƐŝƚLJƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞƉůĂŶďƵƚĂůƐŽƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽĂƩƌĂĐƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŬŝŶĚŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͘dŚĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJŽĨƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂŝƐƐƚƌŽŶŐůLJŝŶƐƉŝƌĞĚďLJƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐďůŽĐŬƐĂŶĚ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘KƉĞŶďůŽĐŬƐŽƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJƐƉĂĐĞďLJƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŝƐĐƌĞĂƚĞĚƚŽŐĞƚ ĂƐŝŵŝůĂƌŬŝŶĚŽĨĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ŵŽƌĞĐŝƚLJůŝŬĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƚŚĂŶǁŚĂƚŝƐĐŽŵŵŽŶŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ KŶƚŚŝƐƉĂŐĞĂĨĞǁŽĨƚŚĞƐƚƵĚŝĞƐĂƌĞƐŚŽǁŶŽŶŚŽǁ ƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͕ƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶĂŶĚƚŚĞŝŶŶĞƌ ĐŝƚLJƐŚŽƵůĚďĞŵĂĚĞ͘ĨĞǁĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐĂƌĞ͗ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐƐŚŽƵůĚŐĞƚĂƐŵƵĐŚƐƵŶĂƐƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ͖ƚŚĞLJƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞĂƐŵƵĐŚƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚĞĚďLJǁĂƚĞƌĂƐƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƐŽƚŚĂƚ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŽŶĂůůƐŝĚĞƐĐĂŶƐĞŶƐĞƚŚĞƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ͖ƚŚĞĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƚƌĂĸĐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞǀĞƌLJůŽǁ͕Žƌ ĞǀĞŶƚŽƚĂůůLJĂďŽůŝƐŚĞĚĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞƐŚŽƵůĚďĞƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ͘

Fig. 161 Studies of buildings and their relation with canals (by author)

ȆƅŻ

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig. 162 study of sections of the plan area (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8+&GUKIPRTQRQUCN

ƵƌŝŶŐƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ ǁĞƌĞ ŝŶ Ă ǁĂLJ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ŵŽƌĞ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ǁĂƐ Ă ďŝŐ ƵŶĚĞƌůLJŝŶŐ ďŽdž͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ďůŽĐŬƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚĂƐŇŽŽƌͲυǁŝƚŚŝŶĂďŝŐŐĞƌĂůůĐŽŵďŝŶŝŶŐ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ͗KŶƚŽƉŽĨƚŚĞďŽdžƚŚĞůĞǀĞůƐĞĞŵƐƚŽďĞƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂůƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ͘ƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐͬŵĂŶƐŝŽŶƐĂƌĞďƵŝůƚŽŶ ƚŽƉ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ ĂŶĚ ƐƟĐŬ ƚƌŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞďŽƩŽŵ͘dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĂƌĞƐŽƚŽƐƉĞĂŬ͕ĞdžƚĞŶĚĞĚ ŝŶƚŽƚŚĞďĂƐĞŵĞŶƚ͘ dŚŝƐ ďƌŝŶŐƐ ƵƉ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ Ă ǁŚŽůĞ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ǁĞƌĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ĐĂŶ ĚƌŝǀĞ ĚŽǁŶ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ƐƉĂĐĞ͕ƉĂƌŬƚŚĞŝƌĐĂƌŝŶƐŝĚĞŽƌŝŶĨƌŽŶƚŽĨƚŚĞŝƌŚŽƵƐĞ ŽŶ ŇŽŽƌ Ͳυ͕ ĂŶĚ ŐŽ ƵƉ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĞůĞǀĂƚŽƌ Žƌ ƐƚĂŝƌƐ ƚŽƚŚĞŝƌĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ͘KŶƚŚĞDzŐƌŽƵŶĚǭŇŽŽƌ;ŽŶƚŽƉ ŽĨƚŚĞďŽdžͿƚŚĞƌĞŝƐŶŽǁĂǁŽƌůĚǁŝƚŚŽƵƚĐĂƌƐ͕ƚŚĞ ŝĚĞĂů ƉůĂĐĞ ĨŽƌ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ƚŽ ƉůĂLJ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ĞŶũŽLJ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƋƵŝůůŝƚLJǁŚŝůĞĞŶũŽLJŝŶŐƚŚĞǀŝĞǁŽǀĞƌƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͘ dŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ŇŽŽƌ Ͳυ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ĂƐ ŽŶĞ ǁŚŽůĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ ĨƌŽŵ Ͳυ ;ďLJ ĐĂƌ͕ ďŝŬĞ Žƌ ĨŽŽƚͿ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŇŽŽƌ ;ďLJ ďŝŬĞ Žƌ ĨŽŽƚͿ KǀĞƌŚĞĂĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐƐĞĞŵƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞǁŝƚŚůŽƚƐŽĨŽƉĞŶƐƉĂĐĞĂŶĚ ŐƌĞĞŶŝŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶ͘;^ĞĞĮŐ͘υϊχͿ dŚĞƵƉƉĞƌĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐĂƌĞĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞĨƌŽŵĂŐĂůůĞƌLJ ĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚ ŽŶ ĞǀĞƌLJ ŇŽŽƌ͘ &ůŽŽƌ Ͳυ ŝƐ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞŝŶƚŚĞƐĂŵĞǁĂLJ͘dŚĞĐŝƌĐƵůĂƟŽŶŝƐƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ŽŶĞǀĞƌLJŇŽŽƌ͘;^ĞĞĮŐ͘υϊωΘυϊϊͿ WĂŐĞ υυχ Ͳυυω ƐŚŽǁ Ă ĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚ ƉůĂŶ ŽĨ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŝŶƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ;ĂƌĞĂψͿƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐŽŶƚŚĞ ŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŇŽŽƌ ŚĂǀĞ ĂŶ ĞdžƚƌĂ ƐƉĂĐĞ ĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŽƵƚĞƌ ĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞďŽdž͘dŚĞLJĐĂŶĞŶƚĞƌƚŚŝƐƌŽŽŵƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞďŽdžůĞǀĞůĂŶĚƚĂŬĞƚŚĞƐƚĂŝƌƐŝŶƚŚĞƌŽŽŵƚŽƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ͗ /ĚĞĂů ĨŽƌ ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐĞĞŬ for some extra space.

ƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŵƵůƟ ƐƚŽƌĞLJ ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐƐƉĂĐĞƐŝŶƚŚĞŵŝĚĚůĞŽĨƚŚĞͲυŇŽŽƌ͘ dŚĞ Ͳυ ƐƚŽƌĞLJ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ǀĞƌLJ ǁĞůů ŝůůƵŵŝŶĂƚĞĚ͘ dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƐĞǀĞƌĂůƌŽŽĨǁŝŶĚŽǁƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞŵĂĚĞ͘ ĞƐŝĚĞƐůŝŐŚƚ͕ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌƉŽŝŶƚŽĨƐĂĨĞƚLJŝƐƚŚĞĚĞŐƌĞĞ ŽĨ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƉůĂŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůͬŵŝdžĞĚ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞ ŽŶůLJ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ ĨŽƌ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ Žƌ ĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͘ sŝƐŝƚŽƌƐ ĐĂŶ ƉĂƌŬĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞƌŽĂĚŶĞdžƚƚŽƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬƐ͕ďĞĨŽƌĞ ĞŶƚĞƌŝŶŐƚŚĞĂƌĞĂƐ͘ dŚĞĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐĐĂŶŚĂǀĞĂƐŵĂŶLJŇŽŽƌƐĂƐĚĞƐŝƌĞĚ͘ /ŶƚŚŝƐƉůĂŶƚŚĞĞdžĂĐƚĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨŇŽŽƌŝƐŇĞdžŝďůĞ͘dŚĞ ŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƵŶůŝŐŚƚ ĂŶĚĂŵĂdžŝŵƵŵŚĞŝŐŚƚŽĨĨŽƵƌŇŽŽƌƐƚŽŶŽƚĨŽƌŵĂ ŵĂƐƐŝǀĞďůŽĐŬƚŚĂƚĐƵƚƐŽĨƚŚĞǀŝƐƵĂůƌĞůĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞ ŝŶŶĞƌĐŝƚLJǁŝƚŚƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͘dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĂƌĞďƵŝůƚŽŶĂ ŐƌŝĚŽĨυτďLJόŵĞƚĞƌƐ͘dŚĞƐŵĂůůĞƐƚĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐĂƌĞ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞŵĂdžότŵφĂŶĚďŝŐŐĞƌĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐĂƌĞŝŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂůĂŵƵůƟƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚŝƐ͗ĂĚŽƵďůĞĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŚĂƐĂŶĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞƐŝnjĞĨŽƌĂĨĂŵŝůLJǁŝƚŚĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͘ dŚĞ Ͳυ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ĐĂŶ ĂƐ Ă ǀĂƌŝĂŶƚ ĂůƐŽ ĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞůLJ ďĞ ƉůĂĐĞĚ ƵŶĚĞƌ ;ŵŽƌĞ ĞdžƉĞŶƐŝǀĞͿ Žƌ ŽŶƚŽƉ;ĐŽƐƚƐĂǀŝŶŐͿŽĨƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ͘ƵĞƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶ / ŚĂǀĞ ĐŚŽƐĞŶ ĨŽƌ Ă ŚĂůĨ ĚĞĞƉĞŶĞĚ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ͕ ƚŽ ŽǀĞƌĐŽŵĞ ŚŝŐŚ ĐŽƐƚƐ ĂŶĚƵŶŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJďůŽĐŬŝŶŐŽĨǀŝĞǁƐ͘/ŶƚŚŝƐǁĂLJƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ĂƐ Ă ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐďůŽĐŬĂŶĚŶŽƚĂƐŽŶĞŚƵŐĞďůŽĐŬ͘ dŚĞ ĚƌĂǁŝŶŐƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉĂŐĞƐ ŐŝǀĞ ĐůĞĂƌ ŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ƵƐĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘

Fig. 163 3d Model of building typology (by author)

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ŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŇŽŽƌ н ƵƉƉĞƌŇŽŽƌƐ

surface

ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞƐƉĂĐĞƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞͲυŇŽŽƌ

infrastructure for ĐĂƌƐƚŽƉĂƌŬŝŶŐůŽƚƐ Ͳυ ŇŽŽƌ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ƐŝĚĞ ǁŝŶĚŽǁƐ ĂŶĚ ďĂůĐŽŶLJ

ǁĂƚĞƌ

Fig. 164 3d Model of building typology: unraveled (by author)

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Fig. 166 Basic circulation of storeys (by author)

Fig. 165 Basic circulation of level -1 (by author)

Fig. 167 Section of variant 1: basement is fully deepened ( (by author)

Fig. 168 Section of variant 2: basement is fully elevatied ( (by author)

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Fig. 169 Section of variant 2: basement is half deepened ( (by author)

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Fig. 170 Cross sections of all 3 variants ( (by author)

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ͳυ Fig. 171 Level -1 of the building: Shown in green is the movement of two cars that access the building from the outside road. After parking, the drivers step out and access their apartment if they live on the ground floor or walk to one of the elevators or stairs to go up to their apartment. This floor contains spaces as an extension of the ground floor apartments, storage rooms for the other residents, space for garbage disposal and access to the outside “balconies” (by author)

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τ Fig. 172 Level 0 of the building: People on foot or bike can access the building also on this floor from the road, but also from the other side where the building is connected to a biking lane and pavement. From here they can go to their apartment’s trough the courtyard or go up and walk along the courtyard. This floor contains apartments that are directly connected to the common courtyard (with playground, garden and other facilities) and are therefore most sufficient for families with children. There is also a view towards the basement. (by author)

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υн Fig. 173 Level 1+ of the building: On this floor all the other apartments are located. They are accessible by staircase and elevator that connect to balconies that go around the courtyard. This makes the relation with the courtyard also more apparent. (by author)

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Details of the plan

building machine room main building public underground car parking public underground bike parking balconies underground parking entrance

Fig. 174 The result of the use of this typology: an undergound world (by author)

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Fig. 175 Housing area 1 (by author)

dŚŝƐĂƌĞĂĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐŽĨĂƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞůLJυττŚŽƵƐĞƐĂŶĚυωŽĸĐĞƐ͘dŚĞŚŽƵƐĞƐĂƌĞŵŽƐƚ ĐůŽƐĞůLJƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞƐƵďƵƌďƐ͘dŚĞŝƌƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJĐĂŶĂůƐŽďĞĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚĂƐŵŽƐƚĐůŽƐĞƚŽ ƚŚĞƐƵďƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂƐ͘dŚĞƵƌďĂŶŐĂƌĚĞŶƐůĂLJŶĞdžƚƚŽƚŚŝƐĂƌĞĂ͘dŚĞŚŽƵƐĞƐŚĂǀĞƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŐĂƌĚĞŶƐĂŶĚƵƐĞƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ͖ƚŚĞƌĞŝƐĂůƐŽĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJƐƉĂĐĞǁŝƚŚƉůĂLJŐƌŽƵŶĚ ĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͘dŚĞŚŽƵƐĞƐĂƌĞŝĚĞĂůĨŽƌďŝŐŐĞƌĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͘dŚĞLJĐŽŶƐŝƐƚ ŽĨƚǁŽŇŽŽƌƐĂŶĚĂŶĂƫĐ͘dŚĞŚŽƵƐĞƐĚŽŶ͛ƚƵƐĞƚŚĞƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJĂƐĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚďĞĨŽƌĞ͘dŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐƵƐĞƐŽůĂƌƉĂŶĞůƐĨŽƌŚĞĂƟŶŐĂŶĚĐŽŽůŝŶŐ͘

Fig. 176 Housing area 2 (by author)

ƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞůLJυωτͲφττĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐǁŝƚŚǀĂƌLJŝŶŐĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƐƚŽƌĞLJƐ͘dŚĞƵƉƉĞƌƐƚŽƌĞLJƐ ƵƐĞƚŚĞƌŽŽĨƚŽƉƐŽĨƚŚĞŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŝŶŐĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚĂƐŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘KŶƚŚĞŐƌŽƵŶĚŇŽŽƌ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐŚĂǀĞƚŚĞďĂůĐŽŶŝĞƐŽŶƚŚĞͲυůĞǀĞů͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞƌĞŝƐƵŶƐĞĞŝŶŐůLJŵŽƌĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘ dŚĞŚŽƵƐĞƐƵƐĞŐƌĞĞŶƌŽŽĨƐƚŽĮůƚĞƌǁĂƚĞƌ͘

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Fig. 177 Housing area 3 (by author)

ƌŽƵŶĚ υττ ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚ ŽĨ ƐƚĂĐŬĞĚ ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ͘ ůů ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŚĂǀĞĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƚŚĞͲυůĞǀĞůƚŽĞŶũŽLJƚŚĞŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘ƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐŚĂǀĞďĂůĐŽŶŝĞƐŽƌ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞŐĂƌĚĞŶƐ͘dŚĞLJĂůƐŽŚĂǀĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJƐƉĂĐĞ͘

Fig. 178 Housing area 4 (by author)

dŚĞƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJƵƐĞĚŚĞƌĞŝƐŵŽƐƚĐůŽƐĞƚŽƚŚĞŚĂůĨͲŽƉĞŶďƵŝůĚŝŶŐďůŽĐŬ͘dŚĞĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ďůŽĐŬƐ ǀĂƌLJ ŝŶ ŚĞŝŐŚƚ ĂŶĚ ƐƚŽƌĞLJƐ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ ďƵƚ ŶŽ ďĂůĐŽŶŝĞƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞŚŽƵƐĞƐŵĂŬĞƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚ͘>ŝǀŝŶŐŚĞƌĞŵĞĂŶƐŵŽƌĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞ͘ ůƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌυωτƚŽĂφττĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐĐĂŶďĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚŚĞƌĞ͘ůƐŽƐƉĂĐĞĨŽƌĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ŝƐĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘ůůƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŚĂǀĞŐƌĞĞŶƌŽŽĨƐ͘dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŝŶƚŚĞŵŝĚĚůĞĂƌĞŶĞǀĞƌ ŚŝŐŚĞƌƚŚĂŶφƐƚŽƌĞLJƐ͕ŝŶƚŚŝƐǁĂLJƐƵŶůŝŐŚƚĐĂŶĂůǁĂLJƐĞŶůŝŐŚƚĞŶƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚĂŶĚŝƚǁŝůů ŶŽƚďůŽĐŬƚŚĞǀŝĞǁƵŶŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJĨŽƌƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌƐŝĚĞŽĨƚŚĞƌĂŝůƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͘

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


dZ&&/&>Kt^ dŚĞ ŶĞǁ ůŝŶŬ ǁŝůů ŶŽƚ ŽŶůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌ ƚƌĂŝŶ͕ ƐŽƵƚŚ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĂůƐŽ Ă ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJ ƚƵŶŶĞů ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ KƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ dŚŝƐ ǁŝůů ĐĂƵƐĞ Ă ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĐĂƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͕ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJƵƐŝŶŐƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJƚŽĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͘ EŽŶĞƚŚĞůĞƐƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌŽĂĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ͞:ĞƌŶďĂŶǀĞũ͟ ǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞĂŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ͗/ƚǁŝůůůĞĂĚĂůůƚŚĞ ƚƌĂĸĐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƐƵďƵƌďƐĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞƐƚĂƟŽŶƚŽƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚ͘/ƚǁŝůůďĞƚŚĞŽŶůLJƌŽĂĚƚŽƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘

3

Sections of Jernbanvej, image by author

dŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌŽĂĚ͕ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJ ĂƌĞĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬƐŚĂƐďĞĞŶƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞĚŝŶƚŽĂĐŚĂŶŶĞů͘ ŶĞǁƌŽĂĚƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚŚŝŐŚĞƌĂŶĚŵŽƌĞƚŽǁĂƌĚƚŚĞŶĞǁ ƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬƐǁŝůůŚĂǀĞĂůĞƐƐĞƌŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞ͕ĂŶĚǁŝůů ŽŶůLJďĞƵƐĞĚďLJĚĞƐƟŶĂƟŽŶƚƌĂĸĐ͘ dŚĞƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůĂƌĞĂŝƐŽŶůLJĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞďLJĐĂƌĨŽƌƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͘ŵŽƌĞĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚĚĞƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶǁŝůůĨŽůůŽǁŝŶƚŚĞ ƐĞĐƟŽŶŽĨĚĞƐŝŐŶŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ ĨŽƌƚŚĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ͘ůŽŶŐƚŚĞĐŽĂƐƚĂĐLJĐůŝŶŐƉĂƚŚŝƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚ͘ KƚŚĞƌŵĂŝŶŇŽǁƐĂƌĞƚŚĞĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƚƌĂŝŶ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ͕ůŽǁĞƌĞĚƚŽĚŝŵŝŶŝƐŚƚŚĞƐŽƵŶĚĞīĞĐƚĂŶĚŶŽƚ ĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͕ďƵƚŚŝŐŚĞŶŽƵŐŚƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽ ŐŝǀĞ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐ Ă ǀŝĞǁ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ͘ /ƚ ǁŝůů ďĞ Ă ŵƵĐŚĐŚĞĂƉĞƌƐŽůƵƟŽŶƚŚĂŶĂĚĞĞƉĞƌƚƵŶŶĞůƚŚĂƚŝƐ ĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞůLJƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚ͘DŽƌĞĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞƚƌĂĐŬƐŝŶ ƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƐĞĐƟŽŶƚŚĂƚŝƐĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘

3

Fig .179 Sections of middle road along train tracks (by author)

Fig. 180 Impression of the end point of the new road and channel along the housing area, with on the left the train station ( by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


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d,dZ/E^dd/KE dŚĞ ƌĞŶĞǁĞĚ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ďĞĐŽŵĞ Ă ƐƚƵŶŶŝŶŐ ƉŝĞĐĞŽĨĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĂƐƚŚĞĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘dŚĞ ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ĚĞŵĂŶĚƐ Ă ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ ŐŝǀĞƐ ŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶƐŚŽǁƚŚŝƐŝƐĚŽŶĞĨŽƌƚŚŝƐƉůĂŶ͘ dŚĞ ŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ ůŝŶŬĞĚ ƚŽ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ Ăƚ Ă ĚĞƉƚŚ ŽĨ φτ ŵ͘ dŚĞLJ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐ  ŽĨ ψ

ƚƌĂĐŬƐ͕ƚǁŽǁŝůůďĞƵƐĞĚĨŽƌƉĂƐƐŝŶŐŚŝŐŚƐƉĞĞĚƚƌĂŝŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ͘ dŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƚƌĂĐŬǁŝůůďĞůŽǁĞƌĞĚ͕ƚŚŝƐǁŝůů ĐŚĂŶŐĞƚŚĞƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ͕ĂƐŝƚǁŝůůďĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ŚĞŝŐŚƚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞ͕ ďƵƚ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ ƚŚĞƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐǁŝůůďĞƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚůŽǁĞƌ͘ŶĞǁƌŽŽĨǁŝůů ĐŽǀĞƌĂůůƚŚĞƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ͘

Fig. 181 Reference: interior of the Antwerp train station (picture by author)

Fig. 182 Reference: interior of Norrebro metro station, Copenhagen

Fig. 183 New situation of train tracks crossing the area. With on the left side, the new city square and on the right the housing area. (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig 184 Impression of the transformed train station and square (by author)

dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƚƌĂŝŶ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ƉůĂĐĞĚ χ ŵĞƚĞƌƐ ĚĞĞƉĞƌƚŚĂŶŝŶƚŚĞĐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƚŽĚŝŵŝŶŝƐŚƚŚĞ ǀŝƐƵĂůďĂƌƌŝĞƌƚŚĂƚŶŽǁĐƵƚƐƚŚĞƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͘/ƚ ǁŝůůĂůƐŽĚĞĐůŝŶĞƚŚĞŶŽŝƐĞ͘ dŚĞĨĞƌƌLJƚĞƌŵŝŶĂů͕ƚŚĂƚǁŝůůŶŽƚďĞŝŶƵƐĞĂŶLJŵŽƌĞ ďLJƚŚĞƟŵĞƚŚĞƚƵŶŶĞůŝƐƌĞĂůŝnjĞ͕ŚĂƐƚŽďĞƌĞŵŽǀĞĚ ƚŽ ŵĂŬĞ ƉůĂĐĞ ĨŽƌ Ă ǁŝĚĞƌ ƌĂŶŐĞ ŽĨ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ǁŚŽůĞŽǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŝŶŐĂŶĚŐŝǀŝŶŐůŝŐŚƚƚŽƚŚĞůŽǁĞƌƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚƚƌĂĐŬƐ͘ hƐŝŶŐ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ŶƚǁĞƌƉ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ Žƌ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŵĞƚƌŽ ƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚĞ φτ ŵĚĞĞƉĞƌůĂŝĚƚƌĂĐŬƐǁŝůůďĞŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞůLJĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ ďLJĂƐƉĂĐŝŽƵƐŽƉĞŶŝŶŐƚŚĂƚďƌŝŶŐƐůŝŐŚƚƚŽƚŚĞůŽǁĞƌ ƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ͘ dǁŽ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂƚ-

ĨŽƌŵƐƚŽĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJƚƌĂŝŶƐ͘dǁŽĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂů ƚƌĂĐŬƐǁŝůůƐĞƌǀĞƚŚĞŚŝŐŚƐƉĞĞĚƚƌĂŝŶƚŚĂƚƉƌŽĐĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͘ dŚĞƚƌĂĐŬƐĂŶĚƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐĂƌĞĐŽǀĞƌĞĚďLJĂƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶƚ ƌŽŽĨ ĐĂƌƌŝĞĚ ďLJ ĂŶ ĂƌĐŚĞĚ ƚƌƵƐƐ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͘ ;^ĞĞĮŐ͘υόψΘυόύͿͿ dŚĞƐƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐĂƌĞĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞĨƌŽŵƚŚƌĞĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƐŝĚĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ďƵƐ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶŶĞƌ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ LJĂƌĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶ are all connected. dŚĞĚƌĂǁŝŶŐƐĂŶĚƉŝĐƚƵƌĞƐŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƚŚĞĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚŐŝǀĞĂĐůĞĂƌŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶŽĨŚŽǁƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĐŽƵůĚďĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞĚŝŶĂŶĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞǁĂLJ͘

Fig. 185 Longitudinal section of train track (by author)

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ƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ

Fig. 186 Dimensions of the current and new situation of the train station and platforms. (by author)

Fig. 187 Plan of the new transformed train station (by author)

Fig. 188 Section of the new train platforms (by author)

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Fig. 189 Impression of the new train platforms with roof construction (by author)


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Dh>d/&hEd/KE>h/>/E' ƐĂůƌĞĂĚLJƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚ͕ƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞƚŽƉŶŽƌƚŚ ĞĂƐƚĞŶĚŽĨƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͕ŽǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŝŶŐƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞLJĂƌĚ͕ <ƌŽŶďŽƌŐĐĂƐƚůĞĂůůƚŚĞǁĂLJƚŽ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ǁŝůůďĞ ĂŶĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůƚƌŝƵŵƉŚ͘/ƚǁŝůůďĞƚŚĞƐŚŽǁƉŝĞĐĞŽĨ ƚŚĞŶĞǁĂƌĞĂ͘/ŶƚŚĞĨŽŽƚƐƚĞƉƐŽĨƚŚĞŽůĚĨĞƌƌLJƚĞƌŵŝŶĂůŝƚǁŝůůďĞĞdžƚĞŶĚŝŶŐŽǀĞƌƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͘ƐǁŝŵŵŝŶŐ ƉŽŽů ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƉůĂĐĞĚ ŚĞƌĞ͕ ƚŽ ŐŝǀĞ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶ ĞdžƚƌĂ ƵŶƵƐƵĂů ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ thus a reason for people to visit it. In the other part ŽĨƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂƚŚĞĂƚƌĞŝƐƉůĂĐĞĚ͘DŽǀŝĞƐ͕ƉůĂLJƐĂŶĚ ůĞĐƚƵƌĞƐĐĂŶďĞŚĞůĚŚĞƌĞ͘ hŶĚĞƌƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂďŝŐƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚƉĂƌŬŝŶŐĂƌĞĂ ŝƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚ͘dŚĞĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞŝƐĨŽƵŶĚŶĞĂƌƚŚĞ:ĞƌŶďĂŶǀĞũ͕ďƵƚŐŽĞƐĂůůƚŚĞǁĂLJƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƵŶĚĞƌƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ͘ dŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŝƐ ƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ƐƋƵĂƌĞ͘ Ƶƚ ŝƚ ǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞ ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞ͘ LJ ƉĂƐƐŝŶŐ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ;ŽŶ ĨŽŽĚ Žƌ ďŝŬĞͿ Ă ƐƋƵĂƌĞďĞĐŽŵĞƐǀŝƐŝďůĞ͕ƉĞƌĨĞĐƚůLJůŽĐĂƚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞƐƵŶ ĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌǁŝƚŚĂƉĂŶŽƌĂŵŝĐǀŝĞǁ͘ dŚŝƐ ŵƵůƟ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĞĐŽ ĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJ͘ KŶĞ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŚĂƐ Ă ŐƌĂƐƐ ƌŽŽĨ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ other one solar panels.

Fig. 191 Reference: de Konglige teater (royal theater) by Lundgaard & Tranberg architects and in the background the opera house of Copenhagen source: arcspace

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Fig. 190 Section of the main building, with on the left side the train station (by author)

Fig. 192 Reference: Muziek gebouw aan ‘t IJ in Amsterdam, by 3 xNielsen. (picture by author)

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Fig. 193 Impression of current situation. of the east side of the waterfront (by author)

Fig. 194 Impression of the new developments. of the east side of the waterfront (by author)

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Fig. 195 Impression of the new restaurant in front of the train station overviewing the castle (by author)

Z^dhZEdEDZ/E KŶ ƚŚĞ ŽƵƚĞƌ ĞĚŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ͕ ŽǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ͞ĐƵůƚƵƌĞďĂLJ͟ǁŝůůďĞĂŶĞǁůLJƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞĚƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ŶĞǁ ƐŵĂůů ŵĂƌŝŶĂ͘ /ƚ ǁŝůů ďĞ Ă ďĞĂƵƟĨƵů ƉůĂĐĞ ƚŽ Ɛŝƚ ĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ ǁĂƚĐŚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ďŽĂƚƐ ĂŶĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƐƚůĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ͘ dŚĞĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞŽĨĂůĂƌŐĞƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚƉĂƌŬŝŶŐŐĂƌĂŐĞ ŝƐŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ͘dŚĞƌĂŵƉĨŽƌŵƐĂŶŝĐĞ ƉůĂĐĞŝŶƚŚĞƐƵŵŵĞƌƚŽƐŝƚǁŝƚŚĂĚƌŝŶŬĂŶĚŝƚĂůƐŽ ĐŽǀĞƌƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚ Ă ůŝƩůĞ͘ dŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŝƐ ŬĞƉƚ ůŽǁ͕ŶŽƚƚŽďůŽĐŬƚŽŵƵĐŚŽĨƚŚĞǀŝĞǁĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĨƌŽŶƚ ƐƋƵĂƌĞŽĨƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘

Fig. 197 Impression of sport centre with tennis courts (by author)

^WKZd&/>/d/^ ĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞŚŽƵƐĞƐĂƐŵĂůůƐƉŽƌƚƉĂƌŬŝƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚ͘/ƚ ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶƐƚĞŶŶŝƐĐŽƵƌƚƐĂŶĚĂƐƉŽƌƚŚĂůůǁŝƚŚĨŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞĮƚŶĞƐƐĂŶĚƐƋƵĂƐŚ͘dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŚŽƵůĚƉƌŽƚĞĐƚƚŚĞƚĞŶŶŝƐĐŽƵƌƚĨƌŽŵǁŝŶĚ͘dŚĞƐƉŽƚǁŝůůďĞĂ ŶŝĐĞƉůĂĐĞĨŽƌƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐƚŽŐĂƚŚĞƌ͘

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Fig, 196 Current restaurant. Source: Bing maps


dZ/EWKdEhZE&ZD/E' dŚĞ ŽůĚ ƚƌĂŝŶ ĚĞƉŽƚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĂƵƟĨƵů ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ƚŽ ďĞĐŽŵĞĂĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚďŝŽůŽŐŝĐĂůďƌĞĞĚŝŶŐŐƌŽƵŶĚ͘ ƌƟƐƚ ĐĂŶ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƐƉĂĐĞ ŚĞƌĞ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ Ă ĐĂĨĠ ĂŶĚ ďŝŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƐƵƉĞƌŵĂƌŬĞƚ ƵƐĞ ƐĞůĨͲ ŐƌŽǁŶŝŶŐƌĞĚŝĞŶƚƐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŐĂƌĚĞŶ͘dŚŝƐŝƐƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚƐƉŽƚƚŚĂƚƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞĂƚƚŚĞ ŵŽŵĞŶƚŝƚ͛ƐĂĚĞƐĞƌƚĞĚƉůĂĐĞ͕ďƵƚŝƚŚĂƐĂůŽƚŽĨƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ͘ǀĞŶƚŚĞŽůĚƚƌĂŝŶƐƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞƚĞƌƌĂŝŶ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƌĞƵƐĞĚ ĂƐ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ƉŝĞĐĞƐ Žƌ ŵĂLJďĞ ďĞ ƵƐĞĚĂƐĨŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞǁŽƌŬƐƉĂĐĞŽƌĂĐŽīĞĞƉůĂĐĞ͘

Fig. 198 Current situation. (Picture by author)

Fig. 199 Reference: Urban farming. (Source : celcias.com)

Fig. 200 Impression of the redeveloped train depot with urban gardens in front of the building (by author)

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Fig. 201 Impression of the new city square (by author)

/dz^YhZE:ZEEs: ĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂů ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞĂůŽƚŽĨƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŚĂƐƚĂŬĞŶƉůĂĐĞ͘dŚĞ ŵŽƌĞĐŽŵƉĂĐƚƵƐĞŽĨƚƌĂŝŶƌĂŝůƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨƚŚĞƉĂƌŬŝŶŐƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚŚĂǀĞŐŝǀĞŶƚŚŝƐƐƉŽƚƚŚĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽďĞĐŽŵĞƚŚĞŚĞĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞƚŽǁŶ͘/ƚŝƐ ůĞĚůŝƩůĞŚŝŐŚĞƌƚŚĂŶƚŚĞƐƚƌĞĞƚĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĞǁŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞĐŽĂƐƚĂŶĚŝƐƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞůŝŬĞĂƉŽĚŝƵŵŽǀĞƌůŽŽŬŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘dŚŝƐŝƐƚŚĞŽƉĞŶƐƉĂĐĞďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞ

ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͖ƚŚŝƐŝƐĂƐƉŽƚǁŚĞƌĞƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐĐĂŶŐĂƚŚĞƌ͘ dŚĞƐƋƵĂƌĞŝƐƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚĞĚďLJǁĂƚĞƌ͕ƉĂƌƚůLJĂƐĂďĂƌƌŝĞƌƚŽƚŚĞƌĂŝůƚƌĂĐŬƐ͕ƉĂƌƚůLJƚŽĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞƚŚĞĐŽŶĐĞƉƚ ŽĨĂƉŽĚŝƵŵ͕ĂƐĂĨƌĞĞƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽďũĞĐƚŝŶƚŚĞŵŝĚƐƚ ŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘dŚĞƐƚƌĞĞƚŝƐƐƟůůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶĞĚŝŶƚŚĞƐĂŵĞ ƉůĂĐĞ͕ ďƵƚ ŽďƐƚĂĐůĞƐ͕ ůŝŬĞ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐ ƐƉŽƚƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ƌĞŵŽǀĞĚ͘tĂƚĞƌŝƐŶŽǁƵƐĞĚƚŽŝĚĞŶƟĨLJƉƵďůŝĐĂŶĚ private space.

Fig. 202 Impression of the new busstation (by author)

h^ ^dd/KE E Z>Kd/KE K& >Kͳ >dZ/E dŚĞďƵƐƐƚĂƟŽŶǁŝůůŶŽǁŚĂǀĞŝƚƐŽǁŶƐƉŽƚŽŶŽŶĞ side of the street. This is safer, more structured and ŝƚĚŽĞƐŶ͛ƚĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞƚŚĞƐƉĂĐĞĂŶLJŵŽƌĞĂƐŝƚǁĂƐ͘/ƚ ŝƐŬĞƉƚŽƉĞŶŽŶƉƵƌƉŽƐĞƚŽŚĂǀĞƉĞŽƉůĞĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ŽƉĞŶŶĞƐƐ ĂŶĚ ŽǀĞƌǀŝĞǁ ƚŚĞ ƐƋƵĂƌĞ ŚĂƐ ƚŽŽ͘dŚĞƐƚĂƟŽŶŝƐǀĞƌLJĞĂƐŝůLJĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞĂŶĚǀŝƐŝďůĞ ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƉůĂƞŽƌŵƐ͕ƚŽŵĂŬĞƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌƌŝŶŐĞǀĞŶ ŵŽƌĞĞĂƐŝůLJ͘ The local train has moved to the front of the square ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞ ďĂLJ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƌŝĚŝŶŐ ĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶLJŵŽƌĞ͕ĂƐŝƚǁĂƐĂŶŽďƐƚĂĐůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌƚƌĂĸĐ ŇŽǁƐ͘EŽǁƚŚĞůŝŶĞŝƐƐŚŽƌƚĞŶĞĚ͕ďƵƚƐƟůůǀĞƌLJĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶƐƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚďƵƐƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘

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Fig. 203 Impression of the primary school (by author)

SCHOOL dŚĞƐĐŚŽŽůŝƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚŝŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƉĂƌƚƐŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ǁĞůů ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ ĨŽƌ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚĂŶĚŶĞǁŽŶĞ͘dŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚŐƌŽƵƉƐƚŚĂƚƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĂƩƌĂĐƚĞĚĂƌĞƉĂƌƟĂůůLJ LJŽƵŶŐĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞŶĞĞĚĨŽƌƐĐŚŽŽůƐǁŝůů ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͘ĞƐŝĚĞƐĂƉƌŝŵĂƌLJƐĐŚŽŽů͕ƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂůƐŽ contains a child care.

Fig. 204 - 206 References for the atmosphere of the design: green, water and bikes. (Source: Jones the planner, Scandinavian dreams)

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Phasing and feasibility

WŚĂƐĞτ

WŚĂƐĞφ

dŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƚƌĂŝŶƚƵŶŶĞůƚŚĂƚ ǁŝůůůŝŶŬ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌǁŝƚŚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐǁŝůůŚĂǀĞĂůŽŶŐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘ƐůŽŶŐĂƐƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐŽĨƚŚĞůŝŶŬŚĂƐŶŽƚ ĞǀĞŶďĞĞŶĚĞĐŝĚĞĚ͕ŝƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƚŽŵĂŬĞĂƚŽƚĂů ĨĞĂƐŝďůĞ ƉůĂŶ͘ Ƶƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ / ŚĂǀĞ ĂƐƐƵŵĞĚ ƚŚĂƚǁŝƚŚŝŶĂĂƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞůLJωLJĞĂƌƐƚŚĞĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶǁŝůů ďĞŵĂĚĞĂŶĚĂůůƚŚĞŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚƉĂƌƟĞƐĂƌĞƌĞĂĚLJĨŽƌ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶŽĨďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƚŚĞƚƵŶŶĞů͘

WŚĂƐĞφĐĂŶŽŶůLJƐƚĂƌƚǁŚĞŶƚŚĞĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶŽĨďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞƚƵŶŶĞůŝƐŵĂĚĞ͘/ŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚŝƐƚŚĞĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐŽĨƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƌLJĂƌĞĂ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĂƐŝƚƐĞĞŵƐ͕ŝƐĂůŵŽƐƚŶĞǀĞƌĞŶƟƌĞůLJŝŶƵƐĞĂŶĚĐĂŶƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞďĞŵŽƌĞĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ͘ƚƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞƟŵĞ͕ƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬƐĐĂŶďĞůŽǁĞƌĞĚ ;ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶͿ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌŽĂĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ĂŶĚ ĨĞƌƌLJ ĂƌĞĂ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŵŽǀĞĚĂŶĚĞůĞǀĂƚĞĚ͕ŝƐǁŝůůŚĂǀĞĂůƐŽĂƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ůŝŶŬǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐŶŽƌƚŚĞŶĚƚŚĂƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ͞:ĞƌŶďĂŶǀĞũ͕͟ƚŚĞĐĂŶĂůƐĐĂŶďĞƉĂƌƟĂůůLJĚƵŐ͘ĨƚĞƌŵŝŶŝŵŝnjŝŶŐƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJĂƌĞĂ͕ƚŚĞƐƚĂƌƚŽĨĂƌĞĂφĐĂŶ ďĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚǁŝƚŚŝƚƐƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚůĞǀĞů͕ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚŐƌĞĞŶĂŶĚĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͘

/ŶƚŚŝƐƐƚĂŐĞĂůƐŽƉƌĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶƐĐĂŶďĞ made for the developments of the next phase.

WŚĂƐĞυ ĨĞǁƉĂƌƚƐŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĂƌĞŶŽƚĚĞƉĞŶĚĂŶƚŽŶƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚƵŶŶĞů͘ dŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ƐŽŵĞ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ĂĚĂƉƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŬĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŵŽƌĞ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ͕ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĂƌĞ ĂŵŽŶŐ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƚŚŝŶŐƐ͗ ƌĞŵŽǀŝŶŐ ƵŶƵƐĞĚ ƚƌĂĐŬƐ͕ ƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŽůĚƚƌĂŝŶĚĞƉŽƚ͕ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƵƌďĂŶŐĂƌĚĞŶƐ͕ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐŽĨŚŽƵƐŝŶŐŝŶĂƌĞĂ υ͕ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďƵƐ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƉůĂĐĞŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞůŽĐĂůƚƌĂĐŬƐĂŶĚŝƚƐĞŶĚƐƚĂƟŽŶ͘ůƐŽƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚĐĂƌĂŶĚĐLJĐůĞƉĂƌŬŝŶŐǁŝƚŚŽŶƚŽƉŽĨƚŚĞ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐĂŶĞǁĐĞŶƚƌĂůƐƋƵĂƌĞĐĂŶďĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͘

ƵƌŝŶŐƚŚŝƐƉŚĂƐĞĂůƐŽƚŚĞƐƚĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨƚŚĞƚƵŶŶĞůŝƐĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ͘

WŚĂƐĞχ WŚĂƐĞχĐĂŶƐƚĂƌƚǁŚĞŶƚŚĞĞŶĚŽĨƚŚĞƚƵŶŶĞůĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŶĞĂƌ͘ dŚŝƐ ƐƚĂŐĞ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚ ŵĂŝŶůLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ĮŶĂů ĂĚũƵƐƚŵĞŶƚƐŽĨ ƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĂŶĚƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶůŽĐĂůƚƌĂŝŶƚƌĂĐŬƐĂŶĚƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƌƚŽĨďƌĞĂŬŝŶŐĚŽǁŶƚŚĞƐƟůůĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĨĞƌƌLJďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͘/ŶƚŚĞĞŶĚŽĨƚŚŝƐƉŚĂƐĞƚŚĞĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞ ƚƵŶŶĞůƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĮŶŝƐŚĞĚĂŶĚƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJĂŶĚŚŝŐŚ ƐƉĞĞĚƚƌĂŝŶƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞƐƚĂƌƟŶŐƚŚĞŝƌĮƌƐƚƚƌŝƉƐ͘

WŚĂƐĞψ dŚĞĮŶĂůƉŚĂƐĞĐŽŶƐŝƐƚŽĨďƌĞĂŬŝŶŐĚŽǁŶĂůůƚŚĞĨĞƌƌLJ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ĚŝŐ ŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŵĂŝŶŝŶŐ ĐĂŶĂůƐ͕ ĐůŽƐĞ ĚŽǁŶ ƚŚĞ ŵŝĚĚůĞ ƌŽĂĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶ ƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ƵŶƟů ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ:ĞƌŶďĂŶǀĞũ͕ďƵŝůƚĂƌĞĂχнĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ĚĞǀĞůŽƉƚŚĞ ůĂŶĚŵĂƌŬ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌƚŚͲĞĂƐƚ ĞĚŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂĂŶĚĮŶŝƐŚƚŚĞŐƌĞĞŶĂƌĞĂƐ͘

ȆƅŻ

ȅȇȄ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


υ

ȅȇȅ

Fig. 207 Recommended planning of phasing process (by author)

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ

PHASE 0 PHASE 1

- transformation bus station - replace local track

PHASE 2

develop urban gardens, restore and transform train depot

- underground cycle + car - parking + city square

start building housing area 1 + underground parking

urban green

PHASE 3

transform restaurant at northern edge

establish marina

start building housing area 2 + underground parking + facilities

relocate road and dig canals south west side

lower (regional) onal) train tracks

minimize ferry site

building of deep tunnel

PHASE 4

final adjustments train tracks

transform station

φ

PHASE 5

urban green

development pool/ art house theater

start building build lding h ousing aarea 3 housing + underground parking + facilities

dig canals north east side

b break down remaining ferry buildings

2035

υ

preperation deep tunnel development

2030

φ

2025

υ

development culture yard

2020

φ

decision making deep tunnel

2015

υ

PREPARATION N

commissioning tunnel

χ 2040


Fig. 208 Overview of Helsingørâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coastline with the integrated new design. (by author)


VII Conclusions & evaluation

Ȇ

ƅŻ Ż

źƆƅƅżźƋƀƆƅ

& A SPATIAL DESIGN FOR HELSINGØR based on

THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL AND PROGRAMMATIC IMPACT OF A NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTION BETWEEN HELSINGØR AND HELSINGBORG ON THE CITY OF HELSINGØR


8++%QPENWUKQPUGXCNWCVKQP

Conclusions ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐŽĨƚŚĞůŝŶŬŽŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ dŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬĂŶĚƌŝŶŐωǁŝůůĐŚĂŶŐĞƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌŵƵƚƵĂůƌĞůĂƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘dŚĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͕ĂŶĚƚŽĂůĞƐƐĞƌĞdžƚĞŶĚ DĂůŵŽ͕ǁŝůůďĞůĞƐƐĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝƐĞĚ͘ƐĞĐŽŶĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ƌĞůŝĞĨ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌŝĚŐĞĂŶĚŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘dŚĞƐĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐŐŝǀĞ ƌŽŽŵ ĨŽƌ ŶĞǁ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJ ĐĂŶ ĂƩƌĂĐƚĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐĂŶĚǁŽƌŬĨŽƌĐĞ͘dŚŝƐŝƐŝŵƉĞƌĂƟǀĞ͕ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ďŝŐŐĞƐƚ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ ŝƐ ƚŽ ďĞ Ă ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝŶ Ă ŐůŽďĂůŝnjĞĚ ǁŽƌůĚ͘ dŚĞ ŵŽŶŽĐĞŶƚƌŝĐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ ŝŶƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ͖ ŝƚ ůŝŵŝƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJŽĨƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĂŶĚŝƚƌĞƐƚƌĂŝŶƚƐĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ƐƉĂƟĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐŝŶĂŶĚŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƚŚĞŵĂŝŶĐŽƌĞ ŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨƉŽůLJĐĞŶƚƌŝĐŝƐŵ ƐŚŽƵůĚƐĞƌǀĞƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘dŚĞŶĞǁůŝŶŬĂŶĚƌŝŶŐĐĂŶ ƐƟŵƵůĂƚĞƚŚŝƐƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ͘ EŽƌƚŚĞƌŶĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŽƵƚƐŬŝƌƚƐŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ǁŝůůŐĂŝŶŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞ͘dŚĞƚǁŽďŝŐŐĞƐƚĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ŝŶƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚ͕,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ǁŝůůďĞƐŽ ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ĂŌĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁůŝŶŬ͕ƚŚĂƚŝĨƚŚĞLJǁŽƵůĚũŽŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĨŽƌĐĞƐƚŚĞLJ

ȆƅŻ

ȅȇȊ

ĐŽƵůĚƉŽƐƐĞƐƐĞŶŽƵŐŚĐƌŝƟĐĂůŵĂƐƐ;ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ͕ ĚĞŵŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ͕ ƐƉĂƟĂůůLJ͕ ĞƚĐ͘ Ϳ ƐŽ ƚŚĞLJ ĐŽƵůĚ ĨŽƌŵ Ă ƚŚŝƌĚŵĂŝŶĐĞŶƚƌĞŝŶƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘dŚŝƐǁŝůů ƐƟŵƵůĂƚĞƚŚĞŚĞĂůƚŚLJĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƚŚĂƚ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJĚƌĂǁƐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŐƌŽǁƚŚ͘ dŽ ďĂůĂŶĐĞ ŽƵƚ ĂŶĚ ƐƟŵƵůĂƚĞ ĞƋƵĂů ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ φ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ŶŽƌƚŚǁĞƐƚ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ǁŝůů ƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĞ ŝŶ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚǁĞƐƚĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŝŶƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘

WŽƐŝƟŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͛Ɛ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ĚƌĂƐƟĐĂůůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘EŽƚŽŶůLJǁŝůůƚŚĞĐŝƚLJďĞŵƵĐŚŵŽƌĞ ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͕ ŝƚ ǁŝůů ĂůƐŽ ďĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƐ ƚŚĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚ ƐƉĞĞĚ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͘ Ɛ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĂƟĂůůLJ ŝƐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĐĂƉĂďůĞ ŽĨ ďĞŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘ ;/ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůͿ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ͕ Ă ƵŶŝƋƵĞ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͕ ǁŝůů ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ĨŽƌ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ƚŽ ƉůĂLJ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚƐĞĐŽŶĚƌŽůĞŝŶƚŚĞŶŽƌƚŚĞƌŶƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ͘ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ǁŽƌŬ ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŽ ĂƐƐĞŵďůĞĚ ĨŽƌŵ Ă ǁŽƌƚŚLJ ĐŽƵŶƚĞƌƉĂƌƚ of the southern main centres. dŚĞĐĂƐĞƐƚƵĚLJŚĂƐƐŚŽǁŶƚŚĂƚ͕ĂŵŽŶŐŽƚŚĞƌƚŚŝŶŐƐ͕ ;ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůͿĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐƉƵƐŚĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶŝŶĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͘ Ƶƚ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƵŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ŶŽƚ ďĞ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐĂƐĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƐŚŽǁŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ŝƐ ŝŶ Ă ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ĨĂƌ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŽĨ ĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ďLJ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƟŶŐ ƚŚŝƐ process. LJ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ ŵŽƌĞ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ŽŶ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂƐ Ă ĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƟŶŐ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ĂƐƚƌŽŶŐĞƌƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞƐƚŚĂƚǁŝůů ŚĞůƉƚŚĞĨƵƚƵƌĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͘ ^ƉĂƟĂů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚƐŚŽƌĞŝŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ dŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŚŽƌĞ ŽĨ ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƐĞĞŶ ĂƐ Ă ƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶ ĂƌĞĂ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ;ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ǁŝƐĞͿ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ůŽĐĂů ƐĐĂůĞ ĐŽŵĞ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͘ dŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ LJĂƌĚ ĨƵůĮůƐ ƚŚĞ ƌŽůĞ ŽĨ ĂŶ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂƩƌĂĐƟŽŶ͘ /ƚ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ŝƐŽůĂƚĞĚ

ďLJ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůĂƌĞĂƐ͘ The plan area therefore consists of cultural and ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂů ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ďƌŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ĐůŽƐĞƌ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ŽŶ ĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ůĞǀĞů ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƉĂƌƚƐŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ ^ĞĐŽŶĚůLJ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶ ŽīĞƌƐ Ă ƵŶŝƋƵĞ ǁĂLJ ŽĨ ůŝǀŝŶŐ͕ ĂƐ ŝƚ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƋƵŝůůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ďůŽĐŬƐ͘ dŚĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ŽīĞƌƐ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞƐƵŝƚĂďůĞĨŽƌĂǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨ;LJŽƵŶŐͿĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͕ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ĐŽƵƉůĞƐĂŶĚƐŝŶŐůĞƐĨƌŽŵĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĚĞƐĐĞŶƚ͘dŚĞĐŝƚLJ ŶĞĞĚƐ Ă ƌĞĨƌĞƐŚŝŶŐ ŝŵƉƵůƐĞ ƚŽ ŶŽƚ ĞŶĚ ƵƉ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŶ ĂŐŝŶŐƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶůŝǀŝŶŐŝŶŝƐŽůĂƚĞĚƐƵďƵƌďƐ͘ dŚĞ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐƚĂƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ƵŶĚĞƌŐŽ Ă ŵĂũŽƌ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂƐ ŝƚ ǁŝůů ƐĞƌǀĞ Ă ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌĐŝƚLJĂƚĂφτŵĞƚĞƌĚĞƉƚŚ͘dŚĞƌĞŝƐĂŶ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞůLJƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵƚŚŝƐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ƚŽďĞĂƐŚŽǁƉŝĞĐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘ ^ƉĂƟĂůůLJ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ ƚŽ ƌĞƚƵƌŶ ĂŶĚ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞƚŚĞŽƌŝŐŝŶĂůƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝŶƚŽƚŚĞƉůĂŶ͘ LJƵƐŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͕ĂŶƟĐŝƉĂƚĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ǀŝƐƵĂů ĂŶĚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐĂŶĚƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚĞŝŐŚƚƐƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶĐƌĞĂƚĞĚ͘

Fig. 209 Overview of the Helsingør and Helsingborg coast opposite of each other with the integrated new design. (by author)

ȅȇȋ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


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Reflections & Recommendations ZĞŇĞĐƟŽŶƐŽŶƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ /ĚĞĐŝĚĞĚĞĂƌůLJŝŶƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐƚŽĨŽĐƵƐŽŶďŽƚŚƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂůĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůůĞǀĞůŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĂƐƐĞƐƐŚŽǁ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ŶĂƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ďŽƚŚ͖ ƚŚŝƐ ƚŽ ŵĂŬĞ ƚŚĞƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐŵŽƌĞƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ͘dŚĞĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞǁŽƵůĚ ďĞƚŽĨŽĐƵƐŵŽƌĞĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞůLJŽŶŽŶĞůĞǀĞůĂŶĚďĂƐĞ ĂŶ ĞǀĞŶƚƵĂů ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƐĐĂůĞ ĂŶĚ ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐĂůŽŶĞ͘/ĚĞĞŵĞĚƚŚĂƚŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐŝĨƚŚĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶǁŽƵůĚďĞƚŚĞƐŽůĞĂŶĚŵŽƐƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĞůĞŵĞŶƚŝŶƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌǁŝƚŚŝƚƐŶĞĂƌƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ͕ ďƵƚďŽƚŚƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůůLJĂŶĚĨŽƌƚŚĞƐĂŬĞŽĨƚŚĞŝŶƚĞůůĞĐƚƵĂůůLJƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŽĨĮĞůĚŽĨƵƌďĂŶŝƐŵ/ĨŽƵŶĚŝƚŵŽƌĞ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐƚŽŵĂŬĞďŽƚŚƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĂŶĚĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘ŶĚ ĞƋƵĂůůLJŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐďĂƐĞĚŽŶĂďƌŽĂĚĞƌƐĞƚ ŽĨŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶƐŽŶĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚůĞǀĞůƐĂŶĚĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ŐĂǀĞ ƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂŶĞdžƚƌĂĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ͘ŶĞǁůŝŶŬƚŚĂƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐƚǁŽĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐŝƐǀĞƌLJĐŚĂůůĞŶŐŝŶŐƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽĂƐ ŝƚŝƐŶŽƚŽŶůLJƚŚĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĂŶĚĚĞƐŝŐŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞĚ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌĞĐĂƐƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ǁĂLJ LJŽƵ ƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞĂŶĚĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŝƐĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚŽŶĂ ǁŝĚĞĂƌƌĂLJŽĨŵŽǀŝŶŐƉŝĞĐĞƐŽĨƉƵnjnjůĞ͕ůŝŬĞƚŚĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟŽŶƐ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ũƵĚŝĐŝĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚĂdžƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĞƚĐ͕͘ǁŚŝĐŚŵĂŬĞƐŝƚĂĚĂƵŶƟŶŐƚĂƐŬƚŽ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ĐĂƉƚƵƌĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŽƵƚĐŽŵĞ ĐĂŶ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƚŚĞƌĞůĞǀĂŶĐĞŽĨLJŽƵƌĚĞƐŝŐŶĂŶĚƉůĂŶ͘ ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĞīŽƌƚ ƚŽ ĐĂƉƚƵƌĞ ŵŽƌĞ ǀĂƌŝĂďůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ŽƉĞƌĂƚĞ ŽŶ ŵŽƌĞ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŝƚ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ ŶŽƚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞĐŽŵƉůĞdžŶĂƚƵƌĞŽĨƚŚĞĮĞůĚŽďǀŝŽƵƐůLJůŝŵŝƚƐĂŶLJ ĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĐĂƉƐƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŝƚ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ĂĐĐĞƉƚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĂůƐŽ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŝƐ ƉĂƌƟĂůůLJ ďĂƐĞĚŽŶƐŝŵƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨĂƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚƌĞĂůŝƚLJ͘ƐƚŚŝƐ ŝƐŵLJƉĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĂƐƉĞĐƚŽĨƚŚĞĮĞůĚ ƚŚĞ ĨŽĐƵƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ďĞĐĂŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƉůĂĐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐůĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĂďƐƚƌĂĐƚƚŽƚŚĞĐŽŶĐƌĞƚĞ͗&ƌŽŵ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐƚŽĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘ ^ƉĞĐŝĮĐĚĞƚĂŝůƐĨŽƌĂůŽŶŐͲƚĞƌŵƉůĂŶĂƌĞŶŽƚĂůǁĂLJƐ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĞŝƚŚĞƌ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ƚŽ ĐĂƉƚƵƌĞ͕ ďƵƚ ŽǀĞƌĂůů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂƉƚƵƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞƐŝŐŶŵĂŬĞĂƉƌŽũĞĐƚŵŽƌĞƌĞĂůŝƐƟĐĂŶĚĨĞĂƐŝďůĞ͘ ƵƌŝŶŐƚŚĞƉψƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶƚŚĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶǁĂƐƌĂŝƐĞĚ ǁŚLJ / ŚĂĚ ĐŚŽƐĞŶ ĨŽƌ Ă ͞ďůƵĞƉƌŝŶƚ ŵĂƐƚĞƌ ƉůĂŶ͘͟ WƌĞĚŝĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵĂĚĞ ĐůĞĂƌ ŝŶ ƐĐŚĞŵĞƐ͕ŐƌĂƉŚƐĂŶĚƐƉŽƚƉůĂŶƐ͘WůĂŶŶŝŶŐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐŽĨƌŽĂĚƐLJƐƚĞŵƐŽƌŵĂƉƉŝŶŐŽƵƚƐƉĞĐŝĨ-

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ŝĐŝ��ĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂƌĞƵƐĞĨƵůƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞŽǀĞƌĂůů ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ͘Ƶƚ/ďĞůŝĞǀĞƚŚĂƚďLJĚĞƐŝŐŶŝŶŐĂƉůĂŶ͕ƚŚĞ ƌĞĂů ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŶĐƌĞƚĞ ;ĂŶĚ ƐŽŵĞƟŵĞƐ ĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚͿ ĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐďĞĐŽŵĞĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ/ǁĂŶƚĞĚƚŽĚĞƐŝŐŶĂŵĂƐƚĞƌƉůĂŶƚŚĂƚŝƐŇĞdžŝďůĞĞŶŽƵŐŚƚŽ ĐŽƉĞǁŝƚŚĨƵƚƵƌĞƵŶƉƌĞĚŝĐƚĂďůĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͕ďƵƚ ĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ ƚŽ ďĞ ĂďůĞ ƚŽ ŐŝǀĞ ĂŶ ŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ ŽĨǁŚĂƚƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐĂŶĚĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŶĞǁ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶďƌŝŶŐƚŽĂƐŵĂůůĐŝƚLJůŝŬĞ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘ /Ŷ ƐƉŝƚĞ ŽĨ ĂŶLJ ƐŚŽƌƚĐŽŵŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƐĐŝĞŶĐĞ͕ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ Žƌ ƉĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶƚŚĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐŚŽƵůĚƚĂŬĞĚĞƉĂƌƚƵƌĞǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ƉĂƌƟĂůůLJ ƐŝŵƵůĂƚĞĚ ǁŽƌůĚ ĂŶĚĨŽƌŵĂĐŽŶĐƌĞƚĞŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďůĞŝŵƉĂĐƚ͘ &Žƌ ŵĞ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůůLJ ĂŶĚ ĂůƐŽ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞĮĞůĚŝŶŐĞŶĞƌĂůŝƚŝƐǀĞƌLJŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐƚŽ ďĞ ŝŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƌĞĂůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƐŝŵƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ future.

ZĞŇĞĐƟŽŶƐŽŶƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ /ƚŝƐǀĞƌLJĐŚĂůůĞŶŐŝŶŐƚŽƐƚĂƌƚĂƉƌŽũĞĐƚĨƌŽŵƐĐƌĂƚĐŚ͘ dŽ ĮŶĚ ŽƵƚ ǁŚĂƚ ƚŚĞŵĞ͕ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƐƵďũĞĐƚ ƚŽ ĐŚŽŽƐĞŝƐĂůŽŶŐƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĂŶĚƚŚĞůŝŵŝƚĞĚƟŵĞƐƉĂŶ ŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚǁŝůůŶĂƚƵƌĂůůLJŝŶŇŝĐƚŽŶƚŚĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJŽĨ ƚŚĞĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ͕ďƵƚĂƚƚŚĞƐĂŵĞƟŵĞŝƚŝƐĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚĂƌĞŽŌĞŶĨŽƵŶĚŽŶƚŚĞůĂďŽƌŵĂƌŬĞƚ͘DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌ ŝƐ ŝƚ ŶŽƚ ƵƐƵĂů ƚŽ Ɛŝƚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ǁŚŽůĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ĂůŽŶĞ ŝŶ ƌĞĂůŝƚLJ͕ ďƵƚ ǀĞƌLJ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ŬŶŽǁ Ăůů ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͕ ƌĞŇĞĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ŵĂĚĞ ĂƐ Ă ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉƐ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĚŽŶĞ ŝŶ υτ ŵŽŶƚŚƐ͕ ůŝŬĞ / ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞĚ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚŝƐ ŝƐ ƟŐŚƚ ƐĐŚĞĚƵůĞĚ ĨŽƌ Ă ǁŝĚĞͲƌĂŶŐŝŶŐ ƉůĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ǁĂƐ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚ ƚŽ ŵĂŬĞĐŽŶĐƌĞƚĞĂƚƚŚĞŽƵƚƐĞƚ͘ /ŶĂƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJůĂƚĞƐƚĂĚŝƵŵ/ĚĞĐŝĚĞĚƚŽƉƵƚĂůŽƚŽĨ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞŽŶƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŽĨƚŚĞůŽĐĂůƉůĂŶĂŶĚƐŝŵƵůƚĂŶĞŽƵƐůLJ/ŚĂĚƚŽŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞŵŽƌĞĂŶĚŵŽƌĞƐƉĞĐŝĮĐ ƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ůŝŶŬ ŽŶ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨĂƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƐĐĂůĞ͘/ŶƐŚŽƌƚ͗ /ŵĂĚĞŝƚĚŝĸĐƵůƚĨŽƌŵLJƐĞůĨ͕ĂŶĚƌĞŐƌĞƩĂďůLJŝƚǁĂƐ ŝŵƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƚŽĮŶŝƐŚƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝŶĞǀĞƌLJĚĞƚĂŝů͘ /ŶƉƌĂĐƟĐĞ/ĂůƐŽŚĂĚĚŝĸĐƵůƟĞƐŝŶƚŚĞƟŵĞƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŌĞƌĞĂĐŚ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ŵŽŵĞŶƚ͕ǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞƌĞŝƐ Ă ůŽƚŽĨĨĞĞĚďĂĐŬĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŵĞŶƚŽƌƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞŝƐůŝƩůĞ ƟŵĞƚŽĐŚĂŶŐĞƚŚĞĐƵƌƌĞŶƚƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽŶĞ ŶĞĞĚƐƚŽĐŽŶƟŶƵĞǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞƌĞƐƚ͘dŚĞƐĞĞǀĂůƵĂƟŽŶŵŽŵĞŶƚƐƚŽŽŬůŽŶŐĞƌƚŚĂŶĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ͕ĐĂƵƐŝŶŐ ĂůůƚŚĞǁŽƌŬƚŽƐŚŝŌĨŽƌǁĂƌĚ͘EŽŶĞƚŚĞůĞƐƐ͕/ĂŵĐŽŶƚĞŶƚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƌĞƐƵůƚĂŶĚ/ŚŽƉĞƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚĐĂŶĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƚŽƚŚĞĮĞůĚŽĨhƌďĂŶŝƐŵ͕ĂƚůĞĂƐƚŝƚǁŝůůƚŽŵLJ personal and professional development.

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


aug sep okt nov dec jan feb mar apr may jun p1

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orientation problem statement research questions context analysis trends site analysis literature review case studies strategy proposal vision programmatic strategy design guidelines design proposal feasebility reflection LEGEND

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before p5

Fig. 210 Reflection scheme on process of the graduation project. (by author)

ZKDDEd/KE^&KZ&hZd,ZZ^Z, /ƚ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ ƚŽ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚƌĂŶƐŶĂƟŽŶĂůͬ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂƐŝƚŝƐĂĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ŝŶƚŚĞ ǁĂŬĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ Ăůů ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͘dŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚŚĂƐƌĞŵĂŝŶĞĚƋƵŝƚĞĐŽŶĐƌĞƚĞ

ȅȇȍ

ĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞƐƵďũĞĐƚƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽƚƌĂŶƐůĂƚĞƚŚĞƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŝŶƚŽĂĚĞƐŝŐŶǁŝƚŚŝŶĂůŝŵŝƚĞĚƟŵĞƐƉĂŶ͘KŶƚŚĞĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐ ůĞǀĞů ŝƚ ŵŝŐŚƚ ďĞ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨƚŚŝƐƐƵďũĞĐƚ͘

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


8++%QPENWUKQPUGXCNWCVKQP

Bibliography KK<^͗ s/^KE͕W͘ϭϵϴϰ͘ZĞǀŝǀŝŶŐ<ĞLJŶĞƐ͛ƐƌĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶ͘:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨWŽƐƚ<ĞLJŶĞƐŝĂŶĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͕ 6͕ 561-575. m,Z͕^͕͘K>KD͕͘ΘE/E͕s͘ϮϬϬϵ͘ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶƐƉĂƟĂůƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĂŶĚƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂůĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͕dĂLJůŽƌΘ&ƌĂŶĐŝƐ͘ m,Z͕^͕͘K>KD͕͘ΘE/E͕s͘ϮϬϬϵ͘dŚĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞĂŶĚƚĞƌŵŝŶŽůŽŐLJ͘ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶƐƉĂƟĂů ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĂŶĚƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂůĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘dĂLJůŽƌΘ&ƌĂŶĐŝƐ͘ D/:Z^͕͕͘ZKD/E͕͘Θ,KWWEZKhtZ͕͘ϮϬϬϯ͘WůĂŶŶŝŶŐƉŽůLJĐĞŶƚƌŝĐƵƌďĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶƐŝŶEŽƌƚŚ tĞƐƚƵƌŽƉĞ͘ĞůŌ͘hW^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ. E>^KE͕Z͘Z͘ϭϵϵϱ͘ZĞĐĞŶƚĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶĂƌLJƚŚĞŽƌŝnjŝŶŐĂďŽƵƚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĐŚĂŶŐĞ͘:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ͕ 33͕ϰϴͲϵϬ͘ E>^KE͕Z͘Z͘Θt/EdZ͕^͘'͘ϭϵϴϮ͘ŶĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶĂƌLJƚŚĞŽƌLJŽĨĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĐŚĂŶŐĞ͕ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͕DĂƐƐ͗ ĞůŬŶĂƉWƌĞƐƐŽĨ,ĂƌǀĂƌĚhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJWƌĞƐƐ͘ ^Kdd͕͘:͕͘'Et͕:͕͘^K:͕͘t͘Θ^dKZWZ͕D͘ϮϬϬϭ͘'ůŽďĂůĐŝƚLJͲƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͗ƚƌĞŶĚƐ͕ƚŚĞŽƌLJ͕ƉŽůŝĐLJ͘In: ^Kdd͕͘:͘;ĞĚ͘Ϳ'ůŽďĂůĐŝƚLJƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘KdžĨŽƌĚ͗KdžĨŽƌĚhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJWƌĞƐƐ͕h^͘

:KhZE>Zd/>^͗ ZEEZ͕E͘ϮϬϬϯ͘DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĂůƌĞĨŽƌŵĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞƐĐĂůŝŶŐŽĨƐƚĂƚĞƐƉĂĐĞŝŶĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ tĞƐƚĞƌŶƵƌŽƉĞ͘ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶhƌďĂŶĂŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶĂů^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕ 10͕ϮϵϳͲϯϮϰ͘ ZhEdͲ:/>>z͕͘ϮϬϬϲ͘E&dĂŶĚĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŝŶEŝĂŐĂƌĂ͕ĞƚƌŽŝƚ͕ĂŶĚsĂŶĐŽƵǀĞƌ͘:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨ ŽƌĚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕ 21͕ 1-19. Ks/>>͕͕͘hZE͕&͕͘^K,E͕͘Θt>d,Z͕K͘ϮϬϭϬ͘^ƉĂƟĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŝŶƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͗ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂƟǀĞĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͘WŽǀĞƌƚLJĂŶĚWƵďůŝĐWŽůŝĐLJ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ. hE^E^sZZ͕͘ΘZ/,dZͲ&Z//^sEhZ^͕͘ϮϬϬϴ͘ ďŶĞŐĊƌĚƌƵŵ͗ŶĊƌďĂŐŐĊƌĚĞŶďůŝǀĞƌƟů ŬǀĂƌƚĞƌĞƚƐŐĊƌĚ͘'ĞŚůƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͘hƌďĂŶYƵĂůŝƚLJŽŶƐƵůƚĂŶƚƐ<ďŚ͘ ,E^E͕d͘ΘsK>'͕T͘ϮϬϬϵ͘ƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶʹƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϵ͘hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ ,K^WZ^͕'͘:͘ϮϬϬϲ͘ŽƌĚĞƌƐ͕ďƌŝĚŐĞƐĂŶĚďƌĂŶĚŝŶŐ͗dŚĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶƚŽĂŶ ŝŵĂŐŝŶĞĚƐƉĂĐĞ͘ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶWůĂŶŶŝŶŐ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕ϭϰ͕ 1015-1033. :E^E͕^͘͘ϮϬϬϳ͘ŶĂůLJƐĞĂĨĚĞƚĂŝůŚĂŶĚůĞŶŝ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ<ŽŵŵƵŶĞ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ<ŽŵŵƵŶĞ͘ <EKt>^͕Z͘͘ΘDdd,/^^E͕͘t͘ϮϬϬϵ͘ĂƌƌŝĞƌĞīĞĐƚƐŽĨŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůďŽƌĚĞƌƐŽŶĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬƚƌĂĸĐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ͗ƚŚĞĐĂƐĞŽĨTƌĞƐƵŶĚƐďƌŽŶ͘:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨdƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ'ĞŽŐƌĂƉŚLJ͕ 17͕ 155-165. >hEYh/^d͕<͘:͘ΘdZ/WW>͕D͘ϮϬϬϵ͘dŽǁĂƌĚƐƌŽƐƐͲŽƌĚĞƌ/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ^ƉĂĐĞƐ͘ƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐĂŶĚ ĞŵƉŝƌŝĐĂůĐŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶŽĨƚŚĞPƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĞŶƚƌŽƉĞĂƌĞĂ͘>ƵŶĚhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͘ K͛>>͕d͘ϮϬϭϭ͘DŽďůŝƚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞƐƟƚĐŚŝŶŐƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌŽĨĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJůŝĨĞĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƐŝŶƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ In:s,Z͕D͕͘K͛>>͕d͘Θ,s>^hD͕>͘^͘;ĞĚƐ͘ͿdĞŵƉŽƌĂůĂŶĚ^ƉĂƟĂůDŽĚĂůŝƟĞƐŽĨǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ /ŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘DĂůŵƂ͗/ŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶŽĨƵůƚƵƌĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ͖>ƵŶĚhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJΘ^yKŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶ͖ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͘ W^/͕͘ϮϬϬϮ͘ŽƵŶĚĞĚƐƉĂĐĞƐŝŶƚŚĞŵŽďŝůĞǁŽƌůĚ͗ĚĞĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐ͚ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͛͘dŝũĚƐĐŚƌŝŌǀŽŽƌ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝƐĐŚĞĞŶƐŽĐŝĂůĞŐĞŽŐƌĂĮĞ͕ 93͕ϭϯϳͲϭϰϴ͘ ZE/͕͘ϮϬϭϭ͘ŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞŶĞƐƐĂŶĚ^ŽĐŝĂůŽŚĞƐŝŽŶŝŶtĞƐƚĞƌŶƵƌŽƉĞĂŶŝƟĞƐ͘hƌďĂŶ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕ϰϴ͕ ϮϳϴϵͲϮϴϬϰ͘ ^,<͕D͘ϮϬϬϬ͘ŽƌĚĞƌZĞŐŝŽŶƐŝŶĂDƵůƟͲŽŶƚĞdžƚƵĂůsŝĞǁ͘/Ŷ͗,KhdhD͕,͘s͘Θs>͕D͘͘;ĞĚƐ͘Ϳ ŽƌĚĞƌƐ͕ZĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕ĂŶĚWĞŽƉůĞ͘ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŝŶZĞŐŝŽŶĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ͘>ŽŶĚŽŶ͗WŝŽŶ͘ ^,D/d͕d͘ϮϬϬϱ͘ƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĞŶůĂƌŐĞŵĞŶƚŝŶTƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘'ĞŽ:ŽƵƌŶĂů͕ϲϰ͕ϮϰϵͲϮϱϴ͘ d>>'ZE͕͕͘<Z/^dE^E͕D͘W͘Θ/W^E͕D͘<͘ϮϬϭϭ͘tŚĂƚĐŽŶƐƟƚƵƚĞƐĂƉůĂĐĞ͖ǁŚĂƚŵĂŬĞƐĂƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚ͍In:s,Z͕D͕͘K͛>>͕d͘Θ,s>^hD͕>͘^͘;ĞĚƐ͘ͿdĞŵƉŽƌĂůĂŶĚ^ƉĂƟĂůDŽĚĂůŝƟĞƐ ŽĨǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ/ŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘DĂůŵƂ͗/ŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶŽĨƵůƚƵƌĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ͖>ƵŶĚhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJΘ^yK ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶ͖ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͘

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ȅȈȄ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


ZWKZd^͗ CEC 1997. dŚĞhĐŽŵƉĞŶĚŝƵŵŽĨ^ƉĂƟĂůWůĂŶŶŝŶŐ^LJƐƚĞŵƐĂŶĚWŽůŝĐŝĞƐ͕>ƵdžĞŵďŽƵƌŐ͕KĸĐĞĨŽƌKĸĐŝĂů ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ͘ CEC 1999. ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶƐƉĂƟĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ͗ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐďĂůĂŶĐĞĚĂŶĚƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨƚŚĞƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌLJŽĨƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶhŶŝŽŶ͕ƌƵƐƐĞůƐ͕KĸĐĞĨŽƌKĸĐŝĂůWƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ͘ ,Z/^dE^E͕,͘,͘ΘdZ^T>͕W͘ϮϬϬϬ͘<ŽŵŵƵŶĞĂƚůĂƐ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͗^ŬŽǀͲŽŐEĂƚƵƌƐƚLJƌĞůƐĞŶ͕ DŝůũƆͲŽŐŶĞƌŐŝŵŝŶŝƐƚĞƌŝĞƚ͘ K͕W͕͘'Z^>E͕͕͘,>z͕͕͘,EYhd͕d͘ΘZKZd͕͘ϭϵϵϵ͘^ƉĂƟĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘&ŝŶĂůƌĞƉŽƌƚ͘ ^ƚƵĚLJWƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞŽŶƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ^ƉĂƟĂůWůĂŶŶŝŶŐϭϰ͘ ,E^E͕Z͘:͘ϮϬϬϵĂ͘<ŽŵŵƵŶĞƉůĂŶϮϬϬϵͲϮϬϮϬ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͗WůĂŶŶŝŶŐĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ͘ ,E^E͕^͘ϮϬϬϵď͘dZ&/<E>z^Z&KZTZ^hE^Z'/KEE͘/hͲKƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ZĞŐŝŽŶ^ŬĊŶĞ͘ ,>^/E'TZ<KDDhEϮϬϬϴ͘ELJǀŝƐŝŽŶŽŐƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ<ŽŵŵƵŶĞ͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐŽƌ͗ZĞƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞƐ͘ ,ZK'>͘͘ϭϵϵϬ͘tŚĞƌĞEŽƌƚŚDĞĞƚƐ^ŽƵƚŚ͘ŝƟĞƐ͕^ƉĂĐĞĂŶĚWŽůŝƟĐƐŽŶƚŚĞh͘^͘ͲDĞdžŝĐŽŽƌĚĞƌ͘ ƵƐƟŶ͗ĞŶƚĞƌĨŽƌDĞdžŝĐĂŶŵĞƌŝĐĂŶ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨdĞdžĂƐ͘ >DZ'd^͕͘ϮϬϬϬ͘ĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚƐƚƵĚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬĨŽƌƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶĞƚƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ƵƌďĂŶĞƚ ƌĞƉŽƌƚƚŽƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ͘ĞůŌ͗KdZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ/ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ͘ >WϮϬϭϬ͘PƌĞƐƵŶĚƐƌĞŐŝŽŶĞŶƐƌĞƐŽƌŽĐŚƟůůŐćŶŐůŝŐŚĞƚĊƌϮϬϯϬ͘^ƚŽĐŬŚŽůŵ͗t^W^ǀĞƌŝŐĞ͘ >/E^dZPD͕͘ϮϬϬϵ͘/E&Z^dZh<dhZͲK,zhs/<>/E'/TZ^hE^Z'/KEE͘/hͲKƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ >/E^dZPD͕͘ϮϬϭϬ͘/ŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƵƌďĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝŶƚŚĞPƌĞƐƵŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ZĞŐŝŽŶ^ŬĊŶĞ͗/hͲ Oresund. KZ^ddϮϬϬϳ͘'ĞŽŐƌĂĮƐŬŽŐĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀŝŶĚĚĞůŝŶŐĂĨTƌĞƐƵŶĚƐƌĞŐŝŽŶĞŶŝTƌĞƐƚĂƚ͘In: KZ^hE^<KD/dE;ĞĚ͘Ϳ͘ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘

KE>/EZd/>͗ KDD/E͘ϮϬϭϭĂ͘EĂƟŽŶĂůWůĂŶŶŝŶŐ^LJƐƚĞŵ͗ĞŶŵĂƌŬ΀KŶůŝŶĞ΁͘ǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĐŽŵŵŝŶ͘ŽƌŐͬĞŶͬ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐͲƐLJƐƚĞŵƐͬŶĂƟŽŶĂůͲƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐͲƐLJƐƚĞŵƐͬĚĞŶŵĂƌŬͬ [Accessed 10-10 2011]. KDD/E͘ϮϬϭϭď͘EĂƟŽŶĂůWůĂŶŶŝŶŐ^LJƐƚĞŵ͗^ǁĞĚĞŶ΀KŶůŝŶĞ΁͘ǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĐŽŵŵŝŶ͘ŽƌŐͬĞŶͬ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐͲƐLJƐƚĞŵƐͬŶĂƟŽŶĂůͲƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐͲƐLJƐƚĞŵƐͬƐǁĞĚĞŶͬ [Accessed 10-10 2011]. KEKD/^d͕d͘ϮϬϬϴ͘ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJďƌŝĞĮŶŐƐ͗^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘dŚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝƐƚ͕ 2008. KEKD/^d͕d͘ϮϬϬϵ͘ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJďƌŝĞĮŶŐƐ͗ĞŶŵĂƌŬ͕ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͘dŚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝƐƚ͕ 2009. ESPON 2010. DĞƚƌŽďŽƌĚĞƌ͘ƌŽƐƐͲŽƌĚĞƌWŽůLJĐĞŶƚƌŝĐDĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶZĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕͘>ƵdžĞŵďŽƵƌŐ͕^WKE͘ NILSSON, A. 2010. ,Ͳ,'ƌƵƉƉĞŶ΀KŶůŝŶĞ΁͘,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐ͗^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝƐŬƉůĂŶĞƌŝŶŐƐƐƚĂďĞŶ͕<ŽŵŵƵŶƐƚLJƌĞůƐĞŶƐ ĨƂƌǀĂůƚŶŝŶŐ͘ǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŚŚͲŐƌƵƉƉĞŶ͘ŽƌŐͬ [Accessed 18-10 2011]. ORESUNDSTID. 2008. ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJŽĨƚŚĞKƌĞƐƵŶĚ΀KŶůŝŶĞ΁͘ǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŽƌĞƐƵŶĚƐƟĚ͘ĚŬͬŬĂƉͬƐƚĂƌƚ͘ aspx [Accessed 10-10 2011]. RITZAU, A. 2008. TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͗/ŶƚĞŐƌĂƚŝŽŶƐčƚƚĞƌŶLJƌĞŬŽƌĚ΀KŶůŝŶĞ΁͘ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͗E/^,ͲZ/K͘ ǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘Ěƌ͘ĚŬͬELJŚĞĚĞƌͬhĚůĂŶĚͬϮϬϬϴͬϬϲͬϭϲͬϭϲϰϰϱϰ͘Śƚŵ͍ƌƐƐсƚƌƵĞ΀ĐĐĞƐƐĞĚϰͲϭͲ 2012]. ^K,E͘;ĞĚ͘Ϳ&ŽƌƚŚĐŽŵŝŶŐ͘>ƵdžĞŵďŽƵƌŐ͗ĂŶĞŵ��ƌŐŝŶŐĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ƌƵƐƐĞůƐ͗WĞƚĞƌ >ĂŶŐ͘ dEE^TZ^hE͘ϮϬϬϴ͘dĞŶĚĞŶƐTƌĞƐƵŶĚ΀KŶůŝŶĞ΁͘ǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ƚĞŶĚĞŶƐŽƌĞƐƵŶĚ͘ŽƌŐ [Accessed 5-10 2011].

WZ^KE>KDDhE/d/KE͗ ,E^E͕Z͘:͘ϮϱͲϭϭͲϮϬϭϭϮϬϭϭ͘Z͗/ŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁǁŝƚŚƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĚŝƌĞĐƚŽƌŽĨ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ͕ZŽŶĂůĚ :ĂŵďŽƌŐ,ĂŶƐŽŶ͘dLJƉĞƚŽ<h&&DEE͕͘͘

d,^/^͛^ ZW͕d͘s͘ϮϬϬϵ͘ĂƚĐŚŝŶŐƚŚĞƚƌĂŝŶ͕ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨĂĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƚŽƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ,ŝŐŚͲ^ƉĞĞĚ dƌĂŝŶEĞƚǁŽƌŬŝŶŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ŵĂƐƚĞƌ͕dhĞůŌ͘

ȅȈȅ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Appendix

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The Danish planning system . dŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ Đƚ ǁĂƐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞĚ ŝŶ φττω ŝŶ ĂƐƐĞŵďůLJ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƌĞĨŽƌŵ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ dŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ƌĞĨŽƌŵ ĞŶƚĞƌĞĚ ŝŶƚŽ ĨŽƌĐĞ :ĂŶƵĂƌLJ υ φττϋ͘ /ŶƐƚĞĂĚ ŽĨ φϋυ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐŶŽǁĞŶŵĂƌŬŚĂĚŽŶůLJύόůĞŌ͘dŚĞĐŽƵŶƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶƌĞƉůĂĐĞĚďLJωĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘dŚĞ competences of the state and the municipal level ŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶĞĚǁŚŝůĞƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůůĞǀĞůŚĂƐ ŐŽƩĞŶĂŵŽƌĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚŽƵƚĂŶLJĚŝƌĞĐƚ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĐŽŵƉĞƚĞŶĐĞƐ

/ŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉŽůŝĐLJ  ƚŽƉʹĚŽǁŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ŝǀĞƌƐĞƉŽůŝĐLJŝŶƐƚƌƵŵĞŶƚƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶƵƐĞĚ ƚŽĨƵƌƚŚĞƌƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŝŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ŽƚŚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůͬůŽĐĂů͕ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ƐƵƉƌĂŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ͘  ĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ ^ƚƌĂŝƚ ŽĨ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵ ŽĨĂďƌŝĚŐĞŚĂƐďĞĞŶƚŚĞŵŽƐƚƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚŝŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨ ƐLJŵďŽůŝĐǀĂůƵĞ͘ EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƐƉŽŶƐŽƌĞĚ ƚŚĞ ůŝŶŬ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ Ă ďŝůĂƚĞƌĂů ƐƚĂƚĞ ŽǁŶĞĚ ĞŶƚĞƌƉƌŝƐĞ͘ EĂƟŽŶĂůůLJ ƐƉŽŶƐŽƌĞĚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŝŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ďĞĞŶ ƐŝnjĞĂďůĞ ĂŶĚ ŚĂƐ ĂŵŽƵŶƚĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ƚŽƚĂů ŽĨ hZ ό͘ω ďŝůůŝŽŶ͕ ŽĨ ǁŚŝĐŚ φϋй ĂƌĞ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬ͕ƐĞĞK;φττχͿ͘EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĂůƐŽ ŚĞůƉĞĚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůĂŶĚƚĂdžƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ͘ ^ƵƉƌĂŶĂƟŽŶĂů ďŽĚŝĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ Union and previous to that the Nordic Council ŚĂƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌŵŽƌĞ ĨŽĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŽŶ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ŵŽƐƚƌĞĐĞŶƚůLJďLJƚŚĞƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ  ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐ ůŝŬĞ ƚŚĞ /EdZZ'ǻ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ŵŽŶŝĞƐ ĂůůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ƉĞƌŝŽĚƐ ŚĂǀĞŐƌŽǁŶƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ͕ŝ͘Ğ͘ĂŶŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĨƌŽŵhZ υχ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƚŽ hZ χυ͘φϊ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĨƵŶĚƐ ĂƌĞ ĞŵďĞĚĚĞĚ ŝŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ƚŚĞůĞĂĚŝŶŐĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘

&ŝŐ͘υWůĂŶŶŝŶŐŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚLJŽĨĂŶŝƐŚŐŽƵǀĞƌŵĞŶƚ;ďLJĂƵƚŚŽƌͿ

EĂƟŽŶĂůůĞǀĞů dŚĞ DŝŶŝƐƚĞƌ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ŵĂLJ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ĚĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĞĚ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐ͘dŚĞƐƚĂƚĞŵĂLJǀĞƚŽƚŚĞƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐŽĨŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐ͘ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ƵƉŚŽůĚ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚƐ͘ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ĂƉƉĞĂůĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ EĂƚƵƌĞ WƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĂƌĚ ŽĨ ƉƉĞĂů͘ KŶůLJ ƚŚĞ ůĞŐĂů ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ŝŶ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶ ŵĂLJ ďĞ appealed.

ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů>ĞǀĞů dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞ ĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐǁŚŝĐŚŝƐƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͕ ŶŽƚĂnjŽŶŝŶŐƉůĂŶ͘

DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůĂŶĚůŽĐĂů>ĞǀĞů dŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůĐŽƵŶĐŝůƐĂƌĞƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞĨŽƌĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͕ĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚůŽĐĂůƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƉĞƌŵŝƚƐ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ŝŶ ůĂŶĚ ƵƐĞŝŶƌƵƌĂůnjŽŶĞƐ͘ ;KDD/E͕φτυυĂͿ

^ĞǀĞƌĂů ůŽĐĂů ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĂƉƉĞĂƌĞĚ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ƚŚĞ ͞TƌĞƐƵŶĚ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͟ǁĂƐĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚŝŶυύύϋĂŶĚŚĂƐƌĞĂĐŚĞĚ ĂŵĞŵďĞƌƐŚŝƉŽĨφτƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƟĞƐ͘ /ƚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ Ă ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ĂĐƚŽƌ ŝŶ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ;^ĞĞ ĂůƐŽ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ͗ ƐƚƵĚLJ ĂƌĞĂͿ͘^ĞǀĞƌĂůŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƐƉĞĐŝĮĐ ĐůƵƐƚĞƌƐ Žƌ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ďƵŝůƚ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞZĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ǻ 6JG+06'44')%QOOWPKV[+PKVKCVKXGKPUJQTV+06'4 4')KUC'WTQRGCPRTQITCOVJCVKUEQOOKVVGFVQ DTGCMKPIFQYP'WTQRGCPDQWPFCTKGU+06'44')KU HWPFGFD[VJG'WTQRGCP7PKQPCPFUGGMUVQRTQOQVG EQQRGTCVKQPDGVYGGPTGIKQPCNCTGCUKPFKHHGTGPV EQWPVTKGU6JGQTICPK\CVKQPRTQOQVGUGEQPQOKEEQ JGUKQPCETQUUVJG'7

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


CRRGPFKZ

Historical perspective European level WW 1

1789 : French Revolution

1914

1919

1917: Russian Revolution

19

192 ma

1923: mani 13th century hanseatic routes

Binational level: Oresund

1643: Torstenson War 1657: 2nd ci. 1440 Copenha- 1567: 1-2% Northern gen became capital tax on cargo war, won by of Denmark Sweden

1429: introduction Øresund toll

1020, Roskilde becomes a bisopric, and is now the capital of Denmark 8th - 11th century: Vikings

1700 -21: Great Northern war: won by Denmark

1658: treaty of Roskilde, Scania in hands of Sweden

1857: end of Øresund toll 1850-1900 Industrialisation and urbanization developed slowly

1914-19: WW1, Nordic countries stayed neutral 1909: new law: municipalities gain control in land use

1865-85 development of railtracks especially in Sweden

1250-1400: several castles were built

1902 -1967 Tram introduced in Helsingborg

1213: Denmark conqueres territory

19 D r nis bd G a S sta tri l

1925: Danish town develop- v ment law n

Local level: Helsingor

1429: ships payed toll 1200: first in Helsingor in order to cross the Oresund church was built: Olai 1450: main streets were church laid, 2 monasteries and before 1200: Helsthe “Krogen fortress” ingor was extension 1450 of Helsingborg, mainly a marketplace to trade goods

1587: establishment of Marienlyst palace

1856: city hall built 1820: Rebuilding of Kronborg castle

1660

Lappen

Lunde Lu d garden g rd

5

n sio . an c xp 6th ye f1 Cit nd o e i in

10

25

15

1577: “Krogen fortress” became “Kronborg castle”

20

20

10

25

5

yw cit

20

5

15

1550 20

Skt k . Anna Kloster LLund un ndehav nd eh h e ha

arbor arb bor - expan expansion1827-30

Flynd F yn nder castle nd

20

oad gssr KKin

5

1789

1880

10

25

15 20

St. Nikola k aj A Abbey bbey

10

track

Shipyard Shipya ard

Tr æk

tra

ck -

15

Fig. 2 Historical overview of some main events in Europe, the Oresund and Helsingor (by author)

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rse

ho

20

92 18 7 ck 9 ra cckk 18 trra ra rth lttrra No asstta Co

16th and 17th century building

Helsingør 15th century

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5

25

1550s: city strucked by fire twice.

17th century: ‘Kings roads’ also connecting Helsingør. Source: Orestid

1880: first industrialization of the city, enlargment of harbor

North trac k 1864 1

20

1 h

10

20

1830 Mar arien r lyst rie yt

25

15 St.. O Ol Olai

1891: development train tracks (e.g. train fery HH) and custom office Toldkammeret is built

all

1559: Olai church becomes cathedral

20

1896: train station is built

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19th century: ceveral beach villa’s were built.

1925:town2 provided cio frameworka road course a building tyi and distribd and buildind lines


cold war

WW 2

1945

1929: stock market crash 1923: Pan-Europa manifesto

may 1945: 1940: Denmark liberation. is occupied end of WW2 1972: 11 by the million Germans crossings a 1973: DenSweden year mark joins stayed neu1952 open EEC tral 1947 borders Dk-Se

1992: Orestad development starts:

anish velopnt law

‘Fingerplan’ Copenhagen 1947 source: ministry of Evironment

1939: beachroad implementation 1938: first social housing in Helsingør

1997: EU-funded program EURORES started to promote a common labor market 1995: Sweden becomes EU member

1993: regional policy, establishment Øresund Committee 1994–1999: Oresund is part of cross-border projects of EU Interreg II

‘07 Dk: Se

2000: Oresund part of Interregg IIIA

2000: building Oresund bridge

2007: beginning of world wide “credit crunch” ‘11 Dk: Se

2008 Establishing of 58 % Orestad in CPH 2008-09: Danish housing bubble “Fingerplan 2007” collapsed

2001: Calatrava´s turning torso, 2000-08: increasing Malmo amount of Danes move to Sweden and work in Denmark

official approve (likely 2013-14) development of Femern tunnel (between Denmark and Germany)

2011: Bella Sky in CPH, 3xN

Regional plan Denmark 1973. Source: MInistry of Environment

2001: restoration Olai cathedral

1958: museum Lousiana 1952: increase of crossings 1950-80: Several housing projects were developed

1999

2011: Toldkammeret becomes Culture Yard in Helsingør by AART Architects

20

5

10

25

15

20

2000: Kronborg castle on UNESCO list 2

1978: modern housing ‘Sjølund’ by Lundgaard architects

1990: Toldkammeret building becomes a cultural place

se

1930’s: Establishing of garden city projects: small detached houses

Fa

25:town law ovided city amework for ad course, ilding types d distribution d building es

‘02 Dk: Se

2010: European crisis starts

Fa

aw: ies l in

‘72 ‘74 ‘75 ‘77 ‘82 ‘91 ‘93 ‘94 Dk: Dk: Dk: Dk: Dk: Dk: Dk: Dk: Se Se Se Se Se Se Se Se

2004: European constitution 2007: Lissabon treaty

se

9: rd al

2002: Euro 1989: fall 1995: 2nd becomes 1979: EMS Berlin wall 1993: Schengen: legal Euro- open borders 1985: 1st 1999: 1991: End tender pean in 7 countries 1957: EEC, Schengen EMU in 11 Cold war. single in EMU Rome treaty 1987: Single 1998: countries European market countries 1949: European European Economic Council of act bank in Area, MaasEurope Frankfurt tricht treaty 1951: ECSC

1

1940

919

1892 The train ferry between Helsingor and Helsingborg was put in service

sources: Orestid (http://www.oresundstid.dk); the Guardian (http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2011/jul/28/europe-politics-interactivemap-left-right); Helsingor municipality (https://helsingorkommune.dk/ | Kommuneatlas (2000) | Kommuneplan (2009)); EU (http://europa.eu/ about-eu/eu-history/index_nl.htm); Derry, T. K. A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1979; AART Architects; Helsingor Leksion (http://www.helsingorleksikon.dk/index.php/Forside); toldkammeret (http://www. toldkammeret.dk/)

ȅȈȉ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


CRRGPFKZ

Literature Review ͞Wh^, E Wh>> /E  ZK^^ͳKZZZ'/KE͟ /ŶƋƵŝƌŝĞƐŝŶƚŽƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŽĨĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ϭϯ:ĂŶƵĂƌLJϮϬϭϮ ďƐƚƌĂĐƚʹ dŚŝƐůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞƌĞǀŝĞǁĞdžƉůŽƌĞƌƐ ;ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůͿƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͕ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ ĚƌŝǀŝŶŐŽƌŝŶŚŝďŝƟŶŐƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘/ƚĮƌƐƚŝŶƋƵŝƌĞƌŝŶƚŽŐĞŶĞƌĂůƉƵƐŚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŝŶĂďƌŽĂĚĞƌƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĐŽŶƚĞdžƚĂŶĚƚŚĞŶ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐƚŚĞƐĞĮŶĚŝŶŐƐǁŝƚŚĂŶĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐŽŶƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶĞŶŵĂƌŬĂŶĚ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘ dŚĞůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƌĞǀŽůǀŝŶŐĂƌŽƵŶĚ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐƚŚĂƚĨŽƐƚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJ ŶŽƚĞƚŚĂƚĂƐLJŵŵĞƚƌŝĞƐĂŶĚĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŝŶůĂďŽƌ ĂŶĚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐŵĂƌŬĞƚĐƌĞĂƚĞƐƐƚƌŽŶŐŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞƐ ĨŽƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ĂůŽŶŐǁŝƚŚŽƚŚĞƌĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŽĨ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌ͘DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌĚŽĞƐŝƚŝŶƋƵŝƌĞƌ ŝŶƚŽƚŚĞĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶĂďŽƵƚŝĚĞŶƟƚLJĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞĂŶĚǁŚĂƚƌŽůĞŝƚƉůĂLJƐŝŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ʹƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůůLJĂŶĚŝŶƉƌĂĐƟĐĞ͘dŚĞƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŽŶƚŚŝƐĮĞůĚĚŽƉŽŝŶƚƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĂƚĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJŵĂƩĞƌƐ͕ďƵƚĂƐƐŽŵĞĂƵƚŚŽƌƐƉƌŽƉŽƐĞ ŝƐŝĚĞŶƟƚLJĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚƚŽŽďƚĂŝŶŝŶƉƌĂĐƟĐĞĂŶĚĨƌŽŵƚŽƉĚŽǁŶ ĂŶĚĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂůůLJŝƚŝƐĨŽƵŶĚƚŽďĞĂůŽŶŐƚĞƌŵ process.

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ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐǁŝƚŚĂƐƉĞĐŝĂůĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐŽŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ĞǀŽůǀŝŶŐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŝŶ ĞŶŵĂƌŬĂŶĚDĂůŵƆŝŶ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘ ƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ Commission in its ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ^ƉĂƟĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ WĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ ĨƌŽŵ ϭϵϵϵ͕ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƟĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐĂŝŶƐ ĂƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ǁŝĚĞůLJ ĂĐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞĂŶĚĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĞĚ;ϭϵϵϵͿ͘ sĂƌŝŽƵƐĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶƐŝŶƵƌŽƉĞŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶ ƐƚƵĚŝĞĚ ŝŶ ŽƌĚĞƌ ƚŽ ŝĚĞŶƟĨLJ ƚŚĞ ͞ƉƵƐŚ͟ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ;ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ Ăů͕͘ ϮϬϭϬͿ. Furthermore have ŵŽĚĞůƐ ĐĂƉƚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ ďĞĞŶ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ ;ŝďŝĚͿ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ ƌĞǀŽůǀŝŶŐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ ƐƵďũĞĐƚ ŚĂǀĞ ĞůĂďŽƌĂƚĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ͕ ƉŝƞĂůůƐ ĂŶĚ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ ŝŶ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ŽŶůLJ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ƐƚƌŝĐƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ͕ďƵƚƐŽŵĞĂƌĞĂůƐŽƚĂŬŝŶŐ Ă ŵŽƌĞ ƐŽĐŝŽůŽŐŝĐĂů Žƌ ƉƐLJĐŚŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ŵĂƩĞƌ ;,ŽƐƉĞƌƐ ϮϬϬϲ͗ϯͿ͘ /ŶŝƟĂůůLJ ƚŚŝƐ ĞƐƐĂLJ ĞdžƉůŽƌĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĞĚ ƉƵƐŚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͕ ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ ƐŚĂƉŝŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞĮƌƐƚƐĞĐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚŝƐ ĂƌƟĐůĞ ǁŝůů ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞ ƚŚĞ ďĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ͕ ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ ďLJ Ă ďƌŽĂĚĞƌ ƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞŝŶƌĞŐĂƌĚƐƚŽƚŚĞƉƵůůĂŶĚƉƵƐŚĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞǀŝĞǁ ǁŝůů ƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͕ǁŝƚŚĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞŽŶƚŚĞďŝͲŶĂƟŽŶĂůĐŝƟĞƐ ŽĨ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶͲDĂůŵŽ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ ĞŶŵĂƌŬĂŶĚ^ǁĞĚĞŶĂƐĂĐĂƐĞƐƚƵĚLJ͘

Ϯ tŚLJ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͍ As described by Duhr, et al. (2010) cross-border development can be seen as cooperation between geographically contiguous border regions. Crossborder regionalization is a multi-faceted and complex phenomenon. It takes shape along nation state boundaries and requires foreign contacts and partnership between public and private actors on the regional scale. The process is localized in what could be labelled as a “grey zone” between civil and public law in combination with the emergence of informal and formal networks between a wide spectrum of actors, ranging from the single citizen DQG ¿UP XQLYHUVLWLHV LQGXVWULDO RUJDQL]DWLRQV trade unions, political parties, institutions to cultural organizations. The overall concern of the importance of increased cross-border integration and the different ways to achieve is assumable YDU\LQJ DPRQJ WKH DFWRUV UHÀHFWLQJ FRQÀLFWLQJ

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goals and asymmetry in power relations(Nelson and Winter, 1982, Nelson, 1995). In many respects these routines and path GHSHQGHQFHZLOODOVRIUDPHWKHDFWRU¶VெSRWHQWLDO cross-border behaviour”. Meijers (2003:8) also underpins that not only actors in general reorient their focus and collaborate on new levels, but also before 1980 merely nation states competed, the last 25 years, however, slowly a trend has been established. Since the last 10 years a new type of competitiveness between sub-national regions or cities can be observed. So the administrative units that once only competed inwards with other sub-national actors, now orient themselves also towards the international or global arena. Reading the Øresund Committee’s publications, this narrative about competition is apparent numerous places (Øresund, 2011). There is furthermore a growing belief that polycentric urban regions rather than the individual cities within them are facing the challenge to turn globalisation to their EHQH¿W,QWKLVUHVSHFW6FRWWet al. notes that the ‘individual city in the narrow sense is less an appropriate or viable entity of social organisation than regional networks of cities’4, with its wider set of assets and broader spatial scope to meet WKHGHPDQGVRI¿UPVDQGKRXVHKROGVLQWKHSRVW Fordist network society (Scott et al., 2001).

ϯ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ 'ůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƚƌĂŶƐĂĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽǁĞƌ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƟŽŶ ƐƚĂƚĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ ŽĨ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŚĂǀĞ ůĞĚ ƚŽ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂů ƌĞŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ Ă ŚŝŐŚ ĚĞŐƌĞĞ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ ;ƌĞŶŶĞƌ͕ ϮϬϬϯͿ͘ ƵĞ ƚŽ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƚĞŶĚĞŶĐŝĞƐ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ĐŽůůĂƉƐĞ ŝŶ ĞŶƚƌĂů ĂŶĚ ĂƐƚĞƌŶƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŽŶƟŶƵŝŶŐĞŶůĂƌŐĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶhŶŝŽŶĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶƐŚĂǀĞ ŐƌŽǁŶĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůLJŝŶŶƵŵďĞƌĂŶĚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ LJĞĂƌƐ͘ Ɛ >ƵŶĚŬǀŝƐƚ ĂŶĚ dƌŝƉƉů ;ϮϬϬϵ͗ϭͿ ŶŽƚĞƐ ƌĞŐĂƌĚŝŶŐ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ĂƐ ĂŶ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞŽĨƚŚĞďĞŶĞĮƚƐ͗͞dŚĞƌĞŝƐĂǁŝĚĞƐƉƌĞĂĚ ĂŐƌĞĞŵĞŶƚŝŶƚŚĞĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞƚŚĂƚŝŶƚŚĞ ĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐ ŐůŽďĂůŝnjĞĚ ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ ƚŚĞ ůŽŶŐ ƚĞƌŵ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ůŝŬĞ ŝŶ ͞ŶŽƌŵĂů͟ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ ƌĞƐƚƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞŝƌĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞĂŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ƐƉĂĐĞ͘͟ As it is indeed apparent in the popular ŐůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŶĂƌƌĂƟǀĞ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨƚƌĂĚĞ͕ĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƉĞŽƉůĞƚŚŝƐŚĂƐŽŌĞŶďĞĞŶ ŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞĚŝŶĂŶĂƌƌŽǁĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐĞŶƐĞŝŶĐƌŽƐƐ

ȅȈȋ

ďŽƌĚĞƌƐƚƵĚŝĞƐůĞĂĚŝŶŐƚŽĂĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͘ Ƶƚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJ ĐŽŶĮŶĞĚ ƚŽ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƉĞŽƉůĞƐ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ŝƚ ĐĂŶ ĂůƐŽ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ĂŶĚ ĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘ƌƵŶĞƚͲ:ĂŝůůLJ;ϮϬϬϲ͗ϳͿ͕ >ĂŵďƌĞŐƚƐ;ϮϬϬϬ͗ϱͿĂŶĚDĞŝũĞƌƐ;ϮϬϬϯ͗ϳͿƐƵŐŐĞƐƚ ƚŚĂƚ͗͞:ƵƐƚůŝŬĞĞǀĞƌLJǁŚĞƌĞĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞŐůŽďĞĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĞŵĞƌŐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ŵŽŶŽĐĞŶƚƌŝĐ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ŝŶƚŽƉŽůLJĐĞŶƚƌŝĐŽŶĞƐ͘/ŶƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕ĐŽŵƉŽƐĞĚŽĨĂ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶŽĨĚŝƐƟŶĐƚĐŝƟĞƐŽĨǀĂƌŝŽƵƐƐŝnjĞƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ŵŽƌĞ Žƌ ůĞƐƐ ĐůŽƐĞ ƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ Ă ĐůĞĂƌ ͚ƉƌŝŵĂƚĞĐŝƚLJ͕͛ŝƚŝƐƚŚŝƐĞŶƟƌĞĐŽŶĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶŝƚƐŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůĐŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚŚĂƐďĞĐŽŵĞƚŚĞŶĞǁ ůŽĐƵƐŽĨƉŽůŝƟĐĂů͕ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ͘͟ tŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƐĂŝĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ƚƌƵĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŽŵĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ ĐĂŶ ĐůĞĂƌůLJ ďĞ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ǁŝĚĞƐƉƌĞĂĚ͕ ďƵƚ ĂůƐŽ ǀĞƌLJ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ĂŶĚ ƐŽŵĞƟŵĞƐƚƌŝǀŝĂůĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐĂďŽƵƚŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƚ ŝƐ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ĂŶ ĂƵƚŽŵĂƟĐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ƚŚĂƚ ũƵƐƚ ŚĂƉƉĞŶƐŝŶŐůŽďĂůŝƐĞĚǁŽƌůĚ͘dŚĞLJĚŽŚŽůĚŵĞƌŝƚ ŽŶ ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ůĞǀĞůƐ͕ ďƵƚ ĂƐ ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ;ϮϬϭϬͿĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐƐƵŐŐĞƐƚ͕ĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉƵƐŚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚ ŵŽƌĞ ĞůĂďŽƌĂƚĞůLJ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĂůůLJ͘ dŚĂƚ ŝƐ ŽďǀŝŽƵƐůLJ Ă ƚĞŶĚĞŶĐLJŝŶƵƌŽƉĞƚŚĂƚƌĞŐŝŽŶƐĂŶĚĐŝƚLJŵĞƌŐĞƐ ŝŶƚŽ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ͕ ĐůƵƐƚĞƌ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶƐƚĞůůĂƟŽŶ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŵĞƌŐĞŶƚ ͞ůŽĐƵƐ͕͟ ďƵƚ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĐĂŶďĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŝŶŶĂƚƵƌĞƚŚĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶƐǁŝƚŚŝŶĂ ŶĂƟŽŶƐƚĂƚĞ͘^ŽŵĞĞŵĞƌŐĞŶƚƌĞŐŝŽŶƐĐĂŶĂĐƚƵĂůůLJ ďĞĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚĂƐďĞŝŶŐŵŽŶŽĐĞŶƚƌŝĐĂƌĞĂƐǁŝƚŚĂ ͞ƉƌŝŵĂƚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͘͟ Ɛ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ůĂƚĞƌ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞǀŝĞǁ ƚŚŝƐ ŝƐ ŝŶĚĞĞĚ ƚƌƵĞ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ďĂƐŝĐĂůůLJ ŝƐ ƌĞǀŽůǀŝŶŐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJƌĞƐƉĞĐƚƐ͘dŚĞŵŽƚŽƌŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŝŶĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶƐŵƵƐƚďĞĂƐƐĞƐƐĞĚŝŶŵŽƌĞĚĞƚĂŝů͘ ůĂďŽƌĂƟŶŐ ŽŶ ƐƵĐŚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĮĐ ĂƌĞĂƐĐĂŶĂůƐŽůĞĂĚƚŽĂďĞƩĞƌƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŚŽǁ ƵƌďĂŶ planners should develop, understand and assist ƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘ ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞĞƚĂů͘;ϮϬϭϬͿŚĂǀĞĨŽƵŶĚƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĞŶŐŝŶĞƐ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ůĂďŽƵƌ ĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝŵƉůŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ;ƉĞŽƉůĞͿ ĂƌĞ ĞdžƉůŽŝƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŐŝǀĞ ƚŚĞŵ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ŶŽƚĞĚ ďLJ <ŶŽǁůĞƐ ĂŶĚ DĂƩŚŝĞƐĞŶ ;ϮϬϬϵ͗ϭϱϴͿ ĞŵƉŚĂƐĞƐƚŚĂƚŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůďŽƌĚĞƌƐĂůƐŽĐƌĞĂƚĞ ĂƌƟĮĐŝĂů ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚƌĂǀĞů ďLJ ƚĂŬŝŶŐ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞŽĨĐŚĞĂƉĞƌĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƉƌŝĐĞƐǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞĚƵĞƚŽĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚĂdžůĞǀĞůƐĂŶĚĐƵƌƌĞŶĐLJƌĂƚĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ƵŶĚĞƌƉŝŶŶĞĚ ďLJ >ƵŶĚƋƵŝƐƚ ĂŶĚ dƌŝƉƉů;ϮϬϬϵ͗ϵͿǁŚŽĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĚƌŝǀŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͕ Ğ͘Ő͘ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĐĂƉĂďŝůŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽƐƚ ŐŝǀŝŶŐ ƌŝƐĞ ƚŽ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


CRRGPFKZ

ŶĞǁ ĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƐLJŶĞƌŐŝĞƐ͕ ŽŌĞŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞdžŝƐƚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƉĂƌƚƐŽĨĂĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ƐƚŚĞLJ ƐƚĂƚĞ͗ ͞ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ƚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌƉůĂLJ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐǁŽƌŬŝŶŐĂƐĚƌŝǀŝŶŐĨŽƌĐĞŽŶ ƚŚĞŽŶĞŚĂŶĚĂŶĚĂƐďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐŽŶƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌŚĂŶĚ ĂĚĚ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͟. ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ;ϮϬϭϬͿ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ ƚŚƌĞĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŝĚĞĂů ƚLJƉĞƐͬŵŽĚĞůƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚ ŝŶ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƵƌŽƉĞ͘

ĐƚŽƌ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ ĂŶĚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĐƌĞĂƚĞƐ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚŝƐ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ ŽŶ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐ ŽĨ ďĞůŽŶŐŝŶŐƐ͘ EĞŝƚŚĞƌ ĚŽĞƐ Ă ŶĂƌƌŽǁ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ďŝĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶĂů ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ĐĂƐĞ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ Ă ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĞĚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ Žƌ ŵƵůƟĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶĂů ŽŶĞ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ƌĂŝƐĞƐ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶĚƵĞƚŽƚŚŝƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůƐƉůŝƚ͘Ɛŝƚ ŝƐŶŽƚĞĚďLJŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚĞƌd͘,ĂŶƐĞŶ͕ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐĚŽŶŽƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶĂŶLJůŝŶĞĂƌĨĂƐŚŝŽŶƐŽŽŶĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĐĂŶ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĞŶƟƌĞůLJ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƐĞŶƐĞŝƐŝƚƐƟůůƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚĂůƐŽƚŽŐƌĂƐƉĂŶĚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ĨƌŽŵ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĂŶŐůĞƐ ĂƐ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚƌĂũĞĐƚŽƌŝĞƐŵƵƚƵĂůůLJ ĐĂŶƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ;,ĂŶƐĞŶĂŶĚsŽůĚŐĂĚĞ͕ϮϬϬϵͿ͘

ϰ

Fig. 3 Source: ibid

^ĂŵĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŚĂƐ Ă ůŝŶĞĂƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͘ ^Ž ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ĐĞŶƚƌĞ Ͳ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌĂů ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ͕ ĂƐ ĐĂƉƚƵƌĞĚ ďLJ ͘ ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ;ϮϬϭϬͿ͗ ͙͞ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ ŝƐ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŶ ŽƉƉŽƐŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ŇŽǁ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĞƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͘dŚŝƐĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ Ă ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƐƵďƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐĂƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶŽĨ ƐƉĂĐĞ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ũŽďƐ ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͕ ��ŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞŝŶƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂůƚĞƌŵƐ͕ŝƐƌĞůĞŐĂƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞ ƌŽůĞŽĨĂĚŽƌŵŝƚŽƌLJĂƌĞĂ͘͟ dŚŝƐ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ǀĂƌŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞĚ ďLJ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ ;<ŶŽǁůĞƐ ĂŶĚ DĂƩŚŝĞƐƐĞŶ͕ ϮϬϬϵ͗ϭϱϴͿ͘ Ƶƚ ĚĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĂƚ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ metropolitan areas experience increased ŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶ͖ ŝƚ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJ ĞŶƚĂŝů ĂŶLJ ĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚƐ ;Ğ ŽĞ Ğƚ Ăů͕͘ ϭϵϵϵͿ͘ /ƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ĂĚĂƉƚ ĂŶĚ ĚŝǀŝĚĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂĐĞ ŝŶ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ŵŽƌĞ ƉŽůLJĐĞŶƚƌŝĐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͘dŚŝƐŝƐŝŶĐŽŶƚƌĂƐƚƚŽŽŶĞŽĨ ƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůĂŝŵŽĨƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ^ƉĂƟĂůWůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ;͕ϭϵϵϵͿĂŶĚŝƚĂůƐŽĐŽŶƚƌĂĚŝĐƚƚŚĞďĂƐŝĐĐĂƵƐĂů ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚ͕ ŶĂŵĞůLJ ƚŚĂƚ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝƚƐĞůĨ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ͕

ȆƅŻ

ďƵƚŝƚƌĂƚŚĞƌĨĂŝƌƚŽƐĂLJƚŚĂƚĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝƐ ƐƉĂǁŶĞĚ ďLJ ƌĂƟŽŶĂů ĂĐƚŽƌ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŶ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚůĂďŽƵƌŵĂƌŬĞƚ͕ĂƐƉĞŽƉůĞĞdžƉůŽŝƚĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƚǁŽ ŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ͘ ^ĞĞŶ ĨƌŽŵ ĂŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ůŽŐŝĐ ƚŚŝƐ͕ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐĂƌĞďĞŶĞĮƫŶŐĨƌŽŵĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͛Ɛ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ Žƌ ŝŶ ŽƚŚĞƌ ǁŽƌĚƐ͗ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞƐ.

ȅȈȌ

dŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶ

WƌĞƐĞŶƚůLJƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚŚĂƐϯ͘ϳŵŝůůŝŽŶŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ŝŶ ĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ ŽĨ ĂůŵŽƐƚ Ϯϭ͕ϬϬϬ ƐƋƵĂƌĞ ŬŝůŽŵĞƚƌĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŵĂŬĞƐ ƚŚŝƐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ĚĞŶƐĞůLJƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶŝŶ^ĐĂŶĚŝŶĂǀŝĂ͘ dŚĞƌĞŝƐĂŵĂũŽƌŝƚLJŽĨĂŶĞƐůŝǀŝŶŐŝŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ͗ ƚǁŽƚŚŝƌĚƐŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛ƐŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐůŝǀĞŝŶƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ƉĂƌƚ ;^ũčůůĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ƐŽŵĞ ŝƐůĂŶĚƐͿ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ŽŶĞƚŚŝƌĚŽĨƚŚĞƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŝƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚŝŶ^ŬĊŶĞĂƚ ƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚƐŝĚĞ;dĞŶĚĞŶƐTƌĞƐƵŶĚ͕ϮϬϬϴͿ.

Fig. 4 A map of the Øresund Region. Source: Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DMFA, 2012)

dŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁŚĞƌĞ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ŝƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƐŽůŝĚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ ĞdžĐĞĞĚƐ ŝƚ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ͘ ,ĞŶĐĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ Ă ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŶŽŶĞƚŚĞůĞƐƐ ƐƟůů ůŝŐŚƚůLJ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƵŶĚĞƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ EŽŶĞƚŚĞůĞƐƐ͕ ŝƚ ŚĂƐ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ŝŶ ĂŶ ĞĂƌůLJƉŚĂƐĞŽĨŝƚƐĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĐŽƵƌƐĞ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŽŽŬ Žī ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϴϬ͛Ɛ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƐƵƉƌĂŶĂƟŽŶĂů ďŽĚŝĞƐǁĞƌĞůŽďďLJŝŶŐĨŽƌĂĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬĂŶĚƚŚĞŝĚĞĂ ŽĨƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶĂƐĂŵĂũŽƌŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ŵĂƉ͘ dŚĞ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĮdžĞĚůŝŶŬǁĂƐĚĞĐŝĚĞĚďLJƚŚĞĂŶŝƐŚĂŶĚ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚŝŶϭϵϵϭĂŶĚǁĂƐƐƵƉƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚďLJĂ ĐŽŵŵŽŶǀŝƐŝŽŶĨŽƌƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶϭϵϵϵ͘dŚĞĮdžĞĚ ůŝŶŬŽƉĞŶĞĚŝŶ:ƵŶĞϮϬϬϬ͘ ͞ŝƌĚƐͲĞLJĞͲǀŝĞǁ͟ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌŝĚŐĞ ;ĂŶĚ ƚƵŶŶĞůͿ ĨƌŽŵ DĂůŵƆƚŽŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘;^ŽƵƌĐĞ͗dĞŶĚĞŶƐTƌĞƐƵŶĚ͕ϮϬϬϴͿ

ϱ dŚĞĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŽĨĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ;ϮϬϭϬͿ ŝĚĞĂů ƚLJƉĞƐͬ ŵŽĚĞůƐ͕ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĮƚƐ ŝŶƚŽ ŵŽĚĞů ϭ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ŵŽďŝůŝƚLJ ĨƌŽŵ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ŐŽĞƐ ƚŽ DĂůŵƆ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ůŽǁ ŚŽƵƐĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ͕ ďƵƚ ǁŚĞƌĞ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ ĨƌŽŵ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ ƚĂŬĞƐ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ůĂďŽƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ͊ dŚĂƚ ƉƵƐŚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ďLJ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůͬ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝƐ ĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĮŶĚŝŶŐ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŝƚ ƌĂŝƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ǁŚĂƚ ŬŝŶĚ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ĚĞƐŝƌĂďůĞ͘ ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚŝƐ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ ƚŽ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ĞdžƚĞŶĚ ĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŝŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚ ĂƌĞĂ ĂƐ Ă ƐƉŽŬĞƐƉĞƌƐŽŶ KůĞ ^ĐŚŵŝĚƚ ;ZŝƚnjĂƵ͕ ϮϬϬϴͿĨƌŽŵĂŶŝƐŚŚĂŵďĞƌŽĨŽŵŵĞƌĐĞƐƚĂƚĞƐ͗ ͞dŚĞŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨ^ǁĞĚĞƐ͕ǁŚŽĂƌĞǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŝŶƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂƌĞĂ͕ŝƐĂůŵŽƐƚĞdžƉůŽĚĞĚʹĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ĂŌĞƌ ϮϬϬϲ͘ dŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŵĂŝŶůLJ ĚƌŝǀĞŶ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŶLJ ƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚƐ ^ǁĞĚĞƐ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ĞĂĐŚ ĚĂLJ ĂƌĞ ĐƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌĂŝƚ ĨŽƌ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƚĂŝů͕ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶĂŶĚŚĞĂůƚŚĐĂƌĞƐĞĐƚŽƌ1.”

ǻ 6TCPUNCVGFHTQO&CPKUJKPVQ'PINKUJ#PVCNNGVCH UXGPUMGTGFGTCTDGLFGTK-ÔDGPJCXPUQOTÁFGV GTPÂTOGUVGMURNQFGTGVUÂTNKIVGHVGTǼǺǺȀ +PVGITCVKQPGPFTKXGUKJÔLITCFHTGOCHFGVWUKPFXKU CHUXGPUMGTGFGTJXGTFCIVCIGTQXGTUWPFGVHQTCV CTDGLFGKPFGPHQTFGVCKNJCPFGNTGUVCWTCVKQPGTQI KMMGOKPFUVUWPFJGFUUGMVQTGPq

ȅȈȍ

Fig. 5 Øresund commuters from Sweden to Denmark (Orestat, 2007)

dŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂďŽƌ ĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ŵĂƩĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƵƐŚ ĨŽƌǁĂƌĚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶƚŚĞTƌĞƐƵŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶŝƐĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚ͘ĞƐƉŝƚĞƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƚǁŽ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ƌĞǀĞĂů ĂŶLJ ŝŶƐŝŐŚƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŝƚŽŶůLJŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƐǁŚŽŝƐĚŽŝŶŐŝƚ͕ŶŽƚǁŚLJ ƚŚĞƌĞƐƚŝƐŶŽƚ͘dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞŝƚǁŽƵůĚďĞƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚƚŽ ŝŶƋƵŝƌĞƌ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ŝŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚĂƟǀĞ ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶƚŚĂƚĞdžŝƐƚŽŶƚŚŝƐĮĞůĚ͘ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĐŽŶĮŶĞĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͕ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐĂŝŶƐ ǀĞƌLJ ŶĂƌƌŽǁůLJ͘ /Ŷ ŽƌĚĞƌ ƚŽ ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƚƌĂũĞĐƚŽƌŝĞƐŝƚǁŽƵůĚďĞĨƌƵŝƞƵůƚŽŬŶŽǁ ŵŽƌĞ ĂďŽƵƚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌŵŽƌĞ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚƚŽŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞŽƚŚĞƌƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞƐŝŶŽƌĚĞƌ ƚŽ ŵĂŬĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŵŽƌĞ ŵƵůƟĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶĂů ƚŽ ĂǀŽŝĚƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŝƐŶŽƚĐŽŵŝŶŐ ƚŽĂŚĂůƚŝĨƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞƚǁŽĂƌĞĂƐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞŽƌĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ďĞ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ƚŽ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ĂƐ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚĞĚ ďLJ &ŝŶŶŝƐŚ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚĞƌ WĂĂƐŝ ;ϮϬϬϮ͗ϭϯϵͿĂƌŐƵŝŶŐthat territories in fact are not ͞ƌĞĂů͟ŝŶƚŚĞƐĞŶƐĞŽĨďĞŝŶŐǀŝƐŝďůĞĂŶĚƚĂŶŐŝďůĞ͖ ŝŶƐƚĞĂĚ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ĨŽƌŐĞĚ ŝŶ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĂŶĚ ĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐĂŶĚĚŝƐĐŽƵƌƐĞƐ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ WĂĂƐŝ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĞƐ ĞŵĞƌŐĞ͕ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ĂŶĚ ĞdžŝƐƚ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚĂƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨ͞ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ͟ƚŚĂƚŚĞ ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƵĂůŝnjĞ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŝŵƵůƚĂŶĞŽƵƐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĨŽƵƌ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ͕ĂƐŚĞŶŽƚĞƐ͗͞ĂƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂůƐŚĂƉĞ͕ĂƐLJŵďŽůŝĐ ƐŚĂƉĞ͕ĂŶŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĂůƐŚĂƉĞĂƐǁĞůůĂƐĂƐŚĂƉĞ ƚŚĂƚŚĂƐƚŽĚŽǁŝƚŚƐŽĐŝŽͲĐƵůƚƵƌĂůŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͘:ŽŝŶƚůLJ͕ ƚŚĞƐĞĨŽƌĐĞƐĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞǁŚĞƚŚĞƌĂŶĂƌĞĂĚŽĞƐĞdžŝƐƚ ;ŽƌŶŽƚͿĂŶĚŝƚƐĐŚĂŶĐĞƐĨŽƌĨƵƚƵƌĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ DĞŝũĞƌƐĞƚĂů͘;ϮϬϬϯ͗ϮϬϮͿ ĂĚĚƐƚŽƚŚŝƐŶŽƟŽŶǁŝƚŚ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ĂƌŐƵŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚĞ ŚŽǁ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ ŽŶƵƌďĂŶĂŶĚƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƉůĂĐĞƐŵƵĐŚ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ͘ ,ĞƌĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶŝƐĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĨĞĞůŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌŶĞƐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƐLJŵďŽůƐƚŚĂƚŚĞůƉŝŶ ƉĞƌĐĞŝǀŝŶŐƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


CRRGPFKZ

ĂƐĂŶĞŶƟƚLJ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐ Ă ͞ƐĞŶƐĞ͟ ŽĨ ďĞůŽŶŐŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ƐŝƚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĂƌĞĂ ;K͛Ğůů͕ ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ Ɛ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĂƌĞĂ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐ ŽĨ ďĞůŽŶŐŝŶŐ ƚŽ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƐƚƌŽŶŐĞƌ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ǁŚĞƌĞ DĂůŵƆ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƚŚĞƌŶƉĂƌƚŽĨ^ǁĞĚĞŶĚŽŶŽƚŚĂǀĞĂƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ ƐƚƌŽŶŐĐĞŶƚƌĞĂŶLJǁŚĞƌĞ͍'Ğƌƚ:͘,ŽƐƉĞƌƐ;ϮϬϬϲͿ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐĞ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ŽŶ ĐƌŽƐƐ ďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĚƌĂǁŝŶŐ ŽŶ ĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ ŶŽƟŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ Ă ďŝŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŝƚLJ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ƐŽĐŝĂů ƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ Ă ƐŚĂƌĞĚ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͘ ƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƐŽĐŝĂů ƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ Ă ĐƌŽƐƐͲ ďŽƌĚĞƌŝĚĞŶƟƚLJŝƐĂĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞŝŶƚŚĞƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞŽĨ ƐƚƌŽŶŐƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐǁŝƚŚĞĂĐŚƚŚĞŝƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůůLJ ĚĞĮŶĞĚ ŚŝŶƚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ ĂĚũŽŝŶ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ƉŽŝŶƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ ĂƐ ŝƚ ƵŶĚĞƌƉŝŶƐ ƚŚĞ ĨĂĐƚƚŚĂƚƉĞŽƉůĞĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂƌĞĂƐĞĞŶ ƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐ ůĞƐƐ͕ ĂƐ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ^ǁĞĚĞƐ͕ĚƵĞƚŽĂƐƚƌŽŶŐĞƌŚŝŶƚĞƌůĂŶĚ͘ Ƶƚ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ŝƌƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ ĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĂ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ƚŽ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ŝĚĞŶƟƟĞƐ ƚŽƉͲ ĚŽǁŶ Žƌ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ĞdžƉĞƌƚƐ͕ ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ͕ ƉůĂŶŶĞƌƐ Žƌ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂĐƚŽƌƐ ĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŽǀĞƌĂůůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ŐŝǀĞ ƵƉ ƚŚĞ ĞīŽƌƚ ƚŽ ĂĐƟǀĞůLJ ƉƵƌƐƵĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŐŽĂů͘ Ɛ ŽĐĞŶƚdŽƌďĞŶ͘^ĐŚŵŝĚƚ;ϮϬϬϱͿĨƌŽŵ^LJĚĚĂŶƐŬ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ͕ ŝƐ ŝƚ ŝŵƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ƚŽ ĂĐƟǀĞůLJ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͘ /ƚ ĐŽŵĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ŵŽƌĞ ĂŐĞŶĐLJ ĚƌŝǀĞŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘ &ƵƌƚŚĞƌŵŽƌĞ ĚŽĞƐ ŚĞ ƐƚĂƚĞƐƚŚĂƚŵŝŐƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞ͞ŽƚŚĞƌ͟ ƐŝĚĞ ĐŽƵůĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůŽŶŐ ƚĞƌŵ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ƚŽ ĂŶ TƌĞƐƵŶĚ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ Žƌ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐ ŽĨ ͞ďĞůŽŶŐŝŶŐ͘͟;ZŝŶŐŵĂŶϮϬϭϭͿ,ĞŝƐďĞŝŶŐďĂĐŬĞĚ ƵƉ ďLJ KƌǀĂƌ >ƂĨŐƌĞŶ͕ ƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŽƌ ŝŶ ƚŶŽůŽŐŝ Ăƚ >ƵŶĚƐhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJƚŚĂƚƐƚĂƚĞƐƚŚĂƚŝƚǁŽƵůĚďĞŵŽƌĞ ƉƌĞĐŝƐĞƚŽƚĂůŬĞĚĂďŽƵƚ͞TƌĞƐƵŶĚ͛ƐĐŽŵƉĞƚĞŶĐĞ͕͟ ŵĞĂŶŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŐĞƚ ƵƐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŐƌĂĚƵĂůůLJ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂůŝnjĞ ƚŚĞŵ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞĂƐƉĞĐŝĮĐTƌĞƐƵŶĚŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ;ŝďŝĚͿ͘

dŚĞ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĐŽŵƉůĞdž ĂŶĚ ŵƵůƟĨĂĐĞƚĞĚ͘ dŚŝƐ ƌĞǀŝĞǁƐĞĞŬƐƚŽŝŶƋƵŝƌĞŝŶƚŽƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůůĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƉĂƌƚƐŽĨƚŚĞďŽĚLJŽĨůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ ƌĞǀŽůǀŝŶŐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ ƐƵďũĞĐƚ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ǁŝĚĞƐƉƌĞĂĚ ďĞůŝĞǀĞ ŝŶ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ ƚŚĂƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ʹ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůĂŶĚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŝŶƚŚĞůĂďŽƌ ĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ ŽĨ economic character that people exploit. From ƌĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞǀŝĞǁ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞƐ ŝŶƚŽ Ă ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶĂďŽƵƚŝĚĞŶƟƚLJĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĐƵůƚƵƌĞƚŚĂƚ ŝƐĐůĂŝŵĞĚƚŽƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJĐŽŶƐƟƚƵƚĞƐŽŵĞďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ͕ ĂƚůĞĂƐƚƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂůůLJ͕ďƵƚŽƚŚĞƌƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞƌƐƚĂŬĞƐ Ă ŵŽƌĞ ƉƌĂĐƟĐĂůůLJ ƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĚĞŶŽƚĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŝŶ ĂŶLJǁĂLJ ŝŵƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ĂŶĚ ƵŶĨƌƵŝƞƵů ƚŽ ƉƵƚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ŝŶƚŽ ͞ĂƌƟĮĐŝĂůůLJ͟ ĨŽƌŐŝŶŐ ĂŶ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŽƉͲĚŽǁŶ ĂƐ ŝƚ ŝƐ͕ Žƌ ĐůĂŝŵ͕ Ă ůŽŶŐ ƚĞƌŵ ĂŐĞŶĐLJĚƌŝǀĞŶƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ƐƚŚŝƐŝƐĂƌĞǀŝĞǁŝƚĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ƐĞĞŬ ƚŽ ĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶĚ Žƌ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚ ĐĂƵƐĂů ůŝŶŬƐ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ǁŚĂƚ ͞ŬŝŶĚ͟ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŵŽƐƚ ĚĞƐŝƌĂďůĞ Žƌ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů Žƌ ǁŚĂƚ ǁŽƌŬƐ ĂŶĚ ǁŚĂƚ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ͕ ďƵƚ ĚŽĞƐ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ ƉƌŽďůĞŵĂƟnjĞ ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ŬŝŶĚƐ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƚƌĂũĞĐƚŽƌLJ ŝĚ ŽŶĞĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶĂů͘dŚĞƌĞǀŝĞǁǁŝůůŚŽƉĞĨƵůůLJƐŚĞĚ ůŝŐŚƚƵƉŽŶůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞĂŶĚĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐƚŚĂƚǁŝůůĂĚĚ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌƚŽƚŚĞƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐĨŽƌƵƌďĂŶƉůĂŶŶĞƌƐ ĂŶĚĚĞƐŝŐŶĞƌƐǁŽƌŬŝŶŐǁŝƚŚĐƌŽƐƐďŽƌĚĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘

ƌŝŬĂ<ĂƵīŵĂŶŶ

dŚĞďŝďůŝŽŐƌĂƉŚLJĐĂŶďĞĨŽƵŶĚŝŶƚŚĞŐĞŶĞƌĂů ƉĂƌƚ͘

EĂƟŽŶĂů ŝĚĞŶƟƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ŝƐ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJ Ă ďĂƌƌŝĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚŝƐ ŝƐ ŽŶͲ ŐŽŝŶŐ͘ KŶ ƚŚĞ ŽŶĞ ŚĂŶĚ ďĞůŽŶŐŝŶŐ͕ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ĐŽŶƐƟƚƵƚĞƐ ďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ ƚŽ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞĚĞŐƌĞĞĂŶĚŚŽǁŵƵĐŚŝƚŵĂƩĞƌƐŝƐĂŶŽƉĞŶ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ͘/ƚŝƐĨƵƌƚŚĞƌŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĂůƐŽƚŽŶŽƚĞ ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶŝĚŵĂLJďĞůĞƐƐƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ ĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĂ ;ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚͿ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ Ă ůŽŶŐƚĞƌŵƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘

ϲ ŽŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ

ȆƅŻ

ƌĞŵĂƌŬƐ

ȅȉȄ

ĂŶĚ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


The cases of push & pull

45 km

Fig. 6 Distance from city centre to city centre by car and absolute sitance between city edges (google maps, modified by author)

MALMO COPENHAGEN

18km

^K&D>DKͳKWE,'E ZĞŐŝŽŶKƌĞƐƵŶĚ /ŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͗χ͕ϋŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŝƐƚĂŶĐĞĨƌŽŵĐĞŶƚƌĞƚŽĐĞŶƚƌĞ͗ψωŬŵ

DĂůŵŽ ĂƉŝƚĂůŽĨƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌŝĂůƌĞŐŝŽŶ^ŬĂŶĞ͕^ǁĞĚĞŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗χττ͕ωυω WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ'ƌĞĂƚĞƌDĂůŵŽ͗ϊωό͕ϋτψ ^ŝnjĞ͗χχω͘υψŬŵφͮ^ŝnjĞŵĞƚƌŽ͗φ͕ωχω͘ϋϊŬŵφ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗ĂŶŝƐŚ 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎ^͗ψτ͕ϊυχ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ^͗ύ͕ψόφ͕όωω

,ŽƵƐŝŶŐ͗dŚĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĚĞŵĂŶĚŝƐŚŝŐŚĞƌŽŶƚŚĞDĂůŵŽƐŝĚĞ͕ĂůŵŽƐƚυτ͘τττĂŶĞƐŵŽǀĞĚƚŽƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞ ƐŝŶĐĞ φτττ͘ ĂŶŝƐŚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ďƵďďůĞ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ŚŝŐŚƉƌŝĐĞƐ͕ƚŚŝƐŚĂƐĐŚĂŶŐĞĚĂŌĞƌƚŚĞĐƌŝƐĞƐ͘WƌŝĐĞƐ ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐŵŽƌĞƐŝŵŝůĂƌŶŽǁ͘ >ĂďŽƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͗ ύωй ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ ŐŽ ĨƌŽŵ ^ŬĊŶĞ ƚŽ '͘ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͘ φτ͘τττ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͕ χτ͘τττƚƌĂŝŶƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐƉ͘ŽŵŵƵƟŶŐŶŽƚĂƐŚŝŐŚ ĂƐ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ĂŌĞƌ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ďƌŝĚŐĞ͘ Ƶƚ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽůůĂƉƐĞĚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ŝŶ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ Ă ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐĂŵŽƵŶƚŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞ^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ ƐŝĚĞ͕ƚŚŝƐƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŝƐĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐ͘

ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĂƉŝƚĂůŽĨĞŶŵĂƌŬ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗ωψό͕ψψχ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ'ƌĞĂƚĞƌŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ͗υ͕ύχτ͕φϊτ ^ŝnjĞ͗όό͘φωŬŵφͮ^ŝnjĞŵĞƚƌŽ͗χ͕τχτŬŵφ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗^ǁĞĚŝƐŚ 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎ<͗χϋ͕ϋψυ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ<͗ω͕ωϋύ͕φτψ ΎŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůŵŽŶĞƚĂƌLJĨƵŶĚƌĂƟŶŐφτυυ

green mixed living business/ industry city center

ƌŽƐƐŝŶŐ͗dŽĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞďƌŝĚŐĞĂĨĞĞŝƐĚĞŵĂŶĚĞĚ͘&Žƌ ĂŽŶĞǁĂLJƚƌŝƉďLJƚƌĂŝŶύĞƵƌŽ;ŚŝŐŚĞƌƚŚĞŶƌĞŐƵůĂƌ ĐŽƐƚƐĨŽƌƐĂŵĞĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞͿ͕ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚĐĂƌψτĞƵƌŽƚŽůů ;ϋωйĚŝƐĐŽƵŶƚĨŽƌƌĞŐƵůĂƌƵƐĞƌƐͿ /ŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉŽůŝĐLJ͗/ƐƉƌĞƩLJĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞŽŶĂďŝŶĂƟŽŶĂů ůĞǀĞů;ŽƌĞƐƵŶĚĐŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ͕TƌĞƐƵŶĚďƌŽŶ͕ĐŽŵŵŽŶ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚƌĞŶĚƐͿ h ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ/EdZZ'ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ &ƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͗ DĂůŵŽ ŝƐ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ŵĞĚŝƵŵ ƐŝnjĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŚĂƐĂƐƚŚĞĐĂƉŝƚĂůŽĨŝƚƐƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůůƚŚĞŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJĨƵĐƟŽŶƐ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ͕ ŝŶĐů ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕ ƐŵĂůů ĂŝƌƉŽƌƚ͕ ŚĂƌďŽƌ ĂŶĚŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ͘ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶŝƐƚŚĞĐĂƉŝƚĂůĂŶĚďŝŐŐĞƐƚ ĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ĞŶŵĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ ŚĂƐ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ŐŽƵǀĞƌŵĞŶƚĂů ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͕ĂŶŝŶƚĞƌĂŶƟŽŶĂůĂŝƌƉŽƌƚĂŶĚƐĞǀĞƌĂů

Fig. 7 functions along connecting route (by author)

ȅȉȅ

dŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ Ă ůŽŶŐ ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ĂƐ ŽƉƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ͘dŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ^ŬĂŶĞǁĂƐŽŶĐĞĂŶŝƐŚƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌLJ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


CRRGPFKZ Fig. 8

ĨŽƌƐĞǀĞƌĂůĐĞŶƚƵƌŝĞƐ͘/ŶυϊϋόŝƚǁĂƐƌĞĐŽŶƋƵĞƌĞĚďLJ ^ǁĞĚĞŶ͘>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŝƐǀĞƌLJŵƵĐŚĂůŝŬĞ͘^ǁĞĚŝƐŚĂŶĚ ĂŶŝƐŚ ĂƌĞƐŵŝůŝůĂŝƌ͕ďƵƚƚŚĞ^ŬĂŶŝƐŚ ĚŝĂůĞĐƚŝƐǀĞƌLJ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŝƐŚ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ;K͕ φττύͿ

1. Integration by specialisation (source: Decoville et.al. 2010)

ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŵŽĚĞů

VIENNA BRATISLAVA

ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽĞĐŽǀŝůůĞĞƚ͘Ăů͘;φτυτͿ͗͞dŚĞĮƌƐƚŵŽĚĞů͕ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶďLJƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶ͕ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐƚŚĞŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ Ă ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂů ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ǁŝƚŚĐƌŽƐƐĞĚŇŽǁƐ͕ŝŶǁŚŝĐŚĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƚŝŶŐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƚĂŬĞƐ ƉůĂĐĞ ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ ŝƐ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŶ ŽƉƉŽƐŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ŇŽǁ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͘ dŚŝƐ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ Ă ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƐƵďƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐĂƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƉĂĐĞ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŶŐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂĐƟǀŝƚLJĂŶĚũŽďƐǁŚŝůĞƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ŝŶ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ƚĞƌŵƐ͕ ŝƐƌĞůĞŐĂƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞƌŽůĞŽĨĂĚŽƌŵŝƚŽƌLJĂƌĞĂ͘dŽƚŚĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ĚŝƐƉůĂĐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŇŽǁ ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ƚLJƉĞ ŽĨ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂů ŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ

ďĂƐĞĚŽŶĂĐƵŵƵůĂƟǀĞůŽŐŝĐǁŚŝĐŚƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐƐƚƌŽŶŐ ĂŶĚĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞĚŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĂů ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ͕ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽƚŚĞŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚŽĨŵŽďŝůŝƚLJ͘^ƵƉƉŽƌƚŝŶŐ Ă ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ĚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƉĂĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ŚŽŵĞͲǁŽƌŬ ŵŽďŝůŝƚLJ͕ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶďLJƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶŝƐŶŽƚĂĐĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞĚďLJ Ă ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŽĨ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂů ĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƌĂŝƐĞƐ ƚŚĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐŽĐŝĂůĂŶĚƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂůĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ƚLJƉĞ ŽĨ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶƉƌŽǀĞƚŽďĞĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞŝŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƚĞƌŵƐ͕ ĂƐ ŝƚ ŝƐ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞĂĚǀĂŶͲ ƚĂŐĞƐ͘ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶͲDĂůŵŽŝƐƚŚĞďĞƐƚƐƚƵĚLJǁŚŝĐŚ ďĞƐƚŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞƚŚŝƐĮƌƐƚŵŽĚĞů͘͟

35 km

65 km

Fig. 9 Distance from city centre to city centre by car and absolute sitance between city edges

ƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂ

sŝĞŶŶĂ

ĂƉŝƚĂůŽĨ^ůŽǀĂŬŝĂ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗ωόϊ͘τττ ;ŵĞƚƌŽͿ͗ϊωύ͘ϊττ ƌĞĂ͗όωχ͘υωŬŵφŵĞƚƌŽ͗φ͕τωχŬŵφ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗^ůŽǀĂŬόψй 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎ^<͗φχ͕χόψ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ^<͗ω͕ψψω͕χφψ

Capital of Austria WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗υ͕ύόχ͘όχϊ DĞƚƌŽ͗ĐĂ͘φ͕ψυύ͘τττ ƌĞĂ͗χϊϋ͕ωόŬŵϸ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗'ĞƌŵĂŶ 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎd͗ψτ͕όχϊ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐd͗ό͕ψυύ͕ϋϋϊ

ΎŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůŵŽŶĞƚĂƌLJĨƵŶĚƌĂƟŶŐφτυυ

ȆƅŻ

ȅȉȆ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


^K&s/EEͳZd/^>s ZĞŐŝŽŶ͗͞dǁŝŶĐŝƚLJ͟ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶĂƌĞĂ /ŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͗ψ͘ωŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŝƐƚĂŶĐĞĨƌŽŵĐĞŶƚƌĞƚŽĐĞŶƚƌĞ͗ϊωŬŵ KŶůLJωωŬŵůŽĐĂƚĞĚĨƌŽŵĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͕ƚŚĞƚǁŽĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞƚŚĞĐůŽƐĞƐƚůŽĐĂƚĞĚĐĂƉŝƚĂůƐŝŶƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͕ƌĞƐƵůƚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůůLJ ĞĂƐLJ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞŵ͘ dŚŝƐŵĂŬĞƐŝƚĂŶƵŶŝƋƵĞĐĂƐĞ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞďŽƚŚĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂƐƉƌŝŵĞĐĞŶƚƌĞƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶďŽƌĚĞƌƐ͘ dŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĮĐůŽĐĂƟŽŶĂƐĂŚƵďŽĨƚŚĞĞŶƚƌŽƉĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ůŝŶŬƐ sŝĞŶŶĂ ĂŶĚ ƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂ ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞƚǁŽĐŝƟĞƐŚĂǀĞĂůŽƚŝŶĐŽŵŵŽŶ ĂƐƌĞŐĂƌĚƐĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘dŚĞƐĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ ŝŶĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶƐĂƐĂĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞ&ŝƌƐƚtŽƌůĚtĂƌĂŶĚƚŚĞ/ƌŽŶƵƌƚĂŝŶǁĂƐĨŽůůŽǁĞĚďLJƚŚĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶŽĨĂŶĞǁĐŽŵŵŽŶ ďĂƐŝƐĂƐĂŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂƌĞĂŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐƐŚĂƌĞĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĂƐƉĞĐƚƐĂŌĞƌƚŚĞŽƉĞŶŝŶŐƵƉŽĨƚŚĞĂƐƚĞƌŶůŽĐ͘ ƵůƚƵƌĂů͗ ,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐůLJ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ĂŶĚ ĨƵůůLJ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚ͘ ^ŝŶĐĞ υύόύ͕ ƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞĚĨŽƌŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶψτLJĞĂƌƐ͕ďŽƚŚƉĂƌƚƐŽĨƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ ŚĂǀĞ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ Ă ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŽĨ ĨĂƐƚͲƉĂĐĞĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞƌĞŵŽǀĂůŽĨŽďƐƚĂĐůĞƐƐƚĞĚƚƌĂĚĞ ĂŶĚ ĨŽƌĞŝŐŶ ĚŝƌĞĐƚ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƟĞƐ͕ ƉƌŽĨŽƵŶĚůLJ ƌĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĚ ďŽƚŚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉůĂĐĞĚ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŽŶ ĂƐůŽǁƉĂƚŚŽĨĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ͘,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ŽƚŚĞƌŽďƐƚĂĐůĞƐ ʹ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂďŽƵƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ʹ ƌĞŵĂŝŶ͕ ĂŶĚƚŚĞLJŵĂLJƐůŽǁĚŽǁŶĨƵƌƚŚĞƌĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ͘^ƵďƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶůĞĂĚƐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂŶĚĮƐĐĂůŝŵďĂůĂŶĐĞƐ ǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶĂƌĞĂƚŽŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͕ĂŶĚƵƌďĂŶ ƐƉƌĂǁůƉƵƚƐŐƌŽǁŝŶŐƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞŽŶƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ ;K͕φττχďͿ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ͗EŽƚŽŶůLJĚŽƚŚĞŶĂƟŽŶĂůďŽƌĚĞƌƐƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞƚǁŽĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ƚŚĞLJĂůƐŽŵĂŬĞĂĚŝƐƟŶĐƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚǁŽůĞǀĞůƐŽĨƉƌŽƐƉĞƌŝƚLJ͗ŶŽŵŝŶĂů ƵƐƚƌŝĂŶ 'W ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ĂŵŽƵŶƚƐ ƚŽ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ Ɛŝdž ƟŵĞƐƚŚĂƚŽĨƚŚĞ^ůŽǀĂŬZĞƉƵďůŝĐŝŶφττφ͕ďƵƚĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ^ůŽǀĂŬ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŐĂƉ ŝƐ ĐŽŶƐƚĂŶƚůLJ ƐŚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŵĂŶŝĨĞƐƚ ƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ sŝĞŶŶĂͲƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂ DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĂƌĞůŝŬĞůLJƚŽŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞƚŚĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶŽĨĂŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŚĂŶĚ͕ ƉƌŽƐƉĞƌŝƚLJ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ŝŶ ǁĞƐƚĞƌ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ^ůŽǀĂŬ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂƌĞŐŝŽŶĂƌĞŚŝŐŚĂďŽǀĞƚŚĞ^ůŽǀĂŬĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĂŶĚŚŝŐŚĞƌƚŚĞŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƵƐƚƌŝĂŶƉĂƌƚƐ͘;ŝďŝĚͿ &ƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͗ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ǁĞ ĂƌĞ ĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚǁŽ ĐĂƉŝƚĂůĐŝƟĞƐ͕ƐĞǀĞƌĂůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐĐĂŶďĞĨŽƵŶĚŚĞƌĞ͕ůŝŬĞ ŐŽƵǀĞƌŵĞŶƚĂůŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐƚǁŽƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƟĞƐĂŶĚƚǁŽ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŝƌƉŽƌƚƐ͘ KŶĞ ŽĨ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ůĂLJƐŝŶŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐĞ͞ĚŽƵďůĞĨƵŶĐŝƚŽŶƐ͟ǁŝƚŚŝŶƐƵĐŚĂƐŵĂůůĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ͘

ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͕ďƵƚŽƉĞŶĨŽƌĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘ŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝƐƚŚĞďŝŐŐĞƐƚĂŝŵ͘ dŚĞĐŝƟĞƐĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂďŽƵƚƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ͕ƚŚĞ ŶĂƚƵƌĂůĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ dŚĞŝƌĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶŝƐŵŽƐƚůLJďĞŝŶŐƉƌŽŵŽƚĞĚďLJƚŚĞ dǁŝŶŝƚLJůŝŶĞƌ͕ĂĨĞƌƌLJůŝŶĞƚŽĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƚŚĞƚǁŽĐŝƟĞƐ ƌĞŐƵůĂƌLJĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞĚĂLJ͘

green mixed living business/ industry city center

WŽůŝĐŝĞƐ͗ZĞŐŝŽŶĂůĂŶĚŶĂƟŽŶĂůƉŽůŝĐLJŵĂŬĞƌƐĂƌĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞĚƚŽĨŽƐƚĞƌŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞĂŶĚƚŽƉƌŽŵŽƚĞƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐƚŚĂƚĐŽƵůĚƐƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ĞŶƚƌĂů ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ŚƵď͘

ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŵŽĚĞů ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ĞĐŽǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ͘Ăů͘ ;φτυτͿ͗ ͞dŚĞ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ŵŽĚĞů ŽĨ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ Ă ŚŝŐŚůLJ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ ďŽƚŚ ŝŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ƚĞƌŵƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶďLJƉŽůĂƌŝƐĂƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞŇŽǁƐŽĨ ůĂďŽƵƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ĚŝƐƉůĂĐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ďŽƚŚ ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŽŶƚŚĞĚŽŵŝŶĂŶƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘'ŝǀĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂůƐ ŽĨ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌŝƉĞƚĂů ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶǀŽůǀĞ ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJ ǁĞĂůƚŚLJ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ͘ &ƵŶĐƟŽŶĂů ƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨƐƉĂĐĞǁŚŝĐŚƚĞŶĚƐƚŽƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ĂƌĞĂƐ ŝƐ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ŵĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůƐĞůĞĐƟŽŶĚƌŝǀĞŶďLJŵĂƌŬĞƚůŽŐŝĐ͘dŚŝƐ ŵŽĚĞů͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŝŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƚĞƌŵƐ͕ ŝƐ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ ŝŶ ĞŐĂůŝƚĂƌŝĂŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĂŝƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ĚƵƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ Ă ůĂƌŐĞƌ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽĨƵƌŽƉĞĂŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ŽĨǁŚŝĐŚƚŚĞǀĞƌLJ ŝĚĞĂ ĐĂŶŶŽƚ ďĞ ĚŝƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂů ĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶ͕ Ă ĨĂĐƚŽƌ ƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ ƐƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ dŚĞ ĐĂƐĞ ŽĨ >ƵdžĞŵďŽƵƌŐǁŽƵůĚŚĂǀĞďĞƐƚĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚƚŚŝƐŵŽĚĞů͕ ǁŚŝĐŚďĞƐƚĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚƐƚŽƚŚŝƐƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂůĐŽŶĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶ͕ŵĂƌŬĞĚďLJƚŚĞĚŽŵŝŶĂƟŽŶďLJƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶĐĞŶƚƌĞŽĨŝƚƐƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ;^ŽŚŶĂŶĚtĂůƚŚĞƌφττύ͖^ŽŚŶ ĨŽƌƚŚĐŽŵŝŶŐͿ͘dŽĂůĞƐƐĞƌĚĞŐƌĞĞ͕sŝĞŶŶĂͲƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂ ĂůƐŽĞdžŚŝďŝƚƐƚŚĞƐĞĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ͘͟

dŽǁĂƌĚƐƌĂƟƐůĂǀĂ͕sŝĞŶŶĂĐŽŶƐŝƐƚŵĂŝŶůLJŽĨŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĂŶĚďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐƉĂƌŬƐ͕ŶŽƚĂŶŝŶǀŝƟŶŐĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞŽĨ

ȅȉȇ

Fig. 10 functions along connecting route (by author)

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ

Fig. 11

3. Integration by osmosis (source: Decoville et.al. 2010)


MAASTRICHT AACHEN LIEGE

CRRGPFKZ

40 km 22 km

14 km 35 km

35 km

55 km

Fig. 12 Distance from city centre to city centre by car and absolute sitance between city edges

^K&D^dZ/,dͳ,Eͳ>/' ZĞŐŝŽŶ͗DĞƵƐĞͲZŚŝŶĞƵƌŽƌĞŐŝŽŶ /ŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͗χ͕ύŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŝƐƚĂŶĐĞĨƌŽŵĐĞŶƚƌĞƚŽĐĞŶƚƌĞ͗υψͲχωͲφφŬŵ hƉŽůŝĐLJƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐ͗/EdZZ'

DĂĂƐƚƌŝĐŚƚ ĂƉŝƚĂůŽĨ>ŝŵďƵƌŐƉƌŽǀŝŶĐĞ͕EĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗υυύ͘ϊφχ ^ŝnjĞ͗ϊτ͕τϊŬŵϸ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗ƵƚĐŚ 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎE>͗ψφ͕χχτ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐE>͗υϊ͕ϋφϋ͕φωω

green mixed living business/ industry city center Fig. 13 functions along connecting route (by author)

ŬĞŶ DŝĚĚůĞƐŝnjĞĐŝƚLJ͕'ĞƌŵĂŶLJ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗φωό͘ϊϊψ ^ŝnjĞ͗υϊτ͕όφŬŵ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗'ĞƌŵĂŶ 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎ͗χϋ͕ύχω ŝŶŚĂďŝƚŶĂƚƐ͗όυ͕ϋύϊ͕τττ

/ŶƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶ ĂƌĞĂŽĨ ƚ ŚĞůĂƌŐĞĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂů ĂŶĚ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ŝŶ EŽƌƚŚǁĞƐƚ ƵƌŽƉĞ ;WĂƌŝƐ͕ >ƵdžĞŵďŽƵƌŐ͕ ƌƵƐƐĞůƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ZƵŚƌ ŝŶ 'ĞƌŵĂŶLJ͕ ƵƚĐŚ ZĂŶĚƐƚĂĚĂŶĚƚŚĞ&ůĞŵŝƐŚĐŝƟĞƐͿ͕ƚŚĞDĞƵƐĞͲZŚŝŶĞ ŚĂƐ ĂŶ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJ ĨĂǀŽƌĂďůĞ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐĂů ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞŵĂũŽƌƐĞĂƉŽƌƚƐŽĨŶƚǁĞƌƉĂŶĚZŽƩĞƌĚĂŵĂƌĞ ŶŽƚĨĂƌĂǁĂLJĂŶĚŝŶƚŚĞŝŵŵĞĚŝĂƚĞǀŝĐŝŶŝƚLJƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĂŝƌƉŽƌƚƐ ŽĨ >ŝğŐĞ ĂŶĚ DĂĂƐƚƌŝĐŚƚͲĂĐŚĞŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŝƌƉŽƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƺƐƐĞůĚŽƌĨ͕ ŽůŽŐŶĞ͕ ŵƐƚĞƌĚĂŵĂŶĚƌƵƐƐĞůƐ͘dŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶd'sƐƚŽƉƐ Ăƚ>ŝğŐĞĂŶĚĂĐŚĞŶ͘

>ŝĞŐĞͬ>ƵŝŬ D/ĚĚůĞƐŝnjĞĐŝƚLJ͕ĞůŐŝƵŵ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗υύφ͘ωτψ ^ŝnjĞ͗ϊύ͕χύŬŵϸ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗&ƌĞŶĐŚ;ͬƵƚĐŚͿ 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎ͗χϋ͕ϊϋϋ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͗υυ͘ττϋ͘τφτ ΎŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůŵŽŶĞƚĂƌLJĨƵŶĚƌĂƟŶŐφτυυ

dŚĞ'ĞƌŵĂŶĐŝƚLJŽĨĂĐŚĞŶ͕ƚŚĞƵƚĐŚƚŽǁŶƐDĂĂƐƚƌŝĐŚƚĂŶĚ,ĞĞƌůĞŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĞůŐŝĂŶƚŽǁŶƐ>ŝğŐĞĂŶĚ ,ĂƐƐĞůƚĂƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƵƌďĂŶŶŽĚĞƐŽĨƚŚĞĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌƵƌĞŐŝŽDĞƵƐĞͲZŚŝŶĞ͘ dŚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞƵƌĞŐŝŽDĞƵƐĞͲ ZŚŝŶĞŚĂƐďĞĞŶŚŝŐŚĞƌƚŚĂŶƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞŽǀĞƌƚŚĞůĂƐƚƚǁŽĚĞĐĂĚĞƐ͘

ȆƅŻ

ȅȉȈ

dŚŝƐĞdžĐĞƉƟŽŶĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŽĨŐƌĞĂƚĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞƚŽďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐ͘KŶĞƐƚƵĚLJƐŚŽǁĞĚƚŚĂƚƚǁŽƚŚŝƌĚƐŽĨƚŚĞŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĂƌĞĂƐŝŶƚŚĞDĞƵƐĞͲZŚŝŶĞŐŽŽĚƚŽǀĞƌLJĞĂƐŝůLJĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ͘/ŶƌĞĐĞŶƚLJĞĂƌƐ͕ŽǀĞƌυϊ͕τττŚĞĐƚĂƌĞƐ ĨŽƌĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂůƉƵƌƉŽƐĞƐ͘dŚĞDĞƵƐĞͲZŚŝŶĞŚĂƐƚǁŽ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƉĂƌŬƐ͕ƚǁŽŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĂŶĚŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƉĂƌŬƐ ĂŶĚφϊďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĐĞŶƚĞƌƐŵĂŝŶůLJĨŽƌƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĚĞvelopments and for services. EĞĂƌůLJ υττ͕τττ ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ ĂƩĞŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĮǀĞ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƟĞƐ͕ŶƵŵĞƌŽƵƐĐƌĂŌƐĐŚŽŽůǁ͕ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĐĞŶƚĞƌƐĂŶĚ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJĐůŝŶŝĐƐ͘dŚĞDĞƵƐĞͲZŚŝŶĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƚŽŽŬ Žī ŝŶ υύϋψ͘ ^ŝŶĐĞ υύύυ͕ ƚŚĞ DĞƵƐĞͲ ZŚŝŶĞ͕ŚĂƐĂůĞŐĂůďĂƐŝƐŝŶƚŚĞĨŽƌŵŽĨĂĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽƵƚĐŚůĂǁ͘dŚŝƐ͞&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ͟ďĂƐĞĚŝŶ DĂĂƐƚƌŝĐŚƚ ĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĮǀĞƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞDĞƵƐĞͲZŚŝŶĞŝƐĂĐƟǀĞŝŶĞůĞǀĞŶĂƌĞĂƐ͗ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĞǀĞŶƚƐ͕ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͕ ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚ ĂůůͲŝŶĐůƵƐŝǀĞ ĚĞĂůƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĞǀĞŶƚƐ͕ ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƌĞůŝĞĨ͕LJŽƵƚŚ͕ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͕ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ transfer, health and environment ŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͗dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚŵŽĚĂůŝƚLJŇŽǁƐŝŶ ďŽƚŚĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶƐ͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƟĞƐ͗ZĂƚĞƐĂŶĚƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨƚĂdžĂƟŽŶ ǀĂƌLJ ƐƚƌŽŶŐůLJ͘ DĂŶLJ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌ ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ ƉĂLJ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ƚĂdžĞƐ ŝŶ ďŽƚŚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ dŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŽ Įůů ŝŶ ĨŽƌŵƐ ŝŶ ďŽƚŚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞ ŚĞůƉ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚ ƚŽ ŽďƚĂŝŶ͟ ;D<t tŝƌƚƐĐŚĂŌƐĨŽƌƐĐŚƵŶŐ ĂŶĚŵƉŝƌŝĐĂ<Ōφττύ͗ψϊͿ͘ƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚ͕ŵĂŶLJƵƚĐŚ ĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐĞůĞĐƚƚŽůŝǀĞŝŶ'ĞƌŵĂŶLJŝŶ ŽƌĚĞƌƚŽƉĂLJůĞƐƐƚĂdž͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞƐĂŵĞĂƉƉůŝĞƐƚŽ'ĞƌŵĂŶĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƌƐ͘ ;K͕φττχĂͿ

Fig. 14

3. Integration by osmosis (source: Decoville et.al. 2010)

ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŵŽĚĞů ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽĞĐŽǀŝůůĞĞƚ͘Ăů͘;φτυτͿ͗͞dŚĞƚŚŝƌĚĂŶĚ ůĂƐƚŵŽĚĞů͕ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶďLJŽƐŵŽƐŝƐ͕ŚĂƐďŝͲĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶĂůŇŽǁƐďŽƚŚŽĨĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐĂŶĚƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ŵŽĚĞů͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ůĂďŽƵƌ ĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ ĂƉƉĞĂƌƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ďĞƚƚĞƌďĂůĂŶĐĞĚĂŶĚĂĐĞƌƚĂŝŶĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞďŽƌĚĞƌƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĞƐŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŶŐĂƉƉĞĂƌƐƚŽďĞŽĐĐƵƌƌŝŶŐ͘ dŚĞĨĂĐƚƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂůƐĂĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞ ďŽƌĚĞƌĂƌĞůŝŵŝƚĞĚĐĂŶĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƚŽĞdžƉůĂŝŶŝŶŐƚŚŝƐ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ͘/ƚŝƐĂƚLJƉĞŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶĨŽƌǁŚŝĐŚƚŚĞĂƚƚƌĂĐƟǀĞŶĞƐƐŽĨƚŚĞŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶĐĞŶƚƌĞŝƐƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ůŽǁ͕ŽƌŝƐĐŽŶƚĞƐƚĞĚďLJƚŚĞƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌĂůďŽƌĚĞƌĂƌĞĂƐ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ŝƚŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐĐŝƟĞƐǁŝƚŚůŽǁĞƌŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶƉƌŽĮůĞƐƚŚĂŶƚŚŽƐĞŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚŝŶƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐŽĨŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶďLJƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶŽƌƉŽůĂƌŝƐĂƟŽŶ͘ĂĐŚĞŶͲ>ŝĞŐĞͲ DĂĂƐƚƌŝĐŚƚŝƐĂĐƌŽƐƐͲďŽƌĚĞƌŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶ ƵƌŽƉĞǁŚŝĐŚĂƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞƚŽƚŚŝƐŵŽĚĞů͘͟

2,4 km

Fig. 15 Distance from city centre to city centre by car and absolute sitance between city edges

<ĞƌŬƌĂĚĞ

,ĞƌnjŽŐŽƌĂƚŚ

^ŵĂůůĐŝƚLJ͕EĞƚŚĂƌůĂŶĚƐ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗ψϋ͘χτχ ƌĞĂ͗φφ͕υϋŬŵϸ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗ƵƚĐŚнĚŝĂůĞĐƚ 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎE>͗ψφ͕χχτ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐE>͗υϊ͕ϋφϋ͕φωω

^ŵĂůůĐŝƚLJ͕'ĞƌŵĂŶLJ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗ψϋ͘υύύ ƌĞĂ͗χχ͕ψτυŬŵϸ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͗'ĞƌŵĂŶнĚŝĂůĞĐƚ 'WƉĞƌĐĂƉŝƚĂΎ͗χϋ͕ύχω ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͗όυ͕ϋύϊ͕τττ

ΎŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůŵŽŶĞƚĂƌLJĨƵŶĚƌĂƟŶŐφτυυ

ȅȉȉ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ

KERKRADE HERZOGERATH

0 km


CRRGPFKZ

^K&<Z<ZE,ZK'Zd, ŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͗ƵƌŽĚĞ

ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ŝƐ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ ƚŽ ŚĞůƉ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ǁĂŶƚ ƚŽĨŽĐƵƐŽŶďŽƚŚĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘^ƚƌŝǀŝŶŐĨŽƌďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐĂ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĐŝƚLJ͘

ŝƐƚĂŶĐĞĨƌŽŵĐĞŶƚƌĞƚŽĐĞŶƚƌĞ͗φ͕ψŬŵ

dŚĞůĂƐƚĐĂƐĞƌĞǀŽůǀĞƐĂƌŽƵŶĚ͞ƵƌŽĚĞ͕͟ƚŚĞĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƵƚĐŚĐŝƚLJ<ĞƌŬƌĂĚĞĂŶĚƚŚĞ'ĞƌŵĂŶĐŝƚLJ,ĞƌnjŽŐŽƌĂƚŚ͘,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůůLJƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐǁĞƌĞ ǀĞƌLJŵƵĐŚŝŶƚĞƌƚǁŝŶĞĚƵŶƟůŵŝĚυόχτ͘dŚĞLJƐŚĂƌĞ Ğ͘Ő͘ Ă ƐĂŵĞ ĚŝĂůĞĐƚ͘ dŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůůLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƵŶƟů υόχτ͕ ďƵƚ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ĐŝƌĐƵŵƐƚĂŶĐĞƐ͕ƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞĚǁŚĞŶƚŚĞŶĂƟŽŶĂůďŽƌĚĞƌƐǁĞƌĞĚƌĂǁŶ͘^ƟůůƚŚĞLJǁŝůůƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůůLJĂůǁĂLJƐďĞ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ͘dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŶŽƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůďĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ͘υƐƚƌĞĞƚ ŝƐĞǀĞŶŝŶŝƚƐůĞŶŐƚŚƐƉůŝƚŝŶφĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞĞǀĞƌLJǁŚĞƌĞ͘

ǀĞŶ ƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĂĚũĂĐĞŶƚ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞƌĞŽǁŶĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͘^ŝŶĐĞŝƚ͛ƐƐĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶŽƌŝĞŶƚĂƟŶŐƚŽƚŚĞƌĞŽǁŶŶĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚ ƚƵƌŶĞĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ďĂĐŬ ƚŽ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ͘ EĞǁ ĐŽŵŵŽŶ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďƌŽƵŐŚƚ ďĂĐŬ ƐŽŵĞ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘ ;ƵƌŽĚĞ͕φτυυ͕<ĞƌŬƌĂĚĞ͕φτυφͿ ,ŽƵƐŝŶŐ͗ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ďƵŝůƚ ŽŶ ďŽƚŚ ƐŝĚĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌƐ;ĞǀĞŶŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐĂƌĞĂĚũƵƐƚĞĚͿ ,ŽƵƐŝŶŐƉƌŝĐĞƐǁĞƌĞůŽǁĞƌŽŶ'ĞƌŵĂŶƐŝĚĞ͕ďƵƚƌĞĐĞŶƚůLJ ŝƚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĐŽŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ ĨŽƌ ƵƚĐŚ ƚŽ live on the German side

&ƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͗KŶĂůŽĐĂůůĞǀĞůĂůůƐŵĂůůƐŝnjĞĐŝƚLJΎĨƵŶĐƟŽƐĂƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ͗Ğ͘ŐŚŽƐƉŝƚĂůĂŶĚŚŝŐŚƐĐŚŽŽůƐ dŚĞĐŝƚLJĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƚĞƐŝŶƐŽŵĞƉƵďůŝĐŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ;ĮƌĞ ƉƌĞǀĞŶƟŽŶ͕ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶͿ dŚĞ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƐ ƵƌŽĚĞ ŝƐ ĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƉƌŽŵŽƟŽŶƚŽŽůĨŽƌhĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐĂƌĞǀĞƌLJƐŵĂůůĂŶĚƌĞůLJŽŶďŝŐŐĞƌĐŝƟĞƐ;ŝŶŽǁŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐͿ ŽŵŵŽŶ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ ƐƟůů ďĞŝŶŐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶ͘ ŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͗^ĞǀĞƌĂůŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐŚŽƌƚ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŵĂŬĞ ŝƚ ǀĞƌLJ ĞĂƐLJ ƚŽ ĐŽŵŵƵƚĞ͘ hƚŽĨƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJƐŵĂůůƐŝnjĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐ͕ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐǁŽƵůĚƌĂƚŚĞƌǁŽƌŬĂŶĚůŝǀĞŝŶƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚĐŽƵŶƚƌLJĂŶĚĐŽŵŵƵƚĞƚŽďŝŐŐĞƌĐĞŶƚƌĞƐŝŶƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƚŚĂƚŚĂǀĞŵŽƌĞƚŽŽīĞƌ͘ƵƚďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨƐŽŵĞ ƐŚĂƌĞĚŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐĂůŝŵŝƚĞĚĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞŽĐĐƵƌƐ͘ůƐŽ ƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŝŶŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƉƌŝĐĞƐĂŶĚƚĂdžƉƵƐŚĞƐƉĞŽple to move and commute. green mixed living business/ industry city center

/ŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶƉŽůŝĐLJ͗/ŶĨŽƌŵĂůĂŶĚĨŽƌŵĂů;ŝŶĐů͘ĐŽƵŶĐŝůͿ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟǀĞ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ͘ ƵƌŽĚĞ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ Fig. 16 functions along connecting route (by author)

ZĞƚƌŽƐƉĞĐƚ dŚŝƐƐĞĐƟŽŶŐĂǀĞďĂĐŬŽŶůLJĂƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞǀĂƌŝŽƵƐĐĂƐĞƐ͘dŚĞŵĂŝŶƉŽŝŶƚƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶĂƉƉŽŝŶƚĞĚ͘dŚĞŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĂƌĞŝŶƚŚĞƚĂďůĞŽŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞĐŽŶǀĞƌƚĞĚƚŽƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞƐŽĨ͞ƉƵƐŚĂŶĚƉƵůů͘͟^ƵďƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕ƚŚĞƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞƐ ŽĨŵĞƌŐĞĚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĐĂŶďĞƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͕ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚǁŝƚŚŽƚŚĞƌŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽƐƚƵĚLJ ƚŚĞŝƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉďĞƚǁĞĞŶ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐŝƐĂůƐŽƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞĚ͘dŚĞLJŵĂLJďĞĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶĂŶĚDĂůŵŽ͕ďƵƚĂůƐŽƚŽŽƚŚĞƌĐĂƐĞƐ͘ŌĞƌĂůů͕,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌĂŶĚ,ĞůƐŝŶŐďŽƌŐĂƌĞĂůƐŽĂ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĂďůĞĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶǁŝŚĂůŽŶŐƐŚĂƌĞĚŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘

ȆƅŻ

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


Economic interactions Economic disparity

push

FACTORS commuting GDP housing flexibility

pull

regional cross-border functions local cohesion of functions along cross-border axis costs travel time

closeness origin of centre direction of urban expansion historical spatial integration

historical social integration demographical distribution national cultural identity local cultural identity language

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ȅȉȋ

cross-border related functios

physical connections

spatial indicators

cultural indicators

Fig. 17 Measured push & pull factors based on analysis and assumptions (by author)


Fig. 18 Relation push & pull factors of cases (by author)

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CRRGPFKZ


Design variants

Fig. 19 A selection of variants of the implementation of the plan area (sections) (by author)

ȅȉȍ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


CRRGPFKZ

Urban plan: References

Java-eiland, Amsterdam area: 200.635 m2 program: housing, offices and parking garage Soeters

Sluseholmen, Copenhagen area: 135.000 m2 program: housing, commercial functions, offices and parking garage Soeters

Waalfront, Nijmegen area: 280.000 m2 program: housing (2600), facilities (30.000m2) BVO: 330.000 m2 Gemeente Nijmegen; Lodewijk Baljon landschapsarchitecten; Atelier Zeinstra van der Pol Bo01,Västra Hamnen, Malmo area: 220.000 m2 housing (2,558)

Fig. 20 A few references of urban plans, for the design ofarea

ȆƅŻ

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


k

o

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ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


CRRGPFKZ

Study by Gehl architects dŚĞŶĞdžƚƐĞĐƟŽŶĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐĂƐƚƵĚLJĨƌŽŵ'ĞŚůĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ ;ƵŶĚĞƐĞŶ ^ǀĂƌƌĞ Ğƚ͘Ăů͕͘ φττόͿ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶŚĂŐĞŶ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͘ džĂŵƉůĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ƵƐĞĚ ĂƌĞ ƌĞŶĞǁĞĚ ĐůŽƐĞĚ ďůŽĐŬƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ϋτƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ďůŽĐŬƐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƉĂƐƚĚĞĐĂĚĞ͘

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dŚŝƐƐƚƵĚLJŝƐƵƐĞĚĂƐĂŶŝŶƐƉŝƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŐƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞĨŽƌ ƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƚLJƉŽůŽŐLJƵƐĞĚŝŶƚŚĞƉůĂŶĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐƆƌ͘

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&ŽƌƚŚĞƐƚƵĚLJĨƌŽŵ'ĞLJůĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͕ĮǀĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ǁĞƌĞ ĞdžĂŵŝŶĞĚ͘ dŚƌĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŵ ĂƌĞ ƐŚŽǁŶ ŚĞƌĞ͘ dŚĞĮƌƐƚƚǁŽ͕ŵĂůũĞŚĂǀĞŶĂŶĚ&LJƌŚŽůŵĞŶĂƌĞŶĞǁ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͖ƚŚĞƚŚŝƌĚďůŽĐŬŝƐƚLJƉŝĐĂůŽŶĞƚŚĂƚŝƐ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞϋτƐ͘

Z^h>d^&ZKDd,^dhz ZĞƐŝĚĞŶĐĞĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ͗DŽƐƚƐƚĂLJĂŶĚ ŵŽǀĞŝŶŽƉĞŶĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƐƚǁŝĚĞůLJƵƐĞĚ͕ĞǀĞŶǁŚĞŶƚŚĞŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨƐƚĂLJƐŝƐ

ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞƚLJƉĞƐŽĨĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚƵŶĨŽůĚ͕ŝƚŝƐ ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJƚŚĞƉůĂLJŐƌŽƵŶĚ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĂĐƚƐĂƐĂŵĂŐŶĞƚƚŽ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƌƐ͘dŚĞƉůĂLJŐƌŽƵŶĚƐĂƌĞŽŌĞŶƵƐĞĚďLJŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌƐ͘ƵƚƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŝŶƚŚĞǁĂLJƚŚĞƉůĂLJŐƌŽƵŶĚƐ ĂƌĞ ƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͘ ZĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŬŶŽǁ ĞĂĐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ͛Ɛ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƚĐŚ ƚŚĞŵ͗ŚŝůĚƌĞŶĨƌŽŵψͲLJĞĂƌͲŽůĚƉůĂLJĂůŽŶĞ͕ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞƌĞŝƐĂůǁĂLJƐĂŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌǁĂƚĐŚŝŶŐŽƵƚ͘dŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉďĞƚǁĞĞŶŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƌƐĂŶĚƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐĂƌĞƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝnjĞĚ ďLJ Ă ůŽǁĞƌƐĞŶƐĞ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ ĂŶĚƐĞĐƵƌŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚŽŶĞĐĂŶŽŶůLJƐƉĞĐƵůĂƚĞǁŚĂƚŝƚǁŝůů ŚĂƉƉĞŶǁŚĞŶƚŚĞƌĞŝƐŶŽůŽŶŐĞƌĂďĂůĂŶĐĞďĞƚǁĞĞŶ the outsiders and the residents.

Pictures and figures on page 164 and 165 are taken from the study “Open Courtyards” by Gehl Architects. Source: Bundesen Svarre et.al., 2008 a. b.

Bremensgade

a.

c.

d.

c. b.

d.

shadow afternoon picture angle daytime

weekend

amount 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

10

15 0

1

Standing

3

8

Sitting

On balcony

Playing children

Adult activity

Moving

Fig. 21 Upper map shows point of views (pictures) from courtyard “Bremersgade” with daily users in the graph (icons refer to user kind) and daily circulation (pink line) by residents within the courtyard . by Gehl Architects. Source: Bundesen Svarre et.al., 2008

ȆƅŻ

ȅȊȆ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


E maljehaven

a.

b.

c.

d.

a.

c.

d.

b.

shadow afternoon picture angle daytime

weekend

amount 114

120 100 80 60 40

44 30

42 21

20

20 0

Fig. 22 Upper map shows point of views (pictures) from courtyard “Emaljehaven” with daily users in the graph (icons refer to user kind) and daily circulation (pink line) by residents within the courtyard . by Gehl Architects. Source: Bundesen Svarre et.al., 2008

Fyrholmen

a.

b.

c.

d.

d.

c.

a.

b.

shadow afternoon picture angle

daytime

amount

weekend

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

90

36

48 28 16 0

Fig. 23 Upper map shows point of views (pictures) from courtyard “Fyrholmen” with daily users in the graph (icons refer to user kind) and daily circulation (pink line) by residents within the courtyard . by Gehl Architects. Source: Bundesen Svarre et.al., 2008

ȅȊȇ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


CRRGPFKZ

KƉĞŶΘĐůŽƐĞĚĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ůŽƐĞĚĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐƐŚĂƌĞŽŌĞŶƐĞǀĞƌĂůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘zŽƵ ĐĂŶĮŶĚďŝŬĞƐŚĞůƚĞƌƐ͕ŐĂƌďĂŐĞĚŝƐƉŽƐĂůƐŚĞĚƐ͕ůĂƵŶĚƌLJƌŽŽŵƐ͕ƉƌĂŵƐŚĞůƚĞƌƐ͕ĞƚĐ͘dŚŝƐĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞƐƚŚĞ ĚĞŐƌĞĞŽĨĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJůŝĨĞ͘ KƉĞŶĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐĂƩƌĂĐƚ͕ĚĞƉĞŶĚŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌƐĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƌƐ͘ /ŶĐůŽƐĞĚĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚŬŶŽǁĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌŽŌĞŶ ĂŶĚ ŬŶŽǁ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ĂƌĞ ďĞůŽŶŐŝŶŐ ƚŽ ǁŚŽŵ͘ WĂƌĞŶƚƐ ĐĂŶ ŵŽƌĞ ĞĂƐŝůLJ ůĞƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ƉůĂLJ ďLJ ƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐǁŝƚŚŽƵƚƐƚĂLJŝŶŐŝŶƚŚĞŝƌƐŝŐŚƚĂůůƚŚĞƟŵĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĨƌŽŵ ŚĂůĨ ŽƉĞŶ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ͕ ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞƐƚƵĚLJ͕ƚŚĞĂĚƵůƚƐŵŽǀĞŵƵĐŚŽŌĞŶ ĨƌŽŵŝŶƐŝĚĞƚŽŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƚŽĐŚĞĐŬƵƉŽŶƚŚĞĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͘ ƵƚŝƚĂůƐŽůĞĂĚƐƚŽŚĂǀŝŶŐŵŽƌĞĂĚƵůƚƐŝŶƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚŝŶŐĞŶĞƌĂů͕ĂƐƚŚĞLJĮŶĚƚŚŝŶŬƐĨŽƌƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐƚŽ ĚŽŚĞƌĞ͕ǁŚŝůĞƚŚĞLJǁĂƚĐŚƚŚĞĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͘

džƚĞƌŶĂůƵƐĞƌ͗ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞƚŚĞƵƐĞ The external users can help to create life in a courtLJĂƌĚ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ƚŽ ĂůƐŽ ƵƐĞ ŝƚ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂďůĞƚŽƚŚĞƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽĨĂƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞƉĞŽƉůĞ͖ĂŶĂďƐĞŶĐĞŽĨůŝĨĞŚĂƐĂĐƵŵƵůĂƟǀĞĞīĞĐƚ͘ dŚĞ ƐĞŵŝͲƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ŵĂůũĞŚĂǀĞŶ ĂŶĚ &LJƌŚŽůŵĞŶĂƌĞĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝnjĞĚďLJŚĂǀŝŶŐ ŝŶŐĞƐƚĞĚƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶnjŽŶĞƐďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞƉƵďůŝĐĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů njŽŶĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵ ŽĨ ƚĞƌƌĂĐĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ŵĂůũĞŚĂǀĞŶ ƚŚĞ ůŽǁĞƌ ŇŽŽƌƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ŵĂƌŬĞĚĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůůLJƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĨĂĕĂĚĞ͘

DŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ͗DŽƐƚŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞĞĚŐĞƐ /Ŷ Ăůů ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ŵŽƐƚ ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ƚĂŬĞ ƉůĂĐĞ ĂůŽŶŐ ƚŚĞƐŝĚĞƐŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͘dŚĞĐĞŶƚĞƌƐĂƌĞŵŽƌĞĂ ƉůĂĐĞƚŽƐƚĂLJĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJŝŶƚŚĞƐƵŵŵĞƌ͘tŚĞŶƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐŐƌĂƐƐ͕ƚŚĞĐĞŶƚĞƌŝƐƵƐĞĚůĞƐƐ͘ůůĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐŚĂǀĞ ƐŽŵĞƐŽƌƚŽĨƉĂƚŚƐĂůŽŶƚŚĞĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚ͘

^ĞŵŝͲƉƌŝǀĂƚĞƵƐĞ ƐƚŚĞĐŝƟnjĞŶƐůŝǀŝŶŐŝŶ&LJƌŚŽůŵĞŶƉŽŝŶƚŽƵƚƚŚĞŵselves, is the shape of these half private rooms in ƚŚĞŽƉĞŶĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͘EĞǁdŽLJŚƵƐŝƐƚŚĞŽƉĞŶŐĂƌĚĞŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŽŵĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŚĂƉĞ ŽĨ ƚĞƌƌĂĐĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƉ-

ƉĞĂƌƚŚĞůĞĂƐƚƵƐĞĚ͘/ƚĐĂŶƉĂƌƟĂůůLJďĞĂƋƵĞƐƟŽŶŽĨ ƟŵĞ͕ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ǀĞŐĞƚĂƟŽŶ ŐƌŽǁƐ ƵƉ͘ /Ŷ ŵĂůũĞŚĂǀĞŶ ƚŚĞĞĚŐĞďĞƚǁĞĞŶƉƵďůŝĐĂŶĚƐĞŵŝͲƉƌŝǀĂƚĞŝƐŵŽƌĞ ĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ĞůĞǀĂƚĞĚ ďĂůĐŽŶŝĞƐ͘ &Žƌ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞƌƐŝƚŝƐƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞĐůĞĂƌƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJĐĂŶ͛ƚĞŶƚĞƌƚŚĞƐĞ spaces. dŚĞƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚŽŶƚŚĞŐƌŽƵŶĚŇŽŽƌĂƌĞŽŌĞŶƚŚĞŽŶĞ ǁŝƚŚĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͘dŚĞĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶĂŶĚƉĂƌĞŶƚŐŽŝŶĂŶĚŽƵƚ ŽŶƐƵŵŵĞƌĚĂLJƐ͘ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƚŽƉůĂLJ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞƉĂƌĞŶƚƐ ƚŽŬĞĞƉĂŶĞLJĞŽŶƚŚĞŵ͕ƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐƚŚĂƚŝƐĞĂƐŝĞƐƚ ĚŽŶĞĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŐƌŽƵŶĚŇŽŽƌǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞĂĐůĞĂƌ ƐŝŐŚƚŽǀĞƌƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚĂŶĚĨƌŽŵǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞLJĐĂŶ move fast.

^ĞŵŝƉƌŝǀĂƚĞƐƉĂĐĞĂƐĂƌĞĂƐŽŶĨŽƌƵƐĂŐĞ dŚĞƐƚƵĚLJĐĂŶ͛ƚĂŶƐǁĞƌƚŚĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶŝĨƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶƉƵďůŝĐĂŶĚƉƌŝǀĂƚĞƐƉĂĐĞŽƌƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŽĨŝƚ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƐƚŚĞƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͘ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽ ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌƐƚƵĚLJ;ĞƵƌƐ͕φττωͿŽĨŚŽƵƐŝŶŐƵƐĞ͕ƉĞŽƉůĞ ůŝǀŝŶŐ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŇŽŽƌ͕  ƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ͘ǀĞŶƚŚŽƵŐŚŽŶĞĨŽƵƌƚŚŽĨƚŚĞƉĞŽƉůĞůŝǀĞŽŶ ƚŚŝƐŇŽŽƌ͕ŚĂůĨŽĨƚŚĞƉĞŽƉůĞƵƐŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚĂƌĞ ŐƌŽƵŶĚŇŽŽƌƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͘ ^ĞĞĂŵŝůůĂǀĂŶĞƵƌƐ͕͞DĞĚƵĚŬŝŐĨƌĂĂůƚĂŶĞŶ͗ůŝǀĞƚ ŝ ďŽůŝŐͲďĞďLJŐŐĞůƐĞƌŶĞƐƵĚĞƌƵŵ ĂŶŶŽ φττω͟ ;͞tŝƚŚ ůŽŽŬŝŶŐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞďĂůĐŽŶLJ͗ůŝĨĞŝŶŽƵƚĚŽŽƌƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĞƐƚĂƚĞƐĂŶŶŽφττω͟ͿƌŬŝƚĞŬƚĞŶEŽ͘ϋφττϊ ƉϋχͲότ͘

/ŶĚŝƌĞĐƚůŝĨĞĨƌŽŵƐĞŵŝŽƉĞŶƐƉĂĐĞƐ dŚĞƐƚƵĚLJƐŚŽǁƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŝŶĚŝƌĞĐƚƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĚŽŽƌƐ ĂƌĞ ŽƉĞŶ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƐĞŵŝ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ďĂůĐŽŶŝĞƐ͕ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ůŝĨĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚƐ͘ dŚĞŶĞǁĞƌďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ŚĂǀĞϋͲυϋйŵŽƌĞ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĞŵŝͲƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ďĂůĐŽŶŝĞƐ ƚŚĞŶ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƌĞĂƐ͘ƵƚƚŚĞŽƉĞŶĚŽŽƌƐĂŶĚǁŝŶĚŽǁƐŐŝǀĞ ĂĨĞĞůŝŶŐŽĨůŝĨĞ͘ dŚĞ ĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚŝƐƐƚƵĚLJĨŽƌ,ĞůƐŝŶŐŽƌĐĂŶďĞĮŶĚŝŶƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚŽŶ ƚŚĞƉĂŐĞƐυτϊͲυτϋ͘

Fig. 24 Sluseholmen, Copenhagen. source: Bing maps

ȆƅŻ

ȅȊȈ

ƋſżƊƀƊ^żƉƀƂŸƂŸƌŽŽƄŸƅƅ^ȆȄȅȆ


thesis: 2nd Connection