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The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin.org>∗ 9 November 2009

Abstract This document lists 5913 symbols and the corresponding LATEX commands that produce them. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every LATEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. All of the fonts and packages used to prepare this document—as well as this document itself—are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org/).

Contents Contents

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Introduction 1.1 Document Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 8 8

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Body-text symbols Table 1: LATEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2: Predefined LATEX 2ε Text-mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3: LATEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) . . . . . . . . . . . Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 12: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 13: wasysym Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 14: phonetic Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 15: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 16: semtrans Transliteration Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 17: Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 18: tipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 19: extraipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 20: wsuipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 21: phonetic Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 22: metre Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 23: t4phonet Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 24: arcs Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 25: semtrans Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 26: ogonek Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 27: combelow Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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∗ The original version of this document was written by David Carlisle, with several additional tables provided by Alexander Holt. See Section 8.8 on page 118 for more information about who did what.

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wsuipa Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . marvosym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . wasysym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . ChinA2e Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . teubner Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . eurosym Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Legal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons . textcomp Old-style Numerals . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols

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Mathematical symbols Table 42: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols . . . . . Table 43: cmll Unary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 44: Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 45: AMS Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 46: stmaryrd Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 47: wasysym Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators . . . . . . . Table 49: mathabx Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 50: MnSymbol Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . Table 51: mathdesign Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . Table 52: cmll Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 53: shuffle Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 54: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . Table 55: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . Table 56: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators . . . . Table 57: Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . Table 58: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . Table 59: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 60: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 61: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators Table 63: esint Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . Table 64: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators . . Table 65: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators . . Table 66: cmll Large Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . Table 67: Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 68: AMS Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 69: AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 70: stmaryrd Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 71: wasysym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 72: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 73: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations . . . Table 74: mathabx Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 75: mathabx Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . Table 76: MnSymbol Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . Table 77: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations . . . . . Table 78: mathtools Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 79: turnstile Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 80: trsym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 81: trfsigns Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 82: cmll Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 83: colonequals Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . .

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fourier Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . AMS Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations . . . . wasysym Subset and Superset Relations . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations mathabx Subset and Superset Relations . . . . MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations . . Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Arrows . . . . . . . . . . AMS Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Negated Harpoons . . . . . . . . . harpoon Extensible Harpoons . . . . . . . . . chemarrow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fge Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Spoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Pitchforks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns . . . . . . . . . ulsy Contradiction Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters . . . . . mathabx Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . ChinA2e Number Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters . . . . . upgreek Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . fourier Variant Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters . . . . . AMS Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . .

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txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols . . . . . mathabx Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . trfsigns Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . mathdesign Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . fge Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . fourier Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . AMS Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nath Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . Large, Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . AMS Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) . . . fourier Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . metre Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . fge Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . overrightarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . yhmath Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . mathtools Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . mathabx Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . fourier Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . esvect Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . undertilde Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . ushort Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . mathtools Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . chemarr Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . chemarrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . extarrows Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . extpfeil Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . DotArrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . trfsigns Extensible Transform Symbols . . . holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathdots Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . teubner Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathcomp Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 64 65 65


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198: 199: 200: 201: 202: 203: 204: 205: 206: 207: 208: 209: 210: 211: 212: 213:

fge Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dozenal Base-12 Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Mayan Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous LATEX 2Îľ Math Symbols . . . . . . Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols . . . . . . Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols . . . Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols . . . . . . Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols . . . . . Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols . . . . . . Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols . . . . . Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . Math Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 68

Science and technology symbols Table 214: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Table 215: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Table 216: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 217: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 218: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols . . Table 219: steinmetz Extensible Phasor Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 220: wasysym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 221: marvosym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 222: mathabx Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 223: wasysym APL Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 224: wasysym APL Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 225: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Table 226: keystroke Computer Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 227: ascii Control Characters (CP437) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 228: milstd Logic Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 229: marvosym Communication Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 230: marvosym Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 231: wasysym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 232: marvosym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 233: marvosym Safety-related Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 234: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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70 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 74

Dingbats Table 235: Table 236: Table 237: Table 238: Table 239: Table 240: Table 241: Table 242: Table 243: Table 244: Table 245: Table 246: Table 247: Table 248: Table 249: Table 250: Table 251:

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75 75 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 77

bbding Arrows . . . . . . . . pifont Arrows . . . . . . . . universal Arrows . . . . . . . marvosym Scissors . . . . . . bbding Scissors . . . . . . . pifont Scissors . . . . . . . . dingbat Pencils . . . . . . . bbding Pencils and Nibs . . pifont Pencils and Nibs . . . dingbat Fists . . . . . . . . . bbding Fists . . . . . . . . . pifont Fists . . . . . . . . . . fourier Fists . . . . . . . . . bbding Crosses and Plusses . pifont Crosses and Plusses . bbding Xs and Check Marks pifont Xs and Check Marks

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252: 253: 254: 255: 256: 257: 258: 259: 260: 261: 262: 263: 264: 265: 266: 267: 268:

wasysym Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . universal Xs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Circled Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . fourier Ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . ifsym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . bbding Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . pifont Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . universa Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . universal Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats . . . . . . Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats . . . . . . . Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats . . . . . . .

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77 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

Ancient languages Table 269: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk . . . . . . Table 270: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters . . . . . . . . . Table 271: hieroglf Hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 272: linearA Linear A Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 273: linearb Linear B Basic and Optional Letters . . . . Table 274: linearb Linear B Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 275: linearb Linear B Weights and Measures . . . . . . . Table 276: linearb Linear B Ideograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 277: linearb Unidentified Linear B Symbols . . . . . . . Table 278: cypriot Cypriot Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 279: sarabian South Arabian Letters . . . . . . . . . . . Table 280: teubner Archaic Greek Letters and Greek Numerals

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81 81 81 82 82 85 85 85 86 86 86 87 87

Other symbols Table 281: textcomp Genealogical Symbols . Table 282: wasysym General Symbols . . . . Table 283: wasysym Circles . . . . . . . . . . Table 284: wasysym Musical Symbols . . . . Table 285: arev Musical Symbols . . . . . . . Table 286: harmony Musical Symbols . . . . Table 287: harmony Musical Accents . . . . . Table 288: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols Table 289: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols . . Table 290: marvosym Navigation Symbols . . Table 291: marvosym Laundry Symbols . . . Table 292: marvosym Information Symbols . Table 293: Other marvosym Symbols . . . . . Table 294: Miscellaneous universa Symbols . Table 295: Miscellaneous universal Symbols . Table 296: Miscellaneous fourier Symbols . . Table 297: ifsym Weather Symbols . . . . . . Table 298: ifsym Alpine Symbols . . . . . . . Table 299: ifsym Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 300: Other ifsym Symbols . . . . . . . Table 301: clock Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 302: epsdice Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 303: hhcount Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 304: hhcount Tally Markers . . . . . . Table 305: skull Symbols . . . . . . . . . . .

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88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 93

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306: 307: 308: 309: 310: 311: 312: 313: 314: 315: 316: 317: 318: 319: 320:

Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols . . . skak Chess Informator Symbols . . . . . . skak Chess Pieces and Chessboard Squares igo Go Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . metre Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols . teubner Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . dictsym Dictionary Symbols . . . . . . . . simpsons Characters from The Simpsons . pmboxdraw Box-Drawing Symbols . . . . . staves Magical Staves . . . . . . . . . . . . pigpen Cipher Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . ChinA2e Phases of the Moon . . . . . . . . Other ChinA2e Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . recycle Recycling Symbols . . . . . . . . .

Additional Information 8.1 Symbol Name Clashes . . . . . . . . 8.2 Resizing symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Where can I find the symbol for . . . ? 8.4 Math-mode spacing . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Bold mathematical symbols . . . . . 8.6 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference . 8.7 Unicode characters . . . . . . . . . . 8.8 About this document . . . . . . . . . 8.9 Copyright and license . . . . . . . .

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93 93 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 98 99

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100 100 100 100 112 113 114 117 118 121

References

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Index

123

7


1

Introduction

Welcome to the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List! This document strives to be your primary source of LATEX symbol information: font samples, LATEX commands, packages, usage details, caveats—everything needed to put thousands of different symbols at your disposal. All of the fonts covered herein meet the following criteria: 1. They are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org). 2. All of their symbols have LATEX 2ε bindings. That is, a user should be able to access a symbol by name, not just by \charhnumber i. These are not particularly limiting criteria; the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List contains samples of 5913 symbols—quite a large number. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every LATEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=instpackages+wherefiles for help with installing new fonts and packages.

1.1

Document Usage

Each section of this document contains a number of font tables. Each table shows a set of symbols, with the corresponding LATEX command to the right of each symbol. A table’s caption indicates what package needs to be loaded in order to access that table’s symbols. For example, the symbols in Table 39, “textcomp Old-Style Numerals”, are made available by putting “\usepackage{textcomp}” in your document’s preamble. “AMS” means to use the AMS packages, viz. amssymb and/or amsmath. Notes below a table provide additional information about some or all the symbols in that table. One note that appears a few times in this document, particularly in Section 2, indicates that certain symbols do not exist in the OT1 font encoding (Donald Knuth’s original, 7-bit font encoding, which is the default font encoding for LATEX) and that you should use fontenc to select a different encoding, such as T1 (a common 8-bit font encoding). That means that you should put “\usepackage[hencodingi]{fontenc}” in your document’s preamble, where hencodingi is, e.g., T1 or LY1. To limit the change in font encoding to the current group, use “\fontencoding{hencodingi}\selectfont”. Section 8 contains some additional information about the symbols in this document. It discusses how certain mathematical symbols can vary in height, shows which symbol names are not unique across packages, gives examples of how to create new symbols out of existing symbols, explains how symbols are spaced in math mode, compares various schemes for boldfacing symbols, presents LATEX ASCII and Latin 1 tables, shows how to input and output Unicode characters, and provides some information about this document itself. The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List ends with an index of all the symbols in the document and various additional useful terms.

1.2

Frequently Requested Symbols

There are a number of symbols that are requested over and over again on comp.text.tex. If you’re looking for such a symbol the following list will help you find it quickly. , as in “Spaces are significant.” ´ı, `ı, ¯ı, ˆı, etc. (versus ´ı, `ı, ¯i, and ˆı)

.

........

9

........

14

¢

...............................

18

e

L, F, etc.

..............................

18

N, Z, R, etc.

©, ®, and ™ ‰  ∴

..

..............................

°, as in “180°” or “15℃”

64

..............

67

........................

68

......................

68 68

......................

19

r

...............................

..............................

20

R

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

..............................

27

¯a´, `ˆe, etc. (i.e., several accents per character)

...............................

30

B and F

.........................

31

. and &

.........................

38

<, >, and | (instead of ¡, ¿, and —) ˆ and ˜ (or ∼)

8

107

. . . . . . 114

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


2

Body-text symbols

This section lists symbols that are intended for use in running text, such as punctuation marks, accents, ligatures, and currency symbols.

Table 1: LATEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters $

%

\$ ∗

\_ ∗

\%

}

&

\}

\&

#

{

\#

\{

The underscore package redefines “_” to produce an underscore in text mode (i.e., it makes it unnecessary to escape the underscore character).

Table 2: Predefined LATEX 2ε Text-mode Commands

c

ˆ ˜ ∗ \ | { } • © † ‡ $ ... — – ¡ >

\textasciicircum∗ \textasciitilde∗ \textasteriskcentered \textbackslash \textbar \textbraceleft† \textbraceright† \textbullet \textcopyright† \textdagger† \textdaggerdbl† \textdollar† \textellipsis† \textemdash \textendash \textexclamdown \textgreater

a o

r TM

< ª º ¶ · ¿ “ ” ‘ ’ ® § £ ™

\textless \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph† \textperiodcentered \textquestiondown \textquotedblleft \textquotedblright \textquoteleft \textquoteright \textregistered \textsection† \textsterling† \texttrademark \textunderscore† \textvisiblespace

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. ∗

\^{} and \~{} can be used instead of \textasciicircum and \textasciitilde. See the discussion of “˜” on page 115.

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 3: LATEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode $ ¶ §

\$ \P \S

c

© †

\_ \copyright \dag

‡ ... £

\ddag \dots \pounds

{ }

\{ \}

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.

9


Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode X

\checkmark

r

z

\circledR

\maltese

Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) ˚ a ˚ A Æ æ ∗

Ð ž ‡ § · — € 

\DH∗ \dh∗ \DJ∗ \dj∗

Ð ð Ð đ

\aa \AA \AE \ae

L l Ŋ ŋ

\L \l \NG∗ \ng∗

ø Ø Œ œ

ß SS Þ þ

\o \O \OE \oe

\ss \SS \TH∗ \th∗

Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

\B{D} \B{d} \B{H} \B{h} \B{t} \B{T} \m{b} \m{B} \m{C}

°  ð Ð ¡ ‚ ¢ ƒ £

Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages

¤ „ † ¦ À à ‰ © ˆ

\m{c} \m{D} \M{d} \M{D} \m{d} \m{E} \m{e} \M{E} \M{e}

¨  ­ ª Š ‘ ± ¬ Œ

\m{f} \m{F} \m{G} \m{g} \m{I} \m{i} \m{J} \m{j} \m{K}

\m{k} \m{N} \m{n} \m{o} \m{O} \m{P} \m{p} \m{s} \m{S}

» › º š ® Ž  ¯ ¶

\M{t} \M{T} \m{t} \m{T} \m{u}∗ \m{U}∗ \m{Y} \m{y} \m{z}

–  â Å å

\m{Z} \T{E} \T{e} \T{O} \T{o}

These characters all need the T4 font encoding, which is provided by the fc package. ∗

\m{v} and \m{V} are synonyms for \m{u} and \m{U}.

Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese Ơ

ơ

\OHORN

Ư

\ohorn

\UHORN

ư

\uhorn

These characters all need the T5 font encoding, which is provided by the vntex package.

Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 « »

\guillemotleft \guillemotright

‹ ›

„ ‚

\guilsinglleft \guilsinglright

\quotedblbase \quotesinglbase

"

\textquotedbl

To get these symbols, use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks { |

\ding{123} \ding{124}

} ~

\ding{125} \ding{126}

¡ ¢ 10

\ding{161} \ding{162}

£

\ding{163}


Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols È b c d é g Ü 1 ł 8 Ý 0 ì B ò

Å Ñ Æ Þ ^ ă ą g è Û ň 2 C ć ćý š J ő ť ťC ÿ ý dý S } = / { Ş Ť Ã dz E

\textbabygamma \textbarb \textbarc \textbard \textbardotlessj \textbarg \textbarglotstop \textbari \textbarl \textbaro \textbarrevglotstop \textbaru \textbeltl \textbeta \textbullseye \textceltpal \textchi \textcloseepsilon \textcloseomega \textcloserevepsilon \textcommatailz \textcorner \textcrb \textcrd \textcrg \textcrh \textcrinvglotstop \textcrlambda \textcrtwo \textctc \textctd \textctdctzlig \textctesh \textctj \textctn \textctt \textcttctclig \textctyogh \textctz \textdctzlig \textdoublebaresh \textdoublebarpipe \textdoublebarslash \textdoublepipe \textdoublevertline \textdownstep \textdyoghlig \textdzlig \textepsilon

P ; ż # á ê Á â ä H Ê Î Ò Ó č É Ö ß Û K Ì ń : ş ę ű Ô ¡ M ñ ë Ð Í ŋ ř _ O % F | " ij ğ 7 \ 9 3 Q ź

\textglotstop \texthalflength \texthardsign \texthooktop \texthtb \texthtbardotlessj \texthtc \texthtd \texthtg \texthth \texththeng \texthtk \texthtp \texthtq \texthtrtaild \texthtscg \texthtt \texthvlig \textinvglotstop \textinvscr \textiota \textlambda \textlengthmark \textlhookt \textlhtlongi \textlhtlongy \textlonglegr \textlptr \textltailm \textltailn \textltilde \textlyoghlig \textObardotlessj \textOlyoghlig \textomega \textopencorner \textopeno \textpalhook \textphi \textpipe \textprimstress \textraiseglotstop \textraisevibyi \textramshorns \textrevapostrophe \textreve \textrevepsilon \textrevglotstop \textrevyogh

ï ó ù ú ü $ À à ď å Ë @ I ĺ Ï ð Œ ś ö A g V Ú Y ­ ž  tC Ù T þ £ ţ 5 ŕ 4 ľ Õ W î ô õ 6 Ø 2 û L U Ţ

\textrtailn \textrtailr \textrtails \textrtailt \textrtailz \textrthook \textsca \textscb \textsce \textscg \textsch \textschwa \textsci \textscj \textscl \textscn \textscoelig \textscomega \textscr \textscripta \textscriptg \textscriptv \textscu \textscy \textsecstress \textsoftsign \textstretchc \texttctclig \textteshlig \texttheta \textthorn \texttoneletterstem \texttslig \textturna \textturncelig \textturnh \textturnk \textturnlonglegr \textturnm \textturnmrleg \textturnr \textturnrrtail \textturnscripta \textturnt \textturnv \textturnw \textturny \textupsilon \textupstep

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11


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S R ě G Ů Ű

Ç Ä ~ ¿ ã í

\textesh \textfishhookr \textg \textgamma \textglobfall \textglobrise

\textrhookrevepsilon \textrhookschwa \textrhoticity \textrptr \textrtaild \textrtaill

Š ğ ů ß Z

\textvertline \textvibyi \textvibyy \textwynn \textyogh

tipa defines shortcut characters for many of the above. It also defines a command \tone for denoting tone letters (pitches). See the tipa documentation for more information.

Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols " B . D 2 % & @ ) H G ˇ 7 5 ’ ( ? T U V , 0 4

\textaolig \textbenttailyogh \textbktailgamma \textctinvglotstop \textctjvar \textctstretchc \textctstretchcvar \textctturnt \textdblig \textdoublebarpipevar \textdoublepipevar \textdownfullarrow \textfemale \textfrbarn \textfrhookd \textfrhookdvar \textfrhookt \textfrtailgamma \textglotstopvari \textglotstopvarii \textglotstopvariii \textgrgamma \textheng \texthmlig

3 ; p ! I # < 1 > 6 9 ˆ ˜ F = ¨ ˚ v z * + : /

\texthtbardotlessjvar \textinvomega \textinvsca \textinvscripta \textlfishhookrlig \textlhookfour \textlhookp \textlhti \textlooptoprevesh \textnrleg \textObullseye \textpalhooklong \textpalhookvar \textpipevar \textqplig \textrectangle \textretractingvar \textrevscl \textrevscr \textrhooka \textrhooke \textrhookepsilon \textrhookopeno \textrtailhth

12

´ q r s t w x y ˝ $ ˙ ¯ P Q R S E u { C A 8 ˘

\textrthooklong \textscaolig \textscdelta \textscf \textsck \textscm \textscp \textscq \textspleftarrow \textstretchcvar \textsubdoublearrow \textsubrightarrow \textthornvari \textthornvarii \textthornvariii \textthornvariv \textturnglotstop \textturnsck \textturnscu \textturnthree \textturntwo \textuncrfemale \textupfullarrow


Table 12: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols

!   ' . < A + X T ;

R ?   # 3 N a ^ (  e

8  M  D b    $ %  "

\babygamma \barb \bard \bari \barl \baro \barp \barsci \barscu \baru \clickb \clickc \clickt \closedniomega \closedrevepsilon \crossb \crossd \crossh \crossnilambda \curlyc \curlyesh \curlyyogh \curlyz \dlbari \dz \ejective

, d & I 5 G K   Z \

\eng \er \esh \eth \flapr \glotstop \hookb \hookd \hookg \hookh \hookheng \hookrevepsilon \hv \inva \invf \invglotstop \invh \invlegr \invm \invr \invscr \invscripta \invv \invw \invy \ipagamma

4 / 6 E 1  [   ) 2 > C O S V 7 @ =  f  c  

\labdentalnas \latfric \legm \legr \lz \nialpha \nibeta \nichi \niepsilon \nigamma \niiota \nilambda \niomega \niphi \nisigma \nitheta \niupsilon \nj \oo \openo \reve \reveject \revepsilon \revglotstop \scd \scg

 * : J   Y W ] 

 U  H 0 9 F L P _ Q B `

\schwa \sci \scn \scr \scripta \scriptg \scriptv \scu \scy \slashb \slashc \slashd \slashu \taild \tailinvr \taill \tailn \tailr \tails \tailt \tailz \tesh \thorn \tildel \yogh

Table 13: wasysym Phonetic Symbols D Ă&#x17E;

k U

\DH \Thorn

\dh \inve

l Ăž

\openo \thorn

Table 14: phonetic Phonetic Symbols j  M n N " s d F

\barj \barlambda \emgma \engma \enya \epsi \esh \eth \fj

f ? B b D T k K D

\flap \glottal \hausaB \hausab \hausad \hausaD \hausak \hausaK \hookd

ÂŻi c

ÂŻh U 

m

r

\ibar \openo \planck \pwedge \revD \riota \rotm \rotOmega \rotr

13

A w y e p

u u a G

\rotvara \rotw \roty \schwa \thorn \ubar \udesc \vara \varg

i  C

v Ë&#x161; h

x

\vari \varomega \varopeno \vod \voicedh \yogh


ž § ¢ ¬  °

Table 15: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols

¡ ¨ ± º à © ª

\textcrd \textcrh \textepsilon \textesh \textfjlig \texthtb \texthtc

\texthtd \texthtk \texthtp \texthtt \textiota \textltailn \textopeno

| ð » ¡ ¬ œ ¶

\textpipe \textrtaild \textrtailt \textschwa \textscriptv \textteshlig \textyogh

The idea behind the t4phonet package’s phonetic symbols is to provide an interface to some of the characters in the T4 font encoding (Table 6 on page 10) but using the same names as the tipa characters presented in Table 10 on page 11.

Table 16: semtrans Transliteration Symbols -

,

\Alif

\Ayn

Table 17: Text-mode Accents ¨a A¨ ´a A´ ˙ a˙ A ¯a A¯ ˆ Aˆ a

\"{A}\"{a} \’{A}\’{a} \.{A}\.{a} \={A}\={a} \^{A}\^{a} a A

`a A`

A¿ ¿a

˜a A˜ Aa ¯¯ A ¸ a¸

A . a.

\‘{A}\‘{a} \|{A}\|{a}‡ \~{A}\~{a} \b{A}\b{a} \c{A}\c{a}

\newtie{A}\newtie{a}∗

AŸ Ÿa

Ảả ˝a A˝ Ąą A a

\d{A}\d{a} \G{A}\G{a}‡ \h{A}\h{a}§ \H{A}\H{a} \k{A}\k{a}†

˚ A˚ a  a A ˘a A˘

A¼ ¼a

ˇa Aˇ

\r{A}\r{a} \t{A}\t{a} \u{A}\u{a} \U{A}\U{a}‡ \v{A}\v{a}

\textcircled{A}\textcircled{a}

Requires the textcomp package.

Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Requires the T4 font encoding, provided by the fc package.

§

Requires the T5 font encoding, provided by the vntex package.

Also note the existence of \i and \j, which produce dotless versions of “i” and “j” (viz., “ı” and “”). These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot in encodings that need to composite (i.e., combine) letters and accents. For example, “na\"{\i}ve” always produces a correct “na¨ıve”, while “na\"{i}ve” yields the rather odd-looking “na¨ive” when using the OT1 font encoding and older versions of LATEX. Font encodings other than OT1 and newer versions of LATEX properly typeset “na\"{i}ve” as “na¨ıve”.

14


Table 18: tipa Text-mode Accents ´ ¯´ A a ¯ ´ ˇ A´ a ˇ

\textacutemacron{A}\textacutemacron{a}

A ffi affi A a << ˘ ¯¯ ˘ A a Ż AŻ a ˆ ˙ Aˆ a˙

\textadvancing{A}\textadvancing{a}

§a A§ ˘˙ ˘ A a˙

\textacutewedge{A}\textacutewedge{a} \textbottomtiebar{A}\textbottomtiebar{a} \textbrevemacron{A}\textbrevemacron{a} \textcircumacute{A}\textcircumacute{a} \textcircumdot{A}\textcircumdot{a} \textdotacute{A}\textdotacute{a} \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a}

‚a A‚ İa Aİ

\textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a}

Ža AŽ đa Ađ ` ¯` A a ¯

\textgravecircum{A}\textgravecircum{a}

Źa AŹ

\textgravemid{A}\textgravemid{a}

A „a „

\textinvsubbridge{A}\textinvsubbridge{a}

A fl afl Ÿ AŸ a

\textlowering{A}\textlowering{a}

‰a A‰ —— Aa A ˛ a˛

\textovercross{A}\textovercross{a}

A fi afi A ffl affl ˚ ¯˚ A a ¯ “ A“ a

\textraising{A}\textraising{a}

\textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} \textgravedot{A}\textgravedot{a} \textgravemacron{A}\textgravemacron{a}

\textmidacute{A}\textmidacute{a} \textoverw{A}\textoverw{a} \textpolhook{A}\textpolhook{a} \textretracting{A}\textretracting{a} \textringmacron{A}\textringmacron{a} \textroundcap{A}\textroundcap{a}

A a 

\textseagull{A}\textseagull{a}

Aa ›› Aa ““ Aa ¯¯ A ”a ”

\textsubacute{A}\textsubacute{a}

Aa ˆˆ Aa ˙˙ Aa ‹‹ A – a– A ff aff

\textsubcircum{A}\textsubcircum{a}

A » a» Aa ˚˚ A «a « Aa ˜˜ Aa ¨¨

\textsubrhalfring{A}\textsubrhalfring{a}

\textsubarch{A}\textsubarch{a} \textsubbar{A}\textsubbar{a} \textsubbridge{A}\textsubbridge{a} \textsubdot{A}\textsubdot{a} \textsubgrave{A}\textsubgrave{a} \textsublhalfring{A}\textsublhalfring{a} \textsubplus{A}\textsubplus{a} \textsubring{A}\textsubring{a} \textsubsquare{A}\textsubsquare{a} \textsubtilde{A}\textsubtilde{a} \textsubumlaut{A}\textsubumlaut{a}

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15


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A —a —

\textsubw{A}\textsubw{a}

Aa ˇˇ A a && Aa " ˜˙" ˜ A a˙ >> Aa

\textsubwedge{A}\textsubwedge{a}

IJa AIJ

\textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a}

\textsuperimposetilde{A}\textsuperimposetilde{a} \textsyllabic{A}\textsyllabic{a} \texttildedot{A}\texttildedot{a} \texttoptiebar{A}\texttoptiebar{a}

tipa defines shortcut sequences for many of the above. See the tipa documentation for more information.

Table 19: extraipa Text-mode Accents ”” A ”a ” Ŕ˜ Ŕ A˜ a .˜. .. a A˜

\bibridge{A}\bibridge{a} \crtilde{A}\crtilde{a} \dottedtilde{A}\dottedtilde{a}

˜˜ A a

\doubletilde{A}\doubletilde{a}

A»a» ˇˇ A»a» ˚˚ a –A ˇ–ˇ a –A ”–˚ ” ˚ Aa

\finpartvoice{A}\finpartvoice{a}

a –A ˇ»–ˇ»

\finpartvoiceless{A}\finpartvoiceless{a} \inipartvoice{A}\inipartvoice{a} \inipartvoiceless{A}\inipartvoiceless{a} \overbridge{A}\overbridge{a}

–A»–a» ˚˚ A¯ a ¯

\partvoiceless{A}\partvoiceless{a}

A a ˙˙ Aa ^^ Aa ¯¯ Aa "" "" Aa ¡¡ Aa ¿¿ A a Ţ Ţ

\spreadlips{A}\spreadlips{a}

\sliding{A}\sliding{a} \subcorner{A}\subcorner{a} \subdoublebar{A}\subdoublebar{a} \subdoublevert{A}\subdoublevert{a} \sublptr{A}\sublptr{a} \subrptr{A}\subrptr{a} \whistle{A}\whistle{a}

\partvoice{A}\partvoice{a}

Table 20: wsuipa Text-mode Accents A g ag

\dental{A}\dental{a}

A  a

\underarch{A}\underarch{a}

Table 21: phonetic Text-mode Accents Aa

\hill{A}\hill{a}

A a

\rc{A}\rc{a}

Aa ˚ {˚ A a{

\od{A}\od{a}

Aa

\syl{A}\syl{a}

\ohill{A}\ohill{a}

A a .. ..

\td{A}\td{a}

{ {

Aa ˜˜

\ut{A}\ut{a}

The phonetic package provides a few additional macros for linguistic accents. \acbar and \acarc compose characters with multiple accents; for example, ¯ \acbar{\’}{a} produces “´ a” and \acarc{\"}{e} produces “¨¯e”. \labvel joins _ two characters with an arc: \labvel{mn} → “mn”. \upbar is intended to go between characters as in “x\upbar{}y’’ → “x y”. Lastly, \uplett behaves like \textsuperscript but uses a smaller font. Contrast “p\uplett{h}’’ → “ph ” with “p\textsuperscript{h}’’ → “ph ”. 16


Table 22: metre Text-mode Accents ´a A ´ ˘a A ˘ ˜a A ˜ ¨ Aa ¨ `a A ` ¯a A ¯

AŸ Ÿa A¿ ¿a A¼ ¼a

\acutus{A}\acutus{a} \breve{A}\breve{a} \circumflexus{A}\circumflexus{a} \diaeresis{A}\diaeresis{a} \gravis{A}\gravis{a} \macron{A}\macron{a}

Table 23: t4phonet Text-mode Accents \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a}

The idea behind the t4phonet package’s text-mode accents is to provide an interface to some of the accents in the T4 font encoding (accents marked with “‡” in Table 17 on page 14) but using the same names as the tipa accents presented in Table 18 on page 15.

Table 24: arcs Text-mode Accents __

Aa

\overarc{A}\overarc{a}

Aa

^^

\underarc{A}\underarc{a}

The accents shown above scale only to a few characters wide. An optional macro argument alters the effective width of the accented characters. See the arcs documentation for more information.

Table 25: semtrans Accents Aa ¨¨

Aa ˘˘

\D{A}\D{a}

\U{A}\U{a}

\T{A}\T{a}∗

aA

\T is not actually an accent but a command that rotates its argument 180° using the graphicx package’s \rotatebox command.

Table 26: ogonek Accents A, a,

\k{A}\k{a}

Table 27: combelow Accents A , a,

\cb{A}\cb{a}

\cb places a comma above letters with descenders. Hence, while “\cb{s}” produces “s,”, “\cb{g}” produces “g‘”. 17


Table 28: wsuipa Diacritics

s k u m p

\ain \corner \downp \downt \halflength

v n q { z

\leftp \leftt \length \midtilde \open

x ~ w o i

h j r y |

\overring \polishhook \rightp \rightt \secstress

} t l

\stress \syllabic \underdots

\underwedge \upp \upt

\underring \undertilde

The wsuipa package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents. However, it does provide \diatop and \diaunder commands, which are used to compose diacritics with other characters. For example, \diatop[\overring|a] produces “x a ”, and \diaunder[\underdots|a] produces “r a”. See the wsuipa documentation for more information.

Table 29: textcomp Diacritics ˝ ´ ˘

\textacutedbl \textasciiacute \textasciibreve

ˇ ¨ `

¯ 

\textasciicaron \textasciidieresis \textasciigrave

\textasciimacron \textgravedbl

The textcomp package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents.

Table 30: textcomp Currency Symbols ฿ ¢  ₡ ¤

\textbaht \textcent \textcentoldstyle \textcolonmonetary \textcurrency ∗

$  ₫ € ƒ

\textdollar∗ \textdollaroldstyle \textdong \texteuro \textflorin

 ₤ ₦ ‘ £

\textguarani \textlira \textnaira \textpeso \textsterling∗

₩ ¥

\textwon \textyen

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 31: marvosym Currency Symbols ¢ 

\Denarius \Ecommerce

e d

\EUR \EURcr

D c

\EURdig \EURhv

e ¦

\EURtm \EyesDollar

£ ¡

\Pfund \Shilling

The different euro signs are meant to be visually compatible with different fonts— Courier (\EURcr), Helvetica (\EURhv), Times Roman (\EURtm), and the marvosym digits listed in Table 197 (\EURdig). The mathdesign package redefines \texteuro to be visually compatible with one of three additional fonts: Utopia (€), Charter (€), or Garamond (€).

Table 32: wasysym Currency Symbols ¢

\cent

¤ 18

\currency


Table 33: ChinA2e Currency Symbols

ÿ

þ

\Euro

\Pound

Table 34: teubner Currency Symbols Ε Δ

Α ῝

\denarius \dracma

\hemiobelion \stater

Β

\tetartemorion

Table 35: eurosym Euro Signs A C

\geneuro

B C

C C

\geneuronarrow

\geneurowide

e

\officialeuro

\euro is automatically mapped to one of the above—by default, \officialeuro— based on a eurosym package option. See the eurosym documentation for more information. The \geneuro. . . characters are generated from the current body font’s “C” character and therefore may not appear exactly as shown.

Table 36: fourier Euro Signs (

\eurologo

\texteuro

Table 37: textcomp Legal Symbols ℗ «

\textcircledP \textcopyleft

c r

© ®

\textcopyright \textregistered

TM

℠ ™

\textservicemark \texttrademark

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=tradesyms for solur tions to common problems that occur when using these symbols (e.g., getting a “ ” when you expected to get a “®”).

Table 38: cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons

BY:

\ccby

$

\

\cc

\ccnc∗

=

\ccnd

C

CC

\ccsa∗

These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in some DVI viewers.

19


Table 39: textcomp Old-style Numerals    

\textzerooldstyle \textoneoldstyle \texttwooldstyle \textthreeoldstyle

   

\textfouroldstyle \textfiveoldstyle \textsixoldstyle \textsevenoldstyle

 

\texteightoldstyle \textnineoldstyle

Rather than use the bulky \textoneoldstyle, \texttwooldstyle, etc. commands shown above, consider using \oldstylenums{. . .} to typeset an old-style number.

Table 40: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols ∗ ‖ ○ ␢ ¦ • † ‡  œ ℮ ‽ • ♪ № ◦

\textasteriskcentered \textbardbl \textbigcircle \textblank \textbrokenbar \textbullet \textdagger∗ \textdaggerdbl∗ \textdblhyphen \textdblhyphenchar \textdiscount \textestimated \textinterrobang \textinterrobangdown \textmusicalnote \textnumero \textopenbullet

a o

ª º ¶ · ‱ ‰ ¶ ' ‚ „ “ ※ §  ~ 

\textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph∗ \textperiodcentered \textpertenthousand \textperthousand \textpilcrow \textquotesingle \textquotestraightbase \textquotestraightdblbase \textrecipe \textreferencemark \textsection∗ \textthreequartersemdash \texttildelow \texttwelveudash

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. ∗

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 41: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols h

\permil

20


3

Mathematical symbols

Most, but not all, of the symbols in this section are math-mode only. That is, they yield a “Missing $ inserted” error message if not used within $. . .$, \[. . .\], or another math-mode environment. Operators marked as “variable-sized” are taller in displayed formulas, shorter in in-text formulas, and possibly shorter still when used in various levels of superscripts or subscripts. Alphanumeric symbols (e.g., “L ” and “š”) are usually produced using one of the math alphabets in Table 213 rather than with an explicit symbol command. Look there first if you need a symbol for a transform, number set, or some other alphanumeric. Although there have been many requests on comp.text.tex for a contradiction symbol, the ensuing discussion invariably reveals innumerable ways to represent contradiction in a proof, including “ ” (\blitza), “⇒⇐” (\Rightarrow\Leftarrow), “⊥” (\bot), “=” (\nleftrightarrow), and “※” (\textreferencemark). Because of the lack of notational consensus, it is probably better to spell out “Contradiction!” than to use a symbol for this purpose. Similarly, discussions on comp.text.tex have revealed that there are a variety of ways to indicate the mathematical notion of “is defined as”. Common candidates include “,” (\triangleq), def “≡” (\equiv), “B” (various 1 ), and “ =” (\stackrel{\text{\tiny def}}{=}). See also the ` example of \equalsfill on page 108. Depending upon the context, disjoint union may be represented as “ ” (\coprod), · (\dotcup), “⊕” (\oplus), or any of a number of other symbols.2 Finally, the average “t” (\sqcup), “∪” value of a variable x is written by some people as “x” (\overline{x}), by some people as “hxi” (\langle x \rangle), and by some people as “x” or “∅x” (\diameter x or \varnothing x). The moral of the story is that you should be careful always to explain your notation to avoid confusing your readers.

Table 42: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols $ ...

\mathdollar \mathellipsis

¶ §

\mathparagraph \mathsection

£

\mathsterling \mathunderscore

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 43: cmll Unary Operators ! ˜ ∗

\oc∗ \shift

ˆ ´

\shneg \shpos

?

\wn∗

\oc and \wn differ from “!” and “?” in terms of their math-mode spacing: $A=!B$ produces “A =!B”, for example, while $A=\oc B$ produces “A = !B”.

1 In txfonts, pxfonts, and mathtools the symbol is called \coloneqq. In mathabx and MnSymbol it’s called \coloneq. In colonequals it’s called \colonequals. 2 Bob Tennent listed these and other disjoint-union symbol possibilities in a November 2007 post to comp.text.tex.

21


Table 44: Binary Operators q â&#x2C6;&#x2014; 5 4 â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x2C6;Š ¡ â&#x2014;Ś â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

\amalg \ast \bigcirc \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \bullet \cap \cdot \circ

â&#x2C6;Ş â&#x20AC; â&#x20AC;Ą  á C â&#x2C6;&#x201C;

\cup \dagger \ddagger \diamond \div \lhdâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \mp \odot \ominus

â&#x160;&#x2022; â&#x160;&#x2014; Âą B \ u t ?

\oplus \oslash \otimes \pm \rhdâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \setminus \sqcap \sqcup \star

Ă&#x2014; / . E D ] â&#x2C6;¨ â&#x2C6;§ o

\times \triangleleft \triangleright \unlhdâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \unrhdâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \uplus \vee \wedge \wr

Not predefined in LATEX 2Îľ . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 45: AMS Binary Operators Z

  e  ~ â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

\barwedge \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxtimes \Cap \centerdot \circledast

}  d g f > u [

\circledcirc \circleddash \Cup \curlyvee \curlywedge \divideontimes \dotplus \doublebarwedge

| h n i o r Y

\intercalâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \leftthreetimes \ltimes \rightthreetimes \rtimes \smallsetminus \veebar

Some people use a superscripted \intercal for matrix transpose: â&#x20AC;&#x153;A^\intercalâ&#x20AC;? 7â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x20AC;&#x153;A| â&#x20AC;?. (See the May 2009 comp.text.tex thread, â&#x20AC;&#x153;raising math symbolsâ&#x20AC;?, for suggestions about altering the height of the superscript.) \top (Table 139 on page 51), T, and \mathsf{T} are other popular choices: â&#x20AC;&#x153;A> â&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;AT â&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;AT â&#x20AC;?.

Table 46: stmaryrd Binary Operators N O i k  j   l . / ' & ) # (

\baro \bbslash \binampersand \bindnasrepma \boxast \boxbar \boxbox \boxbslash \boxcircle \boxdot \boxempty \boxslash \curlyveedownarrow \curlyveeuparrow \curlywedgedownarrow \curlywedgeuparrow \fatbslash \fatsemi \fatslash

9 2 !

 ` : @ ; = < > ? 3

8 , 

\interleave \leftslice \merge \minuso \moo \nplus \obar \oblong \obslash \ogreaterthan \olessthan \ovee \owedge \rightslice \sslash \talloblong \varbigcirc \varcurlyvee \varcurlywedge 22

     5 4     6 7 "    

\varoast \varobar \varobslash \varocircle \varodot \varogreaterthan \varolessthan \varominus \varoplus \varoslash \varotimes \varovee \varowedge \vartimes \Ydown \Yleft \Yright \Yup


Table 47: wasysym Binary Operators C 

\lhd \LHD

# B

\ocircle \rhd

 E

D

\RHD \unlhd

\unrhd

Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators V W U

\circledbar \circledbslash \circledvee

T M 

\circledwedge \invamp \medbullet

\medcirc \sqcapplus \sqcupplus

 } |

Table 49: mathabx Binary Operators 

 X  

X

 



Y O

\ast \Asterisk \barwedge \bigstar \bigvarstar \blackdiamond \cap \circplus \coasterisk \coAsterisk \convolution \cup \curlyvee

N

   Z \ ]

\curlywedge \divdot \divideontimes \dotdiv \dotplus \dottimes \doublebarwedge \doublecap \doublecup \ltimes \pluscirc \rtimes \sqbullet

[ \

^ _  ]



Z  _

Y [ ^

\sqcap \sqcup \sqdoublecap \sqdoublecup \square \squplus \udot \uplus \varstar \vee \veebar \veedoublebar \wedge

Many of the above glyphs go by multiple names. \centerdot is equivalent to \sqbullet, and \ast is equivalent to *. \asterisk produces the same glyph as \ast, but as an ordinary symbol, not a binary operator. Similarly, \bigast produces a large-operator version of the \Asterisk binary operator, and \bigcoast produces a large-operator version of the \coAsterisk binary operator.

Table 50: MnSymbol Binary Operators â&#x2C6;? â&#x2C6;&#x2014;  & â&#x2014;? â&#x2C6;Š âŠ&#x20AC; ? â&#x2039;&#x2026; â&#x2014;&#x2039;

\amalg \ast \backslashdiv \bowtie \bullet \cap \capdot \capplus \cdot \circ

âŠ? âŠ&#x201D; âŠ&#x2022; â&#x2C6;ľ + "  Â&#x2C6;  â&#x152;&#x153;

\doublesqcup \doublevee \doublewedge \downtherefore \downY \dtimes \fivedots \hbipropto \hdotdot \lefthalfcap

â&#x2039;&#x152; ( â&#x2039;&#x160;  â&#x2C6;? â&#x160;&#x201C; E G â&#x160;&#x201D;

\righttherefore \rightthreetimes \rightY \rtimes \slashdiv \smallprod \sqcap \sqcapdot \sqcapplus \sqcup

(continued on next page)

23


(continued from previous page)

ž Âź â&#x2C6;Ş â&#x160;? â&#x160;&#x17D; â&#x2039;&#x17D; 5 â&#x2039;? 4  á   â&#x2039;&#x2019; â&#x2039;&#x201C; 7 6 âŠ&#x17D;

â&#x152;&#x17E; â&#x2039;&#x2039; * â&#x2039;&#x2030; â&#x2C6;&#x2013; â&#x2014;Ż â&#x2C6;&#x2022; â&#x2C6;Ł  â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  â&#x2C6;&#x201C; Â&#x2030; Â&#x2039; + Âą â&#x152;? â&#x152;&#x;

\closedcurlyvee \closedcurlywedge \cup \cupdot \cupplus \curlyvee \curlyveedot \curlywedge \curlywedgedot \ddotdot \diamonddots \div \dotmedvert \dotminus \doublecap \doublecup \doublecurlyvee \doublecurlywedge \doublesqcap

\lefthalfcup \lefttherefore \leftthreetimes \leftY \ltimes \medbackslash \medcircle \medslash \medvert \medvertdot \minus \minusdot \mp \neswbipropto \nwsebipropto \plus \pm \righthalfcap \righthalfcup

D F â&#x2C6;ˇ Ă&#x2014;  â&#x2C6;´ ) $ Â&#x160; â&#x2C6;ś â&#x2C6;¨ / â§&#x2013;  â&#x2C6;§ . â&#x2030;&#x20AC;

\sqcupdot \sqcupplus \squaredots \times \udotdot \uptherefore \upY \utimes \vbipropto \vdotdot \vee \veedot \vertbowtie \vertdiv \wedge \wedgedot \wreath

MnSymbol defines \setminus and \smallsetminus as synonyms \medbackslash; \Join as a synonym for \bowtie; \wr as a synonym \wreath; \shortmid as a synonym for \medvert; \Cap as a synonym \doublecap; \Cup as a synonym for \doublecup; and, \uplus as a synonym \cupplus.

for for for for

Table 51: mathdesign Binary Operators _

\dtimes

]

\udtimes

^

\utimes

The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the binary operators shown in Table 45 on page 22.

Table 52: cmll Binary Operators ` â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

&

\parr

\withâ&#x2C6;&#x2014;

\with differs from â&#x20AC;&#x153;&â&#x20AC;? in terms of its math-mode spacing: $A \& B$ produces â&#x20AC;&#x153;A&Bâ&#x20AC;?, for example, while $A \with B$ produces â&#x20AC;&#x153;A & Bâ&#x20AC;?.

Table 53: shuffle Binary Operators



\cshuffle



\shuffle

Table 54: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators



\odplus 24


 ž Ÿ œ f n k e g c d h a `

Table 55: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators \blacktriangledown \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \blacktriangleup \boxasterisk \boxbackslash \boxbot \boxcirc \boxcoasterisk \boxdiv \boxdot \boxleft \boxminus \boxplus

i m b j o l f n k e g c d h

\boxright \boxslash \boxtimes \boxtop \boxtriangleup \boxvoid \oasterisk \obackslash \obot \ocirc \ocoasterisk \odiv \odot \oleft

a ` i m b j o l

™ š › ˜

\ominus \oplus \oright \oslash \otimes \otop \otriangleup \ovoid \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup

Table 56: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators ⧅ ⧈ ⊡ ⊟ ⊞ ⧄ ⊠ q {  ⟐ x | z } y  ◆ ∎

\boxbackslash \boxbox \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxslash \boxtimes \boxvert \diamondbackslash \diamonddiamond \diamonddot \diamondminus \diamondplus \diamondslash \diamondtimes \diamondvert \downslice \filleddiamond \filledmedsquare

▼ ◀ ▶ ▲ ◾ ★ ▾ ◂ ▸ ▴ ◇ ◻ ☆ ▽ ◁ ▷ △ ⊛ ⦸

\filledmedtriangledown \filledmedtriangleleft \filledmedtriangleright \filledmedtriangleup \filledsquare \filledstar \filledtriangledown \filledtriangleleft \filledtriangleright \filledtriangleup \meddiamond \medsquare \medstar \medtriangledown \medtriangleleft \medtriangleright \medtriangleup \oast \obackslash

⊚ ⊙ ⊖ ⊕ ⊘ ⍟ ⊗ d ⦶ „ ◇ ◽ ☆ ▿ ◃ ▹ ▵ ⋆ À

\ocirc \odot \ominus \oplus \oslash \ostar \otimes \otriangle \overt \pentagram \smalldiamond \smallsquare \smallstar \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup \thinstar \upslice

MnSymbol defines \blacksquare as a synonym for \filledmedsquare; \square and \Box as synonyms for \medsquare; \diamond as a synonym for \smalldiamond; \Diamond as a synonym for \meddiamond; \star as a synonym for \thinstar; \circledast as a synonym for \oast; \circledcirc as a synonym for \ocirc; and, \circleddash as a synonym for \ominus.

T \ S [ JK LM

Table 57: Variable-sized Math Operators NO V^ \bigcap \bigotimes \bigwedge F G `a \bigcup \bigsqcup \coprod Z R U ] \bigodot \biguplus \int I H W _ \bigoplus \bigvee \oint 25

QY

\prod

PX

\sum


Table 58: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators ZZ ZZZ RR RRR \iint \iiint RRRR

em bj ck

ZZZZ \iiiint

R

···

R

Z

Z ···

\idotsint

Table 59: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math g o \bigbox \biginterleave  \bigcurlyvee \bignplus n f \bigcurlywedge \bigparallel

Operators  \bigsqcap h ` \bigtriangledown i a \bigtriangleup

Table 60: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators r w

\int

r w

\varint∗

! " u z

\iint \varoint∗

# $

\iiint



\oiint

None of the preceding symbols are defined when wasysym is passed the nointegrals option. ∗

Not defined when wasysym is passed the integrals option.

Defined only when wasysym is passed the integrals option. Otherwise, the default LATEX \int glyph (as shown in Table 57) is used.

Table 61: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators

œ¬ –¦ ›« Öö

\bigcurlyvee \bigsqcap \bigcurlywedge \bigboxasterisk

Ýý Òò Úú ßÿ

\bigboxslash \bigboxtimes \bigboxtop \bigboxtriangleup

Éé Íí Êê Ïï

\bigoright \bigoslash \bigotop \bigotriangleup

(continued on next page)

26


(continued from previous page)

Ă&#x17E;Ăž Ă&#x203A;Ăť Ă&#x2022;Ăľ Ă&#x2014;á Ă&#x201C;Ăł Ă&#x201D;Ă´ Ă&#x2DC;ø Ă&#x2018;Ăą Ă?Ă° Ă&#x2122;Ăš

\bigboxbackslash \bigboxbot \bigboxcirc \bigboxcoasterisk \bigboxdiv \bigboxdot \bigboxleft \bigboxminus \bigboxplus \bigboxright

Ă&#x153;Ăź Â&#x2019; ¢ Ă&#x2020;ĂŚ Ă&#x17D;ĂŽ Ă&#x2039;ĂŤ Ă&#x2026;ĂĽ Ă&#x2021;ç Ă&#x192;ĂŁ Ă&#x2C6;è Ă ĂĄ

\bigboxvoid \bigcomplementop \bigoasterisk \bigobackslash

Ă&#x152;ĂŹ Â? Â&#x2DC;¨ Â&#x2018;ÂĄ ¾½

\bigobot

´ Ÿ

\bigocirc \bigocoasterisk

³  ¡ ¿

\bigodiv

œ ž

\bigoleft

\bigovoid \bigplus \bigsquplus \bigtimes \iiint \iint \int \oiint \oint

\bigominus

Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators









>

?

\bigsqcapplus \bigsqcupplus

% & #

\ointclockwise \ointctrclockwise

R S

\fint

' (

P Q

\idotsint



\iiiint

$

\sqiint



F G

\iiint

\sqiiint

\sqint \varoiiintclockwise

(continued on next page)

27


(continued from previous page)

!

"

L

M

D

E

)

*

H

I

@

A



N O

\iint

B C

\oiiintclockwise

J K

\oiiintctrclockwise \oiiint \oiintclockwise

-

.

+

,

\varoiintclockwise \varoiintctrclockwise \varointclockwise \varointctrclockwise

 

\oiintctrclockwise

\varoiiintctrclockwise

\varprod

\oiint

Table 63: esint Variable-sized Math Operators ¯

˙ \dotsint

ffl ˇ ˝ ˜ % # ‚

\fint ˘ \iiiint ˚ \iiint ¨ \iint & \landdownint $ \landupint

ı  ” › ! ff fl

‹ \oiint

28

 \ointclockwise ‰ \ointctrclockwise „ \sqiint “ \sqint " \varoiint fi \varointclockwise ffi \varointctrclockwise


Table 64: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators â&#x2039;&#x201A;

â&#x2039;&#x201A;

\bigcap

â&#x160;&#x2013;

â&#x160;&#x2013;

\bigominus

â&#x2C6;

â&#x2C6;

\complement

âŠ&#x20AC;

âŠ&#x20AC;

\bigcapdot

â&#x160;&#x2022;

â&#x160;&#x2022;

\bigoplus

â&#x2C6;?

â&#x2C6;?

\coprod

$

%

\bigcapplus

â&#x160;&#x2DC;

â&#x160;&#x2DC;

\bigoslash

â&#x2C6;Ťâ&#x20AC;Śâ&#x2C6;Ť

â&#x2C6;Ťâ&#x20AC;Śâ&#x2C6;Ť

\idotsint

â&#x2014;Ż

â&#x2014;Ż

\bigcircle

â?&#x;

â?&#x;

\bigostar

â¨&#x152;

â¨&#x152;

\iiiint

â&#x2039;&#x192;

â&#x2039;&#x192;

\bigcup

â&#x160;&#x2014;

â&#x160;&#x2014;

\bigotimes

â&#x2C6;­

â&#x2C6;­

\iiint

â&#x160;?

â&#x160;?

\bigcupdot

F

G

\bigotriangle

â&#x2C6;Ź

â&#x2C6;Ź

\iint

â&#x160;&#x17D;

â&#x160;&#x17D;

\bigcupplusâ&#x2C6;&#x2014;

⌜

⌜

\bigovert

â&#x2C6;Ť

â&#x2C6;Ť

\int

â&#x2039;&#x17D;

â&#x2039;&#x17D;

\bigcurlyvee

+

+

\bigplus

â¨&#x161;

â¨&#x161;

\landdownint





\bigcurlyveedot

â&#x160;&#x201C;

â&#x160;&#x201C;

\bigsqcap

â¨&#x2122;

â¨&#x2122;

\landupint

â&#x2039;?

â&#x2039;?

\bigcurlywedge

,

-

\bigsqcapdot

â&#x2C6;˛

â&#x2C6;˛

\lcircleleftint





\bigcurlywedgedot

0

1

\bigsqcapplus

â&#x2C6;˛

â&#x2C6;˛

\lcirclerightint





\bigdoublecurlyvee

â&#x160;&#x201D;

â&#x160;&#x201D;

\bigsqcup

â&#x2C6;Ż

â&#x2C6;Ż

\oiint





\bigdoublecurlywedge

.

/

\bigsqcupdot

â&#x2C6;Ž

â&#x2C6;Ž

\oint

âŠ&#x201D;

âŠ&#x201D;

\bigdoublevee

2

3

\bigsqcupplus

â&#x2C6;?

â&#x2C6;?

\prod

âŠ&#x2022;

âŠ&#x2022;

\bigdoublewedge

â¨&#x2030;

â¨&#x2030;

\bigtimes

â&#x2C6;ł

â&#x2C6;ł

\rcircleleftint

â&#x160;&#x203A;

â&#x160;&#x203A;

\bigoast

â&#x2039;

â&#x2039;

\bigvee

â&#x2C6;ł

â&#x2C6;ł

\rcirclerightint

⌸

⌸

\bigobackslash

\bigveedot

�

�

\strokedint

â&#x160;&#x161;

â&#x160;&#x161;

\bigocirc

â&#x2039;&#x20AC;

â&#x2039;&#x20AC;

\bigwedge

â&#x2C6;&#x2018;

â&#x2C6;&#x2018;

\sum

â&#x160;&#x2122;

â&#x160;&#x2122;

\bigodot



\bigwedgedot

â¨&#x2039;

â¨&#x2039;

\sumint

â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

MnSymbol defines \biguplus as a synonym for \bigcupplus.

29


Table 65: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators Â

Â&#x20AC;

\intclockwise

Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2030;

\oiiint

Â&#x201E;

Â&#x2026;

Â&#x201A;

Â&#x192;

\ointclockwise

\ointctrclockwise

Â&#x2021;

Â&#x2020;

\oiint

The mathdesign package provides three versions of each integralâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in fact,R of evR ery symbolâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;to accompany different text fonts: Utopia ( ), Garamond ( ), and R Charter ( ).

Table 66: cmll Large Math Operators Ë&#x2122;

Ë&#x2DC;

\bigparr

\bigwith

Table 67: Binary Relations â&#x2030;&#x2C6;  ./  a 

\approx \asymp \bowtie \cong \dashv \doteq

â&#x2030;Ą _ Z | |= k

\equiv \frown \Joinâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \midâ&#x20AC; \models \parallel

â&#x160;Ľ â&#x2030;ş  â&#x2C6;? â&#x2C6;ź '

\perp \prec \preceq \propto \sim \simeq

^   `

\smile \succ \succeq \vdash

â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

Not predefined in LATEX 2Îľ . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

â&#x20AC;

The difference between \mid and | is that the former is a binary relation while the latter is a math ordinal. Consequently, LATEX typesets the two with different surrounding spacing. Contrast â&#x20AC;&#x153;P(A | B)â&#x20AC;? 7â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x20AC;&#x153;P (A|B)â&#x20AC;? with â&#x20AC;&#x153;P(A \mid B)â&#x20AC;? 7â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x20AC;&#x153;P (A | B)â&#x20AC;?.

Table 68: AMS Binary Relations u  v w â&#x2C6;ľ G m l $ 2 3 +

\approxeq \backepsilon \backsim \backsimeq \because \between \Bumpeq \bumpeq \circeq \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteqdot

P ; ( t w 4 : p q a `

\eqcirc \fallingdotseq \multimap \pitchfork \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precsim \risingdotseq \shortmid \shortparallel \smallfrown \smallsmile 30

v < % â&#x2C6;´ â&#x2030;&#x2C6; â&#x2C6;ź â&#x2C6;?  

\succapprox \succcurlyeq \succsim \therefore \thickapprox \thicksim \varpropto \Vdash \vDash \Vvdash


Table 69: AMS Negated Binary Relations  â&#x2C6;Ś â&#x160;&#x20AC;  .

\ncong \nmid \nparallel \nprec \npreceq \nshortmid

/ /   2 0

\nshortparallel \nsim \nsucc \nsucceq \nvDash \nvdash

3    

\nVDash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim

Table 70: stmaryrd Binary Relations A

\inplus

B

\niplus

Table 71: wasysym Binary Relations  Z

\invneg \Join

{ 

\leadsto \logof



\wasypropto

Table 72: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations S R  D H F B   I E C G h â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

\circledgtr \circledless \colonapprox \Colonapprox \coloneq \Coloneq \Coloneqq \coloneqqâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \Colonsim \colonsim \Eqcolon \eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon \eqsim

X \ (  Â&#x2022;    Â&#x2DC;  Â&#x2014; Â&#x2013;   [

\lJoin \lrtimes \multimap \multimapboth \multimapbothvert \multimapdot \multimapdotboth \multimapdotbothA \multimapdotbothAvert \multimapdotbothB \multimapdotbothBvert \multimapdotbothvert \multimapdotinv \multimapinv \openJoin

] y   Y K J L   â&#x2C6;Ľ



\opentimes \Perp \preceqq \precneqq \rJoin \strictfi \strictif \strictiff \succeqq \succneqq \varparallel \varparallelinv \VvDash

As an alternative to using txfonts/pxfonts, a â&#x20AC;&#x153;:=â&#x20AC;? symbol can be constructed with â&#x20AC;&#x153;\mathrel{\mathop:}=â&#x20AC;?.

Table 73: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations 6 * + ( ) . 7

\napproxeq \nasymp \nbacksim \nbacksimeq \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \nequiv \nprecapprox

$ 9  ; 8 % : 

\npreccurlyeq \npreceqq \nprecsim \nsimeq \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceqq \nsuccsim 31

5 h g

1

\nthickapprox \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \nvarparallel \nvarparallelinv \nVdash


Table 74: mathabx Binary Relations

      ¶ · ) )

-

\between \botdoteq \Bumpedeq \bumpedeq \circeq \coloneq \corresponds \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \DashV \Dashv \dashVv



     Ă? Ă&#x17D; Ă&#x2020; ¤ Ă&#x152;

Ă&#x20AC;

\divides \dotseq \eqbumped \eqcirc \eqcolon \fallingdotseq \ggcurly \llcurly \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precdot \precsim

 Ă&#x2021; ÂĽ Ă?

Ă 6  ( ,

( ,

\risingdotseq \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succdot \succsim \therefore \topdoteq \vDash \Vdash \VDash \Vvdash

Table 75: mathabx Negated Binary Relations  

¸ š + / '

+ /    

\napprox \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \nDashv \ndashV \ndashv \nDashV \ndashVv \neq \notasymp \notdivides \notequiv

M

¢ Ă&#x2C6; ÂŚ ÂŞ Ă&#x201A;  

ÂŁ Ă&#x2030; § ÂŤ Ă&#x192;

\notperp \nprec \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nsim \nsimeq \nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim

*

* . &

. Ă&#x160; ÂŹ Ă&#x201E; Ă&#x2039; ­ Ă&#x2026;

\nvDash \nVDash \nVdash \nvdash \nVvash \precnapprox \precneq \precnsim \succnapprox \succneq \succnsim

The \changenotsign command toggles the behavior of \not to produce either a vertical or a diagonal slash through a binary operator. Thus, â&#x20AC;&#x153;$a \not= b$â&#x20AC;? can be made to produce either â&#x20AC;&#x153;a = bâ&#x20AC;? or â&#x20AC;&#x153;a = bâ&#x20AC;?.

Table 76: MnSymbol Binary Relations â&#x2030;&#x2C6; â&#x2030;&#x160;   â&#x2030;&#x152; â&#x2C6;˝ â&#x2039;?  Â&#x201D;

\approx \approxeq \backapprox \backapproxeq \backcong \backeqsim \backsim \backsimeq \backtriplesim \between

 â&#x2030;&#x2013; ⊌ â&#x2030;&#x201A; = Ă? â&#x2030;Ą Ă&#x17E; â&#x2030;&#x2019; â&#x2030;&#x2122;

\eqbump \eqcirc \eqdot \eqsim \equal \equalclosed \equiv \equivclosed \fallingdotseq \hateq

} Â&#x2026; ĂĽ Ăľ Â&#x201C; Ă&#x201C; Ă&#x2014; Ă? Ă­ â&#x2030;ş

\nwfootline \nwfree \nwmodels \nwModels \nwsecrossing \nwseline \Nwseline \nwvdash \nwVdash \prec

(continued on next page)

32

ĂŻ â&#x2C6;Ľ â&#x2C6;ź â&#x2030;&#x192; â&#x2030;ť ⪸ â&#x2030;˝ ⪰ â&#x2030;ż ~

\seVdash \shortparallel \sim \simeq \succ \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succeq \succsim \swfootline


(continued from previous page)

≏ ≎ ≗ Ü ½ » ∶= ≅ ⋞ ⋟ ≐ ≑ { ⫝ ã ó  ⊤ ⍑

\bumpeq \Bumpeq \circeq \closedequal \closedprec \closedsucc \coloneq \cong \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteq \Doteq \downfootline \downfree \downmodels \downModels \downpropto \downvdash \downVdash

 z ‚ â ò ∝ Ð Ô ⪦ ⊣ ê | „ ä ô Ò Ö Ü ì

⪷ ≼ ⪯ ≾ x € ⊧ ⊫ Ž ⪧ ⊢ ⊩ ≓  ‡ ç ÷ • ß

\hcrossing \leftfootline \leftfree \leftmodels \leftModels \leftpropto \leftrightline \Leftrightline \leftslice \leftvdash \leftVdash \nefootline \nefree \nemodels \neModels \neswline \Neswline \nevdash \neVdash

\precapprox \preccurlyeq \preceq \precsim \rightfootline \rightfree \rightmodels \rightModels \rightpropto \rightslice \rightvdash \rightVdash \risingdotseq \sefootline \sefree \semodels \seModels \separated \sevdash

† æ ö Þ î ≋ ∣ ∥ y  á ñ  ⊥ ⍊ ’ ⊪

\swfree \swmodels \swModels \swvdash \swVdash \triplesim \updownline \Updownline \upfootline \upfree \upmodels \upModels \uppropto \upvdash \upVdash \vcrossing \Vvdash

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: ⊣ Ó Ò Ò ≑ ⊧ ∥ ⊥ ∝ Ð Ô ∝ ⊧ ⊫ ⊢ ⊩

\dashv \diagdown \diagup \divides \doteqdot \models \parallel \perp \propto \relbar \Relbar \varpropto \vDash \VDash \vdash \Vdash

(same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same

as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as

\leftvdash) \nwseline) \neswline) \updownline) \Doteq) \rightmodels) \Updownline) \upvdash) \leftpropto) \leftrightline) \Leftrightline) \leftpropto) \rightmodels) \rightModels) \rightvdash) \rightVdash)

Table 77: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations ≉ ≊̸ ̸ ̸ ≌̸ ̸ ∽̸

\napprox \napproxeq \nbackapprox \nbackapproxeq \nbackcong \nbackeqsim \nbacksim

≂̸ ≠ ̸ ≢ ̸ ‘ ≒̸

\neqsim \nequal \nequalclosed \nequiv \nequivclosed \neswcrossing \nfallingdotseq

̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⊀ ⪷̸

\nnwModels \nnwseline \nNwseline \nnwvdash \nnwVdash \nprec \nprecapprox

(continued on next page)

33

⊁ ⪸̸ ⋡ ⪰̸ ≿̸ ̸ ̸

\nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim \nswfootline \nswfree


(continued from previous page)

⋍̸ ̸ ≏̸ ≎̸ ≗̸ ̸ ≇ ⋞̸ ⋟̸ ≐̸ ≑̸ ̸ ⫝̸ ̸ ̸ ⊤̸ ⍑̸ ̸ ≖̸ ⩦̸

\nbacksimeq \nbacktriplesim \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \ncirceq \nclosedequal \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \ndoteq \nDoteq \ndownfootline \ndownfree \ndownmodels \ndownModels \ndownvdash \ndownVdash \neqbump \neqcirc \neqdot

≙̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⊣̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸

⋠ ⪯̸ ≾̸ ̸ ̸ ⊭ ⊯ ⊬ ⊮ ≓̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ∤ ∦ ≁ ≄

\nhateq \nleftfootline \nleftfree \nleftmodels \nleftModels \nleftrightline \nLeftrightline \nleftvdash \nleftVdash \nnefootline \nnefree \nnemodels \nneModels \nneswline \nNeswline \nnevdash \nneVdash \nnwfootline \nnwfree \nnwmodels

\npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nrightfootline \nrightfree \nrightmodels \nrightModels \nrightvdash \nrightVdash \nrisingdotseq \nsefootline \nsefree \nsemodels \nseModels \nsevdash \nseVdash \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsimeq

̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ≋̸ ∤ ∦ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⊥̸ ⍊̸ ⪹ ⋨ ⪺ ⋩

\nswmodels \nswModels \nswvdash \nswVdash \ntriplesim \nupdownline \nUpdownline \nupfootline \nupfree \nupmodels \nupModels \nupvdash \nupVdash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: ⊣̸ ̸ ̸ ∤ ≠ ≠ ∤ ⊭ ∦ ⊥̸ ̸ ̸ ⊭ ⊬ ⊮ ⊯

\ndashv \ndiagdown \ndiagup \ndivides \ne \neq \nmid \nmodels \nparallel \nperp \nrelbar \nRelbar \nvDash \nvdash \nVdash \nVDash

(same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same

as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as

\nleftvdash) \nnwseline) \nneswline) \nupdownline) \nequal) \nequal) \nupdownline) \nrightmodels) \nUpdownline) \nupvdash) \nleftrightline) \nLeftrightline) \nrightmodels) \nrightvdash) \nrightVdash) \nrightModels)

Table 78: mathtools Binary Relations ::≈ :≈ := ::= ::−

\Colonapprox \colonapprox \coloneqq \Coloneqq \Coloneq

:− :∼ ::∼ :: −:

\coloneq \colonsim \Colonsim \dblcolon \eqcolon

−:: =: =::

\Eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon

Similar symbols can be defined using mathtools’s \vcentcolon, which produces a colon centered on the font’s math axis:

=:= “=:=”

=: =

vs.

“=\vcentcolon=” 34


Table 79: turnstile Binary Relations def

def

\dddtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\nntstile{abc}{def}

\ddststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\nnttstile{abc}{def}

\ddtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\nsdtstile{abc}{def}

\ddttstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\nsststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\dndtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\nststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\dnststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\nsttstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\dntstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\dnttstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\dsdtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\dsststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\dststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\dsttstile{abc}{def}

abc def abc def abc def abc

abc def abc def abc

abc def abc abc

abc

abc

abc

\tdtstile{abc}{def}

abc

\tdttstile{abc}{def}

\ntttstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\tnststile{abc}{def}

\sddtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\tntstile{abc}{def}

\sdststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\tnttstile{abc}{def}

\sdtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\tsdtstile{abc}{def}

\sdttstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\tsststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\sndtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\tststile{abc}{def}

\dtttstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\snststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\tsttstile{abc}{def}

def

\sntstile{abc}{def}

\ndststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\snttstile{abc}{def}

\ndtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\ssdtstile{abc}{def}

\ndttstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\ssststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\nndtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

\sststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\nnststile{abc}{def}

def abc

\ssttstile{abc}{def}

def

def

def abc

\tdststile{abc}{def}

\tndtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

abc

abc

def abc

\nddtstile{abc}{def}

abc

\tddtstile{abc}{def}

\dttstile{abc}{def}

def abc

abc

\nttstile{abc}{def}

def

\dtststile{abc}{def}

\stttstile{abc}{def}

def

\ntststile{abc}{def}

def

\dtdtstile{abc}{def}

abc

\sttstile{abc}{def}

def

\ntdtstile{abc}{def}

def abc

abc def

\stststile{abc}{def}

def

def

def abc def

abc def

abc def

\stdtstile{abc}{def}

def

def abc def

abc def

abc def abc def abc def abc

\ttdtstile{abc}{def} \ttststile{abc}{def} \tttstile{abc}{def} \ttttstile{abc}{def}

Each of the above takes an optional argument that controls the size of the upper and lower expressions. See the turnstile documentation for more information.

35


 

Table 80: trsym Binary Relations



\InversTransformHoriz \InversTransformVert

\TransformHoriz \TransformVert

Table 81: trfsigns Binary Relations ....

....

\dfourier \fourier \laplace \ztransf

....

\Dfourier \Fourier \Laplace \Ztransf

....

Table 82: cmll Binary Relations ¨ ˚

˝ ˇ

\coh \incoh

\scoh \sincoh

Table 83: colonequals Binary Relations ≈: ≈:: :≈ :: ::≈ ::=

\approxcolon \approxcoloncolon \colonapprox \coloncolon \coloncolonapprox \coloncolonequals

::− ::∼ := :− :∼ =:

=:: −: −:: : ∼: ∼::

\coloncolonminus \coloncolonsim \colonequals \colonminus \colonsim \equalscolon

\equalscoloncolon \minuscolon \minuscoloncolon \ratio \simcolon \simcoloncolon

Table 84: fourier Binary Relations Ô

\nparallelslant Ë

\parallelslant

Table 85: Subset and Superset Relations @ v A ∗

\sqsubset∗ \sqsubseteq \sqsupset∗

w ⊂ ⊆

\sqsupseteq \subset \subseteq

⊃ ⊇

\supset \supseteq

Not predefined in LATEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 86: AMS Subset and Superset Relations * + # @ A b

\nsubseteq \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqsupset \Subset

j ( $ c k )

\subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supseteqq \supsetneq 36

% & ! '

\supsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq


Table 87: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations \subsetplus \subsetpluseq

D F

\supsetplus \supsetpluseq

E G

Table 88: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations @

A

\sqsubset

\sqsupset

Table 89: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsupset

a @ b

‚ – † Ž ƒ — ‡ 

‚ – † Ž

\nsqsupseteq \nSubset \nsubseteqq

A > "

?

\nSupset

Table 90: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqSubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nsqsupset \nsqSupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nsubset \nSubset \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq

ƒ — ‡ 

€ ” „ Œ ˆ  • 

…  ‰ ‘

\nsupset \nSupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqSubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq \sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \sqSupset \sqsupset

\sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \subset \Subset \subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \supset \Supset

€ ” „ Œ ˆ   •

…  ‰ ‘

\supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq \varsqsubsetneq \varsqsubsetneqq \varsqsupsetneq \varsqsupsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq

Š ’ ‹ “

Š ’ ‹ “

Table 91: MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations ̸ ⊏̸ ⋢ ̸ ̸ ⊐̸ ⋣ ̸ ⋐̸ ⊄

\nSqsubset \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nSqsupset \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nSubset \nsubset

⊈ ⫅̸ ⋑̸ ⊅ ⊉ ⫆̸ ^ ⊏ ⊑ \

⋤ ö _ ⊐ ⊒ ] ⋥ ÷ ⋐ ⊂

\nsubseteq \nsubseteqq \nSupset \nsupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \Sqsubset \sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq

\sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \Sqsupset \sqsupset \sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \Subset \subset

⊆ ⫅ ⊊ ⫋ ⋑ ⊃ ⊇ ⫆ ⊋ ⫌

\subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supset \supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq

MnSymbol additionally defines \varsubsetneq as a synonym for \subsetneq, \varsubsetneqq as a synonym for \subsetneqq, \varsupsetneq as a synonym for \supsetneq, and \varsupsetneqq as a synonym for \supsetneqq.

Table 92: Inequalities ≥

\geq



\gg

\leq 37



\ll

,

\neq


Table 93: AMS Inequalities 1

\eqslantgtr

m

\gtrdot

Q

\lesseqgtr



\ngeq

0

\eqslantless

R

\gtreqless

S

\lesseqqgtr



\ngeqq

=

\geqq

T

\gtreqqless

â&#x2030;ś

\lessgtr

\ngeqslant

>

\geqslant

â&#x2030;ˇ

\gtrless

.

\lesssim

â&#x2030;Ż

\ngtr

â&#x2030;Ť

\ggg

&

\gtrsim

â&#x2030;Ş

\lll



\nleq



\gnapprox



\gvertneqq



\lnapprox



\nleqq

\gneq

5

\leqq

\lneq

\nleqslant

\gneqq

6

\leqslant



\lneqq

â&#x2030;Ž

\nless



\gnsim

/

\lessapprox



\lnsim

'

\gtrapprox

l

\lessdot

\lvertneqq

Table 94: wasysym Inequalities ?

>

\apprge

\apprle

Table 95: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities 4 # &

\ngg \ngtrapprox \ngtrless

! " '

\ngtrsim \nlessapprox \nlessgtr

3

\nlesssim \nll

Table 96: mathabx Inequalities ¡

\eqslantgtr

½

\gtreqless

Ă&#x20AC;

\lesssim

ÂŁ

\ngtr

Âś

\eqslantless

Âż

\gtreqqless

!

\ll

Ă&#x2030;

\ngtrapprox

ÂĽ

\geq

Âť

\gtrless

Ă&#x17D;

\lll

Ă&#x192;

\ngtrsim

ÂŻ

\geqq

Ă

\gtrsim

Ă&#x160;

\lnapprox

ÂŚ

\nleq

"

\gg

Âľ

\gvertneqq

ÂŹ

\lneq

°

\nleqq

Ă?

\ggg

¤

\leq

²

\lneqq

¢

\nless

Ă&#x2039;

\gnapprox

ÂŽ

\leqq

Ă&#x201E;

\lnsim

Ă&#x2C6;

\nlessapprox

­

\gneq

Ă&#x2020;

\lessapprox

´

\lvertneqq

Ă&#x201A;

\nlesssim

Âł

\gneqq

Ă&#x152;

\lessdot

š

\neqslantgtr

ÂŤ

\nvargeq

Ă&#x2026;

\gnsim

Âź

\lesseqgtr

¸

\neqslantless

ÂŞ

\nvarleq

Ă&#x2021;

\gtrapprox

ž

\lesseqqgtr

§

\ngeq

Š

\vargeq

Ă?

\gtrdot

Âş

\lessgtr

Âą

\ngeqq

¨

\varleq

mathabx defines \leqslant and \le as synonyms for \leq, \geqslant and \ge as synonyms for \geq, \nleqslant as a synonym for \nleq, and \ngeqslant as a synonym for \ngeq. 38


Table 97: MnSymbol Inequalities ⪖

\eqslantgtr

\gtreqqless

\lesssim

⋛̸

\ngtreqless

\eqslantless

\gtrless

\ll

̸

\ngtreqlessslant

\geq

ó

\gtrneqqless

\lll

⪌̸

\ngtreqqless

\geqclosed

\gtrsim

\lnapprox

\ngtrless

u ≧ ⩾ ⪀

⋙ ⪊ ≩ ≵ >

\geqdot

≤ ⊴

\geqq

t

\geqslant \geqslantdot \gg

≦ ⩽ ⩿

\ggg

< ⪅

\gnapprox \gneqq

\gnsim \gtr

\gtrapprox

⊳ ⋗ ⋛ O

\leq

\leqclosed

⪖̸

\leqdot

⪕̸

\leqq

\leqslant

\leqslantdot

̸ ≧̸

\less \lessapprox

\lessclosed \lessdot

⪀̸

\lesseqgtr

\gtrclosed

N

\gtrdot

\gtreqless

\gtreqlessslant

ò

\lneqq

\lnsim \neqslantgtr \neqslantless \ngeq

̸

≦̸ ≰

⩿̸

\ngeqclosed

≮ ⋪

\ngeqdot \ngeqq

⋖̸

\ngeqslant

\nleq \nleqclosed \nleqdot \nleqq \nleqslant \nleqslantdot \nless \nlessclosed \nlessdot

\ngeqslantdot

⋚̸

≫̸

\ngg

̸

\nlesseqgtrslant

\lesseqgtrslant

⋙̸

\nggg

⪋̸

\nlesseqqgtr

\lesseqqgtr

\ngtr

\nlessgtr

\lessgtr

\lessneqqgtr

⋗̸

\ngtrclosed

≪̸

\ngtrdot

⋘̸

\nlesseqgtr

\nll \nlll

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: ⋙ ≩ ⊲ ⋘ ≨ ⋬ ⋪ ⋭ ⋫ ⊳ ⊴ ⊵ ⊴ ⊵ ⊲ ⊳

\gggtr \gvertneqq \lhd \llless \lvertneqq \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglerighteq \ntriangleright \rhd \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \unlhd \unrhd \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright

(same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same

as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as

\ggg) \gneqq) \lessclosed) \lll) \lneqq) \nleqclosed) \nlessclosed) \ngeqclosed) \ngtrclosed) \gtrclosed) \leqclosed) \geqclosed) \leqclosed) \geqclosed) \lessclosed) \gtrclosed)

Table 98: AMS Triangle Relations J I 6 5

\blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq

7 4 E ,

\ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \trianglelefteq \triangleq

39

D C B

\trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright


Table 99: stmaryrd Triangle Relations P R

\trianglelefteqslant \ntrianglelefteqslant

Q S

\trianglerighteqslant \ntrianglerighteqslant

Table 100: mathabx Triangle Relations š ž ›

\ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright

Ÿ ˜ œ

™  ˜

\ntrianglerighteq \triangleleft \trianglelefteq

\triangleright \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft

™

\vartriangleright

Table 101: MnSymbol Triangle Relations ▼ ◀ ▶ ▲ ▾ ◂ ▸ ▴ ▽ ◁ ▷

\filledmedtriangledown \filledmedtriangleleft \filledmedtriangleright \filledmedtriangleup \filledtriangledown \filledtriangleleft \filledtriangleright \filledtriangleup \largetriangledown \largetriangleleft \largetriangleright

△ ▽ ◁ ▷ △ ≜̸ ⋪ ⋬ ⋫ ⋭ d

\largetriangleup \medtriangledown \medtriangleleft \medtriangleright \medtriangleup \ntriangleeq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \otriangle

▿ ◃ ▹ ▵ ≜ ⊴ ⊵ ⊲ ⊳

\smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup \triangleeq \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for many of the preceding symbols: \triangleq is a synonym for \triangleeq; \lhd and \lessclosed are synonyms for \vartriangleleft; \rhd and \gtrclosed are synonyms for \vartriangleright; \unlhd and \leqclosed are synonyms for \trianglelefteq; \unrhd and \geqclosed are synonyms for \trianglerighteq; \blacktriangledown, \blacktriangleleft, \blacktriangleright, and \blacktriangle [sic] are synonyms for, respectively, \filledmedtriangledown, \filledmedtriangleleft, \filledmedtriangleright, and \filledmedtriangleup; \triangleright is a synonym for \medtriangleright; \triangle, \vartriangle, and \bigtriangleup are synonyms for \medtriangleup; \triangleleft is a synonym for \medtriangleleft; \triangledown and \bigtriangledown are synonyms for \medtriangledown; \nlessclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleleft; \ngtrclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleright; \nleqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglelefteq; and \ngeqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglerighteq. The title “Triangle Relations” is a bit of a misnomer here as only \triangleeq and \ntriangleeq are defined as TEX relations (class 3 symbols). The \largetriangle. . . symbols are defined as TEX “ordinary” characters (class 0) and all of the remaining characters are defined as TEX binary operators (class 2).

40


Table 102: Arrows â&#x2021;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;?,â&#x2020;&#x2019; { â&#x2020;? â&#x2021;? â&#x2021;&#x201D; â&#x2020;&#x201D;

â&#x2020;?â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2021;?= â&#x2020;?â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2021;?â&#x2021;&#x2019; 7â&#x2C6;&#x2019;â&#x2020;&#x2019; =â&#x2021;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019;â&#x2020;&#x2019; 7â&#x2020;&#x2019; %

\Downarrow \downarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadstoâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \leftarrow \Leftarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow

â&#x2021;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; & . â&#x2020;&#x2018; â&#x2021;&#x2018; l m

\longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \Longrightarrow \longrightarrow \mapsto \nearrowâ&#x20AC;

\nwarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrow \searrow \swarrow \uparrow \Uparrow \updownarrow \Updownarrow

â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

Not predefined in LATEX 2Îľ . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

â&#x20AC;

See the note beneath Table 169 for information about how to put a diagonal arrow 0 ~ â&#x20AC;?) . across a mathematical expression (as in â&#x20AC;&#x153;â&#x2C6;&#x2021; ¡ B

Table 103: Harpoons ) (

+ *

\leftharpoondown \leftharpoonup

\rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup

* )

\rightleftharpoons

Table 104: textcomp Text-mode Arrows â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;?

\textdownarrow \textleftarrow

â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2018;

\textrightarrow \textuparrow

Table 105: AMS Arrows  x y c d  

â&#x2021;&#x201D;  ! W " #  

\circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \downdownarrows \leftarrowtail

\leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \Lleftarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \rightarrowtail

 â&#x2021;&#x2019;    

\rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \Rsh \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadrightarrow \upuparrows

Table 106: AMS Negated Arrows : 8

\nLeftarrow \nleftarrow

< =

\nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow

\nRightarrow \nrightarrow

; 9

Table 107: AMS Harpoons  

\downharpoonleft \downharpoonright

\leftrightharpoons \rightleftharpoons 41

 

\upharpoonleft \upharpoonright


Table 108: stmaryrd Arrows ^ ] ⇐=\ ←−[ =⇒

\leftarrowtriangle \leftrightarroweq \leftrightarrowtriangle \lightning \Longmapsfrom \longmapsfrom \Longmapsto

⇐\ ←[ ⇒ 1 0 _ 

\Mapsfrom \mapsfrom \Mapsto \nnearrow \nnwarrow \rightarrowtriangle \shortdownarrow

  % $

\shortleftarrow \shortrightarrow \shortuparrow \ssearrow \sswarrow

Table 109: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows ‹ ƒ ‚ Š ‰  € ˆ ”

ö ÷ ó õ ô ð ò ñ ê Ó ÿ × ë

\boxdotLeft \boxdotleft \boxdotright \boxdotRight \boxLeft \boxleft \boxright \boxRight \circleddotleft

“ ’ ‘ e  ‡ † Ž 

\circleddotright \circleleft \circleright \dashleftrightarrow \DiamonddotLeft \Diamonddotleft \Diamonddotright \DiamonddotRight \DiamondLeft

… „ Œ f t v V u w

\Diamondleft \Diamondright \DiamondRight \leftsquigarrow \Nearrow \Nwarrow \Rrightarrow \Searrow \Swarrow

Table 110: mathabx Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowbotleft \curvearrowbotleftright \curvearrowbotright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowleftright \curvearrowright \dlsh \downdownarrows \downtouparrow \downuparrows \drsh

Ð

Ð Ø

Ô ú ø ü î ï ì í è Õ

\leftarrow \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \leftsquigarrow \lefttorightarrow \looparrowdownleft \looparrowdownright \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow

Ô æ Ñ

Õ Ñ ù ý é × Ö

Ö þ Ò

\nwarrow \restriction \rightarrow \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \righttoleftarrow \Rsh \searrow \swarrow \updownarrows \uptodownarrow \upuparrows

Table 111: mathabx Negated Arrows ö Ú

\nLeftarrow \nleftarrow

Ü ø

\nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow

42

Û ÷

\nrightarrow \nRightarrow


Þ ß Û å ç ë

Ü â

Table 112: mathabx Harpoons \barleftharpoon \barrightharpoon \downdownharpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \downupharpoons \leftbarharpoon \leftharpoondown

à

Ø à è

Ý ã á

á

\leftharpoonup \leftleftharpoons \leftrightharpoon \leftrightharpoons \rightbarharpoon \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoon

é

Ù ê ä æ

Ú

\rightleftharpoons \rightrightharpoons \updownharpoons \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \upupharpoons

Table 113: MnSymbol Arrows Ë È Ì Í Ê Ï Î É ⇣ ⇠ d e ⇢ g f ⇡ ⇓ ↓ # ⇊ £ ↧ «  ÿ ⤾ ⟳ ↻ ⤸ º ¼ ½ ↷ ¿ ¾ ¹ ⇐

\curvearrowdownup \curvearrowleftright \curvearrownesw \curvearrownwse \curvearrowrightleft \curvearrowsenw \curvearrowswne \curvearrowupdown \dasheddownarrow \dashedleftarrow \dashednearrow \dashednwarrow \dashedrightarrow \dashedsearrow \dashedswarrow \dasheduparrow \Downarrow \downarrow \downarrowtail \downdownarrows \downlsquigarrow \downmapsto \downrsquigarrow \downuparrows \lcirclearrowdown \lcirclearrowleft \lcirclearrowright \lcirclearrowup \lcurvearrowdown \lcurvearrowleft \lcurvearrowne \lcurvearrownw \lcurvearrowright \lcurvearrowse \lcurvearrowsw \lcurvearrowup \Leftarrow

←Ð ⇐Ô ←→ ⇐⇒ z→ Ð→ Ô⇒ ↫ ↬ ↰ ↗ ⇗ $ ¤ , ” ¬ ⤡  š ↖ ⇖ % ¥ • ­ ⤢  › ∲ ∲ ∳ ∳ ∲ ∲ ∳

\longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \longrightarrow \Longrightarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow \Nearrow \nearrowtail \nelsquigarrow \nemapsto \nenearrows \nersquigarrow \neswarrow \Neswarrow \neswarrows \nwarrow \Nwarrow \nwarrowtail \nwlsquigarrow \nwmapsto \nwnwarrows \nwrsquigarrow \nwsearrow \Nwsearrow \nwsearrows \partialvardlcircleleftint∗ \partialvardlcirclerightint∗ \partialvardrcircleleftint∗ \partialvardrcirclerightint∗ \partialvartlcircleleftint∗ \partialvartlcirclerightint∗ \partialvartrcircleleftint∗

⤦ 9 → ⇒ ↣ ⇄ ↝ ↦ ⇉ ¨ ⇛ ↱ ↘ ⇘ ' § / Ÿ ¯ — ³ ↭ ´ µ ² · ¶ ± ↙ ⇙ & ¦ . ž ® – ↡

\rhookswarrow \rhookuparrow \rightarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightlsquigarrow \rightmapsto \rightrightarrows \rightrsquigarrow \Rrightarrow \Rsh \searrow \Searrow \searrowtail \selsquigarrow \semapsto \senwarrows \sersquigarrow \sesearrows \squigarrowdownup \squigarrowleftright \squigarrownesw \squigarrownwse \squigarrowrightleft \squigarrowsenw \squigarrowswne \squigarrowupdown \swarrow \Swarrow \swarrowtail \swlsquigarrow \swmapsto \swnearrows \swrsquigarrow \swswarrows \twoheaddownarrow

(continued on next page)

43


(continued from previous page)

← ↢ ⇇ ¢ ↤ ↔ ⇔ ⇆ ↜ 3 2 4 ⤣ ↪ ⤥ 6 1 ☇ ⇚

\leftarrow \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftlsquigarrow \leftmapsto \leftrightarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrsquigarrow \lhookdownarrow \lhookleftarrow \lhooknearrow \lhooknwarrow \lhookrightarrow \lhooksearrow \lhookswarrow \lhookuparrow \lightning \Lleftarrow

∳ û ⟲ ⤿ ↺ ⤹ ↶ Ä Å À Ç Æ Á ; ↩ ⤤ = 8 ?

\partialvartrcirclerightint∗ \rcirclearrowdown \rcirclearrowleft \rcirclearrowright \rcirclearrowup \rcurvearrowdown \rcurvearrowleft \rcurvearrowne \rcurvearrownw \rcurvearrowright \rcurvearrowse \rcurvearrowsw \rcurvearrowup \rhookdownarrow \rhookleftarrow \rhooknearrow \rhooknwarrow \rhookrightarrow \rhooksearrow

↞   ↠   ↟ ↑ ⇑ ! ↕ ⇕ ™ ¡ ↥ © ⇈

\twoheadleftarrow \twoheadnearrow \twoheadnwarrow \twoheadrightarrow \twoheadsearrow \twoheadswarrow \twoheaduparrow \uparrow \Uparrow \uparrowtail \updownarrow \Updownarrow \updownarrows \uplsquigarrow \upmapsto \uprsquigarrow \upuparrows

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: ↺ ↻ ↶ ↷ ⇠ ⇢ ↩ ↪ ↝ ↭ ↦ ↝ ∗

\circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto \leftrightsquigarrow \mapsto \rightsquigarrow

(same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same

as as as as as as as as as as as as

\rcirclearrowup) \lcirclearrowup) \rcurvearrowleft) \lcurvearrowright) \dashedleftarrow) \dashedrightarrow) \rhookleftarrow) \lhookrightarrow) \rightlsquigarrow) \squigarrowleftright) \rightmapsto) \rightlsquigarrow)

The \partialvar. . . int macros are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to produce various types of integrals.

Table 114: MnSymbol Negated Arrows ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸

\ncurvearrowdownup \ncurvearrowleftright \ncurvearrownesw \ncurvearrownwse \ncurvearrowrightleft \ncurvearrowsenw \ncurvearrowswne \ncurvearrowupdown

⤣̸ ↪̸ ⤥̸ ̸ ̸ ⇚̸ ↗̸ ⇗̸

\nlhooknwarrow \nlhookrightarrow \nlhooksearrow \nlhookswarrow \nlhookuparrow \nLleftarrow \nnearrow \nNearrow

⇄̸ ↝̸ ↦̸ ⇉̸ ̸ ⇛̸ ⇘̸ ↘̸

\nrightleftarrows \nrightlsquigarrow \nrightmapsto \nrightrightarrows \nrightrsquigarrow \nRrightarrow \nSearrow \nsearrow

(continued on next page)

44


(continued from previous page)

⇣̸ ⇠̸ ̸ ̸ ⇢̸ ̸ ̸ ⇡̸ ↓̸ ⇓̸ ̸ ⇊̸ ̸ ↧̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⤾̸ ⟳̸ ↻̸ ⤸̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ↷̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⇍ ↚ ↢̸ ⇇̸ ̸ ↤̸ ↮ ⇎ ⇆̸ ↜̸ ̸ ̸ ̸

\ndasheddownarrow \ndashedleftarrow \ndashednearrow \ndashednwarrow \ndashedrightarrow \ndashedsearrow \ndashedswarrow \ndasheduparrow \ndownarrow \nDownarrow \ndownarrowtail \ndowndownarrows \ndownlsquigarrow \ndownmapsto \ndownrsquigarrow \ndownuparrows \nlcirclearrowdown \nlcirclearrowleft \nlcirclearrowright \nlcirclearrowup \nlcurvearrowdown \nlcurvearrowleft \nlcurvearrowne \nlcurvearrownw \nlcurvearrowright \nlcurvearrowse \nlcurvearrowsw \nlcurvearrowup \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nleftarrowtail \nleftleftarrows \nleftlsquigarrow \nleftmapsto \nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrows \nleftrsquigarrow \nlhookdownarrow \nlhookleftarrow \nlhooknearrow

̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⤡̸ ̸ ⇖̸ ↖̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⤢̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⟲̸ ⤿̸ ↺̸ ⤹̸ ↶̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ↩̸ ⤤̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⤦̸ ̸ ↛ ⇏ ↣̸

\nnearrowtail \nnelsquigarrow \nnemapsto \nnenearrows \nnersquigarrow \nNeswarrow \nneswarrow \nneswarrows \nNwarrow \nnwarrow \nnwarrowtail \nnwlsquigarrow \nnwmapsto \nnwnwarrows \nnwrsquigarrow \nnwsearrow \nNwsearrow \nnwsearrows \nrcirclearrowdown \nrcirclearrowleft \nrcirclearrowright \nrcirclearrowup \nrcurvearrowdown \nrcurvearrowleft \nrcurvearrowne \nrcurvearrownw \nrcurvearrowright \nrcurvearrowse \nrcurvearrowsw \nrcurvearrowup \nrhookdownarrow \nrhookleftarrow \nrhooknearrow \nrhooknwarrow \nrhookrightarrow \nrhooksearrow \nrhookswarrow \nrhookuparrow \nrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrowtail

̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ↙̸ ⇙̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ↡̸ ↞̸ ̸ ̸ ↠̸ ̸ ̸ ↟̸ ↑̸ ⇑̸ ̸ ↕̸ ⇕̸ ̸ ̸ ↥̸ ̸ ⇈̸

\nsearrowtail \nselsquigarrow \nsemapsto \nsenwarrows \nsersquigarrow \nsesearrows \nsquigarrowdownup \nsquigarrowleftright \nsquigarrownesw \nsquigarrownwse \nsquigarrowrightleft \nsquigarrowsenw \nsquigarrowswne \nsquigarrowupdown \nswarrow \nSwarrow \nswarrowtail \nswlsquigarrow \nswmapsto \nswnearrows \nswrsquigarrow \nswswarrows \ntwoheaddownarrow \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadnearrow \ntwoheadnwarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \ntwoheadsearrow \ntwoheadswarrow \ntwoheaduparrow \nuparrow \nUparrow \nuparrowtail \nupdownarrow \nUpdownarrow \nupdownarrows \nuplsquigarrow \nupmapsto \nuprsquigarrow \nupuparrows

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols:

45


↺̸ ↻̸ ↶̸ ↷̸ ⇢̸ ⇠̸ ⇢̸ ↚ ↩̸ ↪̸ ↝̸ ̸ ↦̸ ↝̸ ↛

\ncirclearrowleft \ncirclearrowright \ncurvearrowleft \ncurvearrowright \ndasharrow \ndashleftarrow \ndashrightarrow \ngets \nhookleftarrow \nhookrightarrow \nleadsto \nleftrightsquigarrow \nmapsto \nrightsquigarrow \nto

(same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same

as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as

\nrcirclearrowup) \nlcirclearrowup) \nrcurvearrowleft) \nlcurvearrowright) \ndashedrightarrow) \ndashedleftarrow) \ndashedrightarrow) \nleftarrow) \nrhookleftarrow) \nlhookrightarrow) \nrightlsquigarrow) \nsquigarrowleftright) \nrightmapsto) \nrightlsquigarrow) \nrightarrow)

Table 115: MnSymbol Harpoons ⇂ ⇃ ⥯ ↽ ↼ ⥊ ⇋ ⥋ D L R

\downharpoonccw∗ \downharpooncw∗ \downupharpoons \leftharpoonccw∗ \leftharpooncw∗ \leftrightharpoondownup \leftrightharpoons \leftrightharpoonupdown \neharpoonccw \neharpooncw \neswharpoonnwse ∗

Z V E M S _ W ⇀ ⇁ ⇌ G

\neswharpoons \neswharpoonsenw \nwharpoonccw \nwharpooncw \nwseharpoonnesw \nwseharpoons \nwseharpoonswne \rightharpoonccw∗ \rightharpooncw∗ \rightleftharpoons \seharpoonccw

O [ F N ^ Q U ⥮ ↿ ↾

\seharpooncw \senwharpoons \swharpoonccw \swharpooncw \swneharpoons \updownharpoonleftright \updownharpoonrightleft \updownharpoons \upharpoonccw∗ \upharpooncw∗

Where marked, the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix can be replaced with “down”. (In addition, \upharpooncw can be written as \restriction.)

Table 116: MnSymbol Negated Harpoons ⇂̸ ⇃̸ ⥯̸ ↽̸ ↼̸ ⥊̸ ⇋̸ ⥋̸ ̸ ̸ ̸

\ndownharpoonccw \ndownharpooncw∗ \ndownupharpoons \nleftharpoonccw∗ \nleftharpooncw∗ \nleftrightharpoondownup \nleftrightharpoons \nleftrightharpoonupdown \nneharpoonccw \nneharpooncw \nneswharpoonnwse ∗

̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⇀̸ ⇁̸ ⇌̸ ̸

\nneswharpoons \nneswharpoonsenw \nnwharpoonccw \nnwharpooncw \nnwseharpoonnesw \nnwseharpoons \nnwseharpoonswne \nrightharpoonccw∗ \nrightharpooncw∗ \nrightleftharpoons \nseharpoonccw

̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⥮̸ ↿̸ ↾̸

\nseharpooncw \nsenwharpoons \nswharpoonccw \nswharpooncw \nswneharpoons \nupdownharpoonleftright \nupdownharpoonrightleft \nupdownharpoons \nupharpoonccw∗ \nupharpooncw∗

Where marked, the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix can be replaced with “down”. (In addition, \nupharpooncw can be written as \nrestriction.)

46


Table 117: harpoon Extensible Harpoons

( abc ) abc * abc

\overleftharp{abc}

+ abc

\overrightharpdown{abc}

\overleftharpdown{abc}

abc

\underleftharp{abc}

\overrightharp{abc}

( abc )

abc

* abc +

\underrightharp{abc} \underrightharpdown{abc}

\underleftharpdown{abc}

All of the harpoon symbols are implemented using the graphics package (specifically, graphics’s \resizebox command). Consequently, only TEX backends that support graphical transformations (e.g., not Xdvi) can properly display these symbols.

Table 118: chemarrow Arrows A

\chemarrow

Table 119: fge Arrows !

\fgerightarrow

"

\fgeuparrow

Table 120: MnSymbol Spoons s ⫰ r ⟜ ̸ ⫰̸ t l ̸ ⟜̸ ̸ ∗

\downfilledspoon \downspoon \leftfilledspoon \leftspoon \ndownfilledspoon \ndownspoon \nefilledspoon \nespoon \nleftfilledspoon \nleftspoon \nnefilledspoon

̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⊸̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⫯̸

\nnespoon \nnwfilledspoon \nnwspoon \nrightfilledspoon \nrightspoon∗ \nsefilledspoon \nsespoon \nswfilledspoon \nswspoon \nupfilledspoon \nupspoon

u m p ⊸ w o v n q ⫯

\nwfilledspoon \nwspoon \rightfilledspoon \rightspoon∗ \sefilledspoon \sespoon \swfilledspoon \swspoon \upfilledspoon \upspoon

MnSymbol defines \multimap as a synonym for \rightspoon and \nmultimap as a synonym for \nrightspoon.

Table 121: MnSymbol Pitchforks ⫛ Š ⫛̸ Œ ̸ ̸ ∗

\downpitchfork \leftpitchfork \ndownpitchfork \nepitchfork \nleftpitchfork \nnepitchfork

̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ⋔̸ 

\nnwpitchfork \nrightpitchfork \nsepitchfork \nswpitchfork \nuppitchfork \nwpitchfork

ˆ  Ž ⋔

\rightpitchfork \sepitchfork \swpitchfork \uppitchfork

MnSymbol defines \pitchfork as a synonym for \uppitchfork and \npitchfork as a synonym for \nuppitchfork.

47


Table 122: MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns  %  $ # " â&#x152;˘ ! '  ) ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ â&#x152;˘Ě¸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ â&#x152;ŁĚ¸ â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

̸ ̸ â&#x2030;­ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ ̸ â&#x152;Ł

\doublefrown \doublefrowneq \doublesmile \doublesmileeq \eqfrown \eqsmile \frown \frowneq \frowneqsmile \frownsmile \frownsmileeq \ndoublefrown \ndoublefrowneq \ndoublesmile \ndoublesmileeq \neqfrown \neqsmile \nfrown \nfrowneq \nfrowneqsmile \nfrownsmile \nfrownsmileeq \nsmile

\nsmileeq \nsmileeqfrown \nsmilefrown \nsmilefrowneq \nsqdoublefrown \nsqdoublefrowneq \nsqdoublesmile \nsqdoublesmileeq \nsqeqfrown \nsqeqsmile \nsqfrown \nsqfrowneq \nsqfrowneqsmile \nsqfrownsmile \nsqsmile \nsqsmileeq \nsqsmileeqfrown \nsqsmilefrown \nsqtriplefrown \nsqtriplesmile \ntriplefrown \ntriplesmile \smile

& â&#x2030;? ( 7 , 6 5 4 + 3 9 1 * 2 8 0 / .  

\smileeq \smileeqfrown \smilefrown \smilefrowneq \sqdoublefrown \sqdoublefrowneq \sqdoublesmile \sqdoublesmileeq \sqeqfrown \sqeqsmile \sqfrown \sqfrowneq \sqfrowneqsmile \sqfrownsmile \sqsmile \sqsmileeq \sqsmileeqfrown \sqsmilefrown \sqtriplefrown \sqtriplesmile \triplefrown \triplesmile

MnSymbol defines \smallsmile as a synonym for \smile, \smallfrown as a synonym for \frown, \asymp as a synonym for \smilefrown, and \nasymp as a synonym for \nsmilefrown.

Table 123: ulsy Contradiction Symbols

\blitza

\blitzb

\blitzc

\blitzd

\blitze

Table 124: Extension Characters â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

=

\relbar

\Relbar

Table 125: stmaryrd Extension Characters X

Y

\Arrownot \arrownot [

\Mapsfromchar \mapsfromchar \



\Mapstochar



Table 126: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters \Mappedfromchar \mappedfromchar

 

\Mmappedfromchar \mmappedfromchar

48

 

\Mmapstochar \mmapstochar


Table 127: mathabx Extension Characters û

ß

Þ

\mapsfromchar \Mapsfromchar ú

\mapstochar \Mapstochar

Table 128: Log-like Symbols \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg

\cos \cosh \cot \coth

\csc \deg \det \dim

\exp \gcd \hom \inf

\ker \lg \lim \liminf

\limsup \ln \log \max

\min \Pr \sec \sin

\sinh \sup \tan \tanh

Calling the above “symbols” may be a bit misleading.3 Each log-like symbol merely produces the eponymous textual equivalent, but with proper surrounding spacing. See Section 8.4 for more information about log-like symbols. As \bmod and \pmod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for samples.

Table 129: AMS Log-like Symbols inj lim

\injlim

proj lim

\projlim

lim −→ lim

\varinjlim

lim

\varlimsup

\varliminf

lim ←−

\varprojlim

Load the amsmath package to get these symbols. See Section 8.4 for some additional comments regarding log-like symbols. As \mod and \pod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for samples.

à » 3 Michael

\Complex \COMPLEX

Ú ¿

Table 130: ChinA2e Number Sets \Integer \INTEGER

Î ¼

\Natural \NATURAL

Ñ ½

J. Downes prefers the more general term, “atomic math objects”.

49

\Rational \RATIONAL

Ò ¾

\Real \REAL


Table 131: Greek Letters ι β γ δ  ξ Μ Ρ

\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \varepsilon \zeta \eta

θ Ď&#x2018; Κ Îş Îť Âľ ν Ξ

\theta \vartheta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi

o Ď&#x20AC; $ Ď % Ď&#x192; Ď&#x201A;

o \pi \varpi \rho \varrho \sigma \varsigma

Ď&#x201E; Ď&#x2026; Ď&#x2020; Ď&#x2022; Ď&#x2021; Ď&#x2C6; Ď&#x2030;

\tau \upsilon \phi \varphi \chi \psi \omega

Î&#x201C; â&#x2C6;&#x2020; Î&#x2DC;

\Gamma \Delta \Theta

Î&#x203A; Î&#x17E; Î

\Lambda \Xi \Pi

ÎŁ ÎĽ ÎŚ

\Sigma \Upsilon \Phi

Ψ â&#x201E;Ś

\Psi \Omega

The remaining Greek majuscules can be produced with ordinary Latin letters. The symbol â&#x20AC;&#x153;Mâ&#x20AC;?, for instance, is used for both an uppercase â&#x20AC;&#x153;mâ&#x20AC;? and an uppercase â&#x20AC;&#x153;Âľâ&#x20AC;?. See Section 8.5 for examples of how to produce bold Greek letters. The symbols in this table are intended to be used in mathematical typesetting. Greek body text can be typeset using the babel packageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greek (or polutonikogreek) optionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and, of course, a font that provides the glyphs for the Greek alphabet.

Table 132: AMS Greek Letters z

\digamma

\varkappa

Îş

Table 133: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters ι β γ δ  ξ Μ Ρ

\alphaup \betaup \gammaup \deltaup \epsilonup \varepsilonup \zetaup \etaup

θ Ď&#x2018; Κ Îş Îť Âľ ν Ξ

\thetaup \varthetaup \iotaup \kappaup \lambdaup \muup \nuup \xiup

50

Ď&#x20AC; $ Ď % Ď&#x192; Ď&#x201A; Ď&#x201E; Ď&#x2026;

\piup \varpiup \rhoup \varrhoup \sigmaup \varsigmaup \tauup \upsilonup

Ď&#x2020; Ď&#x2022; Ď&#x2021; Ď&#x2C6; Ď&#x2030;

\phiup \varphiup \chiup \psiup \omegaup


Table 134: upgreek Upright Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ε ζ η

\upalpha \upbeta \upgamma \updelta \upepsilon \upvarepsilon \upzeta \upeta

θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ

\uptheta \upvartheta \upiota \upkappa \uplambda \upmu \upnu \upxi

π ϖ ρ ρ σ σ τ υ

\uppi \upvarpi \uprho \upvarrho \upsigma \upvarsigma \uptau \upupsilon

φ ϕ χ ψ ω

\upphi \upvarphi \upchi \uppsi \upomega

Γ ∆ Θ

\Upgamma \Updelta \Uptheta

Λ Ξ Π

\Uplambda \Upxi \Uppi

Σ Υ Φ

\Upsigma \Upupsilon \Upphi

Ψ Ω

\Uppsi \Upomega

upgreek utilizes upright Greek characters from either the PostScript Symbol font (depicted above) or Euler Roman. As a result, the glyphs may appear slightly different from the above. Contrast, for example, “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Symbol) with “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Euler).

Table 135: fourier Variant Greek Letters π $ È

\pi \varpi \varvarpi

ρ % Æ

\rho \varrho \varvarrho

Table 136: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters 1

3

\varg

4

\varv

2

\varw

\vary

Pass the varg option to txfonts/pxfonts to replace g, v, w, and y with 1, 3, 4, and 2 in every mathematical expression in your document.

Table 137: AMS Hebrew Letters i

\beth

‫ג‬

\gimel

\daleth

k

\aleph (ℵ) appears in Table 201 on page 65.

Table 138: MnSymbol Hebrew Letters ℵ

\aleph

\beth

\gimel

\daleth

Table 139: Letter-like Symbols ⊥ ` ∃

\bot \ell \exists

∀ ~ =

\forall \hbar \Im

ı ∈ 

\imath \in \jmath 51

3 ∂ <

\ni \partial \Re

> ℘

\top \wp


Table 140: AMS Letter-like Symbols { ` a

\Bbbk \circledR \circledS

k r s

\complement \Finv \Game

~ } @

\hbar \hslash \nexists

Table 141: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols ¢ ∗

\mathcent

\mathsterling∗

£

<

\notin

=

\notni

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 142: mathabx Letter-like Symbols V A D F G

\barin \complement \exists \Finv \Game

P E M R S

\in \nexists \notbot \notin \notowner

L Q W B C

T U

\nottop \owns \ownsbar \partial \partialslash

\varnotin \varnotowner

Table 143: MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols – ∃ ∀ ∗

\bot \exists \forall

∈ ∄ ∉

\in \nexists \nin∗

∌ ∋ ℘

\nowns∗ \owns \powerset

⊺ ℘

\top \wp

MnSymbol provides synonyms \notin for \nin, \ni for \owns, and \intercal for \top.

Table 144: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols e

j

\e

\im

Table 145: mathdesign Letter-like Symbols ∈ 6 ∈  

\in \notin \notsmallin \notsmallowns

3 

\owns \smallin \smallowns

The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the letter-like symbols shown in Table 140.

52


Table 146: fge Letter-like Symbols A c p e ∗

\fgeA \fgec \fged \fgee

ı F f ”

D C B s

\fgeeszett \fgeF \fgef \fgelb∗

U

\fgeleftB \fgeleftC \fgerightB \fges

\fgeU

The fge package defines \fgeeta, \fgeN, and \fgeoverU as synonyms for \fgelb.

Table 147: fourier Letter-like Symbols ∂ Ç

\partial \varpartialdiff

Table 148: AMS Delimiters p x

q y

\ulcorner \llcorner

\urcorner \lrcorner

Table 149: stmaryrd Delimiters P V L

\Lbag \llceil \llparenthesis

Q W M

\Rbag \rrceil \rrparenthesis

N T

\lbag \llfloor

Table 150: mathabx Delimiters

v

\lcorners

w

\rcorners

x z

\ulcorner \llcorner

y {

\urcorner \lrcorner

Table 151: nath Delimiters \niv

\vin

53

O U

\rbag \rrfloor


↓ h

  y D

d

l

b

j

(



/

.

\downarrow \langle \lceil \lfloor ( /

⇓ i

w w  E

e

m

c

k

)



\

/

Table 152: Variable-sized Delimiters h \Downarrow [ [

\rangle |

| x  \rceil ↑  \uparrow x  \rfloor l y \updownarrow n ) { \{

]

i

k

~ w w ~ w  o

⇑ m }

] \| \Uparrow \Updownarrow \}

\backslash

When used with \left and \right, these symbols expand to the height of the enclosed math expression. Note that \vert is a synonym for |, and \Vert is a synonym for \|. ε-TEX provides a \middle analogue to \left and \right. \middle can be used, for example, to make an internal “|” expand to the height of the surrounding \left and \right symbols. (This capability is commonly needed when typesetting adjacent bras and kets in Dirac notation: “hφ|ψi”). A similar effect can be achieved in conventional LATEX using the braket package.

   

          

\lmoustache

\arrowvert

Table 153: Large, Variable-sized Delimiters                \lgroup  \rmoustache  w     w w   w  w w \Arrowvert \bracevert     w  

 

     

\rgroup

These symbols must be used with \left and \right. The mathabx package, however, redefines \lgroup and \rgroup so that those symbols can work without \left and \right.

Table 154: AMS Variable-sized Delimiters |

\lvert

|

\rvert

k

\lVert

k

\rVert

According to the amsmath documentation [AMS99], the preceding symbols are intended to be used as delimiters (e.g., as in “|−z|”) while the \vert and \Vert symbols (Table 152) are intended to be used as operators (e.g., as in “p|q”).

Table 155: stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters   ~ \llbracket  \rrbracket 54


Table 156: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters

1

v

77 77  

7

~

9

w

\ldbrack

\rdbrack

?? ?? \rfilet  ~  \vvvert ?

\lfilet \thickvert

Table 157: MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters

⌈ ⌊ ^^ ^ _ _ _ (

⎡⎢ ⎢⎢ ⎢⎢ ⎢ ⎢⎢ ⎢⎢ ⎢⎢ ⎣ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (

⟦ ⎧ ⎪ ⎭ / [ ∣ RR R

L P P P P P N ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ /

\lceil

\lfloor

\lwavy

^^ ^

\lWavy

_ _ _

(

)

\lsem

)

⎫ ⎪ ⎩

\lmoustache

/

/

⎡⎢ ⎢⎢ ⎢⎢ ⎣ RR RR RR R

[

]

|

RR RR RR R

\arrowvert

⎤⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎦ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

M Q Q Q Q Q O ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ /

X X X

\rceil

\ulcorner

\urcorner

\rfloor

\llcorner

\lrcorner

\rwavy

\langle

\rangle

\rWavy

k

n

\langlebar

p

s

\ranglebar

\rsem

\rmoustache

{

\backslash

]

3

⎤⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎥⎥ ⎦ X X X X X X X

\|

X X X X X X X

\Arrowvert

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

⎧ ⎪ ⎩

)

55

\lbrace

}

<

>

6

\ullcorner

8

;

\ulrcorner

⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪

\bracevert

\rgroup

\llangle

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

⎫ ⎪ ⎭

\lgroup

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

\rrangle

\rbrace


\vert is a synonym for |. \Vert is a synonym for \|. \mid and \mvert produce the same symbol as \vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals. \divides produces the same symbol as \vert but designated as a binary operator instead of an ordinal. \parallel and \mVert produce the same symbol as \Vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals.

Table 158: mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters Ð Ð Ð Ð Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ

Ð

Ñ

\leftwave

Ð

\leftevaw

Ñ

Ð Ð Ð Ð Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ

\rightwave \rightevaw

The definitions of these symbols include a preceding \left or \right. It is therefore an error to specify \left or \right explicitly. The internal, “primitive” versions of these symbols are called \lwave, \rwave, \levaw, and \revaw.

Table 159: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double)

hh

DD

[[

hh

dd

ll

bb

jj

||

\lAngle

ii

EE

\lBrack

]]

ii

\lCeil

ee

mm

\lFloor

cc

kk

\lVert∗

||

\rAngle \rBrack \rCeil \rFloor \rVert∗

nath redefines all of the above to include implicit \left and \right commands. Hence, separate \lVert and \rVert commands are needed to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter. All of the symbols in Table 159 can also be expressed using the \double macro. See the nath documentation for examples and additional information.

56


Table 160: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple)

hhh

DDD

[[[

hhh

|||

\triple<

iii

EEE

\triple[

]]]

iii

\ltriple|∗

|||

\triple> \triple] \rtriple|∗

Similar to \lVert and \rVert in Table 159, \ltriple and \rtriple must be used instead of \triple to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter. Note that \triple—and the corresponding \double—is actually a macro that takes a delimiter as an argument.

Table 161: fourier Variable-sized Delimiters ‹

Œ

\llbracket

… “ “ “ “

“ “

†

\rrbracket

\VERT

Table 162: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters 〈 〚 ⁅

〉 〛 ⁆

\textlangle \textlbrackdbl \textlquill

\textrangle \textrbrackdbl \textrquill

Table 163: metre Text-mode Delimiters } { i h

\alad \alas \angud \angus

} \Alad { \Alas

i h

[[

]]

\Angud \Angus

\crux \quadrad \quadras

† ]] [[

\Crux \Quadrad \Quadras

Table 164: Math-mode Accents a ´ a ¯ a ˘

\acute{a} \bar{a} \breve{a}

a ˇ a ¨ a˙

\check{a} \ddot{a} \dot{a}

a ` a ˆ ˚ a

\grave{a} \hat{a} \mathring{a}

a ˜ ~a

\tilde{a} \vec{a}

Also note the existence of \imath and \jmath, which produce dotless versions of “i ” and “j ”. (See Table 201 on page 65.) These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, “\hat{\imath}” produces a correct “ ˆı ”, while “\hat{i}” would yield the rather odd-looking “ ˆi ”. 57


Table 165: AMS Math-mode Accents ... .... a \dddot{a} a \ddddot{a} These accents are also provided by the mathabx and accents packages and are redefined by the mathdots package if the amsmath and amssymb packages have previously been loaded. All of the variations except for the original AMS ones tighten ... the space between the dots (from a to ˙˙˙ a). The mathabx and mathdots... versions also ˙˙˙ a a function properly within subscripts and superscripts (x instead of x ) .

Table 166: MnSymbol Math-mode Accents a ⃗

\vec{a}

Table 167: fge Math-mode Accents – A– a ∗

\spirituslenis{A}\spirituslenis{a}∗

When fge is passed the crescent option, \spirituslenis instead uses a crescent accent as in “ —a ”.

Table 168: yhmath Math-mode Accents ˚ a

\ring{a}

This symbol is largely obsolete, as standard LATEX 2ε has supported \mathring since June, 1998 [LAT98].

58


Table 169: Extensible Accents › abc ←− abc

\widehat{abc}∗

\overleftarrow{abc}†

” abc −→ abc

\overline{abc}

abc

\underline{abc}

\overbrace{abc}

abc |{z}

\underbrace{abc}

\widetilde{abc}∗

abc z}|{ abc √ abc

\overrightarrow{abc}†

\sqrt{abc}‡

As demonstrated in a 1997 TUGboat article about typesetting long-division problems [Gib97], an extensible long-division sign (“ )abc ”) can be faked by putting a “\big)” in a tabular environment with an \hline or \cline in the preceding row. The article also presents a piece of code (uploaded to CTAN as longdiv.tex) that automatically solves and typesets—by putting an \overline atop “\big)” and the desired text—long-division problems. See also the polynom package, which automatically solves and typesets polynomial-division problems in a similar manner. ∗

These symbols are made more extensible by the MnSymbol package and even more extensible by the yhmath package.

If you’re looking for an extensible diagonal line or arrow to be used for canceling or 5 reducing mathematical subexpressions (e.g., “x + −x” or “3 + 2 ”) then consider using the cancel package.

With an optional argument, \sqrt typesets nth roots. For√ example, √ 3 n “\sqrt[3]{abc}” produces “ abc ” and “\sqrt[n]{abc}” produces “ abc ”.

Table 170: overrightarrow Extensible Accents =⇒ abc \Overrightarrow{abc}

Table 171: yhmath Extensible Accents ˆ abc

\wideparen{abc}

˚ ˆ abc

\widering{abc}

È abc

\widetriangle{abc}

Table 172: AMS Extensible Accents ← → abc

\overleftrightarrow{abc}

abc ←−

\underleftarrow{abc}

abc ← → abc −→

59

\underleftrightarrow{abc} \underrightarrow{abc}


Table 173: MnSymbol Extensible Accents

« abc ³¹¹ ¹ ¹µ abc

\overbrace{abc}

abc °

\underbrace{abc}

\overgroup{abc}

\undergroup{abc}

zx abc ↼Ð abc

abc ´¹¹ ¹ ¹¶

\overlinesegment{abc}

\underlinesegment{abc}

\overleftharpoon{abc}

abc zx Ð⇀ abc

̂ abc

\widehat{abc}

̃ abc

Í abc

\wideparen{abc}

\overrightharpoon{abc} \widetilde{abc}

Table 174: mathtools Extensible Accents

z}|{ abc

\overbrace{abc}

abc

\overbracket{abc}∗

abc |{z} abc

\underbrace{abc} \underbracket{abc}∗

\overbracket and \underbracket accept optional arguments that specify the bracket height and thickness. See the mathtools documentation for more information.

hkkikkj

Table 175: mathabx Extensible Accents

hkkk j

\overbrace{abc}

„ abc

\widebar{abc}

abc

\overgroup{abc}

| abc

\widecheck{abc}

looabc moon \underbrace{abc}

Πabc

\wideparen{abc}

abc lo oo n ˆ abc

˚ Œ abc

\widering{abc}

abc

\undergroup{abc} \widearrow{abc}

The braces shown for \overbrace and \underbrace appear in their minimum size. They can expand arbitrarily wide, however.

Table 176: fourier Extensible Accents Ù abc

\widearc{abc}

– abc

\wideparen{abc}

å abc

\wideOarc{abc}

˚ – abc

\widering{abc}

60


Table 177: esvect Extensible Accents #” abc \vv{abc} with package option a #„ abc \vv{abc} with package option b #« abc \vv{abc} with package option c #» abc \vv{abc} with package option d #– abc \vv{abc} with package option e #— abc \vv{abc} with package option f # abc \vv{abc} with package option g #‰ abc \vv{abc} with package option h esvect also defines a \vv* macro which is used to typeset arrows over vector variables with subscripts. See the esvect documentation for more information.

Table 178: undertilde Extensible Accents abc ›

\utilde{abc}

Because \utilde is based on \widetilde it is also made more extensible by the yhmath package.

Table 179: ushort Extensible Accents abc

\ushortdw{abc}

abc

\ushortw{abc}

\ushortw and \ushortdw are intended to be used with multi-character arguments (“words”) while \ushortand \ushortd are intended to be used with singlecharacter arguments. The underlines produced by the ushort commands are shorter than those produced by the \underline command. Consider the output from the expression “\ushort{x}\ushort{y}\underline{x}\underline{y}”, which looks like “xyxy”.

Table 180: AMS Extensible Arrows abc

←−−

abc

−−→

\xleftarrow{abc}

61

\xrightarrow{abc}


Table 181: mathtools Extensible Arrows abc

←−−abc

,−−→ abc

⇐== abc

)−− abc

(−− abc

←−→ abc

⇐=⇒

abc

( − − − − +

\xhookleftarrow{abc}

abc

\xhookrightarrow{abc}

7−−→

\xLeftarrow{abc}

==⇒

abc

abc

\xleftharpoondown{abc}

−−+

\xleftharpoonup{abc}

−−*

abc abc

− − * ) − −

\xleftrightarrow{abc}

\xleftrightharpoons{abc} \xmapsto{abc} \xRightarrow{abc} \xrightharpoondown{abc} \xrightharpoonup{abc} \xrightleftharpoons{abc}

\xLeftrightarrow{abc}

Table 182: chemarr Extensible Arrows abc

−− * ) − −

\xrightleftharpoons{abc}

Table 183: chemarrow Extensible Arrows abc DGGGGGGG def

\autoleftarrow{abc}{def}

abc GGGGGGGA def

\autorightarrow{abc}{def}

abc E GG GGGGGGGC def

\autoleftrightharpoons{abc}{def}

abc GGGGGGGB F GG def

\autorightleftharpoons{abc}{def}

In addition to the symbols shown above, chemarrow also provides \larrowfill, \rarrowfill, \leftrightharpoonsfill, and \rightleftharpoonsfill macros. Each of these takes a length argument and produces an arrow of the specified length.

Table 184: extarrows Extensible Arrows abc

⇐=⇒ abc

←−→ abc

==== abc

⇐== abc

←−−

\xLeftrightarrow{abc} \xleftrightarrow{abc} \xlongequal{abc} \xLongleftarrow{abc}

abc

⇐= =⇒ abc

←− −→ abc

==⇒ abc

−−→

\xlongleftarrow{abc}

62

\xLongleftrightarrow{abc} \xlongleftrightarrow{abc} \xLongrightarrow{abc} \xlongrightarrow{abc}


Table 185: extpfeil Extensible Arrows abc

==== abc

abc

7−−→

\xlongequal{abc}

−−−−

\xmapsto{abc}

abc

−−−−

\xtwoheadleftarrow{abc}

\xtwoheadrightarrow{abc}

The extpfeil package also provides a \newextarrow command to help you define your own extensible arrow symbols. See the extpfeil documentation for more information.

Table 186: DotArrow Extensible Arrows a



\dotarrow{a}

The DotArrow package provides mechanisms for lengthening the arrow, adjusting the distance between the arrow and its symbol, and altering the arrowhead. See the DotArrow documentation for more information.

Table 187: trfsigns Extensible Transform Symbols \dft{a}

a

\DFT{a}

a

Table 188: holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols abc def

\holter{abc}{def}

abc def

\polter{abc}{def}

Table 189: Dots ·

\cdotp

···

\cdots

: ..

.

\colon∗

.

\ldotp

\ddots†

...

\ldots

.. .

\vdots†

While “:” is valid in math mode, \colon uses different surrounding spacing. See Section 8.4 and the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for more information on math-mode spacing.

The mathdots package redefines \ddots and \vdots to make them scale properly with font size. (They normally scale horizontally but not vertically.) \fixedddots and \fixedvdots provide the original, fixed-height functionality of LATEX 2ε ’s \ddots and \vdots macros.

63


Table 190: AMS Dots â&#x2C6;ľ ¡¡¡ ... â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

\becauseâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \dotsb \dotsc

¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ...

\dotsi \dotsm \dotso

â&#x2C6;´

\thereforeâ&#x2C6;&#x2014;

\because and \therefore are defined as binary relations and therefore also appear in Table 68 on page 30. The AMS \dots symbols are named according to their intended usage: \dotsb between pairs of binary operators/relations, \dotsc between pairs of commas, \dotsi between pairs of integrals, \dotsm between pairs of multiplication signs, and \dotso between other symbol pairs.

Table 191: wasysym Dots â&#x2C6;´

\wasytherefore

Table 192: MnSymbol Dots â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;ą â&#x2C6;ľ 

\cdot \ddotdot \ddots \diamonddots \downtherefore \fivedots

 â&#x2039;Ż â&#x2C6;ˇ 

\hdotdot \hdots \lefttherefore \righttherefore \squaredots \udotdot

â&#x2039;° â&#x2C6;´ â&#x2C6;ś â&#x2039;Ž

\udots \uptherefore \vdotdot \vdots

MnSymbol defines \therefore as \uptherefore and \because as \downtherefore. Furthermore, \cdotp and \colon produce the same glyphs as \cdot and \vdotdot respectively but serve as TEX math punctuation (class 6 symbols) instead of TEX binary operators (class 2). All of the above except \hdots and \vdots are defined as binary operators and therefore also appear in Table 50 on page 23. Also, unlike most of the other dot symbols in this document, MnSymbolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dots are defined as single characters instead of as composites of multiple single-dot characters.

Table 193: mathdots Dots . .. \iddots

Table 194: yhmath Dots ..

..

\:

.

\adots

Table 195: teubner Dots .. .. .. \? . \; .. .. \antilabe 64


Table 196: mathcomp Math Symbols ℃ µ

\tccentigrade \tcmu

Ω ‱

\tcohm \tcpertenthousand

\tcperthousand

Table 197: marvosym Digits 0 1

\MVZero \MVOne

2 3

4 5

\MVTwo \MVThree

6 7

\MVFour \MVFive

\MVSix \MVSeven

8 9

\MVEight \MVNine

Table 198: fge Digits 0

1

\fgestruckzero

\fgestruckone

Table 199: dozenal Base-12 Digits

X

0 1

E

\x

\e

Table 200: mathabx Mayan Digits \maya{0} \maya{1}

2 3

\maya{2} \maya{3}

4 5

\maya{4} \maya{5}

Table 201: Miscellaneous LATEX 2ε Math Symbols ℵ 6

\  ♣

\aleph \angle \backslash \Box∗,† \clubsuit

^ ♦ ∅ [ ♥

\Diamond∗ \diamondsuit \emptyset‡ \flat \heartsuit

∞ f ∇ \ ¬

\infty \mho∗ \nabla \natural \neg

0 ] ♠ ` 4

\prime \sharp \spadesuit \surd \triangle

Not predefined in LATEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym. Note, however, that amsfonts and amssymb define \Diamond to produce the same glyph as \lozenge (“♦”); the other packages produce a squarer \Diamond as depicted above.

To use \Box—or any other symbol—as an end-of-proof (Q.E.D.) marker, consider using the ntheorem package, which properly juxtaposes a symbol with the end of the proof text.

Many people prefer the look of AMS’s \varnothing (“∅”, Table 202) to that of LATEX’s \emptyset.

65


Table 202: Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols ∠ 8 F   N

\angle \backprime \bigstar \blacklozenge \blacksquare \blacktriangle

H   ð ♦ ]

\blacktriangledown \diagdown \diagup \eth \lozenge \measuredangle

f ^  O ∅ M

\mho \sphericalangle \square \triangledown \varnothing \vartriangle

Table 203: Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols

2

\Box

3

\Diamond

f

\mho∗



\varangle

wasysym also defines an \agemO symbol, which is the same glyph as \mho but is intended for use in text mode.

Table 204: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols _  o

\Diamondblack \Diamonddot \lambdabar

n p q

\lambdaslash \varclubsuit \vardiamondsuit

r s

\varheartsuit \varspadesuit

Table 205: Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols 0

å ä I

\degree \diagdown \diagup \diameter

4 # 8

$

\fourth \hash \infty \leftthreetimes

> & 9

%

\measuredangle \pitchfork \propto \rightthreetimes

2

? 3

#

\second \sphericalangle \third \varhash

Table 206: Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols ∠ ⌐ ‵ ✓ ♣ ∅

\angle \backneg \backprime \checkmark \clubsuit \diameter

♢ ♭ ♡ ∞ ⨽ ⨼

\diamondsuit \flat \heartsuit \infty \invbackneg \invneg

✠ ∡ ∇ ♮ ¬ ′

\maltese \measuredangle \nabla \natural \neg \prime

♯ ∫ ♠ ∢

\sharp \smallint \spadesuit \sphericalangle

MnSymbol defines \emptyset and \varnothing as synonyms for \diameter; \lnot and \minushookdown as synonyms for \neg; \minushookup as a synonym for \invneg; \hookdownminus as a synonym for \backneg; and, \hookupminus as a synonym for \invbackneg.

66


Table 207: Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols ∫…∫ ⨚ ⨙ ∲ ∲ ∯ ∮ ∳ ∳ ⨏ ⨋

∫…∫ ⨚ ⨙ ∲ ∲ ∯ ∮ ∳ ∳ ⨏ ⨋

\partialvardint \partialvardlanddownint \partialvardlandupint \partialvardlcircleleftint \partialvardlcirclerightint \partialvardoiint \partialvardoint \partialvardrcircleleftint \partialvardrcirclerightint \partialvardstrokedint \partialvardsumint

\partialvartint \partialvartlanddownint \partialvartlandupint \partialvartlcircleleftint \partialvartlcirclerightint \partialvartoiint \partialvartoint \partialvartrcircleleftint \partialvartrcirclerightint \partialvartstrokedint \partialvartsumint

These symbols are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to construct the integrals appearing in Table 64 on page 29 but can nevertheless be used in isolation.

Table 208: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols ° ÷ ⁄ ¬ −

\textdegree∗ \textdiv \textfractionsolidus \textlnot \textminus

½ ¼ ¹ ± √

\textonehalf† \textonequarter† \textonesuperior \textpm \textsurd

¾ ³ × ²

\textthreequarters† \textthreesuperior \texttimes \texttwosuperior

If you prefer a larger degree symbol you might consider defining one as “\ensuremath{^\circ}” (“◦ ”).

nicefrac (part of the units package) or the newer xfrac package can be used to construct vulgar fractions like “1/2”, “1/4”, “3/4”, and even “c/o”.

Table 209: Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols W =

\Anglesign \Corresponds

÷ p

P

\Squaredot \Vectorarrow

\Vectorarrowhigh

Table 210: Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols K M O

\fgebackslash \fgebaracute \fgebarcap

S Q N

\fgecap \fgecapbar \fgecup

R P i

\fgecupacute \fgecupbar \fgeinfty

h L

Table 211: Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols ∟

\rightangle

Table 212: Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols ♨ ♧

\steaming \varclub

♦ ♥

\vardiamond \varheart 67

\varspade

\fgelangle \fgeupbracket


Table 213: Math Alphabets Font sample

Generating command

Required package

ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef  ABC ABC or ABC or ABCdef123 ABC ‚ƒ

\mathrm{ABCdef123} \mathit{ABCdef123} \mathnormal{ABCdef123} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathpzc{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABC} \varmathbb{ABC} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbbm{ABCdef12} \mathbbmss{ABCdef12} \mathbbmtt{ABCdef12} \mathds{ABC1} \mathds{ABC1} \symA\symB\symC \mathfrak{ABCdef123} \textfrak{ABCdef123} \textswab{ABCdef123} \textgoth{ABCdef123}

none none none none mathrsfs calrsfs euscript with the mathcal option euscript with the mathscr option none; manually defined∗ amsfonts,§ amssymb, txfonts, or pxfonts txfonts or pxfonts bbold or mathbbol† mbboard† bbm bbm bbm dsfont dsfont with the sans option china2e‡ eufrak yfonts¶ yfonts¶ yfonts¶

ABCdef123 ABCdef123

ABCdef12 ABCdef12

ABCdef12 ABC1 ABC1

ÁÂÃ

ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCˇf123 ∗

Put “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathpzc}{OT1}{pzc}{m}{it}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathpzc typeset its argument in Zapf Chancery. As a similar trick, you can typeset the Calligra font’s script “r ” (or other calligraphic symbols) in math mode by loading the calligra package and putting “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathcalligra}{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathcalligra typeset its argument in the Calligra font. (You may also want to specify “\DeclareFontShape{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}{<->s*[2.2]callig15}{}” to set Calligra at 2.2 times its design size for a better blend with typical body fonts.)

The mathbbol package defines some additional blackboard bold characters: parentheses, square brackets, angle brackets, and—if the bbgreekl option is passed to mathbbol—Greek letters. For instance, “<[( )]>” is produced by “\mathbb{\Langle\Lbrack\Lparen\bbalpha\bbbeta\bbgamma\Rparen \Rbrack\Rangle}”. mbboard extends the blackboard bold symbol set significantly further. It supports not only the Greek alphabet—including “Greek-like” symbols such as \bbnabla (“š”)—but also all punctuation marks, various currency symbols such as \bbdollar (“$”) and \bbeuro (“û”), and the Hebrew alphabet (e.g., “\bbfinalnun\bbyod\bbqof\bbpe” → “ÏÉ×Ô”).

The \sym. . . commands provided by the ChinA2e package are actually text-mode commands. They are included in Table 213 because they resemble the blackboardbold symbols that appear in the rest of the table. In addition to the 26 letters of the English alphabet, ChinA2e provides three umlauted blackboard-bold letters: \symAE (“ ”), \symOE (“ ”), and \symUE (“ ”). Note that ChinA2e does provide math-mode commands for the most common number-set symbols. These are presented in Table 130 on page 49.

Û

Ü

Ý

68


As their \text. . . names imply, the fonts provided by the yfonts package are actually text fonts. They are included in Table 213 because they are frequently used in a mathematical context.

§

An older (i.e., prior to 1991) version of the AMS’s fonts rendered C, N, R, S, and Z as C, N, R, S, and Z. As some people prefer the older glyphs—much to the AMS’s surprise—and because those glyphs fail to build under modern versions of METAFONT, Berthold Horn uploaded PostScript fonts for the older blackboardbold glyphs to CTAN, to the fonts/msym10 directory. As of this writing, however, there are no LATEX 2ε packages for utilizing the now-obsolete glyphs.

69


4

Science and technology symbols This section lists symbols that are employed in various branches of science and engineering.

Table 214: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode ℃ °

µ Ω

\celsius \degree

\micro \ohm

\perthousand

Table 215: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols :

! &

\AC

@

::::

\VHF

F

\photon

QPPPPPPR

\HF

Table 216: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols

' $

\FallingEdge \LongPulseHigh

%

\LongPulseLow \PulseHigh

" #

\PulseLow \RaisingEdge

\gluon

\ShortPulseHigh \ShortPulseLow

In addition, within \textifsym{. . .}, the following codes are valid:

l L

l L

m M

m M

h H

d D

h H

d D

< =

< <<

> ?

> >>

mm<DDD>mm

This enables one to write “\textifsym{mm<DDD>mm}” to get “ ” or “\textifsym{L|H|L|H|L}” to get “ ”. See also the timing package, which provides a wide variety of pulse-diagram symbols within an environment designed specifically for typesetting pulse diagrams.

L|H|L|H|L

Finally, \textifsym supports the display of segmented digits, as would appear on an LCD: “\textifsym{-123.456}” produces “ ”. “\textifsym{b}” outputs a blank with the same width as an “ ”.

-123.456

8

Table 217: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol

A

\AR

Table 218: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols ℃

\textcelsius

\textmho

µ

\textmu

\textohm

Table 219: steinmetz Extensible Phasor Symbol abc

\phase{abc}

The \phase command uses the pict2e package to draw a horizontally and vertically scalable Steinmetz phasor symbol. Consequently, \phase works only with those TEX backends supported by pict2e. See the pict2e documentation for more information. 70


Table 220: wasysym Astronomical Symbols ' ♀

\mercury \venus

\earth \mars

X Y

\jupiter \saturn

\astrosun

#

\fullmoon

$

\leftmoon

 ] ^

\aries \taurus \gemini

_  `

\cancer \leo \virgo

a b c

\libra \scorpio \sagittarius

e d f

\aquarius \capricornus \pisces



\ascnode



\descnode

V

\conjunction

W

\opposition

♁ ♂

Z [

\uranus \neptune

\

\pluto

\newmoon

%

\rightmoon



\vernal

Table 221: marvosym Astronomical Symbols  Ã

\Mercury \Venus

Ê Ä

\Earth \Mars

Á

\Moon

À

\Sun

à á â

\Aries \Taurus \Gemini

ã ä å

\Cancer \Leo \Virgo

Å Æ

\Jupiter \Saturn

Ç È

\Uranus \Neptune

É

æ ç è

\Libra \Scorpio \Sagittarius

é ê ë

\Capricorn \Aquarius \Pisces

\Pluto

Note that \Aries . . . \Pisces can also be specified with \Zodiac{1} . . . \Zodiac{12}.

A B

\Mercury \Venus

C D

M

\fullmoon

P

\Aries

Table 222: mathabx Astronomical Symbols \Earth \Mars

E F

\Jupiter \Saturn

G H

\Uranus \Neptune

I J

\Pluto \varEarth

K

\leftmoon

N

\newmoon

L

\rightmoon

@

\Sun

Q

\Taurus

R

\Gemini

mathabx also defines \girl as an alias for \Venus, \boy as an alias for \Mars, and \Moon as an alias for \leftmoon.

Table 223: wasysym APL Symbols ~  F o }

\APLbox \APLcomment \APLdown \APLdownarrowbox \APLinput

÷ ~ p  − q

\APLinv \APLleftarrowbox \APLlog \APLminus \APLrightarrowbox

E

n − \ − /

\APLstar \APLup \APLuparrowbox \notbackslash \notslash

Table 224: wasysym APL Modifiers ◦ \APLcirc{}

∼ \APLnot{} 71

|

\APLvert{}


Table 225: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols Í Ï

\ComputerMouse \Keyboard

Ñ Ò

\ParallelPort \Printer

Î Ð

\SerialInterface \SerialPort

Table 226: keystroke Computer Keys Alt

\Alt

Enter

\Enter∗

PrtSc

\PrtSc∗

AltGr

\AltGr

Esc

\Esc∗

\RArrow

Break

\Break

Home

\Home

←-

\Return

→−7

\BSpace†

Ins

\Ins∗

Scroll

\Scroll∗

Ctrl

\Ctrl∗

\LArrow

Shift ⇑

\Shift∗

\DArrow

Num

\NumLock

Del

\Del∗

Page ↓

\PgDown∗

End

\End

\Spacebar

\PgUp

Page ↑

→ − − − − →

\Tab†

\UArrow

Changes based on the language option passed to the keystroke package. For example, the german option makes \Del produce “ Entf ” instead of “ Del ”.

These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in most DVI viewers. The \keystroke command draws a key with an arbitrary label. For example, “\keystroke{F7}” produces “ F7 ”.

Table 227: ascii Control Characters (CP437) ␁ ␂ ␃ ␄ ␅ ␆ ␇

\SOH \STX \ETX \EOT \ENQ \ACK \BEL

␈ ␉ ␊ ␋ ␌ ␍ ␎

\BS \HT \LF \VT \FF \CR \SO

␏ ␐ ␑ ␒ ␓ ␔ ␕

\SI \DLE \DCa \DCb \DCc \DCd \NAK

␖ ␗ ␘ ␙ ␚ ␛ ␜

\SYN \ETB \CAN \EM \SUB \ESC \FS

\DEL

\NBSP

\NUL

¦

\splitvert

␝ ␞ ␟

\GS \RS \US

Code Page 437 (CP437), which was first utilized by the original IBM PC, uses the symbols \SOH through \US to depict ASCII characters 1–31 and \DEL to depict ASCII character 127. The \NUL symbol, not part of CP437, represents ASCII character 0. \NBSP, also not part of CP437, represents a nonbreaking space. \splitvert is merely the “|” character drawn as it was on the IBM PC.

72


Table 228: milstd Logic Gates



\ANDd



\ANDl



\ANDr





\BUFu



\NANDl

\ORd

\BusWidth



\NANDr

\ORl



\INVd



\NANDu

\ORr

\ANDu



\INVl



\NORd

\ORu



\BUFd



\INVr



\NORl



\BUFl



\INVu

\NORr



\BUFr



\NANDd



\NORu

The milstd package, which provides the digital logic-gate symbols specified by the U.S. Department of Defenseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MIL-STD-806 standard, was written as a LATEX 2.09 .tex file, not as a LATEX 2Îľ package. Consequently, it must be loaded into a document with \input milstd, not with the more modern \usepackage{milstd}.

Table 229: marvosym Communication Symbols k z

\Email \Emailct

t u

\fax \FAX

v B

\Faxmachine \Letter

E H

\Lightning \Mobilefone

A T

\Pickup \Telefon

Table 230: marvosym Engineering Symbols " # â&#x20AC;ş â&#x20AC;˘ % â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

\Beam \Bearing \Circpipe \Circsteel \Fixedbearing \Flatsteel â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

l â&#x20AC;&#x2122; & L $ â&#x201E;˘

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; Ë&#x153; â&#x20AC;? ' Ÿ Â?

\Force \Hexasteel \Lefttorque \Lineload \Loosebearing \Lsteel

\Octosteel \Rectpipe \Rectsteel \Righttorque \RoundedLsteelâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \RoundedTsteelâ&#x2C6;&#x2014;

Â&#x17E; â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x153; Ĺ&#x201C; ĹĄ

\RoundedTTsteel \Squarepipe \Squaresteel \Tsteel \TTsteel

\RoundedLsteel and \RoundedTsteel seem to be swapped, at least in the 2000/05/01 version of marvosym.

Table 231: wasysym Biological Symbols â&#x2122;&#x20AC;

\female

73

â&#x2122;&#x201A;

\male


Table 232: marvosym Biological Symbols ~ Â â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

â&#x20AC;Ś } Â&#x20AC;

\Female \FEMALE \FemaleFemale

\FemaleMale \Hermaphrodite \HERMAPHRODITE

Â&#x201A; | Ć&#x2019;

{

\MALE \Male \MaleMale

\Neutral

Table 233: marvosym Safety-related Symbols h n

\Biohazard \BSEfree

C J

\CEsign \Estatically

` a

\Explosionsafe \Laserbeam

j !

\Radioactivity \Stopsign

Table 234: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols

{ [  a c f d

\bigbosonloopV \gvcropped

k

e

\feyn{a}

b

\feyn{c} \feyn{f} \feyn{fd} \feyn{fl}

o

l

\bigbosonloopA



l

k

\bigbosonloop

\feyn{flS} \feyn{fs}

q

g v y {



\hfermion

|

\shfermion

\

\smallbosonloop

\smallbosonloopV

d m

\wfermion \whfermion

\smallbosonloopA

|

\feyn{fu}

\feyn{glS}

z

\feyn{fv}

u

\feyn{g}

}

\feyn{g1}

h j

\feyn{gl} \feyn{glB}

\feyn{gu} \feyn{gv}

}s

\feyn{gd}

\feyn{glu}

\feyn{gvs} \feyn{h} \feyn{hd}

K i m p P x

\feyn{hs} \feyn{hu} \feyn{m} \feyn{ms} \feyn{p} \feyn{P} \feyn{x}

?

All other arguments to the \feyn command produce a â&#x20AC;&#x153; â&#x20AC;? symbol. The feyn package provides various commands for composing the preceding symbols into complete Feynman diagrams. See the feyn documentation for examples and additional information.

74


5

Dingbats

Dingbats are symbols such as stars, arrows, and geometric shapes. They are commonly used as bullets in itemized lists or, more generally, as a means to draw attention to the text that follows. The pifont dingbat package warrants special mention. Among other capabilities, pifont provides a LATEX interface to the Zapf Dingbats font (one of the standard 35 PostScript fonts). However, rather than name each of the dingbats individually, pifont merely provides a single \ding command, which outputs the character that lies at a given position in the font. The consequence is that the pifont symbols can’t be listed by name in this document’s index, so be mindful of that fact when searching for a particular symbol.

y {

Table 235: bbding Arrows

z w

\ArrowBoldDownRight \ArrowBoldRightCircled

\ArrowBoldRightShort \ArrowBoldRightStrobe

x

\ArrowBoldUpRight

Table 236: pifont Arrows Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü

\ding{212} \ding{213} \ding{214} \ding{215} \ding{216} \ding{217} \ding{218} \ding{219} \ding{220}

Ý Þ ß à á â ã ä å

\ding{221} \ding{222} \ding{223} \ding{224} \ding{225} \ding{226} \ding{227} \ding{228} \ding{229}

æ ç è é ê ë ì í î

\ding{230} \ding{231} \ding{232} \ding{233} \ding{234} \ding{235} \ding{236} \ding{237} \ding{238}

ï ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø

\ding{239} \ding{241} \ding{242} \ding{243} \ding{244} \ding{245} \ding{246} \ding{247} \ding{248}

ù ú û ü ý þ

Table 237: universal Arrows \bauarrow

\bauwhitearrow

Table 238: marvosym Scissors s r

   

\Cutleft \Cutline

q R

\Cutright \Kutline

S Q

\Leftscissors \Rightscissors

Table 239: bbding Scissors \ScissorHollowLeft \ScissorHollowRight \ScissorLeft \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom

  

\ScissorLeftBrokenTop \ScissorRight \ScissorRightBrokenBottom \ScissorRightBrokenTop

Table 240: pifont Scissors !

\ding{33}

"

#

\ding{34} 75

\ding{35}

$

\ding{36}

\ding{249} \ding{250} \ding{251} \ding{252} \ding{253} \ding{254}


Table 241: dingbat Pencils

W

P

\largepencil

\smallpencil

Table 242: bbding Pencils and Nibs

  

\NibLeft \NibRight \NibSolidLeft \NibSolidRight

   

 

\PencilLeft \PencilLeftDown \PencilLeftUp \PencilRight

\PencilRightDown \PencilRightUp

Table 243: pifont Pencils and Nibs .

\ding{46}

/

\ding{47}

0

\ding{48}

1

Table 244: dingbat Fists

R D U

\leftpointright \leftthumbsdown \leftthumbsup

 

L d u

\rightpointleft

  

N

2

\ding{50}

\rightpointright

\rightthumbsdown \rightthumbsup

Table 245: bbding Fists \HandCuffLeft \HandCuffLeftUp \HandCuffRight

\ding{49}

\HandCuffRightUp \HandLeft \HandLeftUp

  

\HandPencilLeft \HandRight \HandRightUp

Table 246: pifont Fists *

\ding{42}

+

,

\ding{43}

\ding{44}

-

\ding{45}

Table 247: fourier Fists t

* 4 .

\lefthand

u

\righthand

Table 248: bbding Crosses and Plusses \Cross \CrossBoldOutline \CrossClowerTips \CrossMaltese

+ , ' (

\CrossOpenShadow \CrossOutline \Plus \PlusCenterOpen 76

& )

\PlusOutline \PlusThinCenterOpen


Table 249: pifont Crosses and Plusses 9 :

! "

\ding{57} \ding{58}

; <

\ding{59} \ding{60}

= >

? @

\ding{61} \ding{62}

\ding{63} \ding{64}

Table 250: bbding Xs and Check Marks \Checkmark \CheckmarkBold

# $

%

\XSolid \XSolidBold

\XSolidBrush

Table 251: pifont Xs and Check Marks 3 4

\ding{51} \ding{52}

5 6

7 8

\ding{53} \ding{54}

\ding{55} \ding{56}

Table 252: wasysym Xs and Check Marks 2 

\CheckedBox



\Square

4

\XBox

Table 253: universal Xs



\baucross

Table 254: pifont Circled Numbers ¬ ­ ® ¯ ° ± ² ³ ´ µ

\ding{172} \ding{173} \ding{174} \ding{175} \ding{176} \ding{177} \ding{178} \ding{179} \ding{180} \ding{181}

¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿

À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É

\ding{182} \ding{183} \ding{184} \ding{185} \ding{186} \ding{187} \ding{188} \ding{189} \ding{190} \ding{191}

\ding{192} \ding{193} \ding{194} \ding{195} \ding{196} \ding{197} \ding{198} \ding{199} \ding{200} \ding{201}

Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó

\ding{202} \ding{203} \ding{204} \ding{205} \ding{206} \ding{207} \ding{208} \ding{209} \ding{210} \ding{211}

pifont (part of the psnfss package) provides a dingautolist environment which resembles enumerate but uses circled numbers as bullets.4 See the psnfss documentation for more information.

Table 255: wasysym Stars

4 In

C

\davidsstar

A

\hexstar

B

\varhexstar

fact, dingautolist can use any set of consecutive Zapf Dingbats symbols.

77


N A B X C D 0 / Z S Y H I F E R

Table 256: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes \Asterisk \AsteriskBold \AsteriskCenterOpen \AsteriskRoundedEnds \AsteriskThin \AsteriskThinCenterOpen \DavidStar \DavidStarSolid \EightAsterisk \EightFlowerPetal \EightFlowerPetalRemoved \EightStar \EightStarBold \EightStarConvex \EightStarTaper \FiveFlowerOpen

P 8 ; ? 7 9 : < = > @ 1 V W 5 6

\FiveFlowerPetal \FiveStar \FiveStarCenterOpen \FiveStarConvex \FiveStarLines \FiveStarOpen \FiveStarOpenCircled \FiveStarOpenDotted \FiveStarOutline \FiveStarOutlineHeavy \FiveStarShadow \FourAsterisk \FourClowerOpen \FourClowerSolid \FourStar \FourStarOpen

2 3 O U M Q L [ G K ` ^ _ ] \ J

\JackStar \JackStarBold \SixFlowerAlternate \SixFlowerAltPetal \SixFlowerOpenCenter \SixFlowerPetalDotted \SixFlowerPetalRemoved \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal \SixStar \SixteenStarLight \Snowflake \SnowflakeChevron \SnowflakeChevronBold \Sparkle \SparkleBold \TwelweStar

Table 257: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes A B C D E F G H I

\ding{65} \ding{66} \ding{67} \ding{68} \ding{69} \ding{70} \ding{71} \ding{72} \ding{73}

J K L M N O P Q R

\ding{74} \ding{75} \ding{76} \ding{77} \ding{78} \ding{79} \ding{80} \ding{81} \ding{82}

S T U V W X Y Z [

\ding{83} \ding{84} \ding{85} \ding{86} \ding{87} \ding{88} \ding{89} \ding{90} \ding{91}

\ ] ^ _ ` a b c d

\ding{92} \ding{93} \ding{94} \ding{95} \ding{96} \ding{97} \ding{98} \ding{99} \ding{100}

e f g h i j k

\ding{101} \ding{102} \ding{103} \ding{104} \ding{105} \ding{106} \ding{107}

Table 258: fourier Ornaments o m n j [ \

\aldine \aldineleft \aldineright \aldinesmall \decofourleft \decofourright

X ] Y Z a b

\decoone \decosix \decothreeleft \decothreeright \decotwo \floweroneleft

c g f h d

\floweroneright \leafleft \leafNE \leafright \starredbullet

Table 259: wasysym Geometric Shapes 7

\hexagon

8

\octagon

D

78

\pentagon

9

\varhexagon


Table 260: MnSymbol Geometric Shapes â&#x2DC;&#x20AC; ⧍ ⧍ â&#x2014;Ż

\filledlargestar \filledlozenge \filledmedlozenge \largecircle

â&#x2014;&#x2021; â&#x2014;&#x160; Â&#x2026; â&#x2014;ť

\largediamond \largelozenge \largepentagram \largesquare

â&#x2DC;&#x2020; â&#x153;Ą â&#x2014;&#x160; â&#x153;Ą

\largestar \largestarofdavid \medlozenge \medstarofdavid

â&#x2014;&#x160;

\smalllozenge

MnSymbol defines \bigcirc as a synonym for \largecircle; \bigstar as a synonym for \filledlargestar; \lozenge as a synonym for \medlozenge; and, \blacklozenge as a synonym for \filledmedlozenge.

Table 261: ifsym Geometric Shapes

% &  _ / # " $ !  5     6 U V P S R

\BigCircle \BigCross \BigDiamondshape \BigHBar \BigLowerDiamond \BigRightDiamond \BigSquare \BigTriangleDown \BigTriangleLeft \BigTriangleRight \BigTriangleUp \BigVBar \Circle \Cross \DiamondShadowA \DiamondShadowB \DiamondShadowC \Diamondshape \FilledBigCircle \FilledBigDiamondshape \FilledBigSquare \FilledBigTriangleDown \FilledBigTriangleLeft

T Q e  f u v p s r t q `   c b d a  o ?

\FilledBigTriangleRight \FilledBigTriangleUp \FilledCircle \FilledDiamondShadowA \FilledDiamondShadowC \FilledDiamondshape \FilledSmallCircle \FilledSmallDiamondshape \FilledSmallSquare \FilledSmallTriangleDown \FilledSmallTriangleLeft \FilledSmallTriangleRight \FilledSmallTriangleUp \FilledSquare \FilledSquareShadowA \FilledSquareShadowC \FilledTriangleDown \FilledTriangleLeft \FilledTriangleRight \FilledTriangleUp \HBar \LowerDiamond \RightDiamond

E  F   O @ C B D A  * ) 0   3 2 4 1 

\SmallCircle \SmallCross \SmallDiamondshape \SmallHBar \SmallLowerDiamond \SmallRightDiamond \SmallSquare \SmallTriangleDown \SmallTriangleLeft \SmallTriangleRight \SmallTriangleUp \SmallVBar \SpinDown \SpinUp \Square \SquareShadowA \SquareShadowB \SquareShadowC \TriangleDown \TriangleLeft \TriangleRight \TriangleUp \VBar

The ifsym documentation points out that one can use \rlap to combine some of the above into useful, new symbols. For example, \BigCircle and \FilledSmallCircle combine to give â&#x20AC;&#x153; â&#x20AC;?. Likewise, \Square and \Cross combine to give â&#x20AC;&#x153; â&#x20AC;?. See Section 8.3 for more information about constructing new symbols out of existing symbols.

0

%u

79


d a p b e c s r

Table 262: bbding Geometric Shapes

u v t f k m l h

\CircleShadow \CircleSolid \DiamondSolid \Ellipse \EllipseShadow \EllipseSolid \HalfCircleLeft \HalfCircleRight

\Rectangle \RectangleBold \RectangleThin \Square \SquareCastShadowBottomRight \SquareCastShadowTopLeft \SquareCastShadowTopRight \SquareShadowBottomRight

j i g o n

\SquareShadowTopLeft \SquareShadowTopRight \SquareSolid \TriangleDown \TriangleUp

Table 263: pifont Geometric Shapes l m n

o p q

\ding{108} \ding{109} \ding{110}



\ding{111} \ding{112} \ding{113}

q

u w x

\ding{114} \ding{115} \ding{116}

\ding{117} \ding{119} \ding{120}

y z

\ding{121} \ding{122}

Table 264: universa Geometric Shapes \baucircle



\bausquare

\bautriangle

Table 265: universal Geometric Shapes

 

O C D

r s t

\baucircle \baueclipse

 …

\bauhole \baupunct

† 

\bausquare \bautriangle

Table 266: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats

E

\anchor \carriagereturn \checkmark

C I

S B Z

\eye \filledsquarewithdots \satellitedish

Table 267: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats \Envelope \OrnamentDiamondSolid

 

\Peace \Phone

\PhoneHandset \Plane

T

\Sborder \squarewithdots \Zborder

\SunshineOpenCircled \Tape

Table 268: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats % & '

\ding{37} \ding{38} \ding{39}

( ) v

\ding{40} \ding{41} \ding{118}

¤ ¥ ¦

\ding{164} \ding{165} \ding{166}

80

§ ¨ ª

\ding{167} \ding{168} \ding{170}

« ©

\ding{171} \ding{169}


6

Ancient languages

This section presents letters and ideograms from various ancient scripts. Some of these symbols may also be useful in other typesetting contexts. Table 269: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk J

\PHarrow

e

\PHeagle

B

\PHplumedHead

h

\PHbee

o

\PHflute

d

\PHram

X

\PHbeehive

H

\PHgaunlet

l

\PHrosette

R

\PHboomerang

p

\PHgrater

P

\PHsaw

K

\PHbow

G

\PHhelmet

L

\PHshield

b

\PHbullLeg

a

\PHhide

Y

\PHship

D

\PHcaptive

Z

\PHhorn

V

\PHsling

S

\PHcarpentryPlane

Q

\PHlid

r

\PHsmallAxe

c

\PHcat

m

\PHlily

q

\PHstrainer

E

\PHchild

N

\PHmanacles

C

\PHtattooedHead

M

\PHclub

O

\PHmattock

I

\PHtiara

W

\PHcolumn

n

\PHoxBack

g

\PHtunny

U

\PHcomb

k

\PHpapyrus

j

\PHvine

T

\PHdolium

A

\PHpedestrian

s

\PHwavyBand

f

\PHdove

i

\PHplaneTree

F

\PHwoman

Table 270: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters a A b B g d D e

\Aaleph \AAaleph \Abeth \AAbeth \Agimel \Adaleth \AAdaleth \Ahe

E z w H h T y Y

\AAhe \Azayin \Avav \Aheth \AAheth \Ateth \Ayod \AAyod

k K l L m n o O

\Akaph \AAkaph \Alamed \AAlamed \Amem \Anun \Aayin \AAayin

s p P x X q Q r

\Asamekh \Ape \AApe \Asade \AAsade \Aqoph \AAqoph \Aresh

R S v V t

\AAresh \Ashin \Ahelmet \AAhelmet \Atav

The protosem package defines abbreviated control sequences for each of the above. In addition, single-letter shortcuts can be used within the argument to the \textproto command (e.g., “\textproto{Pakyn}” produces “Pakyn”). See the protosem documentation for more information.

81


Table 271: hieroglf Hieroglyphics A

\HA

I

\HI

n

\Hn

T

\HT

a

\Ha

i

\Hi

O

\HO

t

\Ht

B

\HB

Ë?

\Hibl

o

\Ho

Ë&#x2DC;

\Htongue

b

\Hb

Ë&#x2020;

\Hibp

p

\Hp

U

\HU

c

\Hc

¨

\Hibs

P

\HP

u

\Hu

C

\HC

Ë&#x153;

\Hibw

Ë&#x2122;

\Hplural

V

\HV

D

\HD

J

\HJ

+

\Hplus

v

\Hv

d

\Hd

j

\Hj

Q

\HQ

|

\Hvbar

¸

\Hdual

k

\Hk

q

\Hq

w

\Hw

e E

\He \HE

K L

\HK \HL

? R

\Hquery \HR

W X

\HW \HX

f

\Hf

l

\Hl

r

\Hr

x

\Hx

F

\HF

m

\Hm

s

\Hs

Y

\HY

G

\HG

M

\HM

S

\HS

y

\Hy

g

\Hg

Ë&#x2021;

\Hman

ÂŻ

\Hscribe

z

\Hz

h

\Hh

´

\Hms

/

\Hslash

Z

\HZ

H

\HH

N

\HN

Ë&#x161;

\Hsv

|

\Hone

3

\Hhundred

5

\HXthousand

7

\Hmillion

2

\Hten

4

\Hthousand

6

\HCthousand

The hieroglf package defines alternate control sequences and single-letter shortcuts for each of the above which can be used within the argument to the \textpmhg command (e.g., â&#x20AC;&#x153;\textpmhg{Pakin}â&#x20AC;? produces â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pakinâ&#x20AC;?). See the hieroglf documentation for more information.

Table 272: linearA Linear A Script        

\LinearAI \LinearAII \LinearAIII \LinearAIV \LinearAV \LinearAVI \LinearAVII \LinearAVIII \LinearAIX \LinearAX \LinearAXI \LinearAXII \LinearAXIII

b c d e f g h i j k l m n

\LinearAXCIX \LinearAC \LinearACI \LinearACII \LinearACIII \LinearACIV \LinearACV \LinearACVI \LinearACVII \LinearACVIII \LinearACIX \LinearACX \LinearACXI

            

\LinearACXCVII \LinearACXCVIII \LinearACXCIX \LinearACC \LinearACCI \LinearACCII \LinearACCIII \LinearACCIV \LinearACCV \LinearACCVI \LinearACCVII \LinearACCVIII \LinearACCIX

t u v w x y z { | } ~  Â&#x20AC;

\LinearACCXCV \LinearACCXCVI \LinearACCXCVII \LinearACCXCVIII \LinearACCXCIX \LinearACCC \LinearACCCI \LinearACCCII \LinearACCCIII \LinearACCCIV \LinearACCCV \LinearACCCVI \LinearACCCVII

(continued on next page)

82


(continued from previous page)

                  ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @

\LinearAXIV \LinearAXV \LinearAXVI \LinearAXVII \LinearAXVIII \LinearAXIX \LinearAXX \LinearAXXI \LinearAXXII \LinearAXXIII \LinearAXXIV \LinearAXXV \LinearAXXVI \LinearAXXVII \LinearAXXVIII \LinearAXXIX \LinearAXXX \LinearAXXXI \LinearAXXXII \LinearAXXXIII \LinearAXXXIV \LinearAXXXV \LinearAXXXVI \LinearAXXXVII \LinearAXXXVIII \LinearAXXXIX \LinearAXL \LinearAXLI \LinearAXLII \LinearAXLIII \LinearAXLIV \LinearAXLV \LinearAXLVI \LinearAXLVII \LinearAXLVIII \LinearAXLIX \LinearAL \LinearALI \LinearALII \LinearALIII \LinearALIV \LinearALV \LinearALVI \LinearALVII \LinearALVIII \LinearALIX \LinearALX \LinearALXI \LinearALXII \LinearALXIII \LinearALXIV \LinearALXV

o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~  Â&#x20AC;  Â&#x201A; Â&#x192; Â&#x201E; Â&#x2026; Â&#x2020; Â&#x2021; Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2030; Â&#x160; Â&#x2039; Â&#x152; Â? Â&#x17D; Â? Â? Â&#x2018; Â&#x2019; Â&#x201C; Â&#x201D; Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013; Â&#x2014; Â&#x2DC; Â&#x2122; Â&#x161; Â&#x203A; Â&#x153; Â? Â&#x17E; Â&#x;  ¥ ¢

\LinearACXII \LinearACXIII \LinearACXIV \LinearACXV \LinearACXVI \LinearACXVII \LinearACXVIII \LinearACXIX \LinearACXX \LinearACXXI \LinearACXXII \LinearACXXIII \LinearACXXIV \LinearACXXV \LinearACXXVI \LinearACXXVII \LinearACXXVIII \LinearACXXIX \LinearACXXX \LinearACXXXI \LinearACXXXII \LinearACXXXIII \LinearACXXXIV \LinearACXXXV \LinearACXXXVI \LinearACXXXVII \LinearACXXXVIII \LinearACXXXIX \LinearACXL \LinearACXLI \LinearACXLII \LinearACXLIII \LinearACXLIV \LinearACXLV \LinearACXLVI \LinearACXLVII \LinearACXLVIII \LinearACXLIX \LinearACL \LinearACLI \LinearACLII \LinearACLIII \LinearACLIV \LinearACLV \LinearACLVI \LinearACLVII \LinearACLVIII \LinearACLIX \LinearACLX \LinearACLXI \LinearACLXII \LinearACLXIII

 ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R

\LinearACCX \LinearACCXI \LinearACCXII \LinearACCXIII \LinearACCXIV \LinearACCXV \LinearACCXVI \LinearACCXVII \LinearACCXVIII \LinearACCXIX \LinearACCXX \LinearACCXXI \LinearACCXXII \LinearACCXXIII \LinearACCXXIV \LinearACCXXV \LinearACCXXVI \LinearACCXXVII \LinearACCXXVIII \LinearACCXXIX \LinearACCXXX \LinearACCXXXI \LinearACCXXXII \LinearACCXXXIII \LinearACCXXXIV \LinearACCXXXV \LinearACCXXXVI \LinearACCXXXVII \LinearACCXXXVIII \LinearACCXXXIX \LinearACCXL \LinearACCXLI \LinearACCXLII \LinearACCXLIII \LinearACCXLIV \LinearACCXLV \LinearACCXLVI \LinearACCXLVII \LinearACCXLVIII \LinearACCXLIX \LinearACCL \LinearACCLI \LinearACCLII \LinearACCLIII \LinearACCLIV \LinearACCLV \LinearACCLVI \LinearACCLVII \LinearACCLVIII \LinearACCLIX \LinearACCLX \LinearACCLXI

 Â&#x201A; Â&#x192; Â&#x201E; Â&#x2026; Â&#x2020; Â&#x2021; Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2030; Â&#x160; Â&#x2039; Â&#x152; Â? Â&#x17D; Â? Â? Â&#x2018; Â&#x2019; Â&#x201C; Â&#x201D; Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013; Â&#x2014; Â&#x2DC; Â&#x2122; Â&#x161; Â&#x203A; Â&#x153; Â? Â&#x17E; Â&#x;  ¥ ¢ ÂŁ ¤ ÂĽ ÂŚ § ¨ Š ÂŞ ÂŤ ÂŹ ­ ÂŽ ÂŻ ° Âą ² Âł ´

\LinearACCCVIII \LinearACCCIX \LinearACCCX \LinearACCCXI \LinearACCCXII \LinearACCCXIII \LinearACCCXIV \LinearACCCXV \LinearACCCXVI \LinearACCCXVII \LinearACCCXVIII \LinearACCCXIX \LinearACCCXX \LinearACCCXXI \LinearACCCXXII \LinearACCCXXIII \LinearACCCXXIV \LinearACCCXXV \LinearACCCXXVI \LinearACCCXXVII \LinearACCCXXVIII \LinearACCCXXIX \LinearACCCXXX \LinearACCCXXXI \LinearACCCXXXII \LinearACCCXXXIII \LinearACCCXXXIV \LinearACCCXXXV \LinearACCCXXXVI \LinearACCCXXXVII \LinearACCCXXXVIII \LinearACCCXXXIX \LinearACCCXL \LinearACCCXLI \LinearACCCXLII \LinearACCCXLIII \LinearACCCXLIV \LinearACCCXLV \LinearACCCXLVI \LinearACCCXLVII \LinearACCCXLVIII \LinearACCCXLIX \LinearACCCL \LinearACCCLI \LinearACCCLII \LinearACCCLIII \LinearACCCLIV \LinearACCCLV \LinearACCCLVI \LinearACCCLVII \LinearACCCLVIII \LinearACCCLIX

(continued on next page)

83


(continued from previous page)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a

\LinearALXVI \LinearALXVII \LinearALXVIII \LinearALXIX \LinearALXX \LinearALXXI \LinearALXXII \LinearALXXIII \LinearALXXIV \LinearALXXV \LinearALXXVI \LinearALXXVII \LinearALXXVIII \LinearALXXIX \LinearALXXX \LinearALXXXI \LinearALXXXII \LinearALXXXIII \LinearALXXXIV \LinearALXXXV \LinearALXXXVI \LinearALXXXVII \LinearALXXXVIII \LinearALXXXIX \LinearALXXXX \LinearAXCI \LinearAXCII \LinearAXCIII \LinearAXCIV \LinearAXCV \LinearAXCVI \LinearAXCVII \LinearAXCVIII

£ ¤ ¼ Œ § ¨ Š ª   ­ Ž ¯ ° ¹        

   

\LinearACLXIV \LinearACLXV \LinearACLXVI \LinearACLXVII \LinearACLXVIII \LinearACLXIX \LinearACLXX \LinearACLXXI \LinearACLXXII \LinearACLXXIII \LinearACLXXIV \LinearACLXXV \LinearACLXXVI \LinearACLXXVII \LinearACLXXVIII \LinearACLXXIX \LinearACLXXX \LinearACLXXXI \LinearACLXXXII \LinearACLXXXIII \LinearACLXXXIV \LinearACLXXXV \LinearACLXXXVI \LinearACLXXXVII \LinearACLXXXVIII \LinearACLXXXIX \LinearACLXXXX \LinearACXCI \LinearACXCII \LinearACXCIII \LinearACXCIV \LinearACXCV \LinearACXCVI

S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s

84

\LinearACCLXII \LinearACCLXIII \LinearACCLXIV \LinearACCLXV \LinearACCLXVI \LinearACCLXVII \LinearACCLXVIII \LinearACCLXIX \LinearACCLXX \LinearACCLXXI \LinearACCLXXII \LinearACCLXXIII \LinearACCLXXIV \LinearACCLXXV \LinearACCLXXVI \LinearACCLXXVII \LinearACCLXXVIII \LinearACCLXXIX \LinearACCLXXX \LinearACCLXXXI \LinearACCLXXXII \LinearACCLXXXIII \LinearACCLXXXIV \LinearACCLXXXV \LinearACCLXXXVI \LinearACCLXXXVII \LinearACCLXXXVIII \LinearACCLXXXIX \LinearACCLXXXX \LinearACCXCI \LinearACCXCII \LinearACCXCIII \LinearACCXCIV

Âľ Âś ¡ ¸ š Âş Âť Âź ½ ž Âż Ă&#x20AC; Ă Ă&#x201A; Ă&#x192; Ă&#x201E; Ă&#x2026; Ă&#x2020; Ă&#x2021; Ă&#x2C6; Ă&#x2030; Ă&#x160; Ă&#x2039; Ă&#x152; Ă? Ă&#x17D; Ă? Ă? Ă&#x2018; Ă&#x2019;

\LinearACCCLX \LinearACCCLXI \LinearACCCLXII \LinearACCCLXIII \LinearACCCLXIV \LinearACCCLXV \LinearACCCLXVI \LinearACCCLXVII \LinearACCCLXVIII \LinearACCCLXIX \LinearACCCLXX \LinearACCCLXXI \LinearACCCLXXII \LinearACCCLXXIII \LinearACCCLXXIV \LinearACCCLXXV \LinearACCCLXXVI \LinearACCCLXXVII \LinearACCCLXXVIII \LinearACCCLXXIX \LinearACCCLXXX \LinearACCCLXXXI \LinearACCCLXXXII \LinearACCCLXXXIII \LinearACCCLXXXIV \LinearACCCLXXXV \LinearACCCLXXXVI \LinearACCCLXXXVII \LinearACCCLXXXVIII \LinearACCCLXXXIX


Table 273: linearb Linear B Basic and Optional Letters a ; < = d D f g x > ? e i

\Ba \Baii \Baiii \Bau \Bda \Bde \Bdi \Bdo \Bdu \Bdwe \Bdwo \Be \Bi

j J b L k K c h v m M y A

\Bja \Bje \Bjo \Bju \Bka \Bke \Bki \Bko \Bku \Bma \Bme \Bmi \Bmo

B n N C E F @ o p [ P G H

] I \ q Q X 8 r ^ _ R O U

\Bmu \Bna \Bne \Bni \Bno \Bnu \Bnwa \Bo \Bpa \Bpaiii \Bpe \Bpi \Bpo

\Bpte \Bpu \Bpuii \Bqa \Bqe \Bqi \Bqo \Bra \Braii \Braiii \Bre \Bri \Bro

‘ V s S Y 1 2 { | t } T 3

\Broii \Bru \Bsa \Bse \Bsi \Bso \Bsu \Bswa \Bswi \Bta \Btaii \Bte \Bti

4 5 ~ u w W 6 7 z Z 9

\Bto \Btu \Btwo \Bu \Bwa \Bwe \Bwi \Bwo \Bza \Bze \Bzo

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textlinb{\Bpa\Bki\Bna}” and “\textlinb{pcn}” produce “pcn”, for example. See the linearb documentation for more information.

Table 274: linearb Linear B Numerals ´ ˆ ˜ ¨ ˝ ˚

\BNi \BNii \BNiii \BNiv \BNv \BNvi

ˇ ˘ ¯ ˙ ¸ ˛

\BNvii \BNviii \BNix \BNx \BNxx \BNxxx

‚ ‹ › “ ” „

\BNxl \BNl \BNlx \BNlxx \BNlxxx \BNxc

« » – — ‌ ‰

\BNc \BNcc \BNccc \BNcd \BNd \BNdc

ı ȷ ff fi

\BNdcc \BNdccc \BNcm \BNm

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

Table 275: linearb Linear B Weights and Measures Ď Ĺ

\BPtalent \BPvola

Ľ Ł

\BPvolb \BPvolcd

Ń Ă

\BPvolcf \BPwta

Ą Ć

\BPwtb \BPwtc

Č

\BPwtd

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

85


Table 276: linearb Linear B Ideograms Ž ij Ş ť ľ Ű ň đ § ÿ

ź Ř ŋ Ÿ š ě ş Ź Ů ď

\BPamphora \BParrow \BPbarley \BPbilly \BPboar \BPbronze \BPbull \BPcauldroni \BPcauldronii \BPchariot

ă ț Ț ń ĺ ś ř ł ¡ ż

\BPchassis \BPcloth \BPcow \BPcup \BPewe \BPfoal \BPgoat \BPgoblet \BPgold \BPhorse

Š ž Ť Ż IJ İ ą Ś

\BPman \BPnanny \BPolive \BPox \BPpig \BPram \BPsheep \BPsow \BPspear \BPsword

\BPwheat \BPwheel \BPwine \BPwineiih \BPwineiiih \BPwineivh \BPwoman \BPwool

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

Table 277: linearb Unidentified Linear B Symbols fl ffi ffl

\BUi \BUii \BUiii

␣ ! "

\BUiv \BUv \BUvi

# $ %

\BUvii \BUviii \BUix

& ’ ­

\BUx \BUxi \BUxii

­

\Btwe

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

Table 278: cypriot Cypriot Letters a e g i j b k K c h

\Ca \Ce \Cga \Ci \Cja \Cjo \Cka \Cke \Cki \Cko

v l L d f q m M y A

\Cku \Cla \Cle \Cli \Clo \Clu \Cma \Cme \Cmi \Cmo

B n N C E F o p P G

H I r R O U V s S Y

\Cmu \Cna \Cne \Cni \Cno \Cnu \Co \Cpa \Cpe \Cpi

\Cpo \Cpu \Cra \Cre \Cri \Cro \Cru \Csa \Cse \Csi

1 2 t T 3 4 5 u w W

\Cso \Csu \Cta \Cte \Cti \Cto \Ctu \Cu \Cwa \Cwe

6 7 x X j b g 9

\Cwi \Cwo \Cxa \Cxe \Cya \Cyo \Cza \Czo

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textcypr or following the \cyprfamily font-selection command within a scope. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textcypr{\Cpa\Cki\Cna}” and “\textcypr{pcn}” produce “pcn”, for example. See the cypriot documentation for more information.

86


Table 279: sarabian South Arabian Letters a b g d h w

\SAa \SAb \SAg \SAd \SAh \SAw

z H T y k l

\SAz \SAhd \SAtd \SAy \SAk \SAl

m n s f ‘ o

\SAm \SAn \SAs \SAf \SAlq \SAo

x q r S t I

D J G Z X B

\SAsd \SAq \SAr \SAsv \SAt \SAhu

\SAdb \SAtb \SAga \SAzd \SAsa \SAdd

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textsarab or following the \sarabfamily font-selection command within a scope. Singlecharacter shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textsarab{\SAb\SAk\SAn}” and “\textsarab{bkn}” produce “bkn”, for example. See the sarabian documentation for more information.

Table 280: teubner Archaic Greek Letters and Greek Numerals Ϙ ϙ ϝ

\Coppa† \coppa† \digamma∗,‡

Ϝ ϟ Ϡ

\Digamma∗ \koppa∗ \Sampi

ϡ Ϛ ϛ

\sampi∗ \Stigma \stigma∗

ϛ

\varstigma

Technically, these symbols do not require teubner; it is sufficient to load the babel package with the greek option (upon which teubner depends)—but use \qoppa for \koppa and \ddigamma for \digamma.

For compatibility with other naming conventions teubner defines \Koppa as a synonym for \Coppa and \varcoppa as a synonym for \coppa.

If both teubner and amssymb are loaded, teubner’s \digamma replaces amssymb’s \digamma, regardless of package-loading order.

87


7

Other symbols

The following are all the symbols that didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fit neatly or unambiguously into any of the previous sections. (Do weather symbols belong under â&#x20AC;&#x153;Science and technologyâ&#x20AC;?? Should dice be considered â&#x20AC;&#x153;mathematicsâ&#x20AC;??) While some of the tables contain clearly related groups of symbols (e.g., musical notes), others represent motley assortments of whatever the font designer felt like drawing.

Table 281: textcomp Genealogical Symbols b d

\textborn \textdied

c l

m

\textdivorced \textleaf

\textmarried

Table 282: wasysym General Symbols m

1 | 

\ataribox \bell \blacksmiley \Bowtie \brokenvert \checked

  L /  6

\clock \diameter \DOWNarrow \frownie \invdiameter \kreuz

    

\LEFTarrow \lightning \phone \pointer \recorder \RIGHTarrow

, â&#x2DC;ź K â&#x2014;&#x160;

\smiley \sun \UParrow \wasylozenge

!

\rightturn

Table 283: wasysym Circles # G

\CIRCLE \Circle \LEFTCIRCLE

# G I H

# H J "

\LEFTcircle \Leftcircle \RIGHTCIRCLE

\RIGHTcircle \Rightcircle \leftturn

Table 284: wasysym Musical Symbols

\eighthnote



\halfnote

\twonotes



\fullnote

â&#x2122;Š

\quarternote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 201 on page 65).

Table 285: arev Musical Symbols â&#x2122;Š

\quarternote

â&#x2122;Ş

\eighthnote

â&#x2122;Ź

\sixteenthnote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 201 on page 65).

88


Table 286: harmony Musical Symbols

== ˇ “ˇ “ “ =ˇ=( ˇ “ == ˇ“ ? DD

\AAcht

D /D

\Acht \AchtBL \AchtBR \AcPa \DD

/D ss SS

¯ <

\DDohne \Dohne \Ds \DS \Ganz \GaPa

˘“ <

== ˇ“ == ˇ “=

\Halb \HaPa \Pu \Sech \SechBL \SechBl

‰ ˇ“ ==ˇ ) “ ===“ ˇ

@ <

ˇ“ >

\SechBR

>

\VM

\SechBr \SePa \UB \Vier \ViPa

ˇ “* A

\Zwdr \ZwPa

The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony.

Table 287: harmony Musical Accents .a . a Aa \Ferli{A}\Ferli{a}∗ .a . a Aa \Fermi{A}\Fermi{a} Alal \Kr{A}\Kr{a} ∗

/A/a

\Ohne{A}\Ohne{a}∗

g Ag a \Umd{A}\Umd{a}∗

These symbols take an optional argument which shifts the accent either horizontally or vertically (depending on the command) by the given distance. In addition to the accents shown above, \HH is a special accent command which accepts five period-separated characters and typesets them such that b c “\HH.X.a.b.c.d.” produces “Xa d”. All arguments except the first can be omitted: “\HH.X.....” produces “X”. \Takt takes two arguments and composes them into a musical time signature. For example, “\Takt{12}{8}” produces “ 12 8 ”. As two special cases, “\Takt{c}{0}” produces “S ” and “\Takt{c}{1}” produces “R ”. The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony.

Table 288: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols 

\dbend

~

\lhdbend

\reversedvideodbend

Note that these symbols descend far beneath the baseline. manfnt also defines nondescending versions, which it calls, correspondingly, \textdbend, \textlhdbend, and \textreversedvideodbend.

Table 289: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols  $ % #  y !    

\manboldkidney \manconcentriccircles \manconcentricdiamond \mancone \mancube \manerrarrow \manfilledquartercircle \manhpennib \manimpossiblecube \mankidney \manlhpenkidney

 & ' "   7 x 6  89

\manpenkidney \manquadrifolium \manquartercircle \manrotatedquadrifolium \manrotatedquartercircle \manstar \mantiltpennib \mantriangledown \mantriangleright \mantriangleup \manvpennib


Table 290: marvosym Navigation Symbols ¡ ¸ š

Âť Âş Âś

\Forward \ForwardToEnd \ForwardToIndex

´ ¾ ½

\MoveDown \MoveUp \Rewind

\RewindToIndex \RewindToStart \ToBottom

Âź

\ToTop

Table 291: marvosym Laundry Symbols Ă&#x2DC; Ă&#x201C; Ă&#x2022; Ă&#x2039; ÂŤ ž Âż ÂŹ ­ Ă?

\AtForty \AtNinetyFive \AtSixty \Bleech \CleaningA \CleaningF \CleaningFF \CleaningP \CleaningPP \Dontwash

Ă&#x153; ÂŻ ° Âą Ă&#x152; ¨ ² Â? Ă&#x2014; Ă&#x2122;

\Handwash \IroningI \IroningII \IroningIII \NoBleech \NoChemicalCleaning \NoIroning \NoTumbler \ShortFifty \ShortForty

Ă&#x201D; Ă&#x2013; Ă&#x203A; Ă&#x161; Â? â&#x20AC;° Ĺ â&#x20AC;š

\ShortNinetyFive \ShortSixty \ShortThirty \SpecialForty \Tumbler \WashCotton \WashSynthetics \WashWool

Table 292: marvosym Information Symbols ÂŽ V U K X

\Bicycle \Checkedbox \Clocklogo \Coffeecup \Crossedbox

o x I i y

\Football \Gentsroom \Industry \Info \Ladiesroom

Z w b

\Pointinghand \Wheelchair \Writinghand

Table 293: Other marvosym Symbols Ë&#x2020; Ă˝ ÂĽ â&#x20AC;Ą ÂŞ

\Ankh \Bat \Bouquet \Celtcross \CircledA

â&#x20AC; F f § Â&#x17D;

Ĺ&#x2019; Ăż m @ :

\Cross \FHBOlogo \FHBOLOGO \Frowny \FullFHBO

\Heart \MartinVogel \Mundus \MVAt \MVRightarrow

Š Þ Y

\Smiley \Womanface \Yinyang

Table 294: Miscellaneous universa Symbols



 

\bauforms



\bauhead

Table 295: Miscellaneous universal Symbols \baudash \bauequal \bauface

Â&#x201E;

\bauforms \bauhead \bauplus

90

 

\bauquarter \bauquestion \bauwindow

Â&#x192;

\varQ


Table 296: Miscellaneous fourier Symbols L B â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

\bomb \danger

\grimace \noway

M A

\textthingâ&#x2C6;&#x2014; \textxswdownâ&#x2C6;&#x2014;

N U

T

\textxswupâ&#x2C6;&#x2014;

fourier defines math-mode aliases for a few of the preceding symbols: \thething (â&#x20AC;&#x153;Nâ&#x20AC;?), \xswordsup (â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tâ&#x20AC;?), and \xswordsdown (â&#x20AC;&#x153;Uâ&#x20AC;?).

Table 297: ifsym Weather Symbols  ! # " 

\Cloud \FilledCloud \FilledRainCloud \FilledSunCloud \FilledWeakRainCloud \Fog



\Hail \HalfSun \Lightning \NoSun \Rain \RainCloud

    

     

\Sleet \Snow \SnowCloud \Sun \SunCloud \ThinFog

  $

\WeakRain \WeakRainCloud \FilledSnowCloud

In addition, \Thermo{0}. . .\Thermo{6} produce thermometers that are between 0/6 and 6/6 full of mercury:

   

Similarly, \wind{hsuni}{hanglei}{hstrengthi} will draw wind symbols with a given amount of sun (0â&#x20AC;&#x201C;4), a given angle (in degrees), and a given strength in km/h (0â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 100). For example, \wind{0}{0}{0} produces â&#x20AC;&#x153; 0 â&#x20AC;?, \wind{2}{0}{0} produces â&#x20AC;&#x153; 0 â&#x20AC;?, and \wind{4}{0}{100} produces â&#x20AC;&#x153; : â&#x20AC;?.

      Â&#x2122; Â&#x2DC;

\SummitSign \StoneMan \Hut \FilledHut \Village

\Interval \StopWatchEnd

    

Â&#x2014; Â&#x2013;

Table 298: ifsym Alpine Symbols \Summit \Mountain \IceMountain \VarMountain \VarIceMountain

    

\SurveySign \Joch \Flag \VarFlag \Tent

 

Table 299: ifsym Clocks \StopWatchStart \Taschenuhr

Â&#x203A; Â&#x201D;

\VarClock

\HalfFilledHut \VarSummit

Â&#x161;

\Wecker

\VarTaschenuhr

ifsym also exports a \showclock macro. \showclock{hhoursi}{hminutesi} outputs a clock displaying the corresponding time. For instance, â&#x20AC;&#x153;\showclock{5}{40}â&#x20AC;? produces â&#x20AC;&#x153; â&#x20AC;?. hhoursi must be an integer from 0 to 11, and hminutesi must be an integer multiple of 5 from 0 to 55.

D

91




  : :

Table 300: Other ifsym Symbols \FilledSectioningDiamond \Fire \Irritant \Cube{1} \Cube{2} \StrokeOne \StrokeTwo

    :: ::

  (

;

\Letter \PaperLandscape \PaperPortrait \Cube{3} \Cube{4} \StrokeThree \StrokeFour

\Radiation \SectioningDiamond \Telephone \Cube{5} \Cube{6} \StrokeFive

Table 301: clock Clocks

i Â&#x2019; 12iiÂ&#x2019;Â&#x2019; 3iÂ&#x2019;

\ClockStyle

\ClockFramefalse

0 1 2 3

0 i Â&#x2019; 0012iiÂ&#x2019;Â&#x2019; 03iÂ&#x2019;

\ClockFrametrue

The clock package provides a \clock command to typeset an arbitrary time on an analog clock (and \clocktime to typeset the documentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s build time). For example, the clocks in the above table were produced with \clock{15}{41}. Clock symbols are composed from a font of clock-face fragments using one of four values for \ClockStyle and either \ClockFrametrue or \ClockFrametrue as illustrated above. See the clock documentation for more information.

Table 302: epsdice Dice \epsdice{1} \epsdice{2}

\epsdice{3} \epsdice{4}

\epsdice{5} \epsdice{6}

Table 303: hhcount Dice \fcdice{1} \fcdice{2}

\fcdice{3} \fcdice{4}

\fcdice{5} \fcdice{6}

The \fcdice command accepts values larger than 6. For example, â&#x20AC;&#x153;\fcdice{47}â&#x20AC;? produces â&#x20AC;&#x153; â&#x20AC;?.

Table 304: hhcount Tally Markers \fcscore{1} \fcscore{2}

\fcscore{3} \fcscore{4}

\fcscore{5}

The \fcscore command accepts values larger than 5. â&#x20AC;&#x153;\fcscore{47}â&#x20AC;? produces â&#x20AC;&#x153; â&#x20AC;?. 92

For example,


Table 305: skull Symbols

A

\skull

Table 306: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols

O

\rip

Table 307: skak Chess Informator Symbols g i b a e X O I + RR P l n V t G

\bbetter \bdecisive \betteris \bishoppair \bupperhand \capturesymbol \castlingchar \castlinghyphen \centre \checksymbol \chesscomment \chessetc \chesssee \compensation \counterplay \devadvantage \diagonal

d L j H O O-O-O x y m S U N F o r M s

\doublepawns \ending \equal \file \kside \longcastling \markera \markerb \mate \morepawns \moreroom \novelty \onlymove \opposbishops \passedpawn \qside \samebishops

93

q O-O T k u R f h J v A E C w c D

\seppawns \shortcastling \timelimit \unclear \unitedpawns \various \wbetter \wdecisive \weakpt \with \withattack \withidea \withinit \without \wupperhand \zugzwang


Table 308: skak Chess Pieces and Chessboard Squares

a b Z j k m n o p l q

\BlackBishopOnWhite

s r

\BlackEmptySquare

B

\symbishop

\BlackKingOnBlack

K

\symking

\BlackKingOnWhite

N

\symknight

\BlackKnightOnBlack

p

\sympawn

\BlackKnightOnWhite

Q

\symqueen

\BlackPawnOnBlack

R

\symrook

\BlackBishopOnBlack

\BlackPawnOnWhite \BlackQueenOnBlack \BlackQueenOnWhite

A B 0

\BlackRookOnBlack \BlackRookOnWhite

\WhiteBishopOnBlack \WhiteBishopOnWhite

J K M N O P L Q S R

\WhiteKingOnBlack \WhiteKingOnWhite \WhiteKnightOnBlack \WhiteKnightOnWhite \WhitePawnOnBlack \WhitePawnOnWhite \WhiteQueenOnBlack \WhiteQueenOnWhite \WhiteRookOnBlack \WhiteRookOnWhite

\WhiteEmptySquare

The skak package also provides commands for drawing complete chessboards. See the skak documentation for more information.

} | ~ 

Table 309: igo Go Stones

} | ~ 

\blackstone[\igocircle] \blackstone[\igocross] \blackstone[\igonone] \blackstone[\igosquare] \blackstone[\igotriangle]

\whitestone[\igocircle] \whitestone[\igocross] \whitestone[\igonone] \whitestone[\igosquare] \whitestone[\igotriangle]

In addition to the symbols shown above, igoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s \blackstone and \whitestone commands accept numbers from 1 to 99 and display them circled as , , , . . . and , , , . . . , respectively.

c





c

The igo package is intended to typeset Go boards (goban). See the igo documentation for more information.

94


Table 310: metre Metrical Symbols ×

´˘ ˘ ´˘˘ ˘´˘ ˘˘ ˘˘´ ˘˘ ˘˘˘ ¯˘´¯˘ ×

¯˘¯˘´ ¯˘´¯˘ ¯˘˘¯˘˘ ¯˘¯ ¯˘˘¯¯¯˘ ˘ ´¯˘¯

\a \B \b \Bb \BB \bb \bB \bba \bbb \BBm

\bBm \bbm \Bbm \bbmb \bbmx \bm \Bm \c \C \Cc

¯ ´¯ ¯ ¯´˘ ¯˘ ¯˘´¯˘ ¯˘¯˘´ ¯˘¯˘ ×

\cc \Ccc \m \M \ma \Mb \mb \mBb \mbB \mbb

¯˘´¯˘ ¯˘¯¯˘¯˘ ◦◦

\Mbb \mbbx \oo \p \pm \pp \Pp \ppm \ppp \Ppp

˙ ¯˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ¯˙˙˙ ˙ ˙˙˙ ˙

˙˙ ˙ ˙˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ∼ ∼

\Pppp \pppp \Ppppp \ppppp \ps \pxp \Pxp \R \r \T

¯˙ ¯˙ ˙˙˙˙

\t \tsbm \tsmb \tsmm \vppm \vpppm \x

The preceding symbols are valid only within the argument to the metre command.

Table 311: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols ÷

< · < · ⊃

× ···· ∧

> · > ·

·· ∼ ⊗ ⊕

\anaclasis \antidiple \antidiple* \antisigma \asteriscus \catalexis \diple \diple* \obelus \obelus* \respondens \terminus \terminus*

÷

< · < · ⊃

× ···· ∧

> >·· ·· ∼ ⊗ ⊕

\Anaclasis \Antidiple \Antidiple* \Antisigma \Asteriscus \Catalexis \Diple \Diple* \Obelus \Obelus* \Respondens \Terminus \Terminus*

Table 312: teubner Metrical Symbols Ι Θ Κ Ξ Ζ Ψ θ

\aeolicbii \aeolicbiii \aeolicbiv \anceps \ancepsdbrevis \banceps \barbbrevis

ι ς β γ ̮ Ϙ H

\barbrevis \bbrevis \brevis \catal \corona \coronainv \hiatus

η λ ε δ φ κ

\ipercatal \longa \ubarbbrevis \ubarbrevis \ubarsbrevis \ubrevislonga

The teubner package provides a \newmetrics command that helps users combine the preceding symbols as well as other teubner symbols. For example, the predefined \pentam symbol uses \newmetrics to juxtapose six \longas, two \barbbrevises, four \brevises, and a \dBar into “λθλθλ||λββλββλ”. See the teubner documentation for more information.

95


Table 313: dictsym Dictionary Symbols a G A B C

\dsaeronautical \dsagricultural \dsarchitectural \dsbiological \dschemical

c H J L M

\dscommercial \dsheraldical \dsjuridical \dsliterary \dsmathematical

m X R T

\dsmedical \dsmilitary \dsrailways \dstechnical

Table 314: simpsons Characters from The Simpsons



\Bart



\Homer

\Maggie

\Burns



\Lisa



\Marge



\SNPP

The location of the characters’ pupils can be controlled with the \Goofy command. See A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters [Che97] for more information. Also, each of the above can be prefixed with \Left to make the character face left instead of right:



\Left\Bart

96


Table 315: pmboxdraw Box-Drawing Symbols \textblock

\textSFli

\textSFxli

\textSFxxiii

\textdkshade

\textSFlii

\textSFxlii

\textSFxxiv

\textdnblock \textlfblock

\textSFliii \textSFliv

\textSFxliii \textSFxliv

\textSFxxv \textSFxxvi

\textltshade

\textSFv

\textSFxlix

\textSFxxvii

\textrtblock

\textSFvi

\textSFxlv

\textSFxxviii

\textSFi

\textSFvii

\textSFxlvi

\textSFxxxix

\textSFii

\textSFviii

\textSFxlvii

\textSFxxxvi

\textSFiii

\textSFx

\textSFxlviii

\textSFxxxvii

\textSFiv

\textSFxi

\textSFxx

\textSFxxxviii

\textSFix

\textSFxix

\textSFxxi

\textshade

\textSFl

\textSFxl

\textSFxxii

\textupblock

Code Page 437 (CP437), which was first utilized by the original IBM PC, contains the set of box-drawing symbols (sides, corners, and intersections of single- and double-ruled boxes) shown above in character positions 176â&#x20AC;&#x201C;223. These symbols also appear in the Unicode Box Drawing and Block Element tables. The pmboxdraw package draws the CP437 box-drawing symbols using TEX rules (specifically, \vrule) instead of with a font and thereby provides the ability to alter both rule width and the separation between rules. See the pmboxdraw documentation for more information.

Table 316: staves Magical Staves \staveI



\staveXXIV

.

\staveXLVII



\staveII



\staveXXV

/

\staveXLVIII



\staveIII



\staveXXVI

0

\staveXLIX



\staveIV



\staveXXVII

1

\staveL



\staveV



\staveXXVIII

2

\staveLI



\staveVI



\staveXXIX

3

\staveLII



\staveVII



\staveXXX

4

\staveLIII



\staveVIII



\staveXXXI

5

\staveLIV



\staveIX



\staveXXXII

6

\staveLV

\staveX

\staveXXXIII

7

\staveLVI

\staveXI

\staveXXXIV

8

\staveLVII

!

(continued on next page)

97


(continued from previous page)

\staveXII

"

\staveXXXV

9

\staveLVIII

\staveXIII

#

\staveXXXVI

:

\staveLIX

\staveXIV

$

\staveXXXVII

;

\staveLX



\staveXV

%

\staveXXXVIII

<

\staveLXI



\staveXVI

&

\staveXXXIX

=

\staveLXII



\staveXVII

'

\staveXL

>

\staveLXIII



\staveXVIII

(

\staveXLI

?

\staveLXIV



\staveXIX

)

\staveXLII

@

\staveLXV



\staveXX

*

\staveXLIII

A

\staveLXVI



\staveXXI

+

\staveXLIV

B

\staveLXVII



\staveXXII

,

\staveXLV

C

\staveLXVIII



\staveXXIII

-

\staveXLVI

The meanings of these symbols are described on the Web site for the Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft at http://www.galdrasyning.is/ index.php?option=com content&task=category&sectionid=5&id=18&Itemid= 60 (TinyURL: http://tinyurl.com/25979m). For example, \staveL (â&#x20AC;&#x153;1â&#x20AC;?) is intended to ward off ghosts and evil spirits.

Table 317: pigpen Cipher Symbols A B C D E F G H I

{

{\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont

A} B} C} D} E} F} G} H} I}

J K L M N O P Q R

{\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont

J} K} L} M} N} O} P} Q} R}

S T U V W X Y Z

Table 318: ChinA2e Phases of the Moon \MoonPha{1}

 <

|

\MoonPha{2}

}

\MoonPha{3}

{\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont {\pigpenfont

~

Table 319: Other ChinA2e Symbols \Greenpoint \Info

# >

\Postbox \Request 98

@

\Telephone

S} T} U} V} W} X} Y} Z}

\MoonPha{4}


A

A

Table 320: recycle Recycling Symbols

A

\recycle

\Recycle

\RECYCLE

The METAFONT code that implements the recycling symbols shown above is, in the words of its author, “awful code [that] doesn’t even put the logo in a box (properly)”. Expect to receive “Inconsistent equation (off by hnumber i)” errors from METAFONT. Fortunately, if you tell METAFONT to proceed past those errors (e.g., by pressing Enter after each one or by specifying “-interaction=nonstopmode” on the METAFONT command line) it should produce a valid font. The commands listed above should be used within a group (e.g., “{\recycle}”) because they exhibit the side effect of changing the font to the recycle font.

99


8

Additional Information

Unlike the previous sections of this document, Section 8 does not contain new symbol tables. Rather, it provides additional help in using the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List. First, it draws attention to symbol names used by multiple packages. Next, it provides some guidelines for finding symbols and gives some examples regarding how to construct missing symbols out of existing ones. Then, it comments on the spacing surrounding symbols in math mode. After that, it presents an ASCII and Latin 1 quick-reference guide, showing how to enter all of the standard ASCII/Latin 1 symbols in LATEX. And finally, it lists some statistics about this document itself.

8.1

Symbol Name Clashes

Unfortunately, a number of symbol names are not unique; they appear in more than one package. Depending on how the symbols are defined in each package, LATEX will either output an error message or replace an earlier-defined symbol with a later-defined symbol. Table 321 on the following page presents a selection of name clashes that appear in this document. Using multiple symbols with the same name in the same document—or even merely loading conflicting symbol packages—can be tricky but, as evidenced by the existence of Table 321, not impossible. The general procedure is to load the first package, rename the conflicting symbols, and then load the second package. Examine the LATEX source for this document (symbols.tex) for examples of this and other techniques for handling symbol conflicts. Note that symbols.tex’s \savesymbol and \restoresymbol macros have been extracted into the savesym package, which can be downloaded from CTAN. txfonts and pxfonts redefine a huge number of symbols—essentially, all of the symbols defined by latexsym, textcomp, the various AMS symbol sets, and LATEX 2ε itself. Similarly, mathabx redefines a vast number of math symbols in an attempt to improve their look. The txfonts, pxfonts, and mathabx conflicts are not listed in Table 321 because they are designed to be compatible with the symbols they replace. Table 322 on page 102 illustrates what “compatible” means in this context. To use the new txfonts/pxfonts symbols without altering the document’s main font, merely reset the default font families back to their original values after loading one of those packages: \renewcommand\rmdefault{cmr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{cmss} \renewcommand\ttdefault{cmtt}

8.2

Resizing symbols

Mathematical symbols listed in this document as “variable-sized” are designed to stretch vertically. Each variable-sized symbol comes in one or more basic sizes plus a variation comprising both stretchable and nonstretchable segments. Table 323 on page 102 presents the symbols \} and \uparrow in their default size, in their \big, \Big, \bigg, and \Bigg sizes, in an even larger size achieved using \left/\right, and—for contrast—in a large size achieved by changing the font size using LATEX 2ε ’s \fontsize command. Because the symbols shown belong to the Computer Modern family, the type1cm package needs to be loaded to support font sizes larger than 24.88 pt. Note how \fontsize makes the symbol wider and thicker. (The graphicx package’s \scalebox or \resizebox commands would produce a similar effect.) Also, the \fontsize-enlarged symbol is vertically centered relative to correspondingly large text, unlike the symbols enlarged using \big et al. or \left/\right, which all use the same math axis regardless of symbol size. However, \fontsize is not limited to mathematical delimiters. Also, \scalebox and \resizebox are more robust to poorly composed symbols (e.g., two symbols made to overlap by backspacing a fixed distance) but do not work with every TEX backend and will produce jagged symbols when scaling a bitmapped font. All variable-sized delimiters are defined (by the corresponding .tfm file) in terms of up to five segments, as illustrated by Figure 1 on page 102. The top, middle, and bottom segments are of a fixed size. The top-middle and middle-bottom segments (which are constrained to be the same character) are repeated as many times as necessary to achieve the desired height.

8.3

Where can I find the symbol for . . . ?

If you can’t find some symbol you’re looking for in this document, there are a few possible explanations:

100


101

\baro \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \checkmark \Circle \Cross \ggg \Letter \lightning \Lightning \lll \Square \Sun \TriangleDown \TriangleUp

Symbol 5 4

LATEX 2Îľ

â&#x2030;Ş

â&#x2030;Ť

X

AMS ` a

stmaryrd





#

wasysym

@

Ă&#x17D;

Ă?

mathabx

Ă&#x20AC;

E

B

â&#x20AC;

marvosym

Table 321: Symbol Name Clashes

f o n

*

bbding

0  3 1



5 

ifsym

D

dingbat

<

wsuipa


Table 322: Example of a Benign Name Clash Symbol

Default (Computer Modern)

txfonts (Times Roman)

R “

R “

R \textrecipe

Table 323: Sample resized delimiters Symbol

\}

Default size

\big

\bigg

o

}

\Big

\Bigg

\left / \right

)

                

\uparrow

                                        

−→

x   

x  

x 

x    

top

top-middle (extensible)

middle

middle-bottom (extensible)

bottom

x            

Figure 1: Implementation of variable-sized delimiters

102

\fontsize

} ↑


• The symbol isn’t intuitively named. As a few examples, the ifsym command to draw dice is “\Cube”; a plus sign with a circle around it (“exclusive or” to computer engineers) is “\oplus”; and lightning bolts in fonts designed by German speakers may have “blitz” in their names as in the ulsy package. The moral of the story is to be creative with synonyms when searching the index. • The symbol is defined by some package that I overlooked (or deemed unimportant). If there’s some symbol package that you think should be included in the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List, please send me e-mail at the address listed on the title page. • The symbol isn’t defined in any package whatsoever. Even in the last case, all is not lost. Sometimes, a symbol exists in a font, but there is no LATEX binding for it. For example, the PostScript Symbol font contains a “↵” symbol, which may be useful for representing a carriage return, but there is no package (as far as I know) for accessing that symbol. To produce an unnamed symbol, you need to switch to the font explicitly with LATEX 2ε ’s low-level font commands [LAT00] and use TEX’s primitive \char command [Knu86a] to request a specific character number in the font.5 In fact, \char is not strictly necesssary; the character can often be entered symbolically. For example, the symbol for an impulse train or Tate-Shafarevich group (“ ”) is actually an uppercase sha in the Cyrillic alphabet. (Cyrillic is supported by the OT2 font encoding, for instance). While a sha can be defined numerically as “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont\char88}” it may be more intuitive to use the OT2 font encoding’s “SH” ligature: “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont SH}”.

X

Reflecting and rotating existing symbols A common request on comp.text.tex is for a reversed or rotated version of an existing symbol. As a last resort, these effects can be achieved with the graphicx (or graphics) package’s \reflectbox and \rotatebox macros. For example, \textsuperscript{\reflectbox{?}} produces an irony mark (“ ? ”; cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irony mark), and \rotatebox[origin=c]{180}{$\iota$} produces the definite-description operator (“ ”). The disadvantage of the graphicx/graphics approach is that not every TEX backend handles graphical transformations.6 Far better is to find a suitable font that contains the desired symbol in the correct orientation. For instance, if the phonetic package is available, then \textit{\riota} will yield a backend-independent “ ”. Similarly, tipa’s \textrevepsilon (“3”) or wsuipa’s \revepsilon (“”) may be used to express the mathematical notion of “such that” in a cleaner manner than with \reflectbox or \rotatebox.7 ι

Joining and overlapping existing symbols Symbols that do not exist in any font can sometimes be fabricated out of existing symbols. The LATEX 2ε source file fontdef.dtx contains a number of such definitions. For example, \models (see Table 67 on page 30) is defined in that file with: \def\models{\mathrel|\joinrel=} where \mathrel and \joinrel are used to control the horizontal spacing. \def is the TEX primitive upon which LATEX’s \newcommand is based. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information on all three of those commands. With some simple pattern-matching, one can easily define a backward \models sign (“=|”): \def\ismodeledby{=\joinrel\mathrel|} In general, arrows/harpoons, horizontal lines (“=”, “-”, “\relbar”, and “\Relbar”), and the various mathextension characters can be combined creatively with miscellaneous other characters to produce a variety of new symbols. Of course, new symbols can be composed from any set of existing characters. For instance, LATEX defines \hbar (“~”) as a “¯” character (\mathchar’26) followed by a backspace of 9 math units (\mkern-9mu), followed by the letter “h”: \def\hbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9muh}} 5 pifont

defines a convenient \Pisymbol command for accessing symbols in PostScript fonts by number. “\Pisymbol{psy}{191}” produces “↵”. 6 As an example, Xdvi ignores both \reflectbox and \rotatebox. 7 More common symbols for representing “such that” include “|”, “:”, and “s.t.”.

103

For example,


We can just as easily define other barred letters: \def\bbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9mu b}} \def\dbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-12mu d}} (The space after the “mu” is optional but is added for clarity.) \bbar and \dbar define “¯b” and “¯ d”, respectively. Note that \dbar requires a greater backward math kern than \bbar; a −9 mu kern would have produced the less-attractive “¯ d” glyph. The amsmath package provides \overset and \underset commands for placing one symbol respectively G above or below another. For example, \overset{G}{\sim}8 produces “∼” (sometimes used for “equidecomposable with respect to G”). Sometimes an ordinary tabular environment can be co-opted into juxtaposing existing symbols into a new symbol. Consider the following definition of \asterism (“** * ”) from a June 2007 post to comp.text.tex by Peter Flynn: \newcommand{\asterism}{\smash{% \raisebox{-.5ex}{% \setlength{\tabcolsep}{-.5pt}% \begin{tabular}{@{}cc@{}}% \multicolumn2c*\\[-2ex]*&*% \end{tabular}}}} Note how the space between columns (\tabcolsep) and rows (\\[. . . ]) is made negative to squeeze the asterisks closer together. There is a TEX primitive called \mathaccent that centers one mathematical symbol atop another. For · example, one can define \dotcup (“∪”)—the composition of a \cup and a \cdot—as follows: \newcommand{\dotcup}{\ensuremath{\mathaccent\cdot\cup}} The catch is that \mathaccent requires the accent to be a “math character”. That is, it must be a character in a math font as opposed to a symbol defined in terms of other symbols. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information. Another TEX primitive that is useful for composing symbols is \vcenter. \vcenter is conceptually similar to “\begin{tabular}{l}” in LATEX but takes a list of vertical material instead of \\-separated rows. Also, it vertically centers the result on the math axis. (Many operators, such as “+” and “−” are also vertically centered on the math axis.) Enrico Gregorio posted the following symbol definition to comp.text.tex in March 2004 in response to a query about an alternate way to denote equivalence: \newcommand*{\threesim}{% \mathrel{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip \hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}}}} The \threesim symbol, which vertically centers three \sim (“∼”) symbols with 0.35 x-heights of space between ∼ them, is rendered as “∼ ∼”. \offinterlineskip is a macro that disables implicit interline spacing. Without it, \threesim would have a full line of vertical spacing between each \sim. Because of \vcenter, \threesim ∼ aligns properly with other math operators: a ÷ b ∼ ∼ c × d. A related LATEX command, borrowed from Plain TEX, is \ooalign. \ooalign vertically overlaps symbols and works both within and outside of math mode. Essentially, it creates a single-column tabular environment with zero vertical distance between rows. However, because it is based directly on TEX’s \ialign primitive, \ooalign uses TEX’s tabular syntax instead of LATEX’s (i.e., with \cr as the row terminator instead of \\). The ◦ following example of \ooalign, a macro that defines a standard-state symbol (\stst, “− ”) as a superscripted 9 Plimsoll line (\barcirc, “− ◦ ”), is due to an October 2007 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau: \makeatletter \providecommand\barcirc{\mathpalette\@barred\circ} \def\@barred#1#2{\ooalign{\hfil$#1-$\hfil\cr\hfil$#1#2$\hfil\cr}} \newcommand\stst{^{\protect\barcirc}} \makeatother 8L AT

EX’s \stackrel command is similar but is limited to placing a symbol above a binary relation. \barcirc illustrates how to combine symbols using \ooalign, the stmaryrd package’s \minuso command (Table 46 on page 22) provides a similar glyph (“ ”) as a single, indivisible symbol. 9 While

104


In the preceding code, note the \ooalign call’s use of \hfil to horizontally center a minus sign (“−”) and a \circ (“◦”). As another example of \ooalign, consider the following code (due to Enrico Gregorio in a June 2007 post to comp.text.tex) that overlaps a \ni (“3”) and two minus signs (“− −”) to produce “3 − −”, an obscure variation on the infrequently used “3” symbol for “such that”discussed on page 103: \newcommand{\suchthat}{% \mathrel{\ooalign{$\ni$\cr\kern-1pt$-$\kern-6.5pt$-$}}} The slashed package, although originally designed for producing Feynman slashed-character notation, in fact facilitates the production of arbitrary overlapped symbols. The default behavior is to overwrite a given / character with “/”. For example, \slashed{D} produces “D”. However, the \declareslashed command provides the flexibility to specify the mathematical context of the composite character (operator, relation, punctuation, etc., as will be discussed in Section 8.4), the overlapping symbol, horizontal and vertical adjustments in symbol-relative units, and the character to be overlapped. Consider, for example, the symbol for reduced quadrupole moment (“I”). This can be declared as follows: \newcommand{\rqm}{{% \declareslashed{}{\text{-}}{0.04}{0}{I}\slashed{I}}} \declareslashed{·}{·}{·}{·}{I} affects the meaning of all subsequent \slashed{I} commands in the same scope. The preceding definition of \rqm therefore uses an extra set of curly braces to limit that scope to a single \slashed{I}. In addition, \rqm uses amstext’s \text macro (described on the next page) to make \declareslashed use a text-mode hyphen (“-”) instead of a math-mode minus sign (“−”) and to ensure that the hyphen scales properly in size in subscripts and superscripts. See slashed’s documentation (located in slashed.sty itself) for a detailed usage description of the \slashed and \declareslashed commands. Somewhat simpler than slashed is the centernot package. centernot provides a single command, \centernot, which, like \not, puts a slash over the subsequent mathematical symbol. However, instead of putting the slash at a fixed location, \centernot centers the slash over its argument. \centernot might be used, for example, to create a “does not imply” symbol: 6=⇒

\not\Longrightarrow vs.

=⇒ 6

\centernot\Longrightarrow

See the centernot documentation for more information. Making new symbols work in superscripts and subscripts To make composite symbols work properly within subscripts and superscripts, you may need to use TEX’s \mathchoice primitive. \mathchoice evaluates one of four expressions, based on whether the current math style is display, text, script, or scriptscript. (See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for a more complete description.) For example, the following LATEX code—posted to comp.text.tex by Torsten Bronger—composes a sub/superscriptable “⊥ >” symbol out of \top and \bot (“>” and “⊥”): \def\topbotatom#1{\hbox{\hbox to 0pt{$#1\bot$\hss}$#1\top$}} \newcommand*{\topbot}{\mathrel{\mathchoice{\topbotatom\displaystyle} {\topbotatom\textstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptscriptstyle}}} The following is another example that uses \mathchoice to construct symbols in different math modes. The code defines a principal value integral symbol, which is an integral sign with a line through it. \def\Xint#1{\mathchoice {\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% 105


\!\int} \def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$} \vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-.5\wd0}} \def\ddashint{\Xint=} \def\dashint{\Xint-} (The preceding code was taken verbatim from the UK TERX Users’ Group FAQ at http://www.tex.ac.uk/ faq.) R\dashint produces a single-dashed integral sign (“−”), while \ddashint produces a double-dashed R one (“=”). The \Xint macro Rdefined above can also be usedR to generate a wealthR of new integrals: “” (\Xint\circlearrowright), “ ” (\Xint\circlearrowleft), “⊂” (\Xint\subset), “∞” (\Xint\infty), and so forth. LATEX 2ε provides a simple wrapper for \mathchoice that sometimes helps produce terser symbol definitions. The macro is called \mathpalette and it takes two arguments. \mathpalette invokes the first argument, passing it one of “\displaystyle”, “\textstyle”, “\scriptstyle”, or “\scriptscriptstyle”, followed by the second argument. \mathpalette is useful when a symbol macro must know which math style is currently in use (e.g., to set it explicitly within an \mbox). Donald Arseneau posted the following \mathpalette-based definition of a probabilistic-independence symbol (“⊥ ⊥”) to comp.text.tex in June 2000: \newcommand\independent{\protect\mathpalette{\protect\independenT}{\perp}} \def\independenT#1#2{\mathrel{\rlap{$#1#2$}\mkern2mu{#1#2}}} The \independent macro uses \mathpalette to pass the \independenT helper macro both the current math style and the \perp symbol. \independenT typesets \perp in the current math style, moves two math units to the right, and finally typesets a second—overlapping—copy of \perp, again in the current math style. \rlap, which enables text overlap, is described later on this page. √ ”) as this helps visually distinguish Some people like their square-root signs with a trailing “hook” (i.e., “ √ √ expressions like “ 3x ” from those like “ 3x”. In March 2002, Dan Luecking posted a \mathpalette-based definition of a hooked square-root symbol to comp.text.tex: \def\hksqrt{\mathpalette\DHLhksqrt} \def\DHLhksqrt#1#2{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1\sqrt{#2\,}$}\dimen0=\ht0 \advance\dimen0-0.2\ht0 \setbox2=\hbox{\vrule height\ht0 depth -\dimen0}% {\box0\lower0.4pt\box2}} Notice how \DHLhksqrt uses \mathpalette to recover the outer math style (argument #1) from within an \hbox. The rest of the code is simply using TEX primitives to position a hook of height 0.2 times the \sqrt height at the right of the \sqrt. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more understanding of TEX “boxes” and “dimens”. Sometimes, however, amstext’s \text macro is all that is necessary to make composite symbols appear correctly in subscripts and superscripts, as in the following definitions of \neswarrow (“% .”) and \nwsearrow (“&”):10 \newcommand{\neswarrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nearrow$\llap{$\swarrow$}}}} \newcommand{\nwsearrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nwarrow$\llap{$\searrow$}}}} \text resembles LATEX’s \mbox command but shrinks its argument appropriately when used within a subscript or superscript. \llap (“left overlap”) and its counterpart, \rlap (“right overlap”), appear frequently when creating composite characters. \llap outputs its argument to the left of the current position, overlapping whatever text is already there. Similarly, \rlap overlaps whatever text would normally appear to the right of its argument. For example, “A\llap{B}” and “\rlap{A}B” each produce “A B”. However, the result of the former is the width of “A”, and the result of the latter is the width of “B”—\llap{. . . } and \rlap{. . . } take up zero space. In a June 2002 post to comp.text.tex, Donald Arseneau presented a general macro for aligning an arbitrary number of symbols on their horizontal centers and vertical baselines: 10 Note

that if your goal is to typeset commutative diagrams or pushout/pullback diagrams, then you should probably be using

XY-pic.

106


\makeatletter \def\moverlay{\mathpalette\mov@rlay} \def\mov@rlay#1#2{\leavevmode\vtop{% \baselineskip\z@skip \lineskiplimit-\maxdimen \ialign{\hfil$#1##$\hfil\cr#2\crcr}}} \makeatother The \makeatletter and \makeatother commands are needed to coerce LATEX into accepting “@” as part of a macro name. \moverlay takes a list of symbols separated by \cr (TEX’s equivalent of LATEX’s \\). For example, the \topbot command defined on page 105 could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\top\cr\bot}” and the \neswarrow command defined on the previous page could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\nearrow\cr\swarrow}”. The basic concept behind \moverlay’s implementation is that \moverlay typesets the given symbols in a table that utilizes a zero \baselineskip. This causes every row to be typeset at the same vertical position. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for explanations of the TEX primitives used by \moverlay. Modifying LATEX-generated symbols Oftentimes, symbols composed in the LATEX 2ε source code can be modified with minimal effort to produce useful variations. For example, fontdef.dtx composes the \ddots symbol (see Table 189 on page 63) out of three periods, raised 7 pt., 4 pt., and 1 pt., respectively: \def\ddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise7\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}} \p@ is a LATEX 2ε shortcut for “pt” or “1.0pt”. The remaining commands are defined in The TEXbook [Knu86a]. To draw a version of \ddots with the dots going along the opposite diagonal, we merely have to reorder the \raise7\p@, \raise4\p@, and \raise\p@: \makeatletter \def\revddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise7\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}} \makeatother \revddots is essentially identical to the mathdots package’s \iddots command or the yhmath package’s \adots command. Producing complex accents Accents are a special case of combining existing symbols to make new symbols. While various tables in this document show how to add an accent to an existing symbol, some applications, such as transliterations from non-Latin alphabets, require multiple accents per character. For instance, the creator of pdfTEX writes his name as “H` an Th´ ˆe Th` anh”. The dblaccnt package enables LATEX to stack accents, as in “H\‘an Th\’{\^e} Th\‘anh” (albeit not in the OT1 font encoding). In addition, the wsuipa package defines \diatop and \diaunder macros for putting one or more diacritics or accents above or below a given character. For example, \diaunder[{\diatop[\’|\=]}|\textsubdot{r}] produces “´¯r”. See the wsuipa documentation for ˙ more information. The accents package facilitates the fabrication of accents in math mode. Its \accentset command en? ables any character to be used as an accent. For instance, \accentset{\star}{f} produces “f ” and e \accentset{e}{X} produces “X”. \underaccent does the same thing, but places the accent beneath the character. This enables constructs like \underaccent{\tilde}{V}, which produces “V ”. accents provides ˜ other accent-related features as well; see the documentation for more information. Creating extensible symbols A relatively simple example of creating extensible symbols stems from a comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau (June 2003). The following code defines an equals sign that extends as far to the right as possible, just like LATEX’s \hrulefill command: 107


\makeatletter \def\equalsfill{$\m@th\mathord=\mkern-7mu \cleaders\hbox{$\!\mathord=\!$}\hfill \mkern-7mu\mathord=$} \makeatother TEX’s \cleaders and \hfill primitives are the key to understanding \equalsfill’s extensibility. Essentially, \equalsfill repeats a box containing “=” plus some negative space until it fills the maximum available horizontal space. \equalsfill is intended to be used with LATEX’s \stackrel command, which stacks one mathematical expression (slightly reduced in size) atop another. Hence, “\stackrel{a}{\rightarrow}” a

definition

produces “→” and “X \stackrel{\text{definition}}{\hbox{\equalsfill}} Y” produces “X ======= Y ”. If all that needs to extend are horizontal and vertical lines—as opposed to repeated symbols such as the “=” in the previous example—LATEX’s array or tabular environments may suffice. Consider the following code (due to a February 1999 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau and subsequent modifications by Billy Yu and Scott Pakin) for typesetting annuity and life-insurance symbols: \DeclareRobustCommand{\actuarial}[2][]{% \def\arraystretch{0}% \setlength\arraycolsep{0.5pt}% \setlength\arrayrulewidth{0.5pt}% \setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle#1#2$}% \begin{array}[b]{*2{@{}>{\scriptstyle}c}|} \cline{2-2}% \rule[1.25pt]{0pt}{\ht0}% #1 & #2% \end{array}% } Using the preceding definition, one can type, e.g., “$a_{\actuarial{n}}$” to produce “an ” and “$a_{\actuarial[x:]{n}}$” to produce “ax:n ” A more complex example of composing accents is the following definition of extensible \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis symbols, taken from a May 2002 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau: \makeatletter \def\overbracket#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underbracket#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\overparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\downparenthfill{$\m@th\braceld\leaders\vrule\hfill\bracerd$} \def\upparenthfill{$\m@th\bracelu\leaders\vrule\hfill\braceru$} \def\upbracketfill{$\m@th\makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@}}$} \def\downbracketfill{$\m@th \makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.7\p@}}$} \makeatother

108


Table 324 showcases these accents. The TEXbook [Knu86a] or another book on TEX primitives is indispensible for understanding how the preceding code works. The basic idea is that \downparenthfill, \upparenthfill, \downbracketfill, and \upbracketfill do all of the work; they output a left symbol (e.g., \braceld [“z”] for \downparenthfill), a horizontal rule that stretches as wide as possible, and a right symbol (e.g., \bracerd [“{”] for \downparenthfill). \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis merely create a table whose width is determined by the given text, thereby constraining the width of the horizontal rules. Table 324: Manually Composed Extensible Accents z { abc \overbracket{abc} abc \overparenthesis{abc} abc

\underbracket{abc}

abc | }

\underparenthesis{abc}

Note that the simplewick package provides mechanisms for typesetting Wick contractions, which utilize \overbracket- and \underbracket-like brackets of variable width and height (or depth). For example, “\acontraction{}{A}{B}{C}\acontraction[2ex]{A}{B}{C}{D}\bcontraction{}{A}{BC}{D}ABCD” produces ABCD

.

See the simplewick documentation for more information. Developing new symbols from scratch Sometimes is it simply not possible to define a new symbol in terms of existing symbols. Fortunately, most, if not all, TEX distributions are shipped with a tool called METAFONT which is designed specifically for creating fonts to be used with TEX. The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the authoritative text on METAFONT. If you plan to design your own symbols with METAFONT, The METAFONTbook is essential reading. You may also want to read the freely available METAFONT primer located at http://metafont.tutorial.free.fr/. The following is an extremely brief tutorial on how to create a new LATEX symbol using METAFONT. Its primary purpose is to cover the LATEX-specific operations not mentioned in The METAFONTbook and to demonstrate that symbol-font creation is not necessarily a difficult task. Suppose we need a symbol to represent a light bulb (“A”).11 The first step is to draw this in METAFONT. It is common to separate the font into two files: a size-dependent file, which specifies the design size and various font-specific parameters that are a function of the design size; and a size-independent file, which draws characters in the given size. Figure 2 shows the METAFONT code for lightbulb10.mf. lightbulb10.mf specifies various parameters that produce a 10 pt. light bulb then loads lightbulb.mf. Ideally, one should produce lightbulbhsizei.mf files for a variety of hsizeis. This is called “optical scaling”. It enables, for example, the lines that make up the light bulb to retain the same thickness at different font sizes, which looks much nicer than the alternative—and default—“mechanical scaling”. When a lightbulbhsizei.mf file does not exist for a given size hsizei, the computer mechanically produces a wider, taller, thicker symbol:

A 10 pt.

vs.

A

20 pt.

vs.

A

30 pt.

vs.

A

vs.

40 pt.

A A vs.

50 pt.

60 pt.

vs.

A 70 pt.

lightbulb.mf, shown in Figure 3, draws a light bulb using the parameters defined in lightbulb10.mf. Note that the the filenames “lightbulb10.mf” and “lightbulb.mf” do not follow the Berry font-naming scheme [Ber01]; the Berry font-naming scheme is largely irrelevant for symbol fonts, which generally lack bold, italic, small-caps, slanted, and other such variants. The code in Figures Figure 2 and Figure 3 is heavily commented and should demonstrate some of the basic concepts behind METAFONT usage: declaring variables, defining points, drawing lines and curves, and preparing to debug or fine-tune the output. Again, The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the definitive reference on METAFONT programming. 11 I’m

not a very good artist; you’ll have to pretend that “A” looks like a light bulb.

109


font identifier := "LightBulb10"; font size 10pt#; em# := 10pt#; cap# := 7pt#; sb# := 1/4pt#; o# := 1/16pt#;

% Name the font. % Specify the design size. % “M” width is 10 points. % Capital letter height is 7 points above the baseline. % Leave this much space on the side of each character. % Amount that curves overshoot borders.

input lightbulb

% Load the file that draws the actual glyph.

Figure 2: Sample METAFONT size-specific file (lightbulb10.mf)

mode setup;

% Target a given printer.

define pixels(em, cap, sb); define corrected pixels(o);

% Convert to device-specific units. % Same, but add a device-specific fudge factor.

%% Define a light bulb at the character position for “A” %% with width 1/2em#, height cap#, and depth 1pt#. beginchar("A", 1/2em#, cap#, 1pt#); "A light bulb"; pickup pencircle scaled 1/2pt; %% Define the points we need. top z1 = (w/2, h + o); rt z2 = (w + sb + o − x4 , y4 ); bot z3 = (z1 − (0, w − sb − o)); lft z4 = (sb − o, 1/2[y1 , y3 ]); path bulb; bulb = z1 . . z2 . . z3 . . z4 . . cycle;

% Use a pen with a small, circular tip.

% z1 is at the top of a circle. % z2 is at the same height as z4 but the opposite side. % z3 is at the bottom of the circle. % z4 is on the left of the circle. % Define a path for the bulb itself. % The bulb is a closed path.

z5 = point 2 − 1/3 of bulb; % z5 lies on the bulb, a little to the right of z3 . z6 = (x5 , 0); % z6 is at the bottom, directly under z5 . z7 = (x8 , 0); % z7 is at the bottom, directly under z8 . z8 = point 2 + 1/3 of bulb; % z8 lies on the bulb, a little to the left of z3 . bot z67 = ( 1/2[x6 , x7 ], pen bot − o − 1/8pt); % z67 lies halfway between z6 and z7 but a jot lower. %% Draw the bulb and the base. draw bulb; draw z5 - - z6 . . z67 . . z7 - - z8 ;

% Draw the bulb proper. % Draw the base of the bulb.

%% Display key positions and points to help us debug. makegrid(0, sb, w/2, w − sb)(0, −1pt, y2 , h); % Label “interesting” x and y coordinates. penlabels(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 67, 7, 8); % Label control points for debugging. endchar; end Figure 3: Sample METAFONT size-independent file (lightbulb.mf)

110


METAFONT can produce “proofs” of fonts—large, labeled versions that showcase the logical structure of each character. In fact, proof mode is METAFONT’s default mode. To produce a proof of lightbulb10.mf, issue the following commands at the operating-system prompt: ⇐ ⇐

prompt > mf lightbulb10.mf prompt > gftodvi lightbulb10.2602gf

Produces lightbulb10.2602gf Produces lightbulb10.dvi

You can then view lightbulb10.dvi with any DVI viewer. The result is shown in Figure 4. Observe how the grid defined with makegrid at the bottom of Figure 3 draws vertical lines at positions 0, sb, w/2, and w − sb and horizontal lines at positions 0, −1pt, y2 , and h. Similarly, observe how the penlabels command labels all of the important coordinates: z1 , z2 , . . . , z8 and z67 , which lightbulb.mf defines to lie between z6 and z7 . 1

4

2

8

7

3

67

5

6

Figure 4: Proof diagram of lightbulb10.mf Most, if not all, TEX distributions include a Plain TEX file called testfont.tex which is useful for testing new fonts in a variety of ways. One useful routine produces a table of all of the characters in the font: prompt > tex testfont This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/plain/base/testfont.tex Name of the font to test = lightbulb10 Now type a test command (\help for help):) *\table *\bye [1] Output written on testfont.dvi (1 page, 1516 bytes). Transcript written on testfont.log. The resulting table, stored in testfont.dvi and illustrated in Figure 5, shows every character in the font. To understand how to read the table, note that the character code for “A”—the only character defined by lightbulb10.mf—is 41 in hexadecimal (base 16) and 101 in octal (base 8). The LightBulb10 font is now usable by TEX. LATEX 2ε , however, needs more information before documents can use the font. First, we create a font-description file that tells LATEX 2ε how to map fonts in a given font family and encoding to a particular font in a particular font size. For symbol fonts, this mapping is fairly simple. Symbol fonts almost always use the “U” (“Unknown”) font encoding and frequently occur in only one variant: normal weight and non-italicized. The filename for a font-description file important; it must be of the form “hencodingihfamilyi.fd”, where hencodingi is the lowercase version of the encoding name (typically “u” for symbol fonts) and hfamilyi is the name of the font family. For LightBulb10, let’s call this “bulb”. Figure 6 lists the contents of ubulb.fd. The document “LATEX 2ε Font Selection” [LAT00] describes \DeclareFontFamily and \DeclareFontShape in detail, but the gist of ubulb.fd is first to declare a U-encoded version of the bulb font family and then to specify that a LATEX 2ε request for a U-encoded version of bulb with a (m)edium font

111


Test of lightbulb10 on March 11, 2003 at 1127

´0 ´10x ´11x ˝8

´1 A

´2

˝9

˝A

´3

´4

´5

´6

´7 ˝4x

˝B

˝C

˝D

˝E

˝F

Figure 5: Font table produced by testfont.tex \DeclareFontFamily{U}{bulb}{} \DeclareFontShape{U}{bulb}{m}{n}{<-> lightbulb10}{} Figure 6: LATEX 2ε font-description file (ubulb.fd) series (as opposed to, e.g., bold) and a (n)ormal font shape (as opposed to, e.g., italic) should translate into a TEX request for lightbulb10.tfm mechanically scaled to the current font size. The final step is to write a LATEX 2ε style file that defines a name for each symbol in the font. Because we have only one symbol our style file, lightbulb.sty (Figure 7), is rather trivial. Note that instead of typesetting “A” we could have had \lightbulb typeset “\char65”, “\char"41”, or “\char’101” (respectively, decimal, hexadecimal, and octal character offsets into the font). For a simple, one-character symbol font such as LightBulb10 it would be reasonable to merge ubulb.fd into lightbulb.sty instead of maintaining two separate files. In either case, a document need only include “\usepackage{lightbulb}” to make the \lightbulb symbol available. \newcommand{\lightbulb}{{\usefont{U}{bulb}{m}{n}A}} Figure 7: LATEX 2ε style file (lightbulb.sty) METAFONT normally produces bitmapped fonts. However, it is also possible, with the help of some external tools, to produce PostScript Type 1 fonts. These have the advantages of rendering better in Adobe® Acrobat® (at least in versions prior to 6.0) and of being more memory-efficient when handled by a PostScript interpreter. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=textrace for pointers to tools that can produce Type 1 fonts from METAFONT.

8.4

Math-mode spacing

Terms such as “binary operators”, “relations”, and “punctuation” in Section 3 primarily regard the surrounding spacing. (See the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for a nice exposition on the subject.) To use a symbol for a different purpose, you can use the TEX commands \mathord, \mathop, \mathbin, \mathrel, \mathopen, \mathclose, and \mathpunct. For example, if you want to use \downarrow as a variable (an “ordinary” symbol) instead of a delimiter, you can write “$3 x + \mathord{\downarrow}$” to get the properly spaced ˙ that “3x + ↓” rather than the awkward-looking “3x+ ↓”. Similarly, to create a dotted-union symbol (“∪”) spaces like the ordinary set-union symbol (\cup) it must be defined with \mathbin, just as \cup is. Contrast ˙ ˙ “$A \dot{\cup} B$” (“A∪B”) with “$A \mathbin{\dot{\cup}} B$” (“A ∪B”). See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for the definitive description of math-mode spacing. The purpose of the “log-like symbols” in Table 128 and Table 129 is to provide the correct amount of spacing around and within multiletter function names. Table 325 on the following page contrasts the output of the log-like symbols with various, na¨ıve alternatives. In addition to spacing, the log-like symbols also handle subscripts properly. For example, “\max_{p \in P}” produces “maxp∈P ” in text, but “max” as part of a p∈P

displayed formula. The amsmath package makes it straightforward to define new log-like symbols: \DeclareMathOperator{\atan}{atan} \DeclareMathOperator*{\lcm}{lcm} 112


Table 325: Spacing Around/Within Log-like Symbols LATEX expression

Output

$r $r $r $r

r sin θ rsinθ rsinθ rsinθ

\sin \theta$ sin \theta$ \mbox{sin} \theta$ \mathrm{sin} \theta$

(best)

The difference between \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* involves the handling of subscripts. With \DeclareMathOperator*, subscripts are written beneath log-like symbols in display style and to the right in text style. This is useful for limit operators (e.g., \lim) and functions that tend to map over a set (e.g., \min). In contrast, \DeclareMathOperator tells TEX that subscripts should always be displayed to the right of the operator, as is common for functions that take a single parameter (e.g., \log and \cos). Table 326 contrasts symbols declared with \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* in both text style ($. . .$) and display style (\[. . .\]).12 Table 326: Defining new log-like symbols Declaration function

$\newlogsym {p \in P}$

\[ \newlogsym {p \in P} \]

\DeclareMathOperator

newlogsymp∈P

newlogsymp∈P

\DeclareMathOperator*

newlogsymp∈P

newlogsym p∈P

It is common to use a thin space (\,) between the words of a multiword operators, as in “\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\,max}”. \liminf, \limsup, and all of the log-like symbols shown in Table 129 utilize this spacing convention.

8.5

Bold mathematical symbols

LATEX does not normally use bold symbols when typesetting mathematics. However, bold symbols are occasionally needed, for example when naming vectors. Any of the approaches described at http://www.tex.ac.uk/ cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=boldgreek can be used to produce bold mathematical symbols. Table 327 contrasts the output produced by these various techniques. As the table illustrates, these techniques exhibit variation in their formatting of Latin letters (upright vs. italic), formatting of Greek letters (bold vs. normal), formatting of operators and relations (bold vs. normal), and spacing. Table 327: Producing bold mathematical symbols Package

Code

Output

none none none amsbsy amsbsy bm fixmath

$\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\mathbf{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ \boldmath$\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\pmb{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\boldsymbol{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\bm{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\mathbold{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$

α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ ÷D

(no bold)

(faked bold)

12 Note that \displaystyle can be used to force display style within $. . .$ and \textstyle can be used to force text style within \[. . .\].

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8.6

ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference

Table 328 amalgamates data from various other tables in this document into a convenient reference for LATEX 2ε typesetting of ASCII characters, i.e., the characters available on a typical U.S. computer keyboard. The first two columns list the character’s ASCII code in decimal and hexadecimal. The third column shows what the character looks like. The fourth column lists the LATEX 2ε command to typeset the character as a text character. And the fourth column lists the LATEX 2ε command to typeset the character within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect). Table 328: LATEX 2ε ASCII Table Dec

Hex

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 .. . 57 58 59 60 61

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 .. . 39 3A 3B 3C 3D

Char

Body text

! " # $ % & ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 .. . 9 : ; < =

! \textquotedbl \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 .. . 9 : ; \textless =

\texttt

Dec

Hex

! " \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 .. . 9 : ; < =

62 63 64 65 66 67 .. . 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 .. . 122 123 124 125 126

3E 3F 40 41 42 43 .. . 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 .. . 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E

Char

Body text

\texttt

> ? @ A B C .. . Z [ \ ] ˆ

\textgreater ? @ A B C .. . Z [ \textbackslash ] \^{} \_ ‘ a b c .. . z \{ \textbar \} \~{}

> ? @ A B C .. . Z [ \char‘\\ ] \^{} \char‘\_ ‘ a b c .. . z \char‘\{ | \char‘\} \~{}

‘ a b c .. . z { | } ˜

The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 328: • “"” is not available in the OT1 font encoding. • Table 328 shows a close quote for character 39 for consistency with the open quote shown for character 96. A straight quote can be typeset using \textquotesingle (cf. Table 40). • The characters “<”, “>”, and “|” do work as expected in math mode, although they produce, respectively, “¡”, “¿”, and “—” in text mode when using the OT1 font encoding.13 The following are some alternatives for typesetting “<”, “>”, and “|”: – Specify a document font encoding other than OT1 (as described on page 8). – Use the appropriate symbol commands from Table 2 on page 9, viz. \textless, \textgreater, and \textbar. – Enter the symbols in math mode instead of text mode, i.e., $<$, $>$, and $|$. Note that for typesetting metavariables many people prefer \textlangle and \textrangle to \textless and \textgreater; i.e., “hfilenamei” instead of “<filename>”. 13 Donald

Knuth didn’t think such symbols were important outside of mathematics so he omitted them from his text fonts.

114


• Although “/” does not require any special treatment, LATEX additionally defines a \slash command which outputs the same glyph but permits a line break afterwards. That is, “increase/decrease” is always typeset as a single entity while “increase\slash{}decrease” may be typeset with “increase/” on one line and “decrease” on the next. • \textasciicircum can be used instead of \^{}, and \textasciitilde can be used instead of \~{}. Note that \textasciitilde and \~{} produce raised, diacritic tildes. “Text” (i.e., vertically centered) tildes can be generated with either the math-mode \sim command (shown in Table 67 on page 30), which produces a somewhat wide “∼”, or the textcomp package’s \texttildelow (shown in Table 40 on page 20), which produces a vertically centered “~” in most fonts but a baseline-oriented “~” in Computer Modern, txfonts, pxfonts, and various other fonts originating from the TEX world. If your goal is to typeset tildes in URLs or Unix filenames, your best bet is to use the url package, which has a number of nice features such as proper line-breaking of such names. • The various \char commands within \texttt are necessary only in the OT1 font encoding. In other encodings (e.g., T1), commands such as \{, \}, \_, and \textbackslash all work properly. • The code page 437 (IBM PC) version of ASCII characters 1 to 31 can be typeset using the ascii package. See Table 227 on page 72. • To replace “‘” and “’” with the more computer-like (and more visibly distinct) “`” and “'” within a verbatim environment, use the upquote package. Outside of verbatim, you can use \char18 and \char13 to get the modified quote characters. (The former is actually a grave accent.) Similar to Table 328, Table 329 on the next page is an amalgamation of data from other tables in this document. While Table 328 shows how to typeset the 7-bit ASCII character set, Table 329 shows the Latin 1 (Western European) character set, also known as ISO-8859-1. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 329: • A “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Many of the \text. . . accents can also be produced using the accent commands shown in Table 17 on page 14 plus an empty argument. For instance, \={} is essentially the same as \textasciimacron. • The commands in the “LATEX 2ε ” columns work both in body text and within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect). • The “£” and “$” glyphs occupy the same slot (36) of the OT1 font encoding, with “£” appearing in italic fonts and “$” appearing in roman fonts. A problem with LATEX’s default handling of this double-mapping is that “{\sffamily\slshape\pounds}” produces “$”, not “£”. Other font encodings use separate slots for the two characters and are therefore robust to the problem of “£”/”$” conflicts. Authors who use \pounds should select a font encoding other than OT1 (as explained on page 8) or use the textcomp package, which redefines \pounds to use the TS1 font encoding. • Character 173, \-, is shown as “-” but is actually a discretionary hyphen; it appears only at the end of a line. Microsoft® Windows® normally uses a superset of Latin 1 called “Code Page 1252” or “CP1252” for short. CP1252 introduces symbols in the Latin 1 “invalid” range (characters 128–159). Table 330 presents the characters with which CP1252 augments the standard Latin 1 table. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 330: • As in Table 329, a “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Not all characters in the 128–159 range are defined. • Look up “euro signs” in the index for alternatives to \texteuro.

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Table 329: LATEX 2ε Latin 1 Table

Dec

Hex

161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AD AE AF B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF D0

Char ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ ` A ´ A ˆ A ˜ A ¨ A ˚ A Æ C ¸ ` E ´ E ˆ E ¨ E `I ´I ˆI ¨I Ð

LATEX 2ε !‘ \textcent \pounds \textcurrency \textyen \textbrokenbar \S \textasciidieresis \textcopyright \textordfeminine \guillemotleft \textlnot \\textregistered \textasciimacron \textdegree \textpm \texttwosuperior \textthreesuperior \textasciiacute \textmu \P \textperiodcentered \c{} \textonesuperior \textordmasculine \guillemotright \textonequarter \textonehalf \textthreequarters ?‘ \‘{A} \’{A} \^{A} \~{A} \"{A} \AA \AE \c{C} \‘{E} \’{E} \^{E} \"{E} \‘{I} \’{I} \^{I} \"{I} \DH

(tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc)

(T1) (tc)

(tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc)

(tc) (T1) (tc) (tc) (tc)

(T1)

116

Dec

Hex

209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED EE EF F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF

Char ˜ N ` O ´ O ˆ O ˜ O ¨ O × Ø ` U ´ U ˆ U ¨ U ´ Y Þ ß `a ´a ˆa ˜a ¨a ˚ a æ ¸c `e ´e ˆe ¨e `ı ´ı ˆı ¨ı ð n ˜ `o ´o ˆo ˜o ¨o ÷ ø u ` u ´ u ˆ u ¨ y ´ þ y ¨

LATEX 2ε \~{N} \‘{O} \’{O} \^{O} \~{O} \"{O} \texttimes \O \‘{U} \’{U} \^{U} \"{U} \’{Y} \TH \ss \‘{a} \’{a} \^{a} \~{a} \"{a} \aa \ae \c{c} \‘{e} \’{e} \^{e} \"{e} \‘{ı} \’{ı} \^{ı} \"{ı} \dh \~{n} \‘{o} \’{o} \^{o} \~{o} \"{o} \textdiv \o \‘{u} \’{u} \^{u} \"{u} \’{y} \th \"{y}

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

(tc)

(T1)


Table 330: LATEX 2ε Code Page 1252 Table Dec

Hex

128 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 142

80 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 8A 8B 8C 8E

Char € ‚ f „ ... † ‡ ˆ ‰ ˇ S ‹ Œ ˇ Z

LATEX 2ε \texteuro \quotesinglbase \textit{f} \quotedblbase \dots \dag \ddag \textasciicircum \textperthousand \v{S} \guilsinglleft \OE \v{Z}

(tc) (T1) (T1)

(tc) (T1)

Dec

Hex

145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 158 159

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B 9C 9E 9F

Char ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ ˇs › œ ˇz ¨ Y

LATEX 2ε ‘ ’ ‘‘ ’’ \textbullet ---\textasciitilde \texttrademark \v{s} \guilsinglright \oe \v{z} \"{Y}

(T1)

While too large to incorporate into this document, a listing of ISO 8879:1986 SGML/XML character entities and their LATEX equivalents is available from http://www.bitjungle.com/~isoent/. Some of the characters presented there make use of isoent, a LATEX 2ε package (available from the same URL) that fakes some of the missing ISO glyphs using the LATEX picture environment.14

8.7

Unicode characters

Unicode is a “universal character set”—a standard for encoding (i.e., assigning unique numbers to) the symbols appearing in many of the world’s languages. While ASCII can represent 128 symbols and Latin 1 can represent 256 symbols, Unicode can represent an astonishing 1,114,112 symbols. Because TEX and LATEX predate the Unicode standard and Unicode fonts by almost a decade, support for Unicode has had to be added to the base TEX and LATEX systems. Note first that LATEX distinguishes between input encoding—the characters used in the .tex file—and output encoding—the characters that appear in the generated .dvi, .pdf, etc. file. Inputting Unicode characters To include Unicode characters in a .tex file, load the ucs package and load the inputenc package with the utf8x (“UTF-8 extended”) option.15 These packages enable LATEX to translate UTF-8 sequences to LATEX commands, which are subsequently processed as normal. For example, the UTF-8 text “Copyright © 2009”—“©” is not an ASCII character and therefore cannot be input directly without packages such as ucs/inputenc—is converted internally by inputenc to “Copyright \textcopyright{} 2009” and therefore typeset as “Copyright © 2009”. The ucs/inputenc combination supports only a tiny subset of Unicode’s million-plus symbols. Additional symbols can be added manually using the \DeclareUnicodeCharacter command. \DeclareUnicodeCharacter takes two arguments: a Unicode number and a LATEX command to execute when the corresponding Unicode character is encountered in the input. For example, the Unicode character “degree celsius” (“ ℃ ”) appears at character position U+2103.16 However, “ ℃ ” is not one of the characters that ucs and inputenc recognize. The following document shows how to use \DeclareUnicodeCharacter to tell LATEX that the “ ℃ ” character should be treated as a synonym for \textcelsius: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{ucs} \usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc} 14 isoent is not featured in this document, because it is not available from CTAN and because the faked symbols are not “true” characters; they exist in only one size, regardless of the body text’s font size. 15 UTF-8 is the 8-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a popular mechanism for representing Unicode symbol numbers as sequences of one to four bytes. 16 The Unicode convention is to express character positions as “U+hhexadecimal number i”.

117


\usepackage{textcomp} \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{"2103}{\textcelsius}

% Enable direct input of U+2103.

\begin{document} It was a balmy 21℃. \end{document} which produces It was a balmy 21℃. See the ucs documentation for more information and for descriptions of the various options that control ucs’s behavior. Outputting Unicode characters Orthogonal to the ability to include Unicode characters in a LATEX input file is the ability to include a given Unicode character in the corresponding output file. By far the easiest approach is to use XELATEX instead of pdfLATEX or ordinary LATEX. XELATEX handles Unicode input and output natively and can utilize system fonts directly without having to expose them via .tfm, .fd, and other such files. To output a Unicode character, a XELATEX document can either include that character directly as UTF-8 text or use TEX’s \char primitive, which XELATEX extends to accept numbers larger than 255. Suppose we want to output the symbols for versicle (“ ”) and response (“ ”) in a document. The Unicode charts list “versicle” at position U+2123 and “response” at position U+211F. We therefore need to install a font that contains those characters at their proper positions. One such font that is freely available from CTAN is Junicode Regular (Junicode-Regular.ttf) from the junicode package. The fontspec package makes it easy for a XELATEX document to utilize a system font. The following example defines a \textjuni command that uses fontspec to typeset its argument in Junicode Regular: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{fontspec} \newcommand{\textjuni}[1]{{\fontspec{Junicode-Regular}#1}} \begin{document} We use ‘‘\textjuni{\char"2123}’’ for a versicle and ‘‘\textjuni{\char"211F}’’ for a response. \end{document} which produces We use “ ” for a versicle and “ ” for a response. (Typesetting the entire document in Junicode Regular would be even easier. See the fontspec documentation for more information regarding font selection.) Note how the preceding example uses \char to specify a Unicode character by number. The double quotes before the number indicate that the number is represented in hexadecimal instead of decimal.

8.8

About this document

History David Carlisle wrote the first version of this document in October, 1994. It originally contained all of the native LATEX symbols (Table 44, Table 57, Table 67, Table 102, Table 128, Table 131, Table 152, Table 153, Table 164, Table 169, Table 201, and a few tables that have since been reorganized) and was designed to be nearly identical to the tables in Chapter 3 of Leslie Lamport’s book [Lam86]. Even the table captions and the order of the symbols within each table matched! The AMS symbols (Table 45, Table 68, Table 69, Table 105, Table 106, Table 132, Table 137, Table 148, and Table 202) and an initial Math Alphabets table (Table 213) were added thereafter. Later, Alexander Holt provided the stmaryrd tables (Table 46, Table 59, Table 70, Table 108, Table 125, and Table 149). In January, 2001, Scott Pakin took responsibility for maintaining the symbol list and has since implemented a complete overhaul of the document. The result, now called, “The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List”, includes the following new features: 118


• the addition of a handful of new math alphabets, dozens of new font tables, and thousands of new symbols • the categorization of the symbol tables into body-text symbols, mathematical symbols, science and technology symbols, dingbats, ancient languages, and other symbols, to provide a more user-friendly document structure • an index, table of contents, hyperlinks, and a frequently-requested symbol list, to help users quickly locate symbols • symbol tables rewritten to list the symbols in alphabetical order • appendices providing additional information relevant to using symbols in LATEX • tables showing how to typeset all of the characters in the ASCII and Latin 1 font encodings Furthermore, the internal structure of the document has been completely altered from David Carlisle’s original version. Most of the changes are geared towards making the document easier to extend, modify, and reformat. Build characteristics Table 331 lists some of this document’s build characteristics. Most important is the list of packages that LATEX couldn’t find, but that symbols.tex otherwise would have been able to take advantage of. Complete, prebuilt versions of this document are available from CTAN (http://www.ctan.org/ or one of its many mirror sites) in the directory tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive. Table 332 shows the package date (specified in the .sty file with \ProvidesPackage) for each package that was used to build this document and that specifies a package date. Packages are not listed in any particular order in either Table 331 or Table 332. Table 331: Document Characteristics Characteristic

Value

Source file: Build date: Symbols documented: Packages included:

symbols.tex November 9, 2009 5913 textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx extraipa wsuipa phonetic ulsy ar metre txfonts mathabx fclfont skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym esvect yfonts yhmath esint mathdots trsym universa upgreek overrightarrow chemarr chemarrow nath trfsigns mathtools phaistos arcs vietnam t4phonet holtpolt semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses mathdesign arev MnSymbol cmll extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile simpsons epsdice feyn universal staves igo colonequals shuffle fourier dozenal pmboxdraw pigpen clock teubner linearA linearb cypriot sarabian china2e harpoon steinmetz milstd recycle DotArrow ushort hhcount ogonek combelow accents nicefrac bm mathrsfs chancery calligra bbold mbboard dsfont bbm none

Packages omitted:

Table 332: Package versions used in the preparation of this document Name

Date

textcomp latexsym

2005/09/27 1998/08/17

(continued on next page)

119


(continued from previous page)

Name

Date

amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx wsuipa metre txfonts mathabx skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym yfonts mathdots trsym universa upgreek chemarr mathtools phaistos arcs t4phonet semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses arev MnSymbol extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile epsdice feyn universal colonequals shuffle pmboxdraw pigpen clock teubner

2002/01/22 1994/03/03 2001/10/01 2003/10/30 2005/04/12 1999/07/01 1999/04/15 2000/08/08 2000/04/18 2002/08/08 2003/01/01 1994/07/16 2001/12/05 2008/01/22 2003/07/29 2008/10/09 2006/05/30 2001/04/27 2002/01/23 1998/08/06 2003/01/08 2006/03/16 2000/06/25 98/08/01 2003/02/12 2006/02/20 2008/08/01 2004/04/23 2004/05/09 2004/06/01 1998/02/10 2004/07/26 2008/05/15 2005/03/18 2007/05/03 2000/09/23 2005/05/20 2005/06/14 2007/01/21 2006/07/27 2003/08/15 2007/06/03 2007/06/23 2007/02/15 2008/02/29 97/12/24 2006/08/01 2008/10/27 2006/05/03 2008/12/07 2001/04/10 2008/02/10

(continued on next page)

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(continued from previous page)

8.9

Name

Date

linearA linearb cypriot sarabian china2e harpoon steinmetz DotArrow ushort hhcount ogonek combelow accents nicefrac bm calligra

2006/03/13 2005/06/22 1999/06/20 2005/11/12 1997/06/01 1994/11/02 2009/06/14 2007/02/12 2001/06/13 1995/03/31 95/07/17 2009/08/23 2006/05/12 1998/08/04 2004/02/26 1996/07/18

Copyright and license

The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Copyright © 2009, Scott Pakin This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of the LATEX Project Public License, either version 1.3c of this license or (at your option) any later version. The latest version of this license is in http://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt and version 1.3c or later is part of all distributions of LATEX version 2006/05/20 or later. This work has the LPPL maintenance status “maintained”. The current maintainer of this work is Scott Pakin.

121


References [AMS99] American Mathematical Society. User’s Guide for the amsmath Package (Version 2.0), December 13, 1999. Available from ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/amsldoc.pdf. [Ber01]

Karl Berry. Fontname: Filenames for TEX fonts, June 2001. Available from http://www.ctan.org/ tex-archive/info/fontname.

[Che97]

Raymond Chen. A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters. Baskerville, 4(4):19, September 1997. ISSN 1354-5930. Available from http://tug.ctan.org/usergrps/uktug/baskervi/4 4/ bask4 4.ps.

[Dow00] Michael Downes. Short math guide for LATEX, July 19, 2000. Version 1.07. Available from http:// www.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide.html. [Gib97]

Jeremy Gibbons. Hey—it works! TUGboat, 18(2):75–78, June 1997. Available from http:// www.tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb18-2/tb55works.pdf.

[Knu86a] Donald E. Knuth. The TEXbook, volume A of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. [Knu86b] Donald E. Knuth. The METAFONTbook, volume C of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. [Lam86] Leslie Lamport. LATEX: A document preparation system. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. [LAT98]

LATEX3 Project Team. A new math accent. LATEX News. Issue 9, June 1998. Available from http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/ltnews09.pdf (also included in many TEX distributions).

[LAT00]

LATEX3 Project Team. LATEX 2ε font selection, January 30, 2000. Available from http:// www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/fntguide.ps (also included in many TEX distributions).

122


Index If you’re having trouble locating a symbol, try looking under “T” for “\text. . .”. Many text-mode commands begin with that prefix. Also, accents are shown over/under a gray box (e.g., “ a ´ ” for “\’”). Some symbol entries appear to be listed repeatedly. This happens when multiple packages define identical (or nearly identical) glyphs with the same symbol name.17

\" (¨ a) \# (#) \$ ($) \% (%) \& (&) \’ (´ a) ( (() .

.. . .. . . .. ..

Symbols ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . 14 9, 114 9, 114 9, 114 9, 114 . . . 14 . . . 54

( (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ) ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ) ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 * (*) . \, . . . \- (-) \. (a) ˙ / (/) .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . 23 . . . 113 115, 116 . . . . 14 . . . . 54

/ (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \: \;

( ..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . ( ..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

< (⟨) . . . .. \? ( ..) . . [ ([) . . . ⎡⎢ [ ( ⎢⎢⎢) . . \\ .⎢⎣. . . . ] (]) . . . ⎤⎥ ] ( ⎥⎥⎥) . . ⎥⎦a) . . \^ (ˆ \^{} (ˆ) \| (k) . . \| (k) . . \| (a ¿) . . \= (¯ a) . . \={} (¯) RR RR | ( RRR) . . | (|) . . . \_ ( ) . . \{ ({) . . \} (}) . . \‘ (` a) . . \~ (˜ a) . . \~{} (˜)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . 55 30, 54, 56, 57 . . . . . 9, 115 . . . 9, 54, 115 . . . 9, 54, 115 . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . 9, 115

A a (esvect package option) \a (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \AA (˚ A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \aa (˚ a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 This

. . . 55 . . . 14 9, 115 . . . 54 54, 56 . . . 14 . . . 14 . . 115

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

61 95 10 10

\AAaleph (A) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAayin (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAbeth (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

==

\AAcht (ˇ “ ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \AAdaleth (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAhe (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAhelmet (V) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAheth (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAkaph (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAlamed (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aaleph (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AApe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAqoph (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAresh (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAsade (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aayin (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AAyod (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Abeth (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 absolute value . see \lvert and \rvert abz¨ uglich . . see \textdiscount \AC (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \acarc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \acbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 accents . . 14–18, 57–61, 71, 89, 107–109 acute (´ a) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 any character as . . . . . 107 a) . . . . . 14–17, 59, 60 arc ( breve (˘ a) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 caron (ˇ a) . . . 14, 18, 57, 60 cedilla (¸) . . . . . . . . . . 14 circumflex (ˆ a) 14–16, 57, 59, 60 comma-below (a,) . . . . . 17 diæresis (¨ a) 14, 17, 18, 57, 68 dot (a˙ or . ) . . . . 14–16, 57 double acute (˝ a) . . . 14, 18 extensible . . . . 59–61, 63, 108–109 grave (` a) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 h´ aˇcek . . see accents, caron hook (ả) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Hungarian umlaut . . . see accents, double acute krouˇzek . . see accents, ring macron (¯ a) . 14, 17, 18, 57, 59, 60 multiple per character 15–16, 107 ogonek ( ˛) . . . . . . . 14–17 ring (˚ a) . 14–16, 18, 57, 58

occurs frequently between amssymb and mathabx, for example.

123

Romanian comma-belo accent . . . . . . . see accents, comma-below trema see accents, diæresis umlaut see accents, diæresis accents (package) . 58, 107, 119, 121 \accentset . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \Acht (ˇ “( )== . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

\AchtBL ( ˇ “ )== . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

\AchtBR ( ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \ACK (␆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \acontraction . . . . . . . . . 109 \AcPa (? ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \actuarial ( ) . . . . . . . . . 108 actuarial symbols . . . . . . . 108 \acute (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 acute (´ a) . . . . . . . . see accents \acutus (a ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Adaleth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 adeles (A) . see alphabets, math adjoint (†) . . . . . . . . . see \dag Adobe Acrobat . . . . . . . . . 112 . \adots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 64, 107 advancing . see \textadvancing \AE (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ae (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \aeolicbii (Ι) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \aeolicbiii (Θ) . . . . . . . . 95 \aeolicbiv (Κ) . . . . . . . . 95 \agemO (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Agimel (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ahe (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ahelmet (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aheth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \ain (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Akaph (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Alamed (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \aldine (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \aldineleft (m) . . . . . . . . . 78 \aldineright (n) . . . . . . . . 78 \aldinesmall (j) . . . . . . . . 78 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . 51, 65 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Alif (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \alpha (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 alphabets African . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Cypriot . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Cyrillic . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Greek . . . . . 50, 51, 68, 87 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . 51, 68 hieroglyphic . . . . . . . . . 82 Linear A . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Linear B . . . . . . . . . . . 85 math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 phonetic . . . . . . . . 11–14 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . 81 South Arabian . . . . . . . 87 Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . 10 \alphaup (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 alpine symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Alt ( Alt ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 alternative denial . see \uparrow and | \AltGr ( AltGr ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \amalg (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \amalg (∐) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Amem (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 ampersand . . . . . . . . . . see \& AMS . 8, 10, 22, 26, 30, 31, 36, 38, 39, 41, 49–54, 58, 59, 61, 64–66, 69, 100, 118 amsbsy (package) . . . . . . . . 113 amsfonts (package) 22, 30, 36, 41, 65, 68 amsmath (package) . . 8, 49, 58, 104, 112 amssymb (package) 8, 22, 30, 36, 41, 58, 65, 68, 87, 119, 120, 123 amstext (package) . . . . 105, 106 \Anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \anceps (Ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \ancepsdbrevis (Ζ) . . . . . . . 95

O

\anchor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 ancient-language symbols 81–87 and . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge AND gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDd () . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDl () . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDr () . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ANDu () . \angle (∠) . . . \angle (6 ) . . . \angle (∠) . . . angle notation . angles . . . . . . . \Anglesign (W) ˚ Angstr¨ om unit math mode text mode

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . 73 . . 66 . . 65 . . 66 . . 70 65–67 . . . 67

see \mathring . . . . . . see \AA

\Angud (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \angud (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 angular minutes . . . . see \prime angular seconds . . . see \second \Angus (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \angus (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 animals . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 82, 86 \Ankh (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 annuity symbols . . . . . . . . 108 \Antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 95 · ) . . . . . . . . . 95 \Antidiple* (< · · \antidiple* (< · ) . . . . . . . . . 95 \antilabe (.. .. ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Anun (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ape (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 APL modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . 71 symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLbox (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLcirc (◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLcomment () . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLdown (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLdownarrowbox (o) . . . . 71 \APLinput (}) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLinv (÷ ~) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLleftarrowbox (p) . . . . 71 \APLlog () . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLnot (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLrightarrowbox (q) . . . . 71 \APLstar (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \APLuparrowbox (n) . . . . . . 71 \APLvert ( | ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \apprge (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \apprle (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \approxcolon (≈:) . . . . . . . 36 \approxcoloncolon (≈::) . . . 36 \approxeq (u) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approxeq (≊) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Aqoph (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Aquarius (ê) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \aquarius (e) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \AR ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 ar (package) . . . . . . . . 70, 119 arc ( a) . . . . . . . . . see accents \arccos (arccos) . . . . . . . . . 49 arcminutes . . . . . . . see \prime arcs (package) . . . . 17, 119, 120 arcseconds . . . . . . . see \second \arcsin (arcsin) . . . . . . . . . 49 \arctan (arctan) . . . . . . . . . 49 \Aresh (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 arev (package) . 67, 88, 119, 120 \arg (arg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Aries (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Aries (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \aries () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

A

124

y { z w x

\ArrowBoldDownRight ( ) . 75 \ArrowBoldRightCircled ( ) 75 \ArrowBoldRightShort ( ) . . 75 \ArrowBoldRightStrobe ( ) 75 \ArrowBoldUpRight ( ) . . . 75 \Arrownot (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \arrownot (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 arrows 41–43, 47, 61–63, 72, 75, 81, 86, 90, 103 diagonal, for reducing subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . 59 dotted . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 double-headed, diagonal 106 extensible . . . . . . . 59–63 fletched . . . . . . . . . 47, 75 negated w. . . . . . . 41, 42, 44 \Arrowvert (w) . . . . . . . . . 54 X X X X \Arrowvert (X X X) . . . . . . . . . 55 \arrowvert () . . . . . . . . . . 54 RR RR \arrowvert ( RRR) . . . . . . . . . . 55 Arseneau, Donald 104, 106–108 \Asade (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Asamekh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 ASCII . . 8, 10, 72, 100, 114–115, 117, 119 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ascii (package) 72, 115, 119, 120 \ascnode () . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Ashin (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \ast () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Asteriscus (× ····) . . . . . . . . . 95 \asteriscus (× ····) . . . . . . . . . 95 \Asterisk () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Asterisk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \asterisk () . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \AsteriskBold ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \AsteriskCenterOpen ( ) . . 78 \AsteriskRoundedEnds ( ) . 78 asterisks . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 78 \AsteriskThin ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \AsteriskThinCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \asterism (** * ) . . . . . . . . . 104 astrological symbols . . . . . . . 71 astronomical symbols . . . 71, 98 \astrosun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \asymp () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \asymp (≍) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \atan (atan) . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \ataribox (m) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Atav (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Ateth (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AtForty (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \AtNinetyFive (Ó) . . . . . . 90 atomic math objects . . 49, 113 \AtSixty (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . 90

N

A C

B X

D


\autoleftarrow (DGGGGG) . . . 62 \autoleftrightharpoons GG ) (E GGGGGC

. . . . . . . . . . . 62

\autorightarrow (GGGGGA)

. . 62

\autorightleftharpoons GGGGGB (F GG ) \Avav (w) . . average . . . . \Ayn (,) . . . \Ayod (y) . . \Azayin (z)

. . . . . . . . . . . 62 . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

B \B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \B (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ë&#x2DC; b (esvect package option) \b (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÂŻ \b ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ë&#x2DC; \Ba (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . babel (package) . . . . . . . \babygamma (!) . . . . . . . \backapprox () . . . . . . \backapproxeq () . . . . \backcong (â&#x2030;&#x152;) . . . . . . . . \backepsilon () . . . . . \backeqsim ( ) . . . . . . . \backneg (â&#x152;?) . . . . . . . . . \backprime (8) . . . . . . . \backprime (â&#x20AC;ľ) . . . . . . . \backsim (v) . . . . . . . . \backsim (â&#x2C6;˝) . . . . . . . . . \backsimeq (w) . . . . . . \backsimeq (â&#x2039;?) . . . . . . . \backslash (\) . . . . . . . \backslash (/)

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

81 21 14 81 81

. . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. 50, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54,

10 95 61 14 95 85 87 13 32 32 32 30 32 66 66 66 30 32 30 32 65

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 55

\backslashdiv () . . . . . . . 23 \backtriplesim () . . . . . . . 32 \Baii (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Baiii (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 banana brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \banceps (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bar (ÂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \barb () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barbbrevis (θ) . . . . . . . . 95 \barbrevis (Κ) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \barcirc (â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2014;Ś ) . . . . . . . . . . 104 \bard () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \bari (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barin (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \barj (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barl (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barlambda () . . . . . . . . . . 13 \barleftharpoon (Ă&#x17E;) . . . . . 43 \baro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \baro ( vs. <) . . . . . . . . . 101

\baro (<) . . . . . . . . . . \barp (A) . . . . . . . . . . barred letters . . . . . . . \barrightharpoon (Ă&#x;) \barsci (+) . . . . . . . . . \barscu (X) . . . . . . . .



\Bart ( ) \baru (T) . . . . . \barwedge (X) . \barwedge (Z) . . base-twelve digits \Bat (Ă˝) . . . . . . \Bau (=) . . . . . \bauarrow ( ) . \baucircle ( ) . \baucircle ( ) \baucross ( ) . \baudash ( ) . . \baueclipse ( ) \bauequal ( ) . \bauface ( ) . . \bauforms ( ) .

      Â&#x201E;



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. 13 . 13 104 . 43 . 13 . 13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96 13 23 22 65 90 85 75 80 80 77 90 80 90 90 90

\bauforms ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90



\bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauhole ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \baupunct ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauquarter ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 \bauquestion ( ) . . . . . . . . 90 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \bauwhitearrow ( ) . . . . . . 75 \bauwindow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \BB ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC; \Bb (´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC; \bB ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC; \bb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC; \bba (Ë&#x2DC;Ă&#x2014;Ë&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bbalpha ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbar (ÂŻ b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \bbb (Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC; \bbbeta ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Bbbk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 bbding (package) 75â&#x20AC;&#x201C;78, 80, 101, 119, 120 \bbdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbetter (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \bbeuro (Ăť) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbfinalnun (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbgamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 bbgreekl (mathbbol package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \BBm ( ´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC;ÂŻË&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Bbm (ÂŻ Ë&#x2DC;´Ë&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bBm (ÂŻÂŻ ÂŻË&#x2DC;ÂŻË&#x2DC;´ bbm (package) . . . . . . . 68, 119

 Â&#x2026;

 Â&#x2020; 





125

\bbm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bbmb ÂŻ(ÂŻ ÂŻË&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC;ÂŻË&#x2DC; \bbmx ( ÂŻÂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ÂŻË&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC;ÂŻË&#x2DC;(Â&#x161;) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbnabla bbold (package) . . . . . . 68, 119 \bbpe (Ă&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbqof (Ă&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bbrevis (Ď&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bbyod (Ă&#x2030;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bcontraction . . . . . . . . . 109 \Bda (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bde (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \bdecisive (i) . . . . . . . . . 93 \Bdi (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdo (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdu (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdwe (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdwo (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Be (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Beam (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Bearing (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \because (â&#x2C6;ľ) . . . . . . . . 30, 64 \because (â&#x2C6;ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \BEL (â?&#x2021;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \bell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Berry, Karl . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 \beta (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \betaup (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \beth (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \beth (â&#x201E;ś) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \betteris (b) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \between ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \between (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \between (Â&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Bi (i) . .â&#x20AC;?. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \bibridge (a â&#x20AC;?) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 biconditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv \Bicycle (ÂŽ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Big . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102 \big . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102 big O (O) . see alphabets, math \bigast () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

{

\bigbosonloop ()

[

. . . . . . . . 74

\bigbosonloopA ()



. . . . . . . 74

\bigbosonloopV () . . . . e \bigbox ( ) . . . .Ă&#x2013; ..... \bigboxasterisk ( Ă&#x17E; ) .. \bigboxbackslash ( ) . Ă&#x203A; \bigboxbot ( Ă&#x2022; ) ...... \bigboxcirc ( ) . .Ă&#x2014; ... \bigboxcoasterisk ( ) Ă&#x201C; \bigboxdiv (Ă&#x201D;) . . . . . . \bigboxdot ( Ă&#x2DC; ) ...... \bigboxleft ( Ă&#x2018; ) ..... \bigboxminus Ă? ( ) .... \bigboxplus ( ) . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

74 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27


Ă&#x2122;

\bigboxright (Ă?) . . . . . . . 27 \bigboxslash (Ă&#x2019;) . . . . . . . 26 \bigboxtimesĂ&#x161;( ) . . . . . . . 26 \bigboxtop ( ) . . .Ă&#x; . . . . . . 26 \bigboxtriangleup ( ) . . . 26 Ă&#x153; \bigboxvoid ( ) . . . . . . . . 27 T \bigcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigcap (â&#x2039;&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcapdot (âŠ&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcapplus ($) . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bigcirc (â&#x2014;Ż) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \BigCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigcircle (â&#x2014;Ż) . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcoast () . . .Â&#x2019;. . . . . . . 23 \bigcomplementop ( ) . . . . . 27 \BigCrossS( ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigcup (â&#x2039;&#x192;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcupdot (â&#x160;?) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcupplus (â&#x160;&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcupplus (â&#x160;&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . . 29 Â&#x153; \bigcurlyvee (b ) . . . . . . . . 26 \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \bigcurlyvee (â&#x2039;&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . 29 \bigcurlyveedot Â&#x203A; () . . . . . 29 \bigcurlywedge (c ) . . . . . . 26 \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . 26 \bigcurlywedge (â&#x2039;?) . . . . . . 29 \bigcurlywedgedot () . . . . 29 \BigDiamondshape ( ) . . . . 79 \bigdoublecurlyvee () . . . 29 \bigdoublecurlywedge () . 29 \bigdoublevee (âŠ&#x201D;) . . . . . . . 29 \bigdoublewedge (âŠ&#x2022;) . . . . . 29 \Bigg . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102 \bigg . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102 \BigHBar ( ) . . g. . . . . . . . . 79 \biginterleave ( ) . . . . . . 26 \BigLowerDiamond ( ) . . . . 79 \bignplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigoast (â&#x160;&#x203A;) . Ă&#x2020; . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigoasterisk ( Ă&#x17D; ) . . . . . . . 27 \bigobackslash ( ) . . . . . . 27 \bigobackslash (⌸) . . . . . . 29 Ă&#x2039; \bigobot ( Ă&#x2026; ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigocirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigocirc (â&#x160;&#x161;) . .Ă&#x2021; . . . . . . . . 29 \bigocoasterisk ( ) . . . . . 27 Ă&#x192; \bigodiv (J) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigodot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigodot (â&#x160;&#x2122;) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Ă&#x2C6; \bigoleft ( Ă ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigominus L (â&#x160;&#x2013;) . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigoplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigoplus (â&#x160;&#x2022;) . . . . . . . . . . 29 Ă&#x2030; \bigoright (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigoslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigoslash (â&#x160;&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigostar (â?&#x;) . . . . . . . . . . 29

%

&



_

N

\bigotimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigotimesĂ&#x160;(â&#x160;&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigotop ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigotriangle (F)Ă?. . . . . . . 29 \bigotriangleup ( ) . . . . . 26 \bigovert (⌜) . . . . . . . . . . 29 Ă&#x152; \bigovoid ( ) f . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigparallel Ë&#x2122; ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \bigparr (Â?) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \bigplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigplus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \BigRightDiamond ( ) . . . . 79 Â&#x2013; \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 26  \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigsqcap (â&#x160;&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcapdot (,) . . . . . . . . 29  \bigsqcapplus ( ) . . . . . . . 27 \bigsqcapplus F (0) . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigsqcup (â&#x160;&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcupdot (.) . . . . . . . . 29  \bigsqcupplus ( ) . . . . . . . 27 \bigsqcupplus (2) . . . . . . . 29 \BigSquare ( Â&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigsquplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigstar () . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \bigstar (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \bigstar (â&#x2DC;&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Â&#x2018; \bigtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigtimes (â¨&#x2030;) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \BigTriangleDown (` ) . . . . 79 \bigtriangledown ( ) . ` . . . 26 \bigtriangledown (5 vs. ) 101 \bigtriangledown (5) . . . . 22 \bigtriangledown (â&#x2013;˝) . . . . 40 \BigTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . 79 \BigTriangleRight ( ) . . . 79 \BigTriangleUp (a ) . . . . . . 79 \bigtriangleup ( ) . .a. . . . 26 \bigtriangleup (4 vs. ) 101 \bigtriangleup (4) . . . . . . 22 \bigtriangleup U (â&#x2013;ł) . . . . . . 40 \biguplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \biguplus (â&#x160;&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigvarstar () . . . . . . . . . 23 \BigVBar W ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigvee (â&#x2039; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigveedot V ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigwedge (â&#x2039;&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwedgedot Ë&#x2DC; () . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \binampersand (N) . . . . . . . 22 binary operators . . . . . . 22â&#x20AC;&#x201C;25 binary relations . . 30â&#x20AC;&#x201C;32, 34â&#x20AC;&#x201C;39, 47, 48 negated . . . . . . . . . 31â&#x20AC;&#x201C;33 \bindnasrepma (O) . . . . . . . 22 \Biohazard (h) . . . . . . . . . 74 biological symbols . . . . . . . . 74

/

#

!



126

" $

birds . . . . . . . . . bishop . . . . . . . . \bishoppair (a) \Bja (j) . . . . . . \Bje (J) . . . . . . \Bjo (b) . . . . . . \Bju (L) . . . . . \Bka (k) . . . . . \Bke (K) . . . . . \Bki (c) . . . . . \Bko (h) . . . . . . \Bku (v) . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

a) \BlackBishopOnWhite (b)

\BlackBishopOnBlack (

82 94 93 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 94

94 blackboard bold see alphabets, math \blackdiamond ( ) . . . . . . . 23

Z) . \BlackKingOnBlack (j) . \BlackKingOnWhite (k) . \BlackKnightOnBlack (m) \BlackKnightOnWhite (n)

\BlackEmptySquare (

94 94 94 94

94 \blacklozenge () . . . . . . . 66 \blacklozenge (⧍) . . . . . . . 79

o) . \BlackPawnOnWhite (p) . \BlackQueenOnBlack (l) \BlackQueenOnWhite (q) \BlackRookOnBlack (s) . \BlackRookOnWhite (r) . \BlackPawnOnBlack (

\blacksmiley (-) . . . . . . \blacksquare () . . . . . . \blacksquare (â&#x2C6;&#x17D;) . . . . . . \blackstone . . . . . . . . . . \blacktriangle (N) . . . . \blacktriangle (â&#x2013;˛) . . . . \blacktriangledown (Â?) . \blacktriangledown (H) . \blacktriangledown (â&#x2013;ź) . \blacktriangleleft (Â&#x17E;) . \blacktriangleleft (J) . \blacktriangleleft (â&#x2014;&#x20AC;) . \blacktriangleright (Â&#x;) \blacktriangleright (I) \blacktriangleright (â&#x2013;ś) \blacktriangleup (Â&#x153;) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94 94 94 94 94 94 88 66 25 94 66 40 25 66 40 25 39 40 25 39 40 25


blank . . . . . . . see \textblank \Bleech (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \blitza ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21, 48 \blitzb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitzc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitzd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitze ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 block-element symbols . . . . . 97 \Bm (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˘¯ bm (package) . . . . 113, 119, 121 \bm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \bm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ¯˘ \Bma (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bme (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bmi (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bmo (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \bmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Bmu (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bna (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNc («) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNcc (») . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNccc (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNcd (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNcm (ff) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNd (‌) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNdc (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNdcc (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNdccc (ȷ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bne (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNi (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bni (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNii (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNiii (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNiv (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNix (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNl (‹) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNlx (›) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNlxx (“) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNlxxx (”) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNm (fi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bno (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bnu (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNv (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNvi (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNvii (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNviii (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bnwa (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNx (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNxc („) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNxl (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNxx (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BNxxx (˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bo (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 body-text symbols . . . . . . 9–20

bold symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \boldmath . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \boldsymbol . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \bomb (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Boolean domain (B) . . . . . see alphabets, math Boolean logic gates . . . . . . . 73 born . . . . . . . . . see \textborn bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \bot (⊥) . . . . . . . . . 21, 51, 105 \bot (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \botdoteq () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Bouquet (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Bowtie (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \bowtie (./) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \bowtie (&) . . . . . . . . . 23, 24 \Box () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Box (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Box (◻) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 box-drawing symbols . . . . . . 97 \boxast (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . 25 \boxbackslash (n) . . . . . . . 25 \boxbackslash (⧅) . . . . . . . 25 \boxbar (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxbot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxbox () . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxbox (⧈) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxbslash (j) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxcirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxcircle () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxcoasterisk (g) . . . . . . 25 \boxdiv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxdot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxdot (⊡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxdotLeft (‹) . . . . . . . . 42 \boxdotleft (ƒ) . . . . . . . . 42 \boxdotRight (Š) . . . . . . . 42 \boxdotright (‚) . . . . . . . 42 \boxempty () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxLeft (‰) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxleft () . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxminus (a) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxminus (⊟) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxplus (`) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxplus () . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxplus (⊞) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxRight (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxright (i) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxright (€) . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxslash (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxslash (⧄) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxtimes (b) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxtimes () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \boxtimes (⊠) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxtop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxtriangleup (o) . . . . . . 25 \boxvert (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \boxvoid (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 25

127

\boy (D) . . . . . . . . \Bpa (p) . . . . . . . . \Bpaiii ([) . . . . . \BPamphora (Ž) . . . \BParrow (ij) . . . . \BPbarley (Ş) . . . . \BPbilly (ť) . . . . \BPboar (ľ) . . . . . \BPbronze (Ű) . . . \BPbull (ň) . . . . . \BPcauldroni (đ) \BPcauldronii (§) \BPchariot (ÿ) . \BPchassis (ź) . \BPcloth (Ř) . . . . \BPcow (ŋ) . . . . . \BPcup (Ÿ) . . . . . \Bpe (P) . . . . . . . . \BPewe (š) . . . . . \BPfoal (ě) . . . . \BPgoat (ş) . . . . . \BPgoblet (Ź) . . . \BPgold (Ů) . . . . . \BPhorse (ď) . . . \Bpi (G) . . . . . . . . \BPman (ă) . . . . . . \BPnanny (ț) . . . . \Bpo (H) . . . . . . . . \BPolive (Ț) . . . . \BPox (ń) . . . . . . \BPpig (ĺ) . . . . . \BPram (ś) . . . . . \BPsheep (ř) . . . . \BPsow (ł) . . . . . \BPspear (¡) . . . . \BPsword (ż) . . . . . \BPtalent (Ď) . . \Bpte (]) . . . . . . \Bpu (I) . . . . . . . . \Bpuii (\) . . . . . \BPvola (Ĺ) . . . . \BPvolb (Ľ) . . . . . \BPvolcd (Ł) . . . . \BPvolcf (Ń) . . . . \BPwheat (Š) . . . . \BPwheel (ž) . . . . \BPwine (Ť) . . . . . \BPwineiih (Ż) . . \BPwineiiih (IJ) . \BPwineivh (İ) . . \BPwoman (ą) . . . . \BPwool (Ś) . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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71 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 86 86 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86


\BPwtc (Ć) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPwtd (Č)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

\Bqa (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bqe (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bqi (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bqo (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bra (r) . . . . . . bra . . . . . . . . . . \braceld (z) . . . \bracerd ({) . . .   \bracevert ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ \bracevert ( ⎪ ⎪ ⎪) brackets . . . . . .

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. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. 85 . 54 109 109 . 54

. . . . . . . . . 55 . see delimiters

\Braii (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Braiii (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 braket (package) . . . . . . . . . 54 \Bre (R) . . . . \Break ( Break \breve (˘) . . \breve (a ˘) . . breve (˘ a) . . . . \brevis (β) .

.. ) .. .. .. ..

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . .

... ... ... ... see ....

. . . 85 . . . 72 . . . 57 . . . 17 accents . . . 95

\Bri (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bro (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Broii (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \brokenvert (|) . . . . . . . . . . 88 Bronger, Torsten . . . . . . . . 105 \Bru (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BS (␈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Bsa (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bse (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BSEfree (n) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Bsi (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bso (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BSpace ( →−7 ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \Bsu (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bswa ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bswi (|)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

\Bta (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Btaii (})

. . . . . . . . . . . . 85

\Bte (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bti (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bto (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Btu (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Btwe (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Btwo (~) \Bu (u)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

\BUFd () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \BUFl ()

. . . . . . . . . . . . 73

\BUFr ()

. . . . . . . . . . . . 73

\BUFu () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \BUi (fl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUii (ffi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUiii (ffl) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUiv (␣) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \BUix (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \bullet (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bullet (●) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 bullseye . . . see \textbullseye \Bumpedeq () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \bumpedeq () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Bumpeq (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Bumpeq (≎) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \bumpeq (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \bumpeq (≏) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \bupperhand (e) . . . . . . . . . 93

)

\Burns ( \BusWidth ( ) \BUv (!) . . . . \BUvi (") . . . \BUvii (#) . \BUviii ($) \BUx (&) . . . \BUxi (’) . . \BUxii (­) . . \Bwa (w) . . . . \Bwe (W) . . . . \Bwi (6) . . . . \Bwo (7) . . . . \Bza (z) . . . \Bze (Z) . . . . \Bzo (9) . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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96 73 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 85 85 85 85 85 85 85

C \C ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 c (esvect package option) . . . 61 \c (¸a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 116 \c ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Ca (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 calligra (package) . . 68, 119, 121 Calligra (font) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 calrsfs (package) . . . . . . . . . 68 \CAN (␘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 cancel (package) . . . . . . . . . 59 \Cancer (ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \cancer (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Cap (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Cap (⋒) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \cap (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \cap (∩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \cap (∩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \capdot (⩀) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \capplus (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Capricorn (é) . . . . . . . . . . 71

128

\capricornus (d) . . . . . . . . 71 \capturesymbol (X) . . . . . . 93 card suits . . . . . . . . . 65–67, 80 cardinality . . . . . . . see \aleph care of (c/o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 caret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \^ Carlisle, David . . . . 1, 118, 119 caron (ˇ a) . . . . . . . . see accents carriage return . . . . 72, 80, 103 \carriagereturn ( ) . . . . . 80 Cartesian product . . see \times castle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \castlingchar (O) . . . . . . . 93 \castlinghyphen (-) . . . . . . 93 \catal (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Catalexis (∧) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \catalexis (∧) . . . . . . . . . . 95 catamorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \cb (a,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 CC \cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 BY: \ccby ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \Ccc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 cclicenses (package) 19, 119, 120 $ \ccnc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 = \ccnd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \ccsa ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \cdot (·) . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 104 \cdot (⋅) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 64 \cdotp (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \cdotp (⋅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \cdots (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Ce (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Cedi . see \textcolonmonetary cedilla (¸) . . . . . . . see accents celestial bodies . . . . . . . 71, 98 \celsius (℃) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Celtcross (‡) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \cent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \centerdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \centerdot () . . . . . . . . . . 22 centernot (package) . . . . . . 105 \centernot . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 centigrade . . . see \textcelsius \centre (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 cents . . . . . . . . . see \textcent \CEsign (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Cga (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 chancery (package) . . . . . . . 119 \changenotsign . . . . . . . . . 32 \char . . . . 8, 103, 112, 115, 118 Charter (font) . . . . . . . . 18, 30 \check (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 check marks . 10, 66, 77, 80, 88, 90, 101 \checked () . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \CheckedBox (2 ) . . . . . . . . . 77 \Checkedbox (V) . . . . . . . . . 90 \Checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 77

C

\

\BPwtb (Ą) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

C

\BPwta (Ă) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

!


\checkmark (X) . . . . . . . . . 10 \checkmark (â&#x153;&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . 66 \checkmark (X vs. ) . . . . 101 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \CheckmarkBold ( ) . . . . . . 77 \checksymbol (+) . . . . . . . . 93 chemarr (package) . 62, 119, 120 chemarrow (package) 47, 62, 119 \chemarrow (A) . . . . . . . . . 47 Chen, Raymond . . . . . . . . 122 chess symbols . . . . . . . . 93, 94 \chesscomment (RR) . . . . . . 93 \chessetc (P) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \chesssee (l) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \chi (Ď&#x2021;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 china2e (package) 19, 49, 68, 98, 119, 121 \chiup (Ď&#x2021;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ci (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 cipher symbols . . . . . . . . . . 98 \circ (â&#x2014;Ś) . . . . . . . . 22, 67, 105 \circ (â&#x2014;&#x2039;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \circeq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \circeq ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \circeq (â&#x2030;&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \CIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Circle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \Circle (# vs. ) . . . . . . 101 \Circle (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \circlearrowleft (Ăś) . . . . 42 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . . . 41 \circlearrowleft (â&#x2020;ş) . . . . 44 \circlearrowright (á) . . . . 42 \circlearrowright () . . . 41 \circlearrowright (â&#x2020;ť) . . . 44 circled numbers . . . . . . . 77, 94 \CircledA (ÂŞ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \circledast (~) . . . . . . . . . 22 \circledast (â&#x160;&#x203A;) . . . . . . . . . 25 \circledbar (V) . . . . . . . . . 23 \circledbslash (W) . . . . . . 23 \circledcirc (}) . . . . . . . . 22 \circledcirc (â&#x160;&#x161;) . . . . . . . . 25 \circleddash () . . . . . . . . 22 \circleddash (â&#x160;&#x2013;) . . . . . . . . 25 \circleddot . . . . . . see \odot \circleddotleft (Â&#x201D;) . . . . 42 \circleddotright (Â&#x201C;) . . . . 42 \circledgtr (S) . . . . . . . . . 31 \circledless (R) . . . . . . . . 31 \circledminus . . . see \ominus \circledotleft . . . . . . . . see \circleddotleft \circledotright . . . . . . . see \circleddotright \circledplus . . . . . see \oplus \circledR (r) . . . . . . . 10, 52 \circledS (s) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \circledslash . . . see \oslash \circledtimes . . . see \otimes \circledvee (U) . . . . . . . . . 23

D

5

D

"

5

\circledwedge (T) . . . . . . . 23 \circleleft (Â&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . 42 \circleright (Â&#x2018;) . . . . . . . 42 circles . . . . . . . . . 79â&#x20AC;&#x201C;80, 88, 94 \CircleShadow ( ) . . . . . . . 80 \CircleSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \Circpipe (â&#x20AC;ş) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \circplus () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Circsteel (â&#x20AC;˘) . . . . . . . . . 73 circumflex (Ë&#x2020; a) . . . . see accents \circumflexus (a Ë&#x153;) . . . . . . . 17 \Cja (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cjo (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cka (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cke (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cki (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cko (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cku (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cla (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cle (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \CleaningA (ÂŤ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \CleaningF (ž) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \CleaningFF (Âż) . . . . . . . . . 90 \CleaningP (ÂŹ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \CleaningPP (­) . . . . . . . . . 90 \Cli (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \clickb (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \clickc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \clickt (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Clo (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 clock (package) . . . 92, 119, 120

d a

1iÂ&#x2019;

\clock ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \clock () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 clock symbols . . . . . . 88, 90â&#x20AC;&#x201C;92 \ClockFramefalse . . . . . . . . 92 \ClockFrametrue . . . . . . . . 92 \Clocklogo (U) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \ClockStyle . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \clocktime . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \closedcurlyvee (ž) . . . . . . 24 \closedcurlywedge (Âź) . . . . 24 \closedequal (Ă&#x153;) . . . . . . . . 33 \closedniomega (?) . . . . . . 13 \closedprec (½) . . . . . . . . . 33 \closedrevepsilon () . . . . 13 \closedsucc (Âť) . . . . . . . . . 33 \Cloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 clovers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Clu (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 clubs (suit) . . . . . . . . 65â&#x20AC;&#x201C;67, 80 \clubsuit (â&#x2122;Ł) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \clubsuit (â&#x2122;Ł) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Cma (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cme (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cmi (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 cmll (package) 21, 24, 30, 36, 119 \Cmo (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cmu (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86



129

\Cna (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cne (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cni (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cno (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cnu (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Co (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \coAsterisk () . . . . . . . . . 23 \coasterisk () . . . . . . . . . 23 code page 1252 . . . . . . . . . 115 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 code page 437 . . . . . 72, 97, 115 \Coffeecup (K) . . . . . . . . . 90 \coh (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 coins, ancient . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \colon ( : ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \colon (â&#x2C6;ś) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Colonapprox () . . . . . . . 31 \Colonapprox (::â&#x2030;&#x2C6;) . . . . . . . 34 \colonapprox (:â&#x2030;&#x2C6;) . . . . . . . 36 \colonapprox (:â&#x2030;&#x2C6;) . . . . . . . . 34 \colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 \coloncolon (::) . . . . . . . . . 36 \coloncolonapprox (::â&#x2030;&#x2C6;) . . . 36 \coloncolonequals (::=) . . . 36 \coloncolonminus (::â&#x2C6;&#x2019;) . . . . 36 \coloncolonsim (::â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . 36 \Coloneq (H) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneq (::â&#x2C6;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneq () . . . . . . . . 21, 32 \coloneq (:â&#x2C6;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneq (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \coloneq (â&#x2C6;ś=) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Coloneqq (F) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneqq (::=) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneqq (:=) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneqq (B) . . . . . . . 21, 31 colonequals (package) 21, 36, 119, 120 \colonequals (:=) . . . . 21, 36 \colonminus (:â&#x2C6;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . 36 \Colonsim () . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Colonsim (::â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colonsim (:â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . . 36 \colonsim (:â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colonsim () . . . . . . . . . . 31 combelow (package) 17, 119, 121 combinatorial logic gates . . . 73 comma-below accent (a,) . . . see accents communication symbols . . . . 73 commutative diagrams . . . . 106 comp.text.tex (newsgroup) . 8, 21, 22, 103â&#x20AC;&#x201C;108 \compensation (n) . . . . . . . 93 \complement (A) . . . . . . . . . 52 \complement ({) . . . . . . . . . 52 \complement (â&#x2C6; ) . . . . . . . . . 29 complete shuffle product ( ) 24 \COMPLEX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Complex ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Âť Ă&#x192;




complex numbers (C) . . . . see alphabets, math composited accents . . . . . . . 14 Comprehensive TEX Archive Network . . 1, 8, 59, 69, 100, 117â&#x20AC;&#x201C;119 computer hardware symbols . 72 computer keys . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Computer Modern (font) . . 100, 102, 115 \ComputerMouse (Ă?) . . . . . . . 72 \cong () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \cong (â&#x2030;&#x2026;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 congruent . . . . . . . . see \equiv \conjunction (V) . . . . . . . . 71 conjunction, logical . see \wedge and \& consequence relations . . . . . . 35 contradiction symbols . . 21, 48 control characters . . . . . . . . 72 converse implication . . . . . see \leftarrow and \subset converse nonimplication . . . see \nleftarrow and \nsubset \convolution ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \Coppa (Ď&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \coppa (Ď&#x2122;)` . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \coprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21, 25 \coprod (â&#x2C6;?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 copyright . . . . . . . . . 9, 19, 116 \copyright (Š) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \corner (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 corners, box . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \corona ( ĚŽ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \coronainv (Ď&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Corresponds (=) . . . . . . . . 67 \corresponds () . . . . . . . . 32 \cos (cos) . . . . . . . . . . 49, 113 \cosh (cosh) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \cot (cot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \coth (coth) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \counterplay (V) . . . . . . . . 93 Courier (font) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 CP1252 . . . . see code page 1252 CP437 . . . . . see code page 437 \Cpa (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cpe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cpi (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cpo (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cpu (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \CR (â??) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \Cra (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cre (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Creative Commons licenses . 19 crescent (fge package option) 58 \Cri (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cro (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \Cross (â&#x20AC; vs. vs. ) . . . . 101



* 

*

\Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \Cross (â&#x20AC; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 cross ratio . . . see \textrecipe \crossb () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \CrossBoldOutline ( ) . . . . 76 \CrossClowerTips ( ) . . . . 76 \crossd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Crossedbox (X) . . . . . . . . . 90 crosses . . . . . . . . 76, 77, 90, 94 \crossh (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \CrossMaltese ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \crossnilambda (3) . . . . . . 13 \CrossOpenShadow ( ) . . . . . 76 \CrossOutline ( ) . . . . . . . 76 crotchet . . see musical symbols Ĺ&#x201D; \crtilde (Ë&#x153; a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Cru (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 crucifixes . . . . . . . . . . 76, 77, 90 \Crux (â&#x20AC; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \crux (â&#x20AC; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Csa (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \csc (csc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Cse (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \cshuffle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Csi (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cso (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Csu (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cta (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 CTAN see Comprehensive TEX Archive Network \Cte (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cti (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cto (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Ctrl ( Ctrl ) . . . . . . . . . . . 72

4

. ,

+



\Ctu (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cube ( ) 92, 103 cube root . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \Cup (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Cup (â&#x2039;&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \cup (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \cup (â&#x2C6;Ş) . . . . . . . . 22, 104, 112 \cup (â&#x2C6;Ş) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \cupdot (â&#x160;?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \cupplus (â&#x160;&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \curlyc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \curlyeqprec (Âś) . . . . . . . . 32 \curlyeqprec (2) . . . . . . . . 30 \curlyeqprec (â&#x2039;&#x17E;) . . . . . . . . 33 \curlyeqsucc (¡) . . . . . . . . 32 \curlyeqsucc (3) . . . . . . . . 30 \curlyeqsucc (â&#x2039;&#x;) . . . . . . . . 33 \curlyesh (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \curlyvee (O) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \curlyvee (g) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlyvee (â&#x2039;&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \curlyveedot (5) . . . . . . . . 24 \curlyveedownarrow (.) . . . 22 \curlyveeuparrow (/) . . . . . 22



130

\curlywedge (N) . . . . . . . . . 23 \curlywedge (f) . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlywedge (â&#x2039;?) . . . . . . . . . 24 \curlywedgedot (4) . . . . . . 24 \curlywedgedownarrow (') . 22 \curlywedgeuparrow (&) . . . 22 \curlyyogh (a) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \curlyz (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \currency (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 currency symbols . . . . 18, 19, 68 \curvearrowbotleft (Ăł) . . 42 \curvearrowbotleftright (Ăľ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \curvearrowbotright (Ă´) . . 42 \curvearrowdownup (Ă&#x2039;) . . . . 43 \curvearrowleft (Ă°) . . . . . 42 \curvearrowleft (x) . . . . . 41 \curvearrowleft (â&#x2020;ś) . . . . . 44 \curvearrowleftright (ò) . 42 \curvearrowleftright (Ă&#x2C6;) . 43 \curvearrownesw (Ă&#x152;) . . . . . 43 \curvearrownwse (Ă?) . . . . . 43 \curvearrowright (Ăą) . . . . 42 \curvearrowright (y) . . . . 41 \curvearrowright (â&#x2020;ˇ) . . . . 44 \curvearrowrightleft (Ă&#x160;) . 43 \curvearrowsenw (Ă?) . . . . . 43 \curvearrowswne (Ă&#x17D;) . . . . . 43 \curvearrowupdown (Ă&#x2030;) . . . . 43 \Cutleft (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \Cutline (r) . . . . . . . . . . . 75 cutoff subtraction . see \dotdiv \Cutright (q) . . . . . . . . . . 75 \Cwa (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cwe (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cwi (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cwo (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cxa (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cxe (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cya (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cyo (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \cyprfamily . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Cypriot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 cypriot (package) . . 86, 119, 121 \Cza (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Czo (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 D \D (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¨ d (esvect package option) \d (a.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dag (â&#x20AC; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \dagger (â&#x20AC; ) . . . . . . . . . . \daleth (k) . . . . . . . . . \daleth (â&#x201E;¸) . . . . . . . . . \danger (B) . . . . . . . . . dangerous bend symbols \DArrow ( â&#x2020;&#x201C; ) . . . . . . . \dasharrow . . . . . . . . . . \dashrightarrow \dasheddownarrow (â&#x2021;Ł) . .

. . . 17 . . . 61 . . . 14 9, 117 . . . 22 . . . 51 . . . 51 . . . 91 . . . 89 . . . 72 . . see . . . 43


0

/

) . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . .

. . 43 . . 43 . . 43 . . 43 . . 43 . . 43 . . 43 . 106 . . 41 . . 44 . . 42 . . 41 . . 44 . . 32 . . 32 . . 30 . . 33 . . 32 . . 77 . . 78 . . 78 . . 95 . 104 . . 89 . 107 . . 34 . . 72 . . 72 . . 72 . . 72 . . 89 9, 117 . . 22 . 106 . . 58 . . 58 .. .. .. .. 24,

35 87 89 57 64

\dddtstile ( \ddigamma (ϝ) \DDohne (D /D) . \ddot (¨) . . . \ddotdot () . . \ddots ( . . ) . \ddots (⋱) . .

. . . . . . . 63, 107 . . . . . . . . . . . 64

\ddststile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\ddtstile (

) . . . . . . . . . . 35

. . . .

\ddttstile ( ) ....... \DeclareFontFamily . . . . . \DeclareFontShape . . . . . . \DeclareMathOperator . . . \DeclareMathOperator* . . \declareslashed . . . . . . . \DeclareUnicodeCharacter \decofourleft ([) . . . . . . \decofourright (\) . . . . . \decoone (X) . . . . . . . . . . \decosix (]) . . . . . . . . . . \decothreeleft (Y) . . . . . \decothreeright (Z) . . . . \decotwo (a) . . . . . . . . . .

. 35 111 111 113 113 105 117 . 78 . 78 . 78 . 78 . 78 . 78 . 78

definite-description operator ( ) . . . . . . . . 103 definition symbols . . . . 21, 108 \deg (deg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \degree (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \degree (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 degrees . . . . . see \textdegree \DEL (␡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Del ( Del ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Deleatur . . . . . see \Denarius delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . 53–57 text-mode . . . . . . . . . . 57 variable-sized . . . . . 54–57 wavy-line . . . . . . . . 55, 56 \Delta (∆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \delta (δ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \deltaup (δ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 demisemiquaver . . . see musical symbols \Denarius (¢) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \denarius (Ε) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \dental (ag ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 derivitive, partial . see \partial \descnode () . . . . . . . . . . 71 \det (det) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \devadvantage (t) . . . . . . . 93 ι

\dashedleftarrow (⇠) . . \dashednearrow (d) . . . . \dashednwarrow (e) . . . . \dashedrightarrow (⇢) . . \dashedsearrow (g) . . . . \dashedswarrow (f) . . . . \dasheduparrow (⇡) . . . . . R \dashint (− ) . . . . . . . . . \dashleftarrow (c) . . . . \dashleftarrow (⇠) . . . . \dashleftrightarrow (e) \dashrightarrow (d) . . . \dashrightarrow (⇢) . . . \DashV ()) . . . . . . . . . . . \Dashv ()) . . . . . . . . . . . \dashv (a) . . . . . . . . . . . \dashv (⊣) . . . . . . . . . . . \dashVv (-) . . . . . . . . . . \davidsstar (C) . . . . . . . \DavidStar ( ) . . . . . . . \DavidStarSolid ( ) . . . \dBar (||) . . . . . . . . . . . . \dbar (¯ d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dbend () . . . . . . . . . . dblaccnt (package) . . . . . . \dblcolon (::) . . . . . . . . . \DCa (␑) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \DCb (␒) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \DCc (␓) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \DCd (␔) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \DD (D D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ddag (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . \ddagger (‡)R . . . . . . . . . . \ddashint (= ) . . . . . . . . . .... \ddddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . ... \dddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .

\Dfourier (

....

)

. . . . . . . . 36

\dfourier (

....

)

. . . . . . . . 36

\DFT (

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

\dft ( ) .......... \DH (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \DH (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . \dh (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dh (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . diacritics . . . . . . . . see \diaeresis (a ¨) . . . . . . . diæresis (¨ a) . . . . . . see \diagdown (å) . . . . . . . \diagdown () . . . . . . . \diagdown (Ó) . . . . . . . \diagonal (G) . . . . . . . \diagup (ä) . . . . . . . . . \diagup () . . . . . . . . . \diagup (Ò) . . . . . . . . . \diameter (I) . . . . . . . \diameter () . . . . . . . \diameter (∅) . . . . . . . . \diameter () . . . . . . . \Diamond (^) . . . . . . . . \Diamond (3) . . . . . . . . \Diamond (◇) . . . . . . . . \diamond () . . . . . . . . . \diamond (◇) . . . . . . . . . \diamondbackslash ({) . \Diamondblack (_) . . . . \diamonddiamond () . . \Diamonddot () . . . . . . \diamonddot (⟐) . . . . . . \DiamonddotLeft () . \Diamonddotleft (‡) . \DiamonddotRight (Ž) . \Diamonddotright (†) .

131

. . . 63 . . . 13 10, 116 . . . 13 10, 116 accents . . . 17 accents . . . 66 . . . 66 . . . 33 . . . 93 . . . 66 . . . 66 . . . 33 . . . 66 . . . 21 . . . 66 . . . 88 . . . 65 . . . 66 . . . 25 . . . 22 . . . 25 . . . 25 . . . 66 . . . 25 . . . 66 . . . 25 . . . 42 . . . 42 . . . 42 . . . 42

\diamonddots ( ) . . . . . 24, 64 \DiamondLeft () . . . . . . . 42 \Diamondleft (…) . . . . . . . 42 \diamondminus (x) . . . . . . . 25 \diamondplus (|) . . . . . . . . 25 \DiamondRight (Œ) . . . . . . 42 \Diamondright („) . . . . . . 42 diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . 79–80 diamonds (suit) . . . . . 65–67, 80 \DiamondShadowA ( ) . . . . . 79 \DiamondShadowB ( ) . . . . . 79 \DiamondShadowC ( ) . . . . . 79 \Diamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \diamondslash (z) . . . . . . . 25 \DiamondSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 80 \diamondsuit (♦) . . . . . . . . 65 \diamondsuit (♢) . . . . . . . . 66 \diamondtimes (}) . . . . . . . 25 \diamondvert (y) . . . . . . . . 25 \diatop . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 107 \diaunder . . . . . . . . . . 18, 107 dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92, 103 dictionary symbols . . . 11–14, 96 dictsym (package) . 96, 119, 120 died . . . . . . . . . see \textdied differential, inexact . see \dbar \Digamma (Ϝ) . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \digamma (z) . . . . . . . . 50, 87 \digamma (ϝ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 digital logic gates . . . . . . . . 73 digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Mayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 old-style . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 segmented . . . . . . . . . . 70 \dim (dim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \ding . . . . . . . . . 10, 75–78, 80 dingautolist . . . . . . . . . . . 77 dingbat (package) . . 76, 80, 101, 119, 120 dingbat symbols . . . . . . 75–80 \Diple (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \diple (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Diple* (>·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \diple* (>·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Dirac notation . . . . . . . . . . . 54 discount . . . see \textdiscount discretionary hyphen . . . . . 115 disjoint union . . . . . . . . . . . 21 disjunction . . . . . . . . see \vee \displaystyle . . 105, 106, 108, 113 ditto marks . see \textquotedbl \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \divdot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \divideontimes ( ) . . . . . . 23 \divideontimes (>) . . . . . . 22 \divides () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \divides (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 division . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 59 non-commutative . . . . . 63

6

p

  


division times . . . . . . . . . . see \divideontimes divorced . . . see \textdivorced \DJ (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \dj (Ä&#x2018;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \dlbari (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \DLE (â??) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \dlsh (ĂŞ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \dndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \dnststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \dntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 35 \dnttstile ( do not enter . . . . . . see \noway does not divide . . . . see \nmid does not exist . . . see \nexists does not imply . . . . . . . . . 105 \Dohne (D / ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 dollar . . . . . . see \textdollar dollar sign . . . . . . . . . . . see \$ \Dontwash (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \dot ( Ë&#x2122; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 dot accent (aË&#x2122; or . ) . see accents dot symbols . . . . 9, 63, 64, 107 DotArrow (package) 63, 119, 121  ) . . . . . . . . 63 \dotarrow ( ¡ \dotcup (â&#x2C6;Ş) . . . . . . . . 21, 104 \dotdiv () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Doteq . . . . . . . see \doteqdot \Doteq (â&#x2030;&#x2018;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \doteq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \doteq (â&#x2030;?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \doteqdot (+) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \doteqdot (â&#x2030;&#x2018;) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 dotless j (ď&#x161;ž) text mode . . . . . . . . . . 14 dotless i (Äą) math mode . . . . . . 57, 65 text mode . . . . . . . . . . 14 dotless j (ď&#x161;ž) math mode . . . . . . 57, 65 \dotmedvert () . . . . . . . . . 24 \dotminus () . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \dotplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \dotplus (u) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \dots (. . . ) . . . . . . . . . . 9, 117 dots (ellipses) . . . 9, 63â&#x20AC;&#x201C;65, 107 \dotsb (¡ ¡ ¡ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \dotsc (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \dotseq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \dotsi (¡ ¡ ¡¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \dotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \dotsm (¡ ¡ ¡ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \dotso (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 dotted arrows . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Ë&#x2122; . . . . . . . . 112 dotted union (â&#x2C6;Ş) . \dottedtilde (Ë&#x153; a. ) . . . . . . . . 16 \dottimes () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \double . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 57 double acute (Ë? a) . . see accents \doublebarwedge (Z) . . . . . 23 \doublebarwedge ([) . . . . . 22

\doublecap . . . . . . . . \doublecap (\) . . . . . . \doublecap (â&#x2039;&#x2019;) . . . . . . \doublecup . . . . . . . . \doublecup (]) . . . . . . \doublecup (â&#x2039;&#x201C;) . . . . . . \doublecurlyvee (7) . \doublecurlywedge (6) \doublefrown () . . . . \doublefrowneq (%) . . . \doublepawns (d) . . . . \doublesmile () . . . . \doublesmileeq ($) . . . \doublesqcap (âŠ&#x17D;) . . . . \doublesqcup (âŠ?) . . . . \doubletilde (Ë&#x153; a) . . . . \doublevee (âŠ&#x201D;) . . . . . . \doublewedge (âŠ&#x2022;) . . . . \DOWNarrow (L) . . . . . . \Downarrow (â&#x2021;&#x201C;) . . . . . . \Downarrow (â&#x2021;&#x201C;) . . . . . . \downarrow . . . . . . . . . \downarrow (â&#x2020;&#x201C;) . . . . . . \downarrow (â&#x2020;&#x201C;) . . . . . . \downarrowtail (#) . . . \downbracketfill . . . . \downdownarrows (Ă&#x201C;) . \downdownarrows () . \downdownarrows (â&#x2021;&#x160;) . \downdownharpoons (Ă&#x203A;) Downes, Michael J. . . . \downfilledspoon (s) . \downfootline ({) . . . . \downfree (âŤ?) . . . . . . . \downharpoonccw (â&#x2021;&#x201A;) . . \downharpooncw (â&#x2021;&#x192;) . . . \downharpoonleft (ĂĽ) . \downharpoonleft () . \downharpoonright (ç) \downharpoonright () \downlsquigarrow (ÂŁ) . \downmapsto (â&#x2020;§) . . . . . \downModels (Ăł) . . . . . \downmodels (ĂŁ) . . . . . \downp (u) . . . . . . . . . . \downparenthfill . . . . \downpitchfork (âŤ&#x203A;) . . . \downpropto (Â?) . . . . . \downrsquigarrow (ÂŤ) . \downslice (Ă&#x201A;) . . . . . . \downspoon (⍰) . . . . . . \downt (m) . . . . . . . . . . \downtherefore (â&#x2C6;ľ) . . \downtouparrow (Ăż) . . \downuparrows (Ă&#x2014;) . . . \downuparrows (Â?) . . . \downupharpoons (ĂŤ) . . \downupharpoons (⼯) . . \downVdash (â?&#x2018;) . . . . . . \downvdash (â&#x160;¤) . . . . . . \downY (+) . . . . . . . . . dozenal (package) . . . . . dozenal digits . . . . . . .

132

see \Cap . . . . 23 . . . . 24 see \Cup . . . . 23 . . . . 24 . . . . 24 . . . . 24 . . . . 48 . . . . 48 . . . . 93 . . . . 48 . . . . 48 . . . . 24 . . . . 23 . . . . 16 . . . . 23 . . . . 23 . . . . 88 . 41, 54 . . . . 43 . . . 112 . 41, 54 . . . . 43 . . . . 43 . . . 109 . . . . 42 . . . . 41 . . . . 43 . . . . 43 49, 122 . . . . 47 . . . . 33 . . . . 33 . . . . 46 . . . . 46 . . . . 43 . . . . 41 . . . . 43 . . . . 41 . . . . 43 . . . . 43 . . . . 33 . . . . 33 . . . . 18 . . . 109 . . . . 47 . . . . 33 . . . . 43 . . . . 25 . . . . 47 . . . . 18 . 23, 64 . . . . 42 . . . . 42 . . . . 43 . . . . 43 . . . . 46 . . . . 33 . . . . 33 . . . . 23 65, 119 . . . . 65

\dracma (Î&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . \drsh (ĂŤ) . . . . . . . . . \DS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . \Ds (ss) . . . . . . . . . . . \dsaeronautical (a) \dsagricultural (G) \dsarchitectural (A) \dsbiological (B) . . \dschemical (C) . . . . \dscommercial (c) . .

. . . . . . . .. .. ..

\dsdtstile ( ) . . . dsfont (package) . . . \dsheraldical (H) . \dsjuridical (J) . . \dsliterary (L) . . . \dsmathematical (M) \dsmedical (m) . . . . \dsmilitary (X) . . . \dsrailways (R) . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

19 42 89 89 96 96 96 96 96 96

. . . . 35 68, 119 . . . . 96 . . . . 96 . . . . 96 . . . . 96 . . . . 96 . . . . 96 . . . . 96

\dsststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \dstechnical (T) . . . . . . . . 96 \dststile (

) . . . . . . . . . . 35

\dsttstile (

) . . . . . . . . 35

\dtdtstile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\dtimes (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \dtimes (") . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \dtststile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\dttstile (

) . . . . . . . . . . 35

\dtttstile (

) . . . . . . . . 35

duodecimal (base-12) digits . 65 DVI . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 72, 111 \dz () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 E e (esvect package option) . . . 61 \e (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \e (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Îľ-TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Earth (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Earth (Ă&#x160;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \earth (â&#x2122; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Ecommerce (Â?) . . . . . . . . . 18 \EightAsterisk ( ) . . . . . . 78 \EightFlowerPetal ( ) . . . 78 \EightFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 eighth note see musical symbols \eighthnote (â&#x2122;Ş) . . . . . . . . . 88 \eighthnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . 88 \EightStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \EightStarBold ( ) . . . . . . 78 \EightStarConvex ( ) . . . . 78 \EightStarTaper ( ) . . . . . 78 \ejective (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 electrical symbols . . . . . . . . 70 electromotive force (E) . . . . see alphabets, math element of . . . . . . . . . . see \in

Z

H

S

I F E

Y


\ell (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Ellipse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 ellipses (dots) . . . 9, 63â&#x20AC;&#x201C;65, 107 ellipses (ovals) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \EllipseShadow ( ) . . . . . . 80 \EllipseSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 80 \EM (â?&#x2122;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Email (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Emailct (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \emgma (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \emptyset (â&#x2C6;&#x2026;) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \emptyset (â&#x2C6;&#x2026;) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \End ( End ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 end of proof . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \ending (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \eng (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 engineering symbols . . . . 70, 73 \engma (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ENQ (â?&#x2026;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 entails . . . . . . . . . . see \models \Enter ( Enter ) . . . . . . . . . 72

b

e c

\Envelope ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . 80, 98 \enya (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \EOT (â?&#x201E;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 epsdice (package) . . 92, 119, 120 ) . . . . . 92 \epsdice ( \epsi (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \epsilon () . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \epsilonup () . . . . . . . . . . 50 \eqbump () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \eqbumped () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \eqcirc () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \eqcirc (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \eqcirc (â&#x2030;&#x2013;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Eqcolon (I) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Eqcolon (â&#x2C6;&#x2019;::) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \eqcolon () . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \eqcolon (â&#x2C6;&#x2019;:) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \eqcolon (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \eqdot (⊌) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \eqfrown (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Eqqcolon (G) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Eqqcolon (=::) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \eqqcolon (=:) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \eqqcolon (C) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \eqsim (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \eqsim (â&#x2030;&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \eqslantgtr (¡) . . . . . . . . . 38 \eqslantgtr (1) . . . . . . . . . 38 \eqslantgtr (âŞ&#x2013;) . . . . . . . . . 39 \eqslantless (Âś) . . . . . . . . 38 \eqslantless (0) . . . . . . . . 38 \eqslantless (âŞ&#x2022;) . . . . . . . . 39 \eqsmile (") . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \equal (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \equal (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \equalclosed (Ă?) . . . . . . . . 32 \equalscolon (=:) . . . . . . . 36 \equalscoloncolon (=::) . . . 36 \equalsfill . . . . . . . . 21, 108 equidecomposable . . . . . . . 104

equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . see \rightleftharpoons \equiv (â&#x2030;Ą) . . . . . . . . . . 21, 30 \equiv (â&#x2030;Ą) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . see \equiv, \leftrightarrow, and \threesim \equivclosed (Ă&#x17E;) . . . . . . . . 32 \er () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 es-zet . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ss \ESC (â?&#x203A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Esc ( Esc ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 escapable characters . . . . . . . 9 \esh (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \esh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 esint (package) . . . . . . . 28, 119 \Estatically (J) . . . . . . . . 74 estimated . see \textestimated esvect (package) . . . . . . 61, 119 \eta (Ρ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \etaup (Ρ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \ETB (â?&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \eth (Ă°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \eth () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \eth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ETX (â?&#x192;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 eufrak (package) . . . . . . . . . 68 Euler Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \EUR (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \EURcr (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \EURdig (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \EURhv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Euro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \euro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 euro signs . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 19 blackboard bold . . . . . . 68 \eurologo (() . . . . . . . . . . . 19 eurosym (package) . 19, 119, 120 \EURtm (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 euscript (package) . 68, 119, 120 evaluated at . . . . . . see \vert evil spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 exclusive disjunction . . . . . . . . . . . see \nleftrightarrow \nequiv, and \oplus exclusive or . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \exists (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \exists (â&#x2C6;&#x192;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \exists (â&#x2C6;&#x192;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \exp (exp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Explosionsafe (`) . . . . . . 74 extarrows (package) 62, 119, 120 extensible accents . . 59â&#x20AC;&#x201C;61, 63, 108â&#x20AC;&#x201C;109 extensible arrows . . . . . . 59â&#x20AC;&#x201C;63 extensible symbols, creating 107â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 109 extensible tildes . . . . . . . 59, 61 extension characters . . . 48, 49 extpfeil (package) . . 63, 119, 120 extraipa (package) . . . . 16, 119 \eye ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Ăż

E

133

\EyesDollar (ÂŚ) . . . . . . . . . 18 F f (esvect package option) . . . 61 faces . . 72, 81, 88, 90, 91, 96, 98 \fallingdotseq () . . . . . . 32 \fallingdotseq (;) . . . . . . 30 \fallingdotseq (â&#x2030;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . 32 \FallingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . 70 \fatbslash ()) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \fatsemi (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \fatslash (() . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \FAX (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \fax (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Faxmachine (v) . . . . . . . . 73 fc (package) . . . . . . . . . 10, 14 \fcdice ( ) . . . . 92 fclfont (package) . . . . . . . . 119 ) . . . . . . 92 \fcscore ( feet . . . . . . . . . see \prime and \textquotesingle \FEMALE (Â ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Female (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 female . . . . . . . . . 12, 71, 73, 74 \female (â&#x2122;&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \FemaleFemale (â&#x20AC;&#x17E;) . . . . . . . 74 \FemaleMale (â&#x20AC;Ś) . . . . . . . . . 74 . a \Ferli (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . a \Fermi (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 feyn (package) . . . . 74, 119, 120 Feynman slashed character notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Feynman-diagram symbols . . 74 \feyn{a} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{c} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{fd} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{flS} () . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{fl} () . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{fs} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{fu} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{fv} () . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{f} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{g1} () . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{gd} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74

!

a

c d o l k e b f q v \feyn{glB} (){ . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{glS} ()| . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{glu} ()z . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{gl} ()y . . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{gu} (u) . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{gvs} ()}s . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{gv} ()} . . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{g} (g) . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{hd} (j) . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{hs} (K) . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{hu} (i) . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{h} (h) . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{ms} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{m} (m) . . . . . . . . . . . \feyn{P} (P) . . . . . . . . . . .

74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74


p

\feyn{p} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \feyn{x} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \FF (â?&#x152;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 fge (package) . 47, 53, 58, 65, 67, 119, 120 fge-digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \fgeA (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgebackslash (K) . . . . . . . . 67 \fgebaracute (M) . . . . . . . . 67 \fgebarcap (O) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgec (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgecap (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgecapbar (Q) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgecup (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgecupacute (R) . . . . . . . . 67 \fgecupbar (P) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fged (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgee (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeeszett (Äą) . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeeta (â&#x20AC;?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeF (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgef (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeinfty (i) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgelangle (h) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \fgelb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgelb (â&#x20AC;?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeleftB (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeleftC (C) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeN (â&#x20AC;?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeoverU (â&#x20AC;?) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgerightarrow (!) . . . . . 47 \fgerightB (B) . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fges (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgestruckone (1) . . . . . . . . 65 \fgestruckzero (0) . . . . . . . 65 \fgeU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \fgeuparrow (") . . . . . . . . . 47 \fgeupbracket (L) . . . . . . . 67 \FHBOLOGO (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \FHBOlogo (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 field (F) . . see alphabets, math \file (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \FilledBigCircle ( ) . . . . 79 \FilledBigDiamondshape ( ) 79 \FilledBigSquare ( ) . . . . 79 \FilledBigTriangleDown ( ) 79 \FilledBigTriangleLeft ( ) 79 \FilledBigTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledBigTriangleUp ( ) . 79 \FilledCircle ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \FilledCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . 91 \filleddiamond (â&#x2014;&#x2020;) . . . . . . . 25 \FilledDiamondShadowA ( ) 79 \FilledDiamondShadowC ( ) 79 \FilledDiamondshape ( ) . . 79 \FilledHut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 91 \filledlargestar (â&#x2DC;&#x20AC;) . . . . 79 \filledlozenge (⧍) . . . . . . . 79 \filledmedlozenge (⧍) . . . . 79

x

U P

e



V S R T

Q

f



\filledmedsquare (â&#x2C6;&#x17D;) . . . . . 25 \filledmedtriangledown (â&#x2013;ź) 25, 40 \filledmedtriangleleft (â&#x2014;&#x20AC;) 25, 40 \filledmedtriangleright (â&#x2013;ś) . . . . . . . 25, 40 \filledmedtriangleup (â&#x2013;˛) 25, 40 \FilledRainCloud ( ) . . . . 91 \FilledSectioningDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . 92 \FilledSmallCircle ( ) . . 79 \FilledSmallDiamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallSquare ( ) . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \FilledSmallTriangleUp ( ) 79 \FilledSnowCloud ( ) . . . . 91 \FilledSquare ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \filledsquare (â&#x2014;ž) . . . . . . . . 25 \FilledSquareShadowA ( ) . 79 \FilledSquareShadowC ( ) . 79

!



u

v

p

s r

t

`

q

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C

\filledsquarewithdots ( ) 80 \filledstar (â&#x2DC;&#x2026;) . . . . . . . . . 25 \FilledSunCloud ( ) . . . . . 91 \FilledTriangleDown ( ) . . 79 \filledtriangledown (â&#x2013;ž) 25, 40 \FilledTriangleLeft ( ) . . 79 \filledtriangleleft (â&#x2014;&#x201A;) 25, 40 \FilledTriangleRight ( ) . 79 \filledtriangleright (â&#x2013;¸) 25, 40 \FilledTriangleUp ( ) . . . 79 \filledtriangleup (â&#x2013;´) . 25, 40 \FilledWeakRainCloud ( ) . 91 finger, pointing . . . . . . see fists finite field (F) . . see alphabets, math \finpartvoice (aÂť) . . . . . . . 16 Ë&#x2021; (a) . . . . 16 \finpartvoiceless Âť > Ë&#x161; \fint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ffl \fint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Finv (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Finv (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Fire ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 fish hook . . . . . . see \strictif fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \fivedots () . . . . . . . . 23, 64 \FiveFlowerOpen ( ) . . . . . 78 \FiveFlowerPetal ( ) . . . . 78 \FiveStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarCenterOpen ( ) . . 78

#

c b d

a

"

8

134

R P

;

? 7 9

\FiveStarConvex ( ) . . . . . 78 \FiveStarLines ( ) . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \FiveStarOpenCircled ( ) . 78 \FiveStarOpenDotted ( ) . . 78 \FiveStarOutline ( ) . . . . 78 \FiveStarOutlineHeavy ( ) 78 \FiveStarShadow ( ) . . . . . 78 \Fixedbearing (%) . . . . . . . 73 . \fixedddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 63 . \fixedvdots (..) . . . . . . . . . . 63 fixmath (package) . . . . . . . 113 \fj (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Flag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \flap (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \flapr (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \flat ([) . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 88 \flat (â&#x2122;­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Flatsteel (â&#x20AC;&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . 73 fletched arrows . . . . . . . 47, 75 fleurons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 80 florin . . . . . . see \textflorin \floweroneleft (b) . . . . . . 78 \floweroneright (c) . . . . . 78 flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Flynn, Peter . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \Fog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 font encodings Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 119 font encodings . . . . . 8, 114, 115 7-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 document . . . . . . . . . . 115 limiting scope of . . . . . . . 8 LY1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 OT1 8, 10, 14, 107, 114, 115 OT2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 T1 . . . . . . . . 8, 10, 14, 115 T4 . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 14, 17 T5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 14 TS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 fontdef.dtx (file) . . . . 103, 107 fontenc (package) . 8, 10, 14, 115 \fontencoding . . . . . . . . . . . 8 fonts Calligra . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Charter . . . . . . . . . 18, 30 Computer Modern 100, 102, 115 Courier . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Garamond . . . . . . . 18, 30 Helvetica . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Symbol . . . . . . . . 51, 103 Times Roman . . . 18, 102 Type 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Utopia . . . . . . . . . . 18, 30 Zapf Chancery . . . . . . . 68 Zapf Dingbats . . . . 75, 77

: < = > @






\fontsize . . . . . . . . . . fontspec (package) . . . . \Football (o) . . . . . . . \forall (â&#x2C6;&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . \forall (â&#x2C6;&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . \Force (l) . . . . . . . . . \Forward (¡) . . . . . . . . \ForwardToEnd (¸) . . . \ForwardToIndex (š) \FourAsterisk ( ) . . . \FourClowerOpen ( ) . \FourClowerSolid ( )

1

V W

100, 102 . . . 118 . . . . 90 . . . . 51 . . . . 52 . . . . 73 . . . . 90 . . . . 90 . . . . 90 . . . . 78 . . . . 78 . . . . 78

\Fourier ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 fourier (package) 19, 36, 51, 53, 57, 60, 76, 78, 91, 119 \fourier ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 Fourier transform (F) . . . . see alphabets, math \FourStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \FourStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \fourth (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 fraktur . . . see alphabets, math Freemasonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cipher . . . . . . . 98 Frege logic symbols 47, 53, 65, 67 \frown (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \frown (â&#x152;˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 frown symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \frowneq (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \frowneqsmile (') . . . . . . . 48 \frownie (/) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \frownsmile () . . . . . . . . . 48 \frownsmileeq ()) . . . . . . . 48 \Frowny (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 frowny faces . . . . 72, 88, 90, 91 \FS (â?&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \FullFHBO (Â&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \fullmoon (M) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \fullmoon (#) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \fullnote () . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5

6

G \G (a Â&#x;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 g (esvect package option) . . . 61 \Game (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Game (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Gamma (Î&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \gamma (Îł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \gammaup (Îł) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ganz (ÂŻ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \GaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Garamond (font) . . . . . . 18, 30 \gcd (gcd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \geq \Gemini (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Gemini (â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \gemini (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 genealogical symbols . . . . . . 88 \geneuro (A C) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \geneuronarrow (B C) . . . . . . 19 \geneurowide (C C) . . . . . . . . 19 gensymb (package) . . . . . . . . 70

\Gentsroom (x) . . . . . . . . . . 90 geometric shapes . . . . 78â&#x20AC;&#x201C;80, 94 \geq (ÂĽ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geq (â&#x2030;Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38 \geq (â&#x2030;Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqclosed (â&#x160;ľ) . . . . . . . 39, 40 \geqdot (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqq (ÂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geqq (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geqq (â&#x2030;§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqslant (>) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geqslant (⊞) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqslantdot (âŞ&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . 39 german (keystroke package option) . . . . . . . . . 72 \gets . . . . . . . see \leftarrow \gg (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gg () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \gg (â&#x2030;Ť) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \ggcurly (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \ggg (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ggg (â&#x2030;Ť) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ggg (â&#x2030;Ť vs. Ă?) . . . . . . . . 101 \ggg (â&#x2039;&#x2122;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gggtr . . . . . . . . . . . see \ggg \gggtr (â&#x2039;&#x2122;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ghosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Gibbons, Jeremy . . . . . . . . 122 \gimel (â&#x20AC;Ť )×&#x2019;â&#x20AC;Ź. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \gimel (â&#x201E;ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \girl (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 globe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \glotstop (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \glottal (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \gluon (QPPPPPPR) . . . . . . . . . . 70 gluons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \gnapprox (Ă&#x2039;) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnapprox () . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnapprox (âŞ&#x160;) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gneq (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gneqq (Âł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gneqq (â&#x2030;Š) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gnsim (Ă&#x2026;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnsim () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnsim (â&#x2030;ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Go boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Go stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 goban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \Goofy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 graphics (package) . . . . 47, 103 graphicx (package) . 17, 100, 103 \grave (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 grave (` a) . . . . . . . . see accents \gravis (a `) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 greater-than signs . . . . . . . see inequalities greatest lower bound see \sqcap Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 51 blackboard bold . . . . . . 68 bold . . . . . . . . . . 50, 113 polytonic . . . . . . . . . . . 50

135

upright . . . . . . . . . 50, 51 greek (babel package option) 50, 87 Greek coins . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \Greenpoint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 98 Gregorio, Enrico . . . . . 104, 105 \grimace (M) . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \GS (â??) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \gtr (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtrapprox (Ă&#x2021;) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtrapprox (') . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtrapprox (âŞ&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtrclosed (â&#x160;ł) . . . . . . . 39, 40 \gtrdot (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtrdot (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtrdot (â&#x2039;&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtreqless (½) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqless (R) . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqless (â&#x2039;&#x203A;) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtreqlessslant (O) . . . . . . 39 \gtreqqless (Âż) . . . . . . . . . 38



\gtreqqless (T) . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqqless (âŞ&#x152;) \gtrless (Âť) . . \gtrless (â&#x2030;ˇ) . . \gtrless (â&#x2030;ˇ) . . .

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39 38 38 39

\gtrneqqless (Ăł) . . . . . . . . 39 \gtrsim (Ă ) . . . . . . \gtrsim (&) . . . . . . \gtrsim (â&#x2030;ł) . . . . . . . \guillemotleft (ÂŤ) . \guillemotright (Âť) \guilsinglleft (â&#x20AC;š) . \guilsinglright (â&#x20AC;ş) \gvcropped ( ) . . . \gvertneqq (Âľ) . . . . \gvertneqq () . . . \gvertneqq (â&#x2030;Š) . . . .



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. . . . 38 . . . . 38 . . . . 39 10, 116 10, 116 10, 117 10, 117 . . . . 74 . . . . 38 . . . . 38 . . . . 39

H \H (Ë? a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h (esvect package option) \h (ả) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \HA (A) . . . . . . . . . . .

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14 61 14 82

\Ha (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 h´ aË&#x2021;cek (Ë&#x2021; a) . . . . . . . see accents \Hail ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Halb (Ë&#x2DC; â&#x20AC;&#x153; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 half note . . see musical symbols \HalfCircleLeft ( ) . . . . . . 80 \HalfCircleRight ( ) . . . . . 80 \HalfFilledHut ( ) . . . . . . 91 \halflength (p) . . . . . . . . . 18 \halfnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \HalfSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Hamiltonian (H) see alphabets, math \HandCuffLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \HandCuffLeftUp ( ) . . . . . 76



s



r



 




\HandCuffRight ( ) . . . . . . 76 \HandCuffRightUp ( ) . . . . 76 \HandLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \HandLeftUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 \HandPencilLeft ( ) . . . . . 76 \HandRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76 \HandRightUp ( ) . . . . . . . 76 hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . see fists \Handwash (Ă&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \HaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 harmony (package) . 89, 119, 120 harpoon (package) . 47, 119, 121 harpoons . . . . . . . 41, 43, 46, 47 \hash (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 hash mark . . . . . . . . . . . see \# \hat (Ë&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \hateq (â&#x2030;&#x2122;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \hausaB (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hausab (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hausaD (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hausad (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hausaK (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hausak (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \HB (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

    

\Hb (b) . . . . . \HBar ( ) . . . . \hbar (~) . . . . \hbipropto (Â&#x2C6;) \HC (C) . . . . . .



.... .... .... ... ....

. . . . . . 82 . . . . . . 79 51, 52, 103 . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . 82

\Hc (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \hcrossing (Â?) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \HCthousand (6) . . . . . . . . 82 \HD (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hd (d) . . . . . . . . . \hdotdot () . . . . . . \hdots (â&#x2039;Ż) . . . . . . . \Hdual (¸) . . . . . . . \HE (E) . . . . . . . . . \He (e) . . . . . . . . . heads . . . . . . . . . . . \Heart (Ĺ&#x2019;) . . . . . . . hearts (suit) . . . . . . \heartsuit (â&#x2122;Ľ) . . . . \heartsuit (â&#x2122;Ą) . . . . Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . Helvetica (font) . . . . \hemiobelion (Î&#x2018;) . . \HERMAPHRODITE (Â&#x20AC;) \Hermaphrodite (}) \hexagon (7) . . . . . \Hexasteel (â&#x20AC;&#x2122;) . . . . \hexstar (A) . . . . . \HF (F) . . . . . . . . . . \HF (F) . . . . . . . . \Hf (f) . . . . . . . . \hfermion ( ) . . . . . \hfil . . . . . . . . . . . \HG (G) . . . . . . . . . . \Hg (g) . . . . . . . . .

k

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. . . . 82 . 23, 64 . . . . 64 . . . . 82 . . . . 82 . . . . 82 see faces . . . . . 90 65â&#x20AC;&#x201C;67, 80 . . . . . 65 . . . . . 66 . . 51, 68 . . . . . 18 . . . . . 19 . . . . . 74 . . . . . 74 . . . . . 78 . . . . . 73 . . . . . 77 . . . . . 70 . . . . . 82 . . . . . 82 . . . . . 74 . . . . 105 . . . . . 82 . . . . . 82

\HH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \HH (H) . . . . . . . . \Hh (h) . . . . . . . hhcount (package) \Hhundred (3) . . .

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\HI (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hi (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \hiatus (H ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Hibl (Ë?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hibp (Ë&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hibs (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hibw (Ë&#x153;) . . . . hieroglf (package) hieroglyphics . . . Hilbert space (H) math \hill (a) . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 16

\HJ (J) . . . \Hj (j) . . \HK (K) . . . \Hk (k) â&#x2C6;&#x161; .. \hksqrt ( \HL (L) . . \Hl (l) . . \HM (M) . .

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{

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82 82 82 82 106 . 82 . 82 . 82

\Hm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hman (Ë&#x2021;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hmillion (7) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hms (´) \HN (N) \Hn (n) \HO (O) .

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82 82 82 82

\Ho (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Holt, Alexander . . . . . . . 1, 118

Horn, Berthold \HP (P) . . . \Hp (p) . . . . . \Hplural (Ë&#x2122;)

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69 82 82 82

\Hplus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HQ (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hq (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hquery (?) \HR (R) . . \Hr (r) . \HS (S) . .

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82 82 82 82

\Hs (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hscribe (ÂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hslash (/) \hslash (}) \Hsv (Ë&#x161;) . \HT (T) . . \HT (â?&#x2030;) . . . \Ht (t) . . \Hten (2) .

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82 52 82 82 72 82 82

\Hthousand (4) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Htongue (Ë&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Hungarian umlaut (Ë? a) see accents \Hut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91



\HV (V) . . \Hv (v) . \hv (") . . \Hvbar (|) \HW (W) . .

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82 82 13 82 82

\Hw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HX (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hx (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

) . . . . . . . . . . . 63

\HXthousand (5) . . . . . . . . . 82

holtpolt (package) . . . . 63, 119 \hom (hom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Home ( Home ) . . . . . . . . . 72

\HY (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

\holter (



\Homer ( ) ..... \Hone (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . hook accent (ả) . . . see \hookb () . . . . . . . . . . \hookd () . . . . . . . . . . \hookd (D) . . . . . . . . . . \hookdownminus (â&#x152;?) . . . \hookg () . . . . . . . . . . \hookh ($) . . . . . . . . . . \hookheng (%) . . . . . . . . \hookleftarrow (â&#x2020;?-) . . . \hookleftarrow (â&#x2020;Š) . . . \hookrevepsilon () . . . \hookrightarrow (,â&#x2020;&#x2019;) . . \hookrightarrow (â&#x2020;Ş) . . \hookupminus (⨽) . . . . .

136

\Hy (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 hyphen, discretionary . . . . . 115 \HZ (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hz (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

. . . 96 . . . 82 accents . . . 13 . . . 13 . . . 13 . . . 66 . . . 13 . . . 13 . . . 13 . . . 41 . . . 44 . . . 13 . . . 41 . . . 44 . . . 66

I ¨i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \i (Ĺ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \ialign . . . . . . . 104, 106, 108 \ibar (¯i ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 IBM PC . . . . . . . . . 72, 97, 115 Icelandic staves . . . . . . . . . . 97 \IceMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . 91 . \iddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \iddots () R. . . R. . . . . . . . . 107 \idotsint ( ¡¡¡ ) . . . . . . . 26 ' \idotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . 27



\idotsint (â&#x2C6;Ťâ&#x20AC;Śâ&#x2C6;Ť) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \iff . see \Longleftrightarrow


ifsym (package) . 70, 79, 91, 92, 101, 103, 119, 120 igo (package) . . . . . . . . 94, 119 \igocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 94 \igocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 94 \igocross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igocross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igonone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igonone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \igosquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 94 \igosquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 94 \igotriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 94 \igotriangle RRRR( ) . . . . . . . . 94 \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 26 % \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ˇ \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \iiiint µ (⨌) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \iiint (RRR ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 # \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 26, 27 ˝ \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \iiint ´ (∭) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \iint (RR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 ! \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 28 ˜ \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \iint (∬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Im (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \im (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \imath (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 57 \impliedby see \Longleftarrow \implies see \Longrightarrow and \vdash impulse train . . . . . . . . see sha \in (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 inches . . . . . . . see \second and \textquotedbl \incoh (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 independence probabilistic . . . . . . . . 106 statistical . . . . . . . . . . 106 stochastic . . . . . see \bot \independent (⊥ ⊥) . . . . . . . 106 \Industry (I) . . . . . . . . . . 90 inequalities . . . . . . . . . 9, 37–39 inexact differential . . see \dbar \inf (inf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 infimum . see \inf and \sqcap infinity (∞) . . . . . . . see \infty \Info ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \Info (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 information symbols . . . . . . 90 informator symbols . . . . . . . 93 \infty (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \inipartvoice (a –ˇ) . . . . . . . 16 \inipartvoiceless (a – ) . . . . 16 ˚

} } | | ~ ~

<

 

\injlim (inj lim) . \inplus (A) . . . . inputenc (package) \Ins ( Ins ) . . . . ³ \int ( ) . . . . . . . R \int ( ) . . . . . . . r \int ( ) . . . . . . .

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\int (∫) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 € \intclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . 30

¿ Ú

\INTEGER ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Integer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 integers (Z) see alphabets, math integrals . . . 25–30, 66, 105–106 integrals (wasysym package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \intercal (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \intercal (⊺) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \interleave (9) . . . . . . . . . 22 intersection . . . . . . . . see \cap

™

\Interval ( ) . \inva ( ) . . . . . \invamp (M) . . . \invbackneg (⨽)

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91 13 23 66

\INVd () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \invdiameter () . . . . . . . . 88 \inve (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 inverse limit . see \varprojlim \InversTransformHoriz ( ) 36

 

\InversTransformVert ( ) . 36 inverted symbols 11–13, 17, 103 inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \invf (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \invglotstop (d) . . . . . . . . 13 \invh (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \INVl () \invlegr (I) \invm (5) . . \invneg () \invneg (⨼)

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73 13 13 31 66

\INVr () . . . \invr (G) . . . . . \invscr (K) . . . \invscripta ()

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73 13 13 13

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\INVu () . . . \invv () . . . . . \invw (Z) . . . . . \invy (\) . . . . . \iota (ι) . . . . . . iota, upside-down \iotaup (ι) . . . . \ipagamma ( ) . . \ipercatal (η) . \IroningI (¯) . \IroningII (°) \IroningIII (±) irony mark (? ) . .

137

. . . . . .

73 13 13 13 50 103 . 50 . 13 . 95 . 90 . 90 . 90 103

irrational numbers (J) alphabets, math \Irritant ( ) . . . . . \ismodeledby (=|) . . . ISO character entities isoent (package) . . . . .

.... . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

see . 92 103 117 117

J \j () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \JackStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \JackStarBold ( ) . . . . . . . 78 Jewish star . . . . . . . . . . 77, 78 \jmath () . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 57 \Joch ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Join (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31 \Join (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \joinrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 joint denial . . . see \downarrow junicode (package) . . . . . . . 118 Junicode-Regular.ttf (file) 118 \Jupiter (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Jupiter (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \jupiter (X) . . . . . . . . . . . 71

2

3



K . . . . . .... \k (a) , \k ( ˛) . . . . . . . . . \kappa (κ) . . . . . \kappaup (κ) . . . . \ker (ker) . . . . . . ket . . . . . . . . . . . \Keyboard (Ï) . . keyboard symbols keys, computer . . keystroke (package) \keystroke ( ) king . . . . . . . . . . knight . . . . . . . . . Knuth, Donald E. symbols by . . \Koppa (Ϙ) . . . . . \koppa (ϟ) . . . . . . \Kr ( l ) ...... \kreuz (6) . . . . . Kronecker product Kronecker sum . . krouˇzek (˚ a) . . . . . \kside (O) . . . . . \Kutline (R) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 17 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . 72 72, 119, 120 . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . 94 . . . . . . . 94 . 8, 114, 122 . . . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . 88 see \otimes . see \oplus see accents . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . 75

L \L (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \l (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \labdentalnas (4) . . . . . . . 13 \labvel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Ladiesroom (y) . . . . . . . . . 90 Lagrangian (L) . see alphabets, math \Lambda (Λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \lambda (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \lambdabar (o) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \lambdaslash (n) . . . . . . . . 66


\lambdaup (Îť) . . Lamport, Leslie . \land . . . . . . %. . \landdownint ( ) \landdownint# (â¨&#x161;) \landupint ( ) . \landupint (â¨&#x2122;) . \Langle (<) . . . \lAngle (hh) . . . . \langle (h) . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . 118, 122 . . . see \wedge . . . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . . . 68 . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . 21, 54

\langle (â&#x;¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \langlebar (n) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \Laplace (

) . . . . . . . . . 36

\laplace ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 Laplace transform (L) . . . . see alphabets, math Laplacian (â&#x2C6;&#x2020;) . . . . . see \Delta Laplacian (â&#x2C6;&#x2021;2 ) . . . . see \nabla \largecircle (â&#x2014;Ż) . . . . . . . . 79 \largediamond (â&#x2014;&#x2021;) . . . . . . 79 \largelozenge (â&#x2014;&#x160;) . . . . . . . 79

\largepencil (

W)

. . . . . . . 76

\largepentagram (Â&#x2026;) . . . . . 79 \largesquare (â&#x2014;ť) . . . . . . . . 79 \largestar (â&#x2DC;&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . 79 \largestarofdavid (â&#x153;Ą) . . . 79 \largetriangledown (â&#x2013;˝) . . 40 \largetriangleleft (â&#x2014; ) . . 40 \largetriangleright (â&#x2013;ˇ) . 40 \largetriangleup (â&#x2013;ł) . . . . 40 \LArrow ( â&#x2020;? ) . . . . . . . . . . 72 \larrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Laserbeam (a) . . . . . . . . 74 LATEX . . 1, 8, 14, 26, 30, 49, 54, 63, 65, 73, 75, 100, 103â&#x20AC;&#x201C;109, 112, 113, 115, 117â&#x20AC;&#x201C;119, 121, 122 LATEX 2Îľ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 8, 9, 19, 20, 22, 30, 36, 41, 58, 63, 65, 69, 73, 100, 101, 103, 106, 107, 111, 112, 114â&#x20AC;&#x201C;117, 122 latexsym (package) 22, 30, 36, 41, 65, 100, 119 \latfric (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . 8, 115, 119 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 laundry symbols . . . . . . . . . 90 \Lbag (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \lbag (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 â&#x17D;§ â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;Ş \lbrace ( â&#x17D;¨) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;Š . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Lbrack ([)â&#x17D;Ş \lBrack ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 LCD digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \lCeil (dd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \lceil (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

â&#x17D;Ąâ&#x17D;˘ \lceil ( â&#x17D;˘â&#x17D;˘â&#x17D;˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 â&#x17D;˘â&#x17D;˘ \lcirclearrowdown (Ăż) . . . 43 \lcirclearrowleft (⤞) . . . 43 \lcirclearrowright (â&#x;ł) . . 43 \lcirclearrowup (â&#x2020;ť) . . . . . 43 \lcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . 29 \lcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . 29 \lcm (lcm) . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \lcorners (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \lcurvearrowdown (⤸) . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowleft (Âş) . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowne (Âź) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrownw (½) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowright (â&#x2020;ˇ) . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowse (Âż) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowsw (ž) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowup (š) . . . . . . . 43 \ldbrack (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \ldotp (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \ldots (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leq \leadsto ({) . . . . . . . . 31, 41 \leadsto (â&#x2020;?) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 leaf . . . . . . . . . . see \textleaf \leafleft (g) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \leafNE (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \leafright (h) . . . . . . . . . 78 leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 80 Lefschetz motive (L) . . . . . see alphabets, math \Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 \left . . . . . . . 54, 56, 100, 102 \LEFTarrow () . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Leftarrow (â&#x2021;?) . . . . . . 21, 41 \Leftarrow (â&#x2021;?) . . . . . . . . . 43 \leftarrow (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . 42 \leftarrow (â&#x2020;?) . . . . . . . . . 41 \leftarrow (â&#x2020;?) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \leftarrowtail () . . . . . 41 \leftarrowtail (â&#x2020;˘) . . . . . . 44 \leftarrowtriangle (^) . . 42 \leftbarharpoon (Ă&#x153;) . . . . . 43 \LEFTCIRCLE (G) . . . . . . . . . 88 \LEFTcircle (G #) . . . . . . . . . 88 \Leftcircle Ă&#x2018;(I) . . . . . . . . . 88 Ă&#x2018; \leftevaw ( Ă&#x2018;Ă&#x2018;) . . . . . . . . . . 56 \leftfilledspoon (r) \leftfootline (z) . . . \leftfree (Â&#x201A;) . . . . . . \lefthalfcap (â&#x152;&#x153;) . . . . \lefthalfcup (â&#x152;&#x17E;) . . . . \lefthand (t) . . . . . . \leftharpoonccw (â&#x2020;˝) . \leftharpooncw (â&#x2020;ź) . . \leftharpoondown (â) \leftharpoondown ()) \leftharpoonup (Ă ) . . \leftharpoonup (() . . \leftleftarrows (Ă?) . \leftleftarrows (â&#x2021;&#x201D;) .

138

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47 33 33 23 24 76 46 46 43 41 43 41 42 41

\leftleftarrows (â&#x2021;&#x2021;) . . . . . 44 \leftleftharpoons (Ă&#x2DC;) . . . 43 \leftlsquigarrow (¢) . . . . 44 \leftmapsto (â&#x2020;¤) . . . . . . . . . 44 \leftModels (ò) . . . . . . . . . 33 \leftmodels (â) . . . . . . . . . 33 \leftmoon (K) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \leftmoon ($) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \leftp (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \leftpitchfork (Â&#x160;) . . . . . . 47 \leftpointright ( ) . . . . 76 \leftpropto (â&#x2C6;?) . . . . . . . . . 33 \Leftrightarrow (â&#x2021;&#x201D;) . . . . . 41 \Leftrightarrow (â&#x2021;&#x201D;) . . . . . 44 \leftrightarrow (Ă&#x2DC;) . . . . . 42 \leftrightarrow (â&#x2020;&#x201D;) . . . . . 41 \leftrightarrow (â&#x2020;&#x201D;) . . . . . 44 \leftrightarroweq (-) . . . . 42 \leftrightarrows (Ă&#x201D;) . . . . 42 \leftrightarrows () . . . . 41 \leftrightarrows (â&#x2021;&#x2020;) . . . . 44 \leftrightarrowtriangle (]) . . . . . . . . . 42 \leftrightharpoon (Ă ) . . . 43 \leftrightharpoondownup (âĽ&#x160;) . . . . . . . . . 46 \leftrightharpoons (è) . . 43 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . . 41 \leftrightharpoons (â&#x2021;&#x2039;) . . . 46 \leftrightharpoonsfill . . . 62 \leftrightharpoonupdown (âĽ&#x2039;) . . . . . . . . . 46 \Leftrightline (Ă&#x201D;) . . . . . . 33 \leftrightline (Ă?) . . . . . . 33 \leftrightsquigarrow (Ăş) 42 \leftrightsquigarrow (!) 41 \leftrightsquigarrow (â&#x2020;­) . 44 \leftrsquigarrow (â&#x2020;&#x153;) . . . . 44 \Leftscissors (S) . . . . . . . 75 \leftslice (2) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \leftslice (⪌) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \leftspoon (â&#x;&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . 47 \leftsquigarrow (ø) . . . . 42 \leftsquigarrow (f) . . . . . 42 \leftt (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \lefttherefore ( ) . . . 24, 64 \leftthreetimes ($) . . . . . 66 \leftthreetimes (h) . . . . . 22 \leftthreetimes (â&#x2039;&#x2039;) . . . . . . 24 \leftthumbsdown ( ) . . . . 76 \leftthumbsup ( ) . . . . . . 76 \lefttorightarrow (Ăź) . . . 42 \Lefttorque (&) . . . . . . . . 73 \leftturn (") . . . . . . . . . . 88 \leftVdash (ĂŞ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \leftvdash (â&#x160;Ł) Ă? . . . . . . . . . . 33 Ă? \leftwave ( Ă?Ă?) . . . . . . . . . . 56

R

D U

\leftY (*) . legal symbols \legm (6) . . \legr (E) . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . . 24 9, 19, 116 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13


\length (q) . . . . . . . \Leo (ä) . . . . . . . . . \leo () . . . . . . . . . \leq (¤) . . . . . . . . . \leq (≤) . . . . . . . . . \leq (≤) . . . . . . . . . \leqclosed (⊴) . . . . \leqdot (t) . . . . . . . \leqq (®) . . . . . . . . \leqq (5) . . . . . . . . \leqq (≦) . . . . . . . . \leqslant (6) . . . . \leqslant (⩽) . . . . . \leqslantdot (⩿) . . \less (<) . . . . . . . . less-than signs . . see \lessapprox (Æ) . . . \lessapprox (/) . . . \lessapprox (⪅) . . . \lessclosed (⊲) . . . \lessdot (Ì) . . . . . \lessdot (l) . . . . . \lessdot (⋖) . . . . . . \lesseqgtr (¼) . . . . \lesseqgtr (Q) . . . \lesseqgtr (⋚) . . . . \lesseqgtrslant (N) \lesseqqgtr (¾) . . .

. . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . 38 . . . 37, 38 . . . . . . 39 . . . 39, 40 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 39 inequalities . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 39 . . . 39, 40 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 38

\lesseqqgtr (S) . . . . . . . . . 38 \lesseqqgtr (⪋) \lessgtr (º) . . \lessgtr (≶) . . \lessgtr (≶) . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

39 38 38 39

\lessneqqgtr (ò) . . . . . . . . 39 \lesssim (À) . . . \lesssim (.) . . . \lesssim (≲) . . . . \Letter ( ) . . . . \Letter (B vs. ) \Letter (B) . . . . letter-like symbols letters . . . . . . . . . barred . . . . . non-ASCII . . slashed . . . . variant Ñ Latin Ñ \levaw ( ÑÑ) . . . . .

. . . .

. . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . . 92 . . . . . . 101 . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . 51–53 see alphabets . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . 56

\LF (␊) . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 7

\lfilet (77) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lFloor (bb) . \lfloor (b) . ⎢⎢ \lfloor ( ⎢⎢⎢) \lg (lg) .  .⎢⎣. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

\lgroup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ \lgroup ( ⎪ ) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ⎪ ⎩ \LHD () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

\lhd (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23 \lhd (⊲) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \lhdbend (~) . . . . . . . . . . 89 \lhookdownarrow (3) . . . . . . 44 \lhookleftarrow (2) . . . . . 44 \lhooknearrow (4) . . . . . . . 44 \lhooknwarrow (⤣) . . . . . . . 44 \lhookrightarrow (↪) . . . . 44 \lhooksearrow (⤥) . . . . . . . 44 \lhookswarrow (6) . . . . . . . 44 \lhookuparrow (1) . . . . . . . . 44 \Libra (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \libra (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Lie derivative (L) see alphabets, math life-insurance symbols . . . . 108 \lightbulb (A) . . . . . . . . . 112 lightbulb.mf (file) . . . 109–111 lightbulb.sty (file) . . . . . 112 lightbulb10.2602gf (file) . 111 lightbulb10.dvi (file) . . . 111 lightbulb10.mf (file) . 109–111 lightbulb10.tfm (file) . . . 112 \Lightning (E vs. ) . . . . 101 \Lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . 91 \Lightning (E) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \lightning ( vs. ) . . . . . 101 \lightning (☇) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \lightning () . . . . . . . . . . 88 \lim (lim) . . . . . . . . . . 49, 113 \liminf (lim inf) . . . . . 49, 113 limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \limsup (lim sup) . . . . 49, 113 \linbfamily . . . . . . . . . 85, 86 Linear A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Linear B . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 86 linear implication see \multimap linear logic symbols . 21–23, 25, 29–30, 36, 51, 52 linearA (package) . . 82, 119, 121 \LinearAC (c) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACC () . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCC (y) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCI (z) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCII ({) . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCIII (|) . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCIV (}) . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCIX (‚) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCL («) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLI (¬) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLII (­) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLIII (®) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLIV (¯) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLIX (´) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLV (°) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLVI (±) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLVII (²) . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLVIII (³) . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCLX (µ) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCCLXI (¶) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCCLXII (·) . . . . . . 84



139



\LinearACCCLXIII (¸) . . . \LinearACCCLXIV (¹) . . . \LinearACCCLXIX (¾) . . . . \LinearACCCLXV (º) . . . . \LinearACCCLXVI (») . . . . \LinearACCCLXVII (¼) . . . \LinearACCCLXVIII (½) . . \LinearACCCLXX (¿) . . . . . \LinearACCCLXXI (À) . . . \LinearACCCLXXII (Á) . . \LinearACCCLXXIII (Â) . \LinearACCCLXXIV (Ã) . . . \LinearACCCLXXIX (È) . . \LinearACCCLXXV (Ä) . . . . \LinearACCCLXXVI (Å) . . \LinearACCCLXXVII (Æ) . . \LinearACCCLXXVIII (Ç) . \LinearACCCLXXX (É) . . . . \LinearACCCLXXXI (Ê) . . . \LinearACCCLXXXII (Ë) . . \LinearACCCLXXXIII (Ì) . \LinearACCCLXXXIV (Í) . \LinearACCCLXXXIX (Ò) . \LinearACCCLXXXV (Î) . . . \LinearACCCLXXXVI (Ï) . . \LinearACCCLXXXVII (Ð) . \LinearACCCLXXXVIII (Ñ) \LinearACCCV (~) . . . . . . . \LinearACCCVI () . . . . . \LinearACCCVII (€) . . . . \LinearACCCVIII () . . . \LinearACCCX (ƒ) . . . . . . \LinearACCCXI („) . . . . . \LinearACCCXII (…) . . . . \LinearACCCXIII (†) . . . \LinearACCCXIV (‡) . . . . \LinearACCCXIX (Œ) . . . . \LinearACCCXL (¡) . . . . . \LinearACCCXLI (¢) . . . . \LinearACCCXLII (£) . . . . \LinearACCCXLIII (¤) . . . \LinearACCCXLIV (¥) . . . \LinearACCCXLIX (ª) . . . . \LinearACCCXLV (¦) . . . . \LinearACCCXLVI (§) . . . \LinearACCCXLVII (¨) . . . \LinearACCCXLVIII (©) . . \LinearACCCXV (ˆ) . . . . . \LinearACCCXVI (‰) . . . . . \LinearACCCXVII (Š) . . . . \LinearACCCXVIII (‹) . . \LinearACCCXX () . . . . . \LinearACCCXXI (Ž) . . . . \LinearACCCXXII () . . . . \LinearACCCXXIII () . . . \LinearACCCXXIV (‘) . . . . \LinearACCCXXIX (–) . . . . \LinearACCCXXV (’) . . . . \LinearACCCXXVI (“) . . . . \LinearACCCXXVII (”) . . . \LinearACCCXXVIII (•) . . \LinearACCCXXX (—) . . . . \LinearACCCXXXI (˜) . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83


\LinearACCCXXXII (Â&#x2122;) . \LinearACCCXXXIII (Â&#x161;) . \LinearACCCXXXIV (Â&#x203A;) . . \LinearACCCXXXIX (Â ) . . \LinearACCCXXXV (Â&#x153;) . . . \LinearACCCXXXVI (Â?) . . \LinearACCCXXXVII (Â&#x17E;) \LinearACCCXXXVIII (Â&#x;) \LinearACCI () . . . . . . \LinearACCII () . . . . . \LinearACCIII () . . . . \LinearACCIV () . . . . \LinearACCIX () . . . . . \LinearACCL (G) . . . . . . \LinearACCLI (H) . . . . . \LinearACCLII (I) . . . . \LinearACCLIII (J) . . . . \LinearACCLIV (K) . . . . . \LinearACCLIX (P) . . . . . \LinearACCLV (L) . . . . . \LinearACCLVI (M) . . . . . \LinearACCLVII (N) . . . . \LinearACCLVIII (O) . . \LinearACCLX (Q) . . . . . \LinearACCLXI (R) . . . . . \LinearACCLXII (S) . . . . \LinearACCLXIII (T) . . . \LinearACCLXIV (U) . . . \LinearACCLXIX (Z) . . . \LinearACCLXV (V) . . . . \LinearACCLXVI (W) . . . . \LinearACCLXVII (X) . . . \LinearACCLXVIII (Y) . . \LinearACCLXX ([) . . . . \LinearACCLXXI (\) . . . . \LinearACCLXXII (]) . . . \LinearACCLXXIII (^) . \LinearACCLXXIV (_) . . . \LinearACCLXXIX (d) . . . \LinearACCLXXV (`) . . . \LinearACCLXXVI (a) . . . \LinearACCLXXVII (b) . . \LinearACCLXXVIII (c) . \LinearACCLXXX (e) . . . \LinearACCLXXXI (f) . . . \LinearACCLXXXII (g) . . \LinearACCLXXXIII (h) . \LinearACCLXXXIV (i) . \LinearACCLXXXIX (n) . . \LinearACCLXXXV (j) . . \LinearACCLXXXVI (k) . . \LinearACCLXXXVII (l) . \LinearACCLXXXVIII (m) \LinearACCLXXXX (o) . . \LinearACCV () . . . . . . \LinearACCVI () . . . . . \LinearACCVII () . . . . \LinearACCVIII () . . . . \LinearACCX () . . . . . . \LinearACCXCI (p) . . . . \LinearACCXCII (q) . . . \LinearACCXCIII (r) . . . \LinearACCXCIV (s) . . .

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83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 84

\LinearACCXCIX (x) . . \LinearACCXCV (t) . . . \LinearACCXCVI (u) . . \LinearACCXCVII (v) . . \LinearACCXCVIII (w) \LinearACCXI ( ) . . . . \LinearACCXII (!) . . . \LinearACCXIII (") . . \LinearACCXIV (#) . . . \LinearACCXIX (() . . . \LinearACCXL (=) . . . . \LinearACCXLI (>) . . . \LinearACCXLII (?) . . . \LinearACCXLIII (@) . \LinearACCXLIV (A) . . . \LinearACCXLIX (F) . . \LinearACCXLV (B) . . . \LinearACCXLVI (C) . . \LinearACCXLVII (D) . . \LinearACCXLVIII (E) . \LinearACCXV ($) . . . . \LinearACCXVI (%) . . . . \LinearACCXVII (&) . . . \LinearACCXVIII (') . . \LinearACCXX ()) . . . . \LinearACCXXI (*) . . . \LinearACCXXII (+) . . \LinearACCXXIII (,) . . \LinearACCXXIV (-) . . . \LinearACCXXIX (2) . . \LinearACCXXV (.) . . . \LinearACCXXVI (/) . . \LinearACCXXVII (0) . \LinearACCXXVIII (1) \LinearACCXXX (3) . . . \LinearACCXXXI (4) . . . \LinearACCXXXII (5) . . \LinearACCXXXIII (6) . \LinearACCXXXIV (7) . \LinearACCXXXIX (<) . \LinearACCXXXV (8) . . . \LinearACCXXXVI (9) . . \LinearACCXXXVII (:) \LinearACCXXXVIII (;) \LinearACI (d) . . . . . . \LinearACII (e) . . . . . \LinearACIII (f) . . . . \LinearACIV (g) . . . . . \LinearACIX (l) . . . . . \LinearACL (Â&#x2022;) . . . . . . \LinearACLI (Â&#x2013;) . . . . . \LinearACLII (Â&#x2014;) . . . . \LinearACLIII (Â&#x2DC;) . . . \LinearACLIV (Â&#x2122;) . . . . \LinearACLIX (Â&#x17E;) . . . . \LinearACLV (Â&#x161;) . . . . . \LinearACLVI (Â&#x203A;) . . . . \LinearACLVII (Â&#x153;) . . . \LinearACLVIII (Â?) . . \LinearACLX (Â&#x;) . . . . . \LinearACLXI (Â ) . . . . \LinearACLXII (ÂĄ) . . .

140

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82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83

\LinearACLXIII (¢) . . . \LinearACLXIV (ÂŁ) . . . \LinearACLXIX (¨) . . . \LinearACLXV (¤) . . . . \LinearACLXVI (ÂĽ) . . \LinearACLXVII (ÂŚ) . . \LinearACLXVIII (§) . \LinearACLXX (Š) . . . . \LinearACLXXI (ÂŞ) . . . \LinearACLXXII (ÂŤ) . . \LinearACLXXIII (ÂŹ) . \LinearACLXXIV (­) . . \LinearACLXXIX ( ) . . . \LinearACLXXV (ÂŽ) . . . \LinearACLXXVI (ÂŻ) . . \LinearACLXXVII (°) . . \LinearACLXXVIII (Âą) . \LinearACLXXX () . . . \LinearACLXXXI () . . \LinearACLXXXII () . . \LinearACLXXXIII () . \LinearACLXXXIV () . \LinearACLXXXIX ( ) . . \LinearACLXXXV () . . . \LinearACLXXXVI () . \LinearACLXXXVII () . \LinearACLXXXVIII ( ) \LinearACLXXXX ( ) . . \LinearACV (h) . . . . . . \LinearACVI (i) . . . . . \LinearACVII (j) . . . . \LinearACVIII (k) . . . \LinearACX (m) . . . . . . \LinearACXCI ( ) . . . . \LinearACXCII ( ) . . . \LinearACXCIII () . . . \LinearACXCIV () . . . \LinearACXCIX () . . . \LinearACXCV () . . . . . \LinearACXCVI () . . . \LinearACXCVII () . . \LinearACXCVIII () . . \LinearACXI (n) . . . . . \LinearACXII (o) . . . . \LinearACXIII (p) . . . \LinearACXIV (q) . . . . \LinearACXIX (v) . . . . \LinearACXL (Â&#x2039;) . . . . . \LinearACXLI (Â&#x152;) . . . . \LinearACXLII (Â?) . . . \LinearACXLIII (Â&#x17D;) . . \LinearACXLIV (Â?) . . . \LinearACXLIX (Â&#x201D;) . . . \LinearACXLV (Â?) . . . . \LinearACXLVI (Â&#x2018;) . . . \LinearACXLVII (Â&#x2019;) . . \LinearACXLVIII (Â&#x201C;) . \LinearACXV (r) . . . . . \LinearACXVI (s) . . . . \LinearACXVII (t) . . . \LinearACXVIII (u) . . . \LinearACXX (w) . . . . .

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83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 82 82 82 82 82 84 84 84 84 82 84 84 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83


\LinearACXXI (x) . . . \LinearACXXII (y) . . \LinearACXXIII (z) . \LinearACXXIV ({) . . \LinearACXXIX (Â&#x20AC;) . . \LinearACXXV (|) . . . \LinearACXXVI (}) . . \LinearACXXVII (~) . \LinearACXXVIII () \LinearACXXX (Â ) . . . \LinearACXXXI (Â&#x201A;) . . \LinearACXXXII (Â&#x192;) . \LinearACXXXIII (Â&#x201E;) . \LinearACXXXIV (Â&#x2026;) . . \LinearACXXXIX (Â&#x160;) . \LinearACXXXV (Â&#x2020;) . . \LinearACXXXVI (Â&#x2021;) . \LinearACXXXVII (Â&#x2C6;) . \LinearACXXXVIII (Â&#x2030;) \LinearAI ( ) . . . . . . \LinearAII () . . . . . \LinearAIII () . . . . \LinearAIV () . . . . . \LinearAIX () . . . . . \LinearAL (1) . . . . . . \LinearALI (2) . . . . . \LinearALII (3) . . . . \LinearALIII (4) . . . \LinearALIV (5) . . . . \LinearALIX (:) . . . . \LinearALV (6) . . . . . \LinearALVI (7) . . . . \LinearALVII (8) . . . \LinearALVIII (9) . . \LinearALX (;) . . . . . \LinearALXI (<) . . . . \LinearALXII (=) . . . \LinearALXIII (>) . . \LinearALXIV (?) . . . \LinearALXIX (D) . . . \LinearALXV (@) . . . . \LinearALXVI (A) . . . \LinearALXVII (B) . . \LinearALXVIII (C) . . \LinearALXX (E) . . . . \LinearALXXI (F) . . . \LinearALXXII (G) . . \LinearALXXIII (H) . \LinearALXXIV (I) . . \LinearALXXIX (N) . . \LinearALXXV (J) . . . \LinearALXXVI (K) . . \LinearALXXVII (L) . \LinearALXXVIII (M) . \LinearALXXX (O) . . . \LinearALXXXI (P) . . \LinearALXXXII (Q) . . \LinearALXXXIII (R) . \LinearALXXXIV (S) . \LinearALXXXIX (X) .

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83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84

\LinearALXXXV (T) . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearALXXXVI (U) . . . . . . 84 \LinearALXXXVII (V) . . . . . . 84 \LinearALXXXVIII (W) . . . . . 84 \LinearALXXXX (Y) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAV () . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAVI () . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAVII () . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAVIII () . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXCI (Z) . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCII ([) . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCIII (\) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCIV (]) . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCIX (b) . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXCV (^) . . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCVI (_) . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCVII (`) . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXCVIII (a) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearAXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXIX () . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXL (') . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLI (() . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLII ()) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLIII (*) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLIV (+) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLIX (0) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLV (,) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLVI (-) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLVII (.) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXLVIII (/) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXV () . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXVI () . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXVII () . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXVIII () . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXX () . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXI () . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXII () . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXIII () . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXIV () . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXIX () . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXV () . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXVI () . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXVII () . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXVIII () . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXX () . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXI () . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXII () . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXIV (!) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXIX (&) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXV (") . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVI (#) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVII ($) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXXVIII (%) . . . . . . 83 linearb (package) 85, 86, 119, 121 \Lineload (L) . . . . . . . . . . 73 linguistic symbols . . . . . 11â&#x20AC;&#x201C;14

141

)

\Lisa ( \lJoin (X) \ll (!) . . . \ll () . . \ll (â&#x2030;Ş) . .

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\llangle (â&#x;Ş)

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96 31 38 37 39

. . . . . . . . . . . 55

\llap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 \llbracket (~) . . . . . . . . . . 54 Â&#x2039;

\llbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 57 \llceil (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \llcorner (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \llcorner (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \llcorner (â&#x152;&#x17E;) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \llcurly (Ă&#x17D;) . . . . \Lleftarrow (W) . \Lleftarrow (â&#x2021;&#x161;) . \llfloor (T) . . . . . \lll (Ă&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . \lll (â&#x2030;Ş) . . . . . . . \lll (â&#x2030;Ş vs. Ă&#x17D;) . . \lll (â&#x2039;&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . \llless . . . . . . . . \llless (â&#x2039;&#x2DC;) . . . . \llparenthesis  (L)

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. . . . 32 . . . . 41 . . . . 44 . . . . 53 . . . . 38 . . . . 38 . . . 101 . . . . 39 see \lll . . . . . 39 . . . . . 53

\lmoustache () . . . . . . . . 54 â&#x17D;§ â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;Ş \lmoustache ( â&#x17D;Ş ) . . . . . . . . 55 â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;­ \ln (ln) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \lnapprox (Ă&#x160;) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnapprox () . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnapprox (âŞ&#x2030;) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lneq (ÂŹ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneqq (²) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneqq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneqq (â&#x2030;¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lnot . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \lnot (ÂŹ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \lnsim (Ă&#x201E;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnsim () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnsim (â&#x2030;´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 local ring (O) . . see alphabets, math \log (log) . . . . . . . . . . 49, 113 log-like symbols . . . . . . 49, 113 logic gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 logical operators and . . . . . . . . . see \wedge not . . . see \neg and \sim or . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \logof () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 lollipop . . . . . . . see \multimap long division . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \longa (Îť) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \longcastling (O-O-O) . . . 93 longdiv (package) . . . . . . . . . 59


\Longleftarrow (⇐=) . . . . . 41 \Longleftarrow (⇐Ô) . . . . . 43 \longleftarrow (←Ð) . . . . . 43 \longleftarrow (←−) . . . . . 41 \Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 41 \Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 43 \longleftrightarrow (←→) . 43 \longleftrightarrow (←→) 41 \Longmapsfrom (⇐=\) . . . . . . 42 \longmapsfrom (←−[) . . . . . . 42 \Longmapsto (=⇒) . . . . . . . 42 \longmapsto (z→) . . . . . . . . 43 \longmapsto (7−→) . . . . . . . 41 \LongPulseHigh ( ) . . . . . 70 \LongPulseLow ( ) . . . . . 70 \Longrightarrow (=⇒) . . . . 41 \Longrightarrow (Ô⇒) . . . . 43 \longrightarrow (Ð→) . . . . 43 \longrightarrow (−→) . . . . 41 \looparrowdownleft (î) . . 42 \looparrowdownright (ï) . . 42 \looparrowleft (ì) . . . . . . 42 \looparrowleft (") . . . . . . 41 \looparrowleft (↫) . . . . . . 43 \looparrowright (í) . . . . . 42 \looparrowright (#) . . . . . 41 \looparrowright (↬) . . . . . 43 \Loosebearing ($) . . . . . . . 73 \lor . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \LowerDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . 79 lowering . . . see \textlowering \lozenge (♦) . . . . . . . . 65, 66 \lozenge (◊) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \Lparen (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \lrcorner ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \lrcorner (y) . . . . . . . . . . . 53

& '

o

\lrcorner (⌟) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lrJoin . . . . . \lrtimes (\) . . L P ) ... \lsem ( P P P P \lsemantic N ... \Lsh (è) . . . . . \Lsh () . . . . . \Lsh (↰) . . . . . \Lsteel (™) . . \ltimes ( ) . . \ltimes (n) . . \ltimes (⋉) . . \ltriple . . . . Luecking, Dan . \lVert (k) . . . \lVert (||) . . . . \lvert (|) . . . . \lvertneqq (´) \lvertneqq ( ) \lvertneqq Ð (≨) Ð \lwave ( ÐÐ) . . . _ _ \lWavy ( _ ) _ _ _ _

. . . . see \Join . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . 55 see \ldbrack . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . 57 . . . . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . 39

. . . . . . . . . . 56

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^^ \lwavy ( ^^^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lz (1) .^^. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

\M . . . . . . . \M (´) . . . . \m .¯. . . . . . \m ( ) . . . . \ma ¯(¯ ×) . . . \macron (a ¯) macron (¯ a)

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M .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

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... ... ... ... ... ... see

. . . 10 . . . 95 . . . 10 . . . 95 . . . 95 . . . 17 accents

\Maggie ( ) . . . . . . . . . 96 magical signs . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 majuscules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \makeatletter . . . . . . . . . 107 \makeatother . . . . . . . . . . 107 \MALE (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Male (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 male . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71, 73, 74 \male (♂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \MaleMale (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . 74 \maltese (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \maltese (✠) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 90 \manboldkidney () . . . . . . . 89 \manconcentriccircles ($) 89 \manconcentricdiamond (%) 89 \mancone (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mancube () . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \manerrarrow (y) . . . . . . . 89 \manfilledquartercircle (!) 89 manfnt (package) . . 89, 119, 120 \manhpennib () . . . . . . . . . 89 \manimpossiblecube () . . . 89 \mankidney () . . . . . . . . . . 89 \manlhpenkidney () . . . . . . 89 \manpenkidney () . . . . . . . 89 \manquadrifolium (&) . . . . 89 \manquartercircle ( ) . . . . 89 \manrotatedquadrifolium (') . . . . . . . . . 89 \manrotatedquartercircle (") . . . . . . . . . 89 \manstar () . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mantiltpennib () . . . . . . 89 \mantriangledown (7) . . . . . 89 \mantriangleright (x) . . . . 89 \mantriangleup (6) . . . . . . 89 \manvpennib () . . . . . . . . . . 89 \Mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . 48 \mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . 48 \Mapsfrom (⇐\) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mapsfrom (←[) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Mapsfromchar (û) . . . . . . . . 49 \Mapsfromchar (\) . . . . . . . . 48 \mapsfromchar (ß) . . . . . . . . 49 \mapsfromchar ([) . . . . . . . . 48 \Mapsto (⇒) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mapsto (7→) . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \mapsto (↦) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

142

\Mapstochar (ú) . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Mapstochar () . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mapstochar (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . 49



\Marge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 96 \markera (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \markerb (y) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 married . . . . . see \textmarried \Mars (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Mars (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \mars (♂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \MartinVogel (ÿ) . . . . . . . . 90 marvosym (package) . 18, 65, 67, 71–75, 90, 101 masonic cipher . . . . . . . . . . 98 \mate (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 material biconditional . . . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material conditional . . . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset material equivalence . . . . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material implication . . . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset material nonimplication . . . . . . . . . see \nrightarrow and \nsupset math alphabets . . . . . . . . . . 68 mathabx (package) 21, 23, 25, 26, 30, 32, 36–38, 40, 42, 43, 49, 52–55, 58, 60, 65, 66, 71, 93, 100, 101, 119, 120, 123 \mathaccent . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \mathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathbbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathbbmss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathbbmtt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 mathbbol (package) . . . . . . . 68 \mathbf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \mathbin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \mathbold . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 mathcal (euscript package option) . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathcal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathcent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \mathchoice . . . . . . . . 105, 106 \mathclose . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 mathcomp (package) . . . . . . 65 mathdesign (package) 18, 24, 30, 52, 56, 67, 119 \mathdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . 21 mathdots (package) . 58, 63, 64, 107, 119, 120 \mathds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathellipsis (. . .) . . . . . . 21 mathematical symbols . . 21–69 \mathfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68


\mathit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathnormal . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \mathopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \mathord . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \mathpalette . . . . . . . . . . 106 \mathparagraph (Âś) . . . . . . 21 \mathpunct . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \mathpzc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathrel . . . . . . . . . . 103, 112 \mathring (Ë&#x161;) . . . . . . . . 57, 58 \mathrm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 mathrsfs (package) . . . . 68, 119 mathscr (euscript package option) . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mathsection (§) . . . . . . . . 21 \mathsterling (ÂŁ) . . . . . . . . 52 \mathsterling (ÂŁ) . . . . . . . 21 mathtools (package) . 21, 34, 60, 62, 119, 120 \mathunderscore ( ) . . . . . . 21 \max (max) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . see \DH \maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Mb (´ Ë&#x2DC;ÂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \mb (ÂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC; ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Mbb (¯´ Ë&#x2DC;ÂŻË&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \mBb (ÂŻ Ë&#x2DC;´¯Ë&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \mbB (ÂŻÂŻ Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC;´ \mbb (ÂŻÂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC; mbboard (package) . . . . 68, 119 \mbbx (ÂŻÂŻ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC;Ë&#x2DC; \mbox .ÂŻ.ÂŻ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 \measuredangle (>) . . . . . . 66 \measuredangle (]) . . . . . . 66 \measuredangle (â&#x2C6;Ą) . . . . . . 66 mechanical scaling . . . . 109, 112 \medbackslash (â&#x2C6;&#x2013;) . . . . . . . 24 \medbullet () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \medcirc () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \medcircle (â&#x2014;Ż) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \meddiamond (â&#x2014;&#x2021;) . . . . . . . . . 25 \medlozenge (â&#x2014;&#x160;) . . . . . . . . . 79 \medslash (â&#x2C6;&#x2022;) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \medsquare (â&#x2014;ť) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \medstar (â&#x2DC;&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \medstarofdavid (â&#x153;Ą) . . . . . 79 \medtriangledown (â&#x2013;˝) . 25, 40 \medtriangleleft (â&#x2014; ) . 25, 40 \medtriangleright (â&#x2013;ˇ) . 25, 40 \medtriangleup (â&#x2013;ł) . . . 25, 40 \medvert (â&#x2C6;Ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \medvertdot () . . . . . . . . . 24 membership . . . . . . . . see \in \Mercury (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Mercury (Ă&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \mercury (') . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \merge (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 METAFONT . . . . . . 69, 109â&#x20AC;&#x201C;112 METAFONTbook symbols . . . 89

metre (package) . 17, 57, 95, 119, 120 metre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 metrical symbols . . . . . . . . . 95 \mho (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 66 micro . . . . . . . . . . see \textmu \micro (Âľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 MicrosoftÂŽ WindowsÂŽ . . . 115 \mid (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 56 \middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \midtilde ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 MIL-STD-806 . . . . . . . . . . . 73 millesimal sign . . . . . . . . . see \textperthousand milstd (package) . . . . . . 73, 119 \min (min) . . . . . . . . . 49, 113 minim . . . . see musical symbols minus . . . . . . . see \textminus \minus (â&#x2C6;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \minuscolon (â&#x2C6;&#x2019;:) . . . . . . . . 36 \minuscoloncolon (â&#x2C6;&#x2019;::) . . . . 36 \minusdot () . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \minushookdown (ÂŹ) . . . . . . 66 \minushookup (⨟) . . . . . . . . 66 \minuso ( ) . . . . . . . . 22, 104 minutes, angular . . . see \prime miscellaneous symbols 65â&#x20AC;&#x201C;67, 80, 88â&#x20AC;&#x201C;99 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Missing $ insertedâ&#x20AC;? . . . . 21 \Mmappedfromchar () . . . . . . 48 \mmappedfromchar () . . . . . . 48 \Mmapstochar () . . . . . . . . . 48 \mmapstochar () . . . . . . . . . 48 MnSymbol (package) . . . . . 21, 23â&#x20AC;&#x201C;25, 29, 32â&#x20AC;&#x201C;34, 37, 39, 40, 43â&#x20AC;&#x201C;48, 51, 52, 55, 58â&#x20AC;&#x201C;60, 64, 66, 67, 79, 119, 120 \Mobilefone (H) . . . . . . . . . 73 \mod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \models (|=) . . . . . . . . 30, 103 \models (â&#x160;§) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 moduli space . . . see alphabets, math monetary symbols . . . 18, 19, 68 monus . . . . . . . . . . see \dotdiv \moo () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Moon (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Moon (Ă ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \MoonPha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \morepawns (S) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \moreroom (U) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \Mountain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 91 mouse . . . . see \ComputerMouse \MoveDown (Âť) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \moverlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \MoveUp (Âş) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \mp (â&#x2C6;&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \mp (â&#x2C6;&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \mu (Âľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \multimap (() . . . . . . . 30, 31 \multimap (â&#x160;¸) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \multimapboth () . . . . . . 31



143

\multimapbothvert (Â&#x2022;) . . . . 31 \multimapdot () . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotboth () . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothA () . . . 31 \multimapdotbothAvert (Â&#x2DC;) . 31 \multimapdotbothB () . . . 31 \multimapdotbothBvert (Â&#x2014;) . 31 \multimapdotbothvert (Â&#x2013;) . . 31 \multimapdotinv () . . . . . 31 \multimapinv () . . . . . . . . 31 multiple accents per character 107 multiplicative disjunction . . . . . . . . . . see \bindnasrepma, \invamp, and \parr \Mundus (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft . . . . . . . . . 98 musical symbols 20, 65, 66, 88, 89 musixtex (package) . . . . . . . . 89 \muup (Âľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \MVAt (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \MVEight (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVFive (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVFour (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVNine (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVOne (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVRightarrow (:) . . . . . . . 90 \MVSeven (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVSix (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVThree (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVTwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVZero (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

\nabla (â&#x2C6;&#x2021;) . \nabla (â&#x2C6;&#x2021;) . \NAK (â?&#x2022;) . . . NAND gates

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65 66 72 73

\NANDd () . . . . . . . . . . 73 \NANDl ()

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\NANDr ()

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\NANDu () \napprox () . \napprox (â&#x2030;&#x2030;) . . \napproxeq (6) \napproxeq (â&#x2030;&#x160;̸) \nasymp (-) . . \nasymp (â&#x2030;­) . . . nath (package) . \NATURAL ( ) . . \Natural ( ) . . \natural (\) . . \natural (â&#x2122;Ž) . . natural numbers alphabets,

. . . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . 48 . 53, 56, 57, 119 . . . . . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . 65, 88 . . . . . . . . . . 66 (N) . . . . . see math

Âź Ă&#x17D;


navigation symbols . . . . . . . \nbackapprox (̸) . . . . . . . . \nbackapproxeq (̸) . . . . . . . \nbackcong (≌̸) . . . . . . . . . . \nbackeqsim (̸) . . . . . . . . . \nbacksim (*) . . . . . . . . . . . \nbacksim (∽̸) . . . . . . . . . . . \nbacksimeq (+) . . . . . . . . . \nbacksimeq (⋍̸) . . . . . . . . . \nbacktriplesim (̸) . . . . . . \NBSP ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nBumpeq ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nBumpeq (≎̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbumpeq (() . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbumpeq (≏̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncirceq (≗̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncirclearrowleft (↺̸) . . . \ncirclearrowright (↻̸) . . \nclosedequal (̸) . . . . . . . \ncong () . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncong () . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncong (≇) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqprec (¸) . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqprec (⋞̸) . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqsucc (¹) . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqsucc (⋟̸) . . . . . . . \ncurvearrowdownup (̸) . . . \ncurvearrowleft (↶̸) . . . . \ncurvearrowleftright (̸) \ncurvearrownesw (̸) . . . . \ncurvearrownwse (̸) . . . . \ncurvearrowright (↷̸) . . . . \ncurvearrowrightleft (̸) \ncurvearrowsenw (̸) . . . . \ncurvearrowswne (̸) . . . . \ncurvearrowupdown (̸) . . . \ndasharrow (⇢̸) . . . . . . . . . \ndasheddownarrow (⇣̸) . . . . \ndashedleftarrow (⇠̸) . . . . \ndashednearrow (̸) . . . . . \ndashednwarrow (̸) . . . . . \ndashedrightarrow (⇢̸) . . . \ndashedsearrow (̸) . . . . . \ndashedswarrow (̸) . . . . . \ndasheduparrow (⇡̸) . . . . . . \ndashleftarrow (⇠̸) . . . . . \ndashrightarrow (⇢̸) . . . . \nDashV (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nDashv (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashV (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashv (') . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashv (⊣̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashVv (/) . . . . . . . . . . .

90 33 33 33 33 31 33 31 34 34 72 31 34 31 34 34 46 46 34 32 31 34 32 34 32 34 44 46 44 44 44 46 44 44 44 44 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 32 32 32 32 34 32

\nddtstile ( ) . . . \ndiagdown (̸) . . . \ndiagup (̸) . . . . . \ndivides (∤) . . . . . \nDoteq (≑̸) . . . . . . . \ndoteq (≐̸) . . . . . . . \ndoublefrown (̸) . \ndoublefrowneq (̸) \ndoublesmile (̸) .

35 34 34 34 34 34 48 48 48

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\ndoublesmileeq (̸) . . \nDownarrow (⇓̸) . . . . . \ndownarrow (↓̸) . . . . . \ndownarrowtail (̸) . . \ndowndownarrows (⇊̸) . \ndownfilledspoon (̸) \ndownfootline (̸) . . . \ndownfree (⫝̸) . . . . . . \ndownharpoonccw (⇂̸) . \ndownharpooncw (⇃̸) . . \ndownlsquigarrow (̸) \ndownmapsto (↧̸) . . . . \ndownModels (̸) . . . . \ndownmodels (̸) . . . . \ndownpitchfork (⫛̸) . \ndownrsquigarrow (̸) \ndownspoon (⫰̸) . . . . . \ndownuparrows (̸) . . \ndownupharpoons (⥯̸) . \ndownVdash (⍑̸) . . . . . \ndownvdash (⊤̸) . . . . . \ndststile (

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48 45 45 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 47 45 47 45 46 34 34

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\ndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ndttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \ne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neq \ne (≠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \Nearrow (t) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Nearrow (⇗) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nearrow (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \nearrow (%) . . . . 41, 106, 107 \nearrow (↗) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nearrowtail ($) . . . . . . . . 43 \nefilledspoon (t) . . . . . . 47 \nefootline (|) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nefree („) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 negation . . . see \neg and \sim \neharpoonccw (D) . . . . . . . 46 \neharpooncw (L) . . . . . . . . 46 \nelsquigarrow (¤) . . . . . . 43 \nemapsto (,) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \neModels (ô) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nemodels (ä) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nenearrows (”) . . . . . . . . 43 \nepitchfork (Œ) . . . . . . . . 47 \Neptune (H) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Neptune (È) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \neptune ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \neq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \neq (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \neq (≠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqbump (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqcirc (≖̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqdot (⩦̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqfrown (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \neqsim (≂̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \neqslantgtr (¹) . . . . . . . . 38 \neqslantgtr (⪖̸) . . . . . . . . 39 \neqslantless (¸) . . . . . . . 38 \neqslantless (⪕̸) . . . . . . . 39

144

\neqsmile (̸) . . . . . . \nequal (≠) . . . . . . . . \nequalclosed (̸) . . \nequiv (.) . . . . . . . \nequiv (≢) . . . . . . . . \nequivclosed (̸) . . \nersquigarrow (¬) . \nespoon (l) . . . . . . \Neswarrow () . . . . \neswarrow (% .) . . . . \neswarrow (⤡) . . . . \neswarrows (š) . . . \neswbipropto (‰) . . \neswcrossing (‘) . . \neswharpoonnwse (R) \neswharpoons (Z) . . \neswharpoonsenw (V) \Neswline (Ö) . . . . . \neswline (Ò) . . . . . \Neutral ({) . . . . . . \neVdash (ì) . . . . . . \nevdash (Ü) . . . . . . \newextarrow . . . . . . \newmetrics . . . . . . . \newmoon (N) . . . . . . \newmoon ( ) . . . . . . \newtie ( a) . . . . . . . . \nexists (E) . . . . . . . \nexists (@) . . . . . . . \nexists (∄) . . . . . . . \nfallingdotseq (≒̸) . \nfrown (⌢̸) . . . . . . . . \nfrowneq (̸) . . . . . . \nfrowneqsmile (̸) . . \nfrownsmile (̸) . . . \nfrownsmileeq (̸) . . \NG (Ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ng (ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeq (§) . . . . . . . . . \ngeq () . . . . . . . . . \ngeq (≱) . . . . . . . . . \ngeqclosed (⋭) . . . . \ngeqdot (̸) . . . . . . . \ngeqq (±) . . . . . . . .

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. . . . 48 . . . . 33 . . . . 33 . . . . 31 . . . . 33 . . . . 33 . . . . 43 . . . . 47 . . . . 43 106, 107 . . . . 43 . . . . 43 . . . . 24 . . . . 33 . . . . 46 . . . . 46 . . . . 46 . . . . 33 . . . . 33 . . . . 74 . . . . 33 . . . . 33 . . . . 63 . . . . 95 . . . . 71 . . . . 71 . . . . 14 . . . . 52 . . . . 52 . . . . 52 . . . . 33 . . . . 48 . . . . 48 . . . . 48 . . . . 48 . . . . 48 . . . . 10 . . . . 10 . . . . 38 . . . . 38 . . . . 39 . 39, 40 . . . . 39 . . . . 38

\ngeqq () . . . . . \ngeqq (≧̸) . . . . . \ngeqslant ( ) . \ngeqslant (≱) . . \ngeqslantdot (⪀̸) \ngets (↚) . . . . . \ngg (4) . . . . . . \ngg (≫̸) . . . . . . . \nggg (⋙̸) . . . . . \ngtr (£) . . . . . . \ngtr (≯) . . . . . . \ngtr (≯) . . . . . . \ngtrapprox (É) . \ngtrapprox (#) . \ngtrclosed (⋫) . \ngtrdot (⋗̸) . . . .

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.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39, ...

38 39 38 39 39 46 38 39 39 38 38 39 38 38 40 39

\ngtreqless (⋛̸) . . . . . . . . . 39


\ngtreqlessslant (̸) . . . . . 39 \ngtreqqless (⪌̸) . . . . . . . . 39 \ngtrless (&) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrless (≹) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \ngtrsim (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrsim (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nhateq (≙̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nhookleftarrow (↩̸) . . . . . 46 \nhookrightarrow (↪̸) . . . . 46 \ni (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 105 \ni (∋) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nialpha () . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nibar . . . . . . . . see \ownsbar \nibeta ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \NibLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \NibRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76 nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \NibSolidLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \NibSolidRight ( ) . . . . . . 76 nicefrac (package) . 67, 119, 121 \nichi ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niepsilon () . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nigamma () . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niiota ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nilambda (2) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nin (∉) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \niomega (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niphi (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niplus (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nisigma (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nitheta (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niupsilon (V) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \niv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \nj (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nlcirclearrowdown (̸) . . 45 \nlcirclearrowleft (⤾̸) . . 45 \nlcirclearrowright (⟳̸) . 45 \nlcirclearrowup (↻̸) . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowdown (⤸̸) . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowleft (̸) . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowne (̸) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrownw (̸) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowright (↷̸) . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowse (̸) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowsw (̸) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowup (̸) . . . . . . 45 \nleadsto (↝̸) . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nLeftarrow (ö) . . . . . . . . 42 \nLeftarrow (:) . . . . . . . . 41 \nLeftarrow (⇍) . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftarrow (Ú) . . . . . . . . 42 \nleftarrow (8) . . . . . . . . 41 \nleftarrow (↚) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftarrowtail (↢̸) . . . . . 45 \nleftfilledspoon (̸) . . . 47 \nleftfootline (̸) . . . . . . 34 \nleftfree (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftharpoonccw (↽̸) . . . . 46 \nleftharpooncw (↼̸) . . . . . 46 \nleftleftarrows (⇇̸) . . . . 45 \nleftlsquigarrow (̸) . . . . 45

 



\nleftmapsto (↤̸) . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftModels (̸) . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftmodels (̸) . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftpitchfork (̸) . . . . . 47 \nLeftrightarrow (ø) . . . . 42 \nLeftrightarrow (<) . . . . 41 \nLeftrightarrow (⇎) . . . . 45 \nleftrightarrow (Ü) . . . . 42 \nleftrightarrow (=) . 21, 41 \nleftrightarrow (↮) . . . . 45 \nleftrightarrows (⇆̸) . . . . 45 \nleftrightharpoondownup (⥊̸) . . . . . . . . . 46 \nleftrightharpoons (⇋̸) . . 46 \nleftrightharpoonupdown (⥋̸) . . . . . . . . . 46 \nLeftrightline (̸) . . . . . 34 \nleftrightline (̸) . . . . . 34 \nleftrightsquigarrow (̸) 46 \nleftrsquigarrow (↜̸) . . . . 45 \nleftspoon (⟜̸) . . . . . . . . 47 \nleftVdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftvdash (⊣̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleq (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nleq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nleq (≰) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nleqclosed (⋬) . . . . . . 39, 40 \nleqdot (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nleqq (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nleqq () . . . . . \nleqq (≦̸) . . . . . \nleqslant ( ) . \nleqslant (≰) . . \nleqslantdot (⩿̸) \nless (¢) . . . . . \nless (≮) . . . . . \nless (≮) . . . . . \nlessapprox (È) \nlessapprox (") \nlessclosed (⋪) \nlessdot (⋖̸) . . .

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.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39, ...

38 39 38 39 39 38 38 39 38 38 40 39

\nlesseqgtr (⋚̸) . . . . . . . . . 39 \nlesseqgtrslant (̸) . . . . . 39 \nlesseqqgtr (⪋̸) . . . . . . . . 39 \nlessgtr (') . . . . . . . \nlessgtr (≸) . . . . . . . \nlesssim (Â) . . . . . . \nlesssim ( ) . . . . . . . \nlhookdownarrow (̸) . \nlhookleftarrow (̸) \nlhooknearrow (̸) . . \nlhooknwarrow (⤣̸) . . \nlhookrightarrow (↪̸) \nlhooksearrow (⤥̸) . . \nlhookswarrow (̸) . . \nlhookuparrow (̸) . . . \nll (3) . . . . . . . . . . \nll (≪̸) . . . . . . . . . . . \nLleftarrow (⇚̸) . . . . \nlll (⋘̸) . . . . . . . . .

145

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38 39 38 38 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 38 39 44 39

\nmapsto (↦̸) . . . . . . . \nmid (-) . . . . . . . . . . . \nmid (∤) . . . . . . . . . . \nmodels (⊭) . . . . . . . . \nmultimap (⊸̸) . . . . . \nndtstile ( ) . . . . . \nNearrow (⇗̸) . . . . . . \nnearrow (1) . . . . . . . \nnearrow (↗̸) . . . . . . \nnearrowtail (̸) . . . \nnefilledspoon (̸) . \nnefootline (̸) . . . . \nnefree (̸) . . . . . . . \nneharpoonccw (̸) . . \nneharpooncw (̸) . . . \nnelsquigarrow (̸) . \nnemapsto (̸) . . . . . \nneModels (̸) . . . . . \nnemodels (̸) . . . . . \nnenearrows (̸) . . . \nnepitchfork (̸) . . . \nnersquigarrow (̸) . \nnespoon (̸) . . . . . . \nNeswarrow (̸) . . . . \nneswarrow (⤡̸) . . . . \nneswarrows (̸) . . . \nneswharpoonnwse (̸) \nneswharpoons (̸) . . \nneswharpoonsenw (̸) \nNeswline (̸) . . . . . \nneswline (̸) . . . . . \nneVdash (̸) . . . . . . \nnevdash (̸) . . . . . . \nnststile ( ) . . . . . \nntstile ( ) . . . . . . \nnttstile ( ) . . . . . \nNwarrow (⇖̸) . . . . . . \nnwarrow (0) . . . . . . . \nnwarrow (↖̸) . . . . . . \nnwarrowtail (̸) . . . \nnwfilledspoon (̸) . \nnwfootline (̸) . . . . \nnwfree (̸) . . . . . . . \nnwharpoonccw (̸) . . \nnwharpooncw (̸) . . . \nnwlsquigarrow (̸) . \nnwmapsto (̸) . . . . . \nnwModels (̸) . . . . . \nnwmodels (̸) . . . . . \nnwnwarrows (̸) . . . \nnwpitchfork (̸) . . . \nnwrsquigarrow (̸) . \nNwsearrow (̸) . . . . \nnwsearrow (⤢̸) . . . . \nnwsearrows (̸) . . . \nnwseharpoonnesw (̸) \nnwseharpoons (̸) . . \nnwseharpoonswne (̸) \nNwseline (̸) . . . . . \nnwseline (̸) . . . . . \nnwspoon (̸) . . . . . . \nnwVdash (̸) . . . . . .

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46 31 34 34 47 35 44 42 44 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 45 47 45 47 45 45 45 46 46 46 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 45 42 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 45 45 33 34 45 47 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 33 33 47 33


\nnwvdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 33 no entry . . . . . . . . . see \noway \NoBleech (Ă&#x152;) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \NoChemicalCleaning (¨) . . 90 nointegrals (wasysym package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \NoIroning (²) . . . . . . . . . 90 non-commutative division . . 63 nonbreaking space . . . . . . . . 72 NOR gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \NORd () . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \NORl () . . . . . . . . . . 73 norm . . see \lVert and \rVert \NORr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \NORu () . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \NoSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 105 not equal (= vs. =) . . . . . . . 32 \notasymp () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \notbackslash (â&#x2C6;&#x2019;) \ . . . . . . . 71 \notbot (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notdivides () . . . . . . . . . 32 \notequiv () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \notin (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notin (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notin (6â&#x2C6;&#x2C6;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notin (â&#x2C6;&#x2030;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notni (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notowner (S) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \notowns . . see \notowner and \notni \notperp (M) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \notslash (â&#x2C6;&#x2019;) / . . . . . . . . . . 71 \notsmallin () . . . . . . . . . 52 \notsmallowns () . . . . . . . . 52 \nottop (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \NoTumbler (Â?) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \novelty (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \noway (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \nowns (â&#x2C6;&#x152;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nparallel (â&#x2C6;Ś) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nparallel (â&#x2C6;Ś) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nparallelslant (Ă&#x201D;) . . . . . 36 \nperp (â&#x160;ĽĚ¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \npitchfork (â&#x2039;&#x201D;̸) . . . . . . . . . 47 \nplus (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nprec (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nprec (â&#x160;&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nprec (â&#x160;&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nprecapprox (Ă&#x2C6;) . . . . . . . . 32 \nprecapprox (7) . . . . . . . . 31 \nprecapprox (⪡̸) . . . . . . . . 33 \npreccurlyeq (ÂŚ) . . . . . . . 32 \npreccurlyeq ($) . . . . . . . 31 \npreccurlyeq (â&#x2039; ) . . . . . . . 34



\npreceq (ÂŞ) . . . . . . . . . \npreceq () . . . . . . . . . \npreceq (⪯̸) . . . . . . . . . . \npreceqq (9) . . . . . . . . . \nprecsim (Ă&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . \nprecsim () . . . . . . . . . \nprecsim (â&#x2030;žĚ¸) . . . . . . . . . \nrcirclearrowdown (̸) \nrcirclearrowleft (â&#x;˛Ě¸) \nrcirclearrowright (⤿̸) \nrcirclearrowup (â&#x2020;şĚ¸) . . \nrcurvearrowdown (⤚̸) . . \nrcurvearrowleft (â&#x2020;śĚ¸) . . \nrcurvearrowne (̸) . . . \nrcurvearrownw (̸) . . . \nrcurvearrowright (̸) . \nrcurvearrowse (̸) . . . \nrcurvearrowsw (̸) . . . \nrcurvearrowup (̸) . . . . \nRelbar (̸) . . . . . . . . . \nrelbar (̸) . . . . . . . . . \nrestriction (â&#x2020;žĚ¸) . . . . . \nrhookdownarrow (̸) . . . \nrhookleftarrow (â&#x2020;ŠĚ¸) . . \nrhooknearrow (⤤̸) . . . . \nrhooknwarrow (̸) . . . . \nrhookrightarrow (̸) . . \nrhooksearrow (̸) . . . . \nrhookswarrow (⤌̸) . . . . \nrhookuparrow (̸) . . . . . \nRightarrow (á) . . . . . . \nRightarrow (;) . . . . . \nRightarrow (â&#x2021;?) . . . . . . \nrightarrow (Ă&#x203A;) . . . . . . \nrightarrow (9) . . . . . \nrightarrow (â&#x2020;&#x203A;) . . . . . . \nrightarrowtail (â&#x2020;ŁĚ¸) . . \nrightfilledspoon (̸) \nrightfootline (̸) . . . \nrightfree (̸) . . . . . . . \nrightharpoonccw (â&#x2021;&#x20AC;̸) . . \nrightharpooncw (â&#x2021; ̸) . . \nrightleftarrows (â&#x2021;&#x201E;̸) . . \nrightleftharpoons (â&#x2021;&#x152;̸) \nrightlsquigarrow (â&#x2020;?̸) . \nrightmapsto (â&#x2020;ŚĚ¸) . . . . . \nrightModels (â&#x160;Ż) . . . . . \nrightmodels (â&#x160;­) . . . . . \nrightpitchfork (̸) . . \nrightrightarrows (â&#x2021;&#x2030;̸) . \nrightrsquigarrow (̸) . \nrightspoon (â&#x160;¸Ě¸) . . . . . . \nrightsquigarrow (â&#x2020;?̸) . . \nrightVdash (â&#x160;Ž) . . . . . . \nrightvdash (â&#x160;Ź) . . . . . . \nrisingdotseq (â&#x2030;&#x201C;̸) . . . . . \nRrightarrow (â&#x2021;&#x203A;̸) . . . . . \nsdtstile ( ) . . . . \nSearrow (â&#x2021;&#x2DC;̸) . . . . . \nsearrow (â&#x2020;&#x2DC;̸) . . . . . \nsearrowtail (̸) . . \nsefilledspoon (̸)

146

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32 31 34 31 32 31 34 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 34 34 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 42 41 45 42 41 45 45 47 34 34 46 46 44 46 44 44 34 34 47 44 44 47 46 34 34 34 44

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35 44 44 45 47

\nsefootline (̸) . . . . \nsefree (̸) . . . . . . . \nseharpoonccw (̸) . . \nseharpooncw (̸) . . . \nselsquigarrow (̸) . \nsemapsto (̸) . . . . . \nseModels (̸) . . . . . \nsemodels (̸) . . . . . \nsenwarrows (̸) . . . \nsenwharpoons (̸) . . \nsepitchfork (̸) . . . \nsersquigarrow (̸) . \nsesearrows (̸) . . . \nsespoon (̸) . . . . . . \nseVdash (̸) . . . . . . \nsevdash (̸) . . . . . . \nshortmid (.) . . . . . . \nshortmid (â&#x2C6;¤) . . . . . . \nshortparallel (/) . . \nshortparallel (â&#x2C6;Ś) . . \nsim () . . . . . . . . . . \nsim (/) . . . . . . . . . . \nsim (â&#x2030; ) . . . . . . . . . . \nsimeq () . . . . . . . . \nsimeq (;) . . . . . . . . \nsimeq (â&#x2030;&#x201E;) . . . . . . . . . \nsmile (â&#x152;ŁĚ¸) . . . . . . . . . \nsmileeq (̸) . . . . . . . \nsmileeqfrown (̸) . . . \nsmilefrown (â&#x2030;­) . . . . \nsmilefrowneq (̸) . . . \nsqdoublefrown (̸) . . \nsqdoublefrowneq (̸) \nsqdoublesmile (̸) . . \nsqdoublesmileeq (̸) \nsqeqfrown (̸) . . . . . \nsqeqsmile (̸) . . . . . \nsqfrown (̸) . . . . . . . \nsqfrowneq (̸) . . . . . \nsqfrowneqsmile (̸) . \nsqfrownsmile (̸) . . . \nsqsmile (̸) . . . . . . . \nsqsmileeq (̸) . . . . . \nsqsmileeqfrown (̸) . \nsqsmilefrown (̸) . . . \nSqsubset (̸) . . . . . . \nsqSubset (Â&#x2013;) . . . . . . \nsqsubset (Â&#x201A;) . . . . . . \nsqsubset (a) . . . . . . \nsqsubset (â&#x160;?̸) . . . . . . \nsqsubseteq (Â&#x2020;) . . . . \nsqsubseteq (@) . . . . \nsqsubseteq (â&#x2039;˘) . . . . \nsqsubseteqq (Â&#x17D;) . . . \nsqsubseteqq (̸) . . . \nSqsupset (̸) . . . . . . \nsqSupset (Â&#x2014;) . . . . . . \nsqsupset (Â&#x192;) . . . . . . \nsqsupset (b) . . . . . . \nsqsupset (â&#x160;?̸) . . . . . . \nsqsupseteq (Â&#x2021;) . . . . \nsqsupseteq (A) . . . . \nsqsupseteq (â&#x2039;Ł) . . . .

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34 34 46 46 45 45 34 34 45 46 47 45 45 47 34 34 31 34 31 34 32 31 34 32 31 34 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37


\nsqsupseteqq (�) . . . . . . . \nsqsupseteqq (̸) . . . . . . . \nsqtriplefrown (̸) . . . . . . \nsqtriplesmile (̸) . . . . . . \nsquigarrowdownup (̸) . . \nsquigarrowleftright (̸) \nsquigarrownesw (̸) . . . . \nsquigarrownwse (̸) . . . . . \nsquigarrowrightleft (̸) \nsquigarrowsenw (̸) . . . . \nsquigarrowswne (̸) . . . . \nsquigarrowupdown (̸) . . . \nsststile (

37 37 48 48 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\nststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \nsttstile ( ) . . . . \nSubset (Â&#x2013;) . . . . . . \nSubset (>) . . . . . . . \nSubset (â&#x2039;?̸) . . . . . . . \nsubset (Â&#x201A;) . . . . . . \nsubset (â&#x160;&#x201E;) . . . . . . . \nsubseteq (Â&#x2020;) . . . . . \nsubseteq (*) . . . . \nsubseteq (â&#x160;&#x2C6;) . . . . . \nsubseteqq (Â&#x17D;) . . . . \nsubseteqq (") . . . . \nsubseteqq (âŤ&#x2026;̸) . . . . \nsucc (ÂŁ) . . . . . . . . \nsucc () . . . . . . . . \nsucc (â&#x160; ) . . . . . . . . \nsuccapprox (Ă&#x2030;) . . . \nsuccapprox (8) . . . \nsuccapprox (⪸̸) . . . \nsucccurlyeq (§) . . \nsucccurlyeq (%) . . \nsucccurlyeq (â&#x2039;Ą) . . \nsucceq (ÂŤ) . . . . . . \nsucceq () . . . . . . \nsucceq (⪰̸) . . . . . . . \nsucceqq (:) . . . . . . \nsuccsim (Ă&#x192;) . . . . . \nsuccsim () . . . . . . \nsuccsim (â&#x2030;żĚ¸) . . . . . . \nSupset (Â&#x2014;) . . . . . . \nSupset (?) . . . . . . . \nSupset (â&#x2039;&#x2018;̸) . . . . . . . \nsupset (Â&#x192;) . . . . . . \nsupset (â&#x160;&#x2026;) . . . . . . . \nsupseteq (Â&#x2021;) . . . . . \nsupseteq (+) . . . . \nsupseteq (â&#x160;&#x2030;) . . . . . \nsupseteqq (Â?) . . . . \nsupseteqq (#) . . . . \nsupseteqq (âŤ&#x2020;̸) . . . . \nSwarrow (â&#x2021;&#x2122;̸) . . . . . \nswarrow (â&#x2020;&#x2122;̸) . . . . . \nswarrowtail (̸) . . \nswfilledspoon (̸) \nswfootline (̸) . . . \nswfree (̸) . . . . . . \nswharpoonccw (̸) . \nswharpooncw (̸) . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 37 37 32 31 33 32 31 33 32 31 33 32 31 33 31 32 31 33 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 45 45 45 47 33 33 46 46

\nswlsquigarrow (̸) \nswmapsto (̸) . . . . \nswModels (̸) . . . . \nswmodels (̸) . . . . \nswnearrows (̸) . . \nswneharpoons (̸) . \nswpitchfork (̸) . . \nswrsquigarrow (̸) \nswspoon (̸) . . . . . \nswswarrows (̸) . . \nswVdash (̸) . . . . . \nswvdash (̸) . . . . . \ntdtstile (

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

) . . . . . . . . . 35

ntheorem (package) . . . . . . . \nthickapprox (5) . . . . . . . \nto (â&#x2020;&#x203A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ntriangleeq (â&#x2030;&#x153;̸) . . . . . . . . \ntriangleleft (Â&#x161;) . . . . . . \ntriangleleft (6) . . . . . . \ntriangleleft (â&#x2039;Ş) . . . . 39, \ntrianglelefteq (Â&#x17E;) . . . . \ntrianglelefteq (5) . . . . \ntrianglelefteq (â&#x2039;Ź) . . 39, \ntrianglelefteqslant (R) \ntriangleright (Â&#x203A;) . . . . . \ntriangleright (7) . . . . . \ntriangleright (â&#x2039;Ť) . . . 39, \ntrianglerighteq (Â&#x;) . . . . \ntrianglerighteq (4) . . . \ntrianglerighteq (â&#x2039;­) . 39, \ntrianglerighteqslant (S) \ntriplefrown (̸) . . . . . . . \ntriplesim (â&#x2030;&#x2039;̸) . . . . . . . . . \ntriplesmile (̸) . . . . . . . \ntststile (

45 45 34 34 45 46 47 45 47 45 34 34 65 31 46 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 40 48 34 48

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\nttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ntttstile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\ntwoheaddownarrow (â&#x2020;ĄĚ¸) . . . 45 \ntwoheadleftarrow (h) . . . 31 \ntwoheadleftarrow (â&#x2020;&#x17E;̸) . . 45 \ntwoheadnearrow (̸) . . . . 45 \ntwoheadnwarrow (̸) . . . . 45 \ntwoheadrightarrow (g) . . 31 \ntwoheadrightarrow (â&#x2020; ̸) . . 45 \ntwoheadsearrow (̸) . . . . 45 \ntwoheadswarrow (̸) . . . . 45 \ntwoheaduparrow (â&#x2020;&#x;̸) . . . . . 45 \nu (ν) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 nuclear power plant . see \SNPP \NUL (â?&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 null infinity see alphabets, math null set . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 66 number sets see alphabets, math number sign . see \textnumero numbers . . . . . . . . . . see digits circled . . . . . . . . . . 77, 94 numerals Linear B . . . . . . . . . . . 85 old style . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \NumLock ( Num ) . . . . . . . . 72

147

\nUparrow (â&#x2021;&#x2018;̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nuparrow (â&#x2020;&#x2018;̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nuparrowtail (̸) . . . . . . . 45 \nUpdownarrow (â&#x2021;&#x2022;̸) . . . . . . . 45 \nupdownarrow (â&#x2020;&#x2022;̸) . . . . . . . 45 \nupdownarrows (̸) . . . . . . 45 \nupdownharpoonleftright (̸) . . . . . . . . . 46 \nupdownharpoonrightleft (̸) . . . . . . . . . 46 \nupdownharpoons (⼎̸) . . . . . 46 \nUpdownline (â&#x2C6;Ś) . . . . . . . . 34 \nupdownline (â&#x2C6;¤) . . . . . . . . 34 \nupfilledspoon (̸) . . . . . . 47 \nupfootline (̸) . . . . . . . . 34 \nupfree (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nupharpoonccw (â&#x2020;żĚ¸) . . . . . . . 46 \nupharpooncw (â&#x2020;žĚ¸) . . . . . . . 46 \nuplsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . . 45 \nupmapsto (â&#x2020;ĽĚ¸) . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupModels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nupmodels (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nuppitchfork (â&#x2039;&#x201D;̸) . . . . . . . 47 \nuprsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . . 45 \nupspoon (⍯̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nupuparrows (â&#x2021;&#x2C6;̸) . . . . . . . . 45 \nupVdash (â?&#x160;̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nupvdash (â&#x160;ĽĚ¸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nuup (ν) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \nvargeq (ÂŤ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nvarleq (ÂŞ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nvarparallel ( ) . . . . . . . 31 \nvarparallelinv ( ) . . . . . 31 \nVDash (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nVDash (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nVDash (â&#x160;Ż) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nVdash (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nVdash (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nVdash (â&#x160;Ž) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nvDash (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nvDash (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nvDash (â&#x160;­) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nvdash (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nvdash (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nvdash (â&#x160;Ź) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nVvash (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Nwarrow (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Nwarrow (â&#x2021;&#x2013;) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwarrow (Ă&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \nwarrow (-) . . . . . . . 41, 106 \nwarrow (â&#x2020;&#x2013;) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwarrowtail (%) . . . . . . . . 43 \nwfilledspoon (u) . . . . . . 47 \nwfootline (}) . . . . . . . . . 32 \nwfree (Â&#x2026;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nwharpoonccw (E) . . . . . . . 46 \nwharpooncw (M) . . . . . . . . 46 \nwlsquigarrow (ÂĽ) . . . . . . 43 \nwmapsto (-) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nwModels (Ăľ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nwmodels (ĂĽ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nwnwarrows (Â&#x2022;) . . . . . . . . 43 \nwpitchfork (Â?) . . . . . . . . 47


\nwrsquigarrow (­) . \Nwsearrow () . . . . \nwsearrow (&) . . . . \nwsearrow (⤢) . . . . \nwsearrows (›) . . . \nwsebipropto (‹) . . \nwsecrossing (“) . . \nwseharpoonnesw (S) \nwseharpoons (_) . . \nwseharpoonswne (W) \Nwseline (×) . . . . . \nwseline (Ó) . . . . . \nwspoon (m) . . . . . . \nwVdash (í) . . . . . . \nwvdash (Ý) . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 43 . 43 106 . 43 . 43 . 24 . 32 . 46 . 46 . 46 . 32 . 32 . 47 . 32 . 32

O \O (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \o (ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 o (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \oast (⊛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \oasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \obackslash (n) . . . . . . . . . 25 \obackslash (⦸) . . . . . . . . . 25 \obar (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Obelus* ( ·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \obelus* ( ·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \oblong (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \obot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \obslash (;) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \oc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ocirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ocirc (⊚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ocircle (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ocoasterisk (g) . . . . . . . . 25 \octagon (8) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 octonions (O) . . see alphabets, math \Octosteel (‘) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \od (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \odiv˚(c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \odot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \odot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \odot (⊙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \odplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \OE (Œ) . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 117 \oe (œ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 117 \officialeuro (e) . . . . . . . 19 \offinterlineskip . . . . . . 104 ogonek (package) . . 17, 119, 121 ogonek ( ˛) . . . . . . see accents \ogreaterthan (=) . . . . . . . 22 { \ohill (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ohm . . . . . . . . . . see \textohm \ohm (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Ohne (a / ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \OHORN (Ơ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ohorn (ơ)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \oiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 ˆ \oiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30



L \oiiintclockwise ( )D. . . . \oiiintctrclockwise ( ) . · \oiint () . . . . . . . . . . . . . \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 26, ‚ \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . † \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28 28 27 28 28 30

\oiint (∯) . . . . .H. . . . . . . . 29 \oiintclockwise ( ) @. . . . . 28 \oiintctrclockwise ( ) . . 28 ¶ \oint (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \oint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \oint (∮) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . 27 ı \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . 28 „ \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . 30

\ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 27  \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 28 ‚ \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 30 old-style digits . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \oldstylenums . . . . . . . . . . 20 \oleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \olessthan (<) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Omega (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \omega (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \omegaup (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \ominus (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ominus (⊖) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \onlymove (F) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \oo (◦◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \oo (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ooalign . . . . . . . . . . 104, 105 \open (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 open unit disk (D) . . . . . . see alphabets, math \openJoin ([) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \openo (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \openo (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \openo (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \opentimes (]) . . . . . . . . . . 31 operators binary . . . . . . . . . . 22–25 logical see logical operators set . . . . . see set operators unary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \oplus (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \oplus (⊕) . . . . . . . 21, 22, 103 \oplus (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \opposbishops (o) . . . . . . . 93 \opposition (W) . . . . . . . . 71 optical scaling . . . . . . . . . . 109 options . . . see package options or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee OR gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ORd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \oright (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ORl ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 73

148

q

\OrnamentDiamondSolid ( ) 80 ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 80 \ORr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 orthogonal to . . . . . . see \bot \ORu ( ) . . . . \oslash (m) . . . . \oslash ( ) . . . . \oslash (⊘) . . . . \ostar (⍟) . . . . . \otimes (b) . . . . \otimes (⊗) . . . . \otimes (⊗) . . . . \otop (j) . . . . . . \otriangle (d) . . \otriangleup (o) ovals . . . . . . . . . . \ovee (>) . . . . . . _ \overarc (a ) .... hkkikkj

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 25, .. .. .. ..

73 25 22 25 25 25 22 25 25 40 25 80 22 17

\overbrace ( ) . . . . . . . 60 © \overbrace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \overbrace (

z}|{

) . . . . . . . . 60

z}|{

) . . . . . . . . 59 \overbrace ( \overbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . 60 \overbracket ”( ) . . . . 108, 109 \overbridge (a) . . . . . . . . . 16 hkkk j

\overgroup (

) ........ ³µ \overgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . −) . . . . . . \overleftarrow (← ( \overleftharp ( ) . . . . . . . \overleftharpdown ()) . . . . Ð) . . . . \overleftharpoon (↼ →) . \overleftrightarrow (← \overline ( ) . . . . . . . . 21, x) . . . . \overlinesegment (z

z{

\overparenthesis ( ) ⇒) . \Overrightarrow (= overrightarrow (package) →) . \overrightarrow (− \overrightharp (*) . . . \overrightharpdown (+) ⇀) \overrightharpoon (Ð \overring (x) . . . . . . \overset . . . . . . . . . . \overt (⦶) . . . . . . . . . \ovoid (l) . . . . . . . . . \owedge (?) . . . . . . . . \owns . . . . . . . . . . . . . \owns (Q) . . . . . . . . . . \owns (3) . . . . . . . . . . \owns (∋) . . . . . . . . . . \ownsbar (W) . . . . . . . .

60 60 59 47 47 60 59 59 60

108, 109 . . . . 59 59, 119 . . . . 59 . . . . 47 . . . 47 . . . . 60 . . . . 18 . . . 104 . . . . 25 . . . . 25 . . . . 22 see \ni . . . . 52 . . . . 52 . . . . 52 . . . . 52

P \P (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 116 \p ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \p@ ˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107


package options a (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 b (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 bbgreekl (mathbbol) . . . 68 c (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 crescent (fge) . . . . . . . . 58 d (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 e (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 f (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 g (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 german (keystroke) . . . . 72 greek (babel) . . . . . 50, 87 h (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 integrals (wasysym) . . . . 26 mathcal (euscript) . . . . . 68 mathscr (euscript) . . . . . 68 nointegrals (wasysym) . . 26 polutonikogreek (babel) . 50 sans (dsfont) . . . . . . . . . 68 utf8x (inputenc) . . . . . 117 varg (txfonts/pxfonts) . . 51 packages longdiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 accents . . 58, 107, 119, 121 amsbsy . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 amsfonts 22, 30, 36, 41, 65, 68 amsmath 8, 49, 58, 104, 112 amssymb . 8, 22, 30, 36, 41, 58, 65, 68, 87, 119, 120, 123 amstext . . . . . . . . 105, 106 ar . . . . . . . . . . . . 70, 119 arcs . . . . . . . . 17, 119, 120 arev . . . . . 67, 88, 119, 120 ascii . . . . 72, 115, 119, 120 babel . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 87 bbding 75–78, 80, 101, 119, 120 bbm . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 119 bbold . . . . . . . . . . 68, 119 bm . . . . . . . 113, 119, 121 braket . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 calligra . . . . . . 68, 119, 121 calrsfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 cclicenses . . . . 19, 119, 120 centernot . . . . . . . . . . 105 chancery . . . . . . . . . . . 119 chemarr . . . . . 62, 119, 120 chemarrow . . . . 47, 62, 119 china2e 19, 49, 68, 98, 119, 121 clock . . . . . . . 92, 119, 120 cmll . . . 21, 24, 30, 36, 119 colonequals 21, 36, 119, 120 combelow . . . . 17, 119, 121 cypriot . . . . . . 86, 119, 121 dblaccnt . . . . . . . . . . . 107 dictsym . . . . . 96, 119, 120 dingbat 76, 80, 101, 119, 120 DotArrow . . . . 63, 119, 121 dozenal . . . . . . . . 65, 119 dsfont . . . . . . . . . 68, 119

epsdice . . . . . . 92, 119, 120 esint . . . . . . . . . . 28, 119 esvect . . . . . . . . . 61, 119 eufrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 eurosym . . . . . 19, 119, 120 euscript . . . . . 68, 119, 120 extarrows . . . . 62, 119, 120 extpfeil . . . . . . 63, 119, 120 extraipa . . . . . . . . 16, 119 fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 14 fclfont . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 feyn . . . . . . . . 74, 119, 120 fge . 47, 53, 58, 65, 67, 119, 120 fixmath . . . . . . . . . . . 113 fontenc . . . . 8, 10, 14, 115 fontspec . . . . . . . . . . . 118 fourier 19, 36, 51, 53, 57, 60, 76, 78, 91, 119 gensymb . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 graphics . . . . . . . . 47, 103 graphicx . . . . . 17, 100, 103 harmony . . . . . 89, 119, 120 harpoon . . . . . 47, 119, 121 hhcount . . . . . 92, 119, 121 hieroglf . . . . . 82, 119, 120 holtpolt . . . . . . . . 63, 119 ifsym . . 70, 79, 91, 92, 101, 103, 119, 120 igo . . . . . . . . . . . . 94, 119 inputenc . . . . . . . . . . . 117 isoent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 junicode . . . . . . . . . . . 118 keystroke . . . . 72, 119, 120 latexsym . 22, 30, 36, 41, 65, 100, 119 linearA . . . . . . 82, 119, 121 linearb . . . 85, 86, 119, 121 manfnt . . . . . . 89, 119, 120 marvosym 18, 65, 67, 71–75, 90, 101 mathabx . . . 21, 23, 25, 26, 30, 32, 36–38, 40, 42, 43, 49, 52–55, 58, 60, 65, 66, 71, 93, 100, 101, 119, 120, 123 mathbbol . . . . . . . . . . . 68 mathcomp . . . . . . . . . . 65 mathdesign . 18, 24, 30, 52, 56, 67, 119 mathdots . . 58, 63, 64, 107, 119, 120 mathrsfs . . . . . . . . 68, 119 mathtools . . 21, 34, 60, 62, 119, 120 mbboard . . . . . . . . 68, 119 metre . 17, 57, 95, 119, 120 milstd . . . . . . . . . 73, 119 MnSymbol . . . . . . . . . 21, 23–25, 29, 32–34, 37, 39, 40, 43–48, 51, 52, 55, 58–60, 64, 66, 67, 79, 119, 120 musixtex . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 nath . . . . . . 53, 56, 57, 119

149

nicefrac . . . . . 67, 119, 121 ntheorem . . . . . . . . . . . 65 ogonek . . . . . . 17, 119, 121 overrightarrow . . . . 59, 119 phaistos . . . . . 81, 119, 120 phonetic . . 13, 16, 103, 119 pict2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 pifont . . 10, 75–78, 80, 103, 119, 120 pigpen . . . . . . 98, 119, 120 pmboxdraw . . . 97, 119, 120 polynom . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 protosem . . . . 81, 119, 120 psnfss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 pxfonts . . 21–23, 27, 30, 31, 36–38, 41, 42, 48, 50–52, 65, 66, 68, 100, 115 recycle . . . . . . . . . 99, 119 rotating . . . . . . . . . 19, 72 sarabian . . . . . 87, 119, 121 savesym . . . . . . . . . . . 100 semtrans . 14, 17, 119, 120 shuffle . . . . . . 24, 119, 120 simplewick . . . . . . . . . 109 simpsons . . . . . . . 96, 119 skak . . . . . 93, 94, 119, 120 skull . . . . . . . . 93, 119, 120 slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 staves . . . . . . . . . 97, 119 steinmetz . . . . 70, 119, 121 stmaryrd . . . 22, 26, 31, 37, 40, 42, 48, 53, 54, 101, 104, 118–120 t4phonet . 14, 17, 119, 120 teubner 19, 64, 87, 95, 119, 120 textcomp 8, 9, 14, 18–20, 41, 57, 67, 70, 88, 100, 115, 119 timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tipa 11, 12, 14–17, 103, 119, 120 tipx . . . . . . . . 12, 119, 120 trfsigns . . . . 36, 52, 63, 119 trsym . . . . . . . 36, 119, 120 turnstile . . . . . 35, 119, 120 txfonts . . . . . . . . . . 21–23, 27, 30, 31, 36–38, 41, 42, 48, 50–52, 65, 66, 68, 100, 102, 115, 119, 120 type1cm . . . . . . . . . . . 100 ucs . . . . . . . . . . . 117, 118 ulsy . . . . . 24, 48, 103, 119 underscore . . . . . . . . . . . 9 undertilde . . . . 61, 119, 120 units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 universa . . 80, 90, 119, 120 universal 75, 77, 80, 90, 119, 120 upgreek . . . . . 51, 119, 120 upquote . . . . . . . . . . . 115 url . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 ushort . . . . . . 61, 119, 121 vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . 119


vntex . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 14 wasysym . . . . . . 13, 18, 20, 22, 23, 26, 30, 31, 36â&#x20AC;&#x201C;38, 41, 64â&#x20AC;&#x201C;66, 70, 71, 73, 77, 78, 88, 101, 119, 120 wsuipa 13, 16, 18, 101, 103, 107, 119, 120 xfrac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 yfonts . . . 68, 69, 119, 120 yhmath 58, 59, 61, 64, 107, 119 Pakin, Scott . . . . . . 1, 108, 118 \PaperLandscape ( ) . . . . . 92

 

\PaperPortrait ( ) . . . . . . 92 par see \bindnasrepma, \invamp, and \parr paragraph mark . . . . . . . see \P \parallel (k) . . . . . . . . 30, 56 \parallel (â&#x2C6;Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ParallelPort (Ă&#x2018;) . . . . . . . 72 \parallelslant (Ă&#x2039;) . . . . . . . 36 \parr (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \partial (B ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \partial (â&#x2C6;&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \partial (â&#x2C6;&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \partialslash (C ) . . . . . . . 52 \partialvardint (â&#x2C6;Ťâ&#x20AC;Śâ&#x2C6;Ť) . . . . 67 \partialvardlanddownint (â¨&#x161;) 67 \partialvardlandupint (â¨&#x2122;) 67 \partialvardlcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardlcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvardlcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardlcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvardoiint (â&#x2C6;Ż) . . . 67 \partialvardoint (â&#x2C6;Ž) . . . . . 67 \partialvardrcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardrcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvardrcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardrcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvardstrokedint (â¨?) 67 \partialvardsumint (â¨&#x2039;) . . . 67 \partialvartint (â&#x2C6;Ťâ&#x20AC;Śâ&#x2C6;Ť) . . . . . 67 \partialvartlanddownint (â¨&#x161;) 67 \partialvartlandupint (â¨&#x2122;) 67 \partialvartlcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartlcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvartlcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartlcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvartoiint (â&#x2C6;Ż) . . . 67 \partialvartoint (â&#x2C6;Ž) . . . . . 67

\partialvartrcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartrcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvartrcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \partialvartrcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \partialvartstrokedint (â¨?) 67 \partialvartsumint (â¨&#x2039;) . . . 67 particle-physics symbols . . . . 74 parts per thousand . . . . . . see \textperthousand \partvoice (a â&#x20AC;&#x201C;Ë&#x2021;Âť) . . . . . . . . . . 16 \partvoiceless (a â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Âť) . . . . . . . 16 Ë&#x161; \passedpawn (r) . . . . . . . . . 93 pawn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 pdfLATEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 \Peace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \PencilLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 \PencilLeftDown ( ) . . . . . 76 \PencilLeftUp ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \PencilRight ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \PencilRightDown ( ) . . . . 76 \PencilRightUp ( ) . . . . . . 76 pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \pentagon (D) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \pentagram (Â&#x201E;) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \pentam (ΝθΝθΝ||ΝββΝββΝ) . . . . . . . . . 95 people . . . . . . . . . . . . see faces percent sign . . . . . . . . . see \% \permil (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Perp (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \perp (â&#x160;Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . 30, 106 \perp (â&#x160;Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \perthousand (â&#x20AC;°) . . . . . . . 70 \Pfund (ÂŁ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \PgDown ( Page â&#x2020;&#x201C; ) . . . . . . . 72 \PgUp ( Page â&#x2020;&#x2018; ) . . . . . . . . . 72 phaistos (package) . 81, 119, 120 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 pharmaceutical prescription see \textrecipe



     

\PHchild (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHclub (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHcolumn (W) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHcomb (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHdolium (T) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHdove (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHeagle (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHflute (o)

. . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHgaunlet (H) . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHgrater (p)

. . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHhelmet (G) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHhide (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHhorn (Z) \Phi (ÎŚ) . . \phi (Ď&#x2020;) . . \phiup (Ď&#x2020;)

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

81 50 50 50

\PHlid (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHlily (m)

. . . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHmanacles (N)

. . . . . . . . 81

\PHmattock (O) . . . . . . . . . 81



\Phone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \phone () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

\PhoneHandset ( ) phonetic (package) . 119 phonetic symbols . . \photon (::::) . . photons . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 80 13, 16, 103, . . . . 11â&#x20AC;&#x201C;14 . . . . . . . 70 . . . . . . . 74

\PHoxBack (n) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHpapyrus (k) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHpedestrian (A) . . . . . . 81 \PHplaneTree (i) . . . . . . . . 81

\PHarrow (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \phase ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 phasor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

\PHplumedHead (B) . . . . . 81

\PHbee (h)

\PHram (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

. . . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHrosette (l) . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHbeehive (X) . . . . . . . . 81 \PHboomerang (R) . . . . . . . 81

\PHsaw (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHshield (L) . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHbow (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHship (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHbullLeg (b) . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHsling (V) . . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHcaptive (D) . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHsmallAxe (r) . . . . . . . . 81

\PHcarpentryPlane (S) . . . 81

\PHstrainer (q)

\PHcat (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PHtattooedHead (C) . . . . 81

150

. . . . . . . 81


\PHtiara (I) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHtunny (g) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHvine (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHwavyBand (s) . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHwoman (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 physical symbols . . . . . . . . . 70 \Pi (Π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \pi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \pi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Pickup (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 pict2e (package) . . . . . . . . . . 70 pifont (package) . . 10, 75–78, 80, 103, 119, 120 pigpen (package) . . 98, 119, 120 pigpen cipher . . . . . . . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont A} (A) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont B} (B) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont C} (C) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont D} (D) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont E} (E) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont F} (F) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont G} (G) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont H} (H) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont I} (I) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont J} (J) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont K} (K) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont L} (L) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont M} (M) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont N} (N) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont O} (O) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont P} (P) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont Q} (Q) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont R} (R) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont S} (S) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont T} (T) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont U} (U) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont V} (V) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont W} (W) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont X} (X) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont Y} (Y) . . . . . 98 {\pigpenfont Z} (Z) . . . . . 98 pilcrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \P pipe . . . . . . . . . see \textpipe \Pisces (ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \pisces (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Pisymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \pitchfork (&) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \pitchfork (t) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \pitchfork (⋔) . . . . . . . . . . 47 pitchfork symbols . . . 30, 47, 66 Pitman’s base-12 symbols . . 65 \piup (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \planck (¯h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Plane ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 playing cards . . . . see card suits Plimsoll line . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \Plus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \plus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 plus-or-minus sign . . . . see \pm \PlusCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . 76 \pluscirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \PlusOutline ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 77 \PlusThinCenterOpen ( ) . . 76 \Pluto (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Pluto (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \pluto (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \pm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \pmb ¯. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 pmboxdraw (package) . . 97, 119, 120 \pmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \pointer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 pointing finger . . . . . . . see fists \Pointinghand (Z) . . . . . . . 90 \polishhook (~) . . . . . . . . . 18

'

&

\polter (

(

)

) . . . . . . . . . . . 63

polutonikogreek (babel package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 79 polynom (package) . . . . . . . . 59 polynomial division . . . . . . . 59 polytonic Greek . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Postbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 98 PostScript . 51, 69, 75, 103, 112 PostScript fonts . . . . . . 75, 103 \Pound ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \pounds (£) . . . . . . 9, 115, 116 power set . see alphabets, math \powerset (℘) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \Pp (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \pp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \ppm (˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Ppp (¯ ˙˙ \ppp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \Pppp (˙˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \pppp ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \Ppppp (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \ppppp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 ˙ \Pr (Pr) ˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \prec (≺) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \prec (≺) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \precapprox (w) . . . . . . . . . 30 \precapprox (⪷) . . . . . . . . . 33 \preccurlyeq (¤) . . . . . . . . 32 \preccurlyeq (4) . . . . . . . . 30 \preccurlyeq (≼) . . . . . . . . 33 \precdot (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \preceq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

#

þ

151

\preceq (⪯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \preceqq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \precnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . 32 \precnapprox () . . . . . . . . 31 \precnapprox (⪹) . . . . . . . . 34 \precneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precneqq () . . . . . . . . . . 31 \precnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precnsim () . . . . . . . . . . 31 \precnsim (⋨) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \precsim (À) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precsim (-) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \precsim (≾) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 prescription . . see \textrecipe present-value symbols . . . . 108 \prime (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \prime (′) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Printer (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . 72 printer’s fist . . . . . . . . see fists probabilistic Q independence . 106 \prod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \prod (∏) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 projective space (P) . . . . . see alphabets, math \projlim (proj lim) . . . . . . . 49 pronunciation symbols . . . . see phonetic symbols proof, end of . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 proper subset/superset . . . . see \subsetneq/\supsetneq proper vertices . . . . . . . . . . 74 \propto (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \propto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \propto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 proto-Semitic symbols . . . . . 81 protosem (package) 81, 119, 120 \ProvidesPackage . . . . . . . 119 \PrtSc ( PrtSc ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \ps ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 pseudographics . . . . . . . . . . 97 \Psi (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \psi (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \psiup (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 psnfss (package) . . . . . . . . . . 77 \Pu (‰ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 pullback diagrams . . . . . . . 106 pulse diagram symbols . . . . . 70 \PulseHigh ( ) . . . . . . . . . 70 \PulseLow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 70 punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 pushout diagrams . . . . . . . 106 \pwedge (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 pxfonts (package) . 21–23, 27, 30, 31, 36–38, 41, 42, 48, 50–52, 65, 66, 68, 100, 115 \Pxp (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \pxp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

$ %

˙

Q.E.D. . . . . \qoppa (ϟ) . . \qside (M) . \Quadrad (]])

Q .. .. .. ..

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

65 87 93 57


\quadrad (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 quarter note see musical symbols \quarternote (â&#x2122;Š) . . . . . . . . 88 \quarternote (â&#x2122;Š) . . . . . . . . . 88 quaternions (H) see alphabets, math quaver . . . see musical symbols queen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \quotedblbase (â&#x20AC;&#x17E;) . . . . 10, 117 \quotesinglbase (â&#x20AC;&#x161;) . . 10, 117 R \R (â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \r (Ë&#x161; a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \r (â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Radiation ( ) . . . . . . . . . 92 radicals . . see \sqrt and \surd \Radioactivity (j) . . . . . . 74 \Rain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \RainCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . 91 raising . . . . . see \textraising \RaisingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . 70 \Rangle (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \rAngle (ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \rangle (i) . . . . . . . . . . 21, 54







\rangle (â&#x;Š) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \ranglebar (s) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \RArrow ( â&#x2020;&#x2019; ) . . . . . . . . . \rarrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . \ratio (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \RATIONAL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \Rational ( ) . . . . . . . . . . rational numbers (Q) . . . . . alphabets, math rationalized Planck constant \hbar \Rbag (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rbag (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . â&#x17D;Ť â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;Ş \rbrace ( â&#x17D;Ź) . . . . . . . . . . â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;­............ \Rbrack (])â&#x17D;Ş \rBrack (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . \rc (a ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rCeil (ee) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rceil (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . â&#x17D;¤â&#x17D;Ľ \rceil ( â&#x17D;Ľâ&#x17D;Ľâ&#x17D;Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . â&#x17D;Ľâ&#x17D;Ľ \rcirclearrowdown (Ăť) . . \rcirclearrowleft (â&#x;˛) . . \rcirclearrowright (⤿) . \rcirclearrowup (â&#x2020;ş) . . . . \rcircleleftint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . . \rcirclerightint (â&#x2C6;ł) . . . . \rcorners (w) . . . . . . . . . . \rcurvearrowdown (⤚) . . . . \rcurvearrowleft (â&#x2020;ś) . . . \rcurvearrowne (Ă&#x201E;) . . . . .

½ Ă&#x2018;

. . . . .

72 62 36 49 49 see see

. 53 . 53 . . . . . .

55 68 56 16 56 54

. . . . . . . . . . .

55 44 44 44 44 29 29 53 44 44 44

\rcurvearrownw (Ă&#x2026;) . . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowright (Ă&#x20AC;) . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowse (Ă&#x2021;) . . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowsw (Ă&#x2020;) . . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowup (Ă ) . . . . . . . 44 \rdbrack (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \Re (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \REAL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Real ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 real numbers (R) see alphabets, math recipe . . . . . . see \textrecipe \recorder () . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Rectangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \RectangleBold ( ) . . . . . . . 80 rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \RectangleThin ( ) . . . . . . . 80 \Rectpipe (Ë&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Rectsteel (â&#x20AC;?) . . . . . . . . . . 73 recycle (package) . . . . . 99, 119

ž Ă&#x2019;

u

v t

A

\recycle ( ) . . . . . . 99 recycling symbols . . . . . 98, 99 reduced quadrupole moment see \rqm \reflectbox . . . . . . . . . . . 103 registered trademark . . . . . see \textregistered relational symbols . . . . . . . . 30 binary 30â&#x20AC;&#x201C;32, 34â&#x20AC;&#x201C;39, 47, 48 negated binary . . . . 31â&#x20AC;&#x201C;33 triangle . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \Relbar (=) . . . . . . . . 48, 103 \Relbar (Ă&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \relbar (â&#x2C6;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . 48, 103 \relbar (Ă?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Request ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \resizebox . . . . . . . . . 47, 100 \Respondens (â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . 95 \respondens ( â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . 95 response ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 118 \restoresymbol . . . . . . . . 100 \restriction . . . . . . . . . . see \upharpoonright \restriction (ĂŚ) . . . . . . . . 42 \restriction (â&#x2020;ž) . . . . . . . . 46 retracting see \textretracting \Return ( â&#x2020;?- ) . . . . . . . . . . 72 return . .Ă&#x2018;. . . see carriage return Ă&#x2018; \revaw ( Ă&#x2018;Ă&#x2018;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

>

\revD () . . . . . . . . . . \revddots ( . . ) . . . . . \reve () . . . . . . . . . \reveject (f) . . . . . . \revepsilon () . . . . reverse solidus . . . . . . \textbackslash reversed symbols . . . .

152

. . . . . .

. . . .

. . . 13 . . 107 . . . 13 . . . 13 13, 103 . . . see

. . . . 103

\reversedvideodbend ( \revglotstop (c) . . . . \Rewind (œ) . . . . . . . . \RewindToIndex (´) . \RewindToStart (¾) . . ?

. . . .

) .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

89 13 90 90 90

?

\rfilet (??) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rFloor (cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \rfloor (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 â&#x17D;Ľâ&#x17D;Ľ \rfloor (â&#x17D;Ľâ&#x17D;Ľâ&#x17D;Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 â&#x17D;Ľ \rgroup (â&#x17D;Ś) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 â&#x17D;Ť â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;Ş ) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rgroup ( â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;Ş â&#x17D;­ \RHD () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \rhd (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23 \rhd (â&#x160;ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \rho (Ď ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \rho (Ď ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \rhookdownarrow (;) . . . . . . 44 \rhookleftarrow (â&#x2020;Š) . . . . . 44 \rhooknearrow (⤤) . . . . . . . 44 \rhooknwarrow (=) . . . . . . . 44 \rhookrightarrow (8) . . . . 44 \rhooksearrow (?) . . . . . . . 44 \rhookswarrow (⤌) . . . . . . . 43 \rhookuparrow (9) . . . . . . . . 43 \rhoup (Ď ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \right . . . . . . 54, 56, 100, 102 \rightangle (â&#x2C6;&#x;) . . . . . . . . . 67 \RIGHTarrow () . . . . . . . . . 88 \Rightarrow (â&#x2021;&#x2019;) . . . . . 21, 41 \Rightarrow (â&#x2021;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . 43 \rightarrow (Ă&#x2018;) . . . . . . . . 42 \rightarrow (â&#x2020;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . 41 \rightarrow (â&#x2020;&#x2019;) . . . . . . . . . 43 \rightarrowtail () . . . . . 41 \rightarrowtail (â&#x2020;Ł) . . . . . 43 \rightarrowtriangle (_) . . 42 \rightbarharpoon (Ă?) . . . . 43 \RIGHTCIRCLE (H) . . . . . . . . 88 \RIGHTcircle (H #) . . . . . . . . 88 \Rightcircle (J) . . . . . . . . 88 \RightDiamondĂ&#x2018; ( ) . . . . . . . 79 Ă&#x2018; \rightevaw ( Ă&#x2018;Ă&#x2018;) . . . . . . . . . . 56

?

\rightfilledspoon (p) \rightfootline (x) . . \rightfree (Â&#x20AC;) . . . . . . \righthalfcap (â&#x152;?) . . . \righthalfcup (â&#x152;&#x;) . . . \righthand (u) . . . . . \rightharpoonccw (â&#x2021;&#x20AC;) \rightharpooncw (â&#x2021; ) . \rightharpoondown (ĂŁ) \rightharpoondown (+) \rightharpoonup (ĂĄ) . \rightharpoonup (*) . \rightleftarrows (Ă&#x2022;) \rightleftarrows () \rightleftarrows (â&#x2021;&#x201E;) \rightleftharpoon (ĂĄ)

. . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47 33 33 24 24 76 46 46 43 41 43 41 42 41 43 43


\rightleftharpoons (é) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoons (* )) \rightleftharpoons (⇌) \rightleftharpoonsfill \rightlsquigarrow (↝) . \rightmapsto (↦) . . . . . \rightModels (⊫) . . . . . \rightmodels (⊧) . . . . . \rightmoon (L) . . . . . . . \rightmoon (%) . . . . . . . \rightp (w) . . . . . . . . . . \rightpitchfork (ˆ) . . \rightpointleft ( ) .

L

N

. . . . . . . . . . .

\rightpointright ( ) . \rightpropto (Ž) . . . . . . \rightrightarrows (Ñ) . \rightrightarrows (⇒) . \rightrightarrows (⇉) . . \rightrightharpoons (Ù) \rightrsquigarrow (¨) . . \Rightscissors (Q) . . . . \rightslice (3) . . . . . . . \rightslice (⪧) . . . . . . . \rightspoon (⊸) . . . . . . \rightsquigarrow (ù) . \rightsquigarrow ( ) . . \rightsquigarrow (↝) . . \rightt (o) . . . . . . . . . . . \righttherefore ( ) . . . \rightthreetimes (%) . . \rightthreetimes (i) . . \rightthreetimes (⋌) . . . \rightthumbsdown ( ) . \rightthumbsup ( ) ... \righttoleftarrow (ý) . \Righttorque (') . . . . . . \rightturn (!) . . . . . . . \rightVdash (⊩) . . . . . . . \rightvdash (⊢) ....... Ð Ð \rightwave ( ÐÐ) . . . . . . . .

d u

\rightY (() . . . . . \ring (˚) . . . . . . . ring (˚ a) . . . . . . . . . ring equal to . . . . . ring in equal to . . . \riota ( ) . . . . . . . \rip (O) . . . . . . . . \risingdotseq () \risingdotseq (:) \risingdotseq (≓) \rJoin (Y) . . . . . . \rlap . . . . . .. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43 41 41 46 62 43 43 33 33 71 71 18 47 76

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

76 33 42 41 43 43 43 75 22 33 47 42 41 44 18 64 66 22 23 76 76 42 73 88 33 33

. . 56

. . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . 58 see accents see \circeq see \eqcirc . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . 31 . . . 79, 106

\rmoustache () . . . . . . . . 54 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ \rmoustache ( ⎪ ) . . . . . . . . 55 ⎪ ⎩ Roman coins . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Romanian comma-belo accent (a,) . . . . . see accents rook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

roots . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \rotatebox . . . . . . . . . 17, 103 rotated symbols . 11–13, 17, 103 rotating (package) . . . . . 19, 72 \rotm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rotOmega ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rotr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rotvara (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rotw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \roty (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \RoundedLsteel (Ÿ) . . . . . . 73 \RoundedTsteel () . . . . . . . 73 \RoundedTTsteel (ž) . . . . . . 73 \Rparen ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 \rqm (I) \rrangle (⟫)

. . . . . . . . . . . 55

\rrbracket () . . . . . . . . . . 54 Œ

\rrbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 57 \rrceil (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \rrfloor (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \Rrightarrow (V) . . . . . . . 42 \Rrightarrow (⇛) . . . . . . . . 43 \rrparenthesis (M) . . . . . . . 53 \RS (␞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 M Q ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rsem ( Q Q Q Q \rsemantic O . . . . . see \rdbrack \Rsh (é) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Rsh () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \Rsh (↱) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \rtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \rtimes (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \rtimes (⋊) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \rtriple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \rVert (||) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \rVert (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \rvert (|)Ð . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Ð \rwave ( ÐÐ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 _ _ \rWavy ( _ _ _) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ^^_ _ \rwavy ( ^^^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ^^ S \S (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 116 \SAa (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAb (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAd (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAdb (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAdd (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAf (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 safety-related symbols . . . . . 74 \SAg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAga (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \Sagittarius (è) . . . . . . . . 71 \sagittarius (c) . . . . . . . . 71 \SAh (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAhd (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAhu (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

153

\SAk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAl (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAlq (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \samebishops (s) . . . . . . . . 93 \Sampi (Ϡ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \sampi (ϡ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAn (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 sans (dsfont package option) . 68 \SAo (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAq (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \sarabfamily . . . . . . . . . . . 87 sarabian (package) . 87, 119, 121 \SAs (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAsa (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAsd (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAsv (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAt (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAtb (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAtd (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

I

\satellitedish ( ) . . . . . . 80 satisfies . . . . . . . . . see \models \Saturn (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Saturn (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \saturn (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 savesym (package) . . . . . . . 100 \savesymbol . . . . . . . . . . . 100 \SAw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAy (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAz (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \SAzd (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \Sborder ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \scalebox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 scaling mechanical . . . . . . 109, 112 optical . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 \scd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scg () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \schwa () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \schwa (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Schwartz distribution spaces see alphabets, math \sci (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 scientific symbols . . . . . . 70–74 \ScissorHollowLeft ( ) . . 75 \ScissorHollowRight ( ) . 75 \ScissorLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . . . . 75 \ScissorLeftBrokenTop ( ) 75 \ScissorRight ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \ScissorRightBrokenTop ( ) 75 scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \scn (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scoh (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Scorpio (ç) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \scorpio (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \scr (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

S





 








script letters see alphabets, math \scripta () . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scriptg () . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scriptscriptstyle . . 105, 106 \scriptstyle . . . . . . . 105, 106 \scriptv (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Scroll ( Scroll ) . . . . . . . . 72 \scu (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scy (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \sddtstile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\sdststile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\sdtstile (

) . . . . . . . . . . 35

\sdttstile ( ) . seagull . . . . . see \Searrow (u) . . . \Searrow (â&#x2021;&#x2DC;) . . . \searrow (Ă&#x2014;) . . . \searrow (&) . . . \searrow (â&#x2020;&#x2DC;) . . . \searrowtail (') \sec (sec) . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . 35 \textseagull . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . 41, 106 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 49

\Sech (Ë&#x2021; â&#x20AC;&#x153;) )== . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

== = \SechBl ( Ë&#x2021; â&#x20AC;&#x153; ) == \SechBR ( Ë&#x2021; â&#x20AC;&#x153; ==) = \SechBr ( Ë&#x2021; â&#x20AC;&#x153; ) \SechBL (==Ë&#x2021; â&#x20AC;&#x153; )

. . . . . . . . . . . . 89

. . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

. . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \second (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 seconds, angular . . see \second \secstress (i) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 section mark . . . . . . . . . see \S \SectioningDiamond ( ) . . 92 sedenions (S) . . see alphabets, math \sefilledspoon (w) . . . . . . 47 \sefootline () . . . . . . . . . 33 \sefree (Â&#x2021;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 segmented digits . . . . . . . . . 70 \seharpoonccw (G) . . . . . . . 46 \seharpooncw (O) . . . . . . . . 46 \selectfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \selsquigarrow (§) . . . . . . 43 semantic valuation . . . . . 54â&#x20AC;&#x201C;57 \semapsto (/) . . . . . . . . . . 43 semibreve . see musical symbols semidirect products . . 22, 23, 66 semiquaver see musical symbols semitic transliteration . . 14, 17 \seModels (á) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \semodels (ç) . . . . . . . . . . 33 semtrans (package) . 14, 17, 119, 120 \senwarrows (Â&#x;) . . . . . . . . 43 \senwharpoons ([) . . . . . . . 46



\SePa ( @ ) . . . . . . . . . \separated (Â&#x2022;) . . . . . \sepitchfork (Â?) . . . \seppawns (q) . . . . . \SerialInterface (Ă&#x17D;) \SerialPort (Ă?) . . . .

. . . .

. . . . . ..

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

89 33 47 93 72 72

\sersquigarrow (ÂŻ) . . . . . . 43 \sesearrows (Â&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . 43 \sespoon (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 set operators intersection . . . . see \cap membership . . . . . see \in union . . . . . . . . . see \cup \setminus (\) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \setminus (â&#x2C6;&#x2013;) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \seVdash (ĂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \sevdash (Ă&#x;) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 SGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 sha ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \sharp (]) . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 88 \sharp (â&#x2122;Ż) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \shfermion () . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Shift ( Shift â&#x2021;&#x2018; ) . . . . . . . . 72 \shift (Ë&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Shilling (ÂĄ) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \shneg (Ë&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \shortcastling (O-O) . . . . 93 \shortdownarrow () . . . . . . 42 \ShortFifty (Ă&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . 90 \ShortForty (Ă&#x2122;) . . . . . . . . 90 \shortleftarrow ( ) . . . . . 42 \shortmid (p) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \shortmid (â&#x2C6;Ł) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ShortNinetyFive (Ă&#x201D;) . . . . 90 \shortparallel (q) . . . . . . . 30 \shortparallel (â&#x2C6;Ľ) . . . . . . 32 \ShortPulseHigh ( ) . . . . . 70 \ShortPulseLow ( ) . . . . . . 70 \shortrightarrow () . . . . 42 \ShortSixty (Ă&#x2013;) . . . . . . . . 90 \ShortThirty (Ă&#x203A;) . . . . . . . 90 \shortuparrow () . . . . . . . 42 \showclock . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \shpos (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 shuffle (package) . . 24, 119, 120 \shuffle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 shuffle product ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \SI (â??) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Sigma (ÎŁ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \sigma (Ď&#x192;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \sigmaup (Ď&#x192;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \sim (â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . 30, 104, 115 \sim (â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \simcolon (â&#x2C6;ź:) . . . . . . . . . . 36 \simcoloncolon (â&#x2C6;ź::) . . . . . 36 \simeq (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \simeq (â&#x2030;&#x192;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 simplewick (package) . . . . . 109 simpsons (package) . . . . 96, 119 Simpsons characters . . . . . . . 96 \sin (sin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \sincoh (Ë&#x2021;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \sinh (sinh) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

X

l

" #





O) . . \SixFlowerAltPetal (U) . . \SixFlowerOpenCenter (M) . \SixFlowerPetalDotted (Q) \SixFlowerAlternate (

154

78 78 78 78

L

\SixFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) 78 \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \SixStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \SixteenStarLight ( ) . . . 78 sixteenth note . . . . see musical symbols \sixteenthnote (â&#x2122;Ź) . . . . . . 88 skak (package) . 93, 94, 119, 120 skull (package) . . . . 93, 119, 120 \skull ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \slash (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \slashb () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \slashc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \slashd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \slashdiv () . . . . . . . . . . . 23 slashed (package) . . . . . . . . 105 \slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 slashed letters . . . . . . . . . . 105 slashed.sty (file) . . . . . . . 105 \slashu (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Sleet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \sliding (a ÂŻ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \smallbosonloop () . . . . . . . 74 \smallbosonloopA () . . . . . . 74 \smallbosonloopV () . . . . . . 74 \SmallCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . 79 \SmallCross ( ) . . . . . . . . 79 \smalldiamond (â&#x2014;&#x2021;) . . . . . . . 25 \SmallDiamondshape ( ) . . 79 \smallfrown (a) . . . . . . . . . 30 \smallfrown (â&#x152;˘) . . . . . . . . . 48 \SmallHBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \smallin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \smallint (â&#x2C6;Ť) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \SmallLowerDiamond ( ) . . 79 \smalllozenge (â&#x2014;&#x160;) . . . . . . . . 79 \smallowns () . . . . . . . . . . 52 \smallpencil ( ) . . . . . . 76 \smallprod (â&#x2C6;?) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \SmallRightDiamond ( ) . . 79 \smallsetminus (r) . . . . . . 22 \smallsetminus (â&#x2C6;&#x2013;) . . . . . . 24 \smallsmile (`) . . . . . . . . . 30 \smallsmile (â&#x152;Ł) . . . . . . . . . 48 \SmallSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 79 \smallsquare (â&#x2014;˝) . . . . . . . . 25 \smallstar (â&#x2DC;&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \SmallTriangleDown ( ) . . 79 \smalltriangledown (Â&#x2122;) . . . 25 \smalltriangledown (â&#x2013;ż) 25, 40 \SmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . 79 \smalltriangleleft (Â&#x161;) . . . 25 \smalltriangleleft (â&#x2014;&#x192;) 25, 40 \SmallTriangleRight ( ) . . 79 \smalltriangleright (Â&#x203A;) . . 25 \smalltriangleright (â&#x2013;š) 25, 40 \SmallTriangleUp ( ) . . . . 79 \smalltriangleup (Â&#x2DC;) . . . . . 25

[

G

K

A



|

E 

\ 

F





P

O

@

C B

D

A


\smalltriangleup (â&#x2013;ľ) . . \SmallVBar ( ) . . . . . . . \smile (^) . . . . . . . . . . . \smile (â&#x152;Ł) . . . . . . . . . . . smile symbols . . . . . . . . . \smileeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \smileeqfrown (&) . . . . . \smilefrown (â&#x2030;?) . . . . . . . \smilefrowneq (() . . . . . \Smiley (Š) . . . . . . . . . . \smiley (,) . . . . . . . . . . smiley faces . . . . . 72, 88, \sndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . \Snow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \SnowCloud ( ) . . . . . . . \Snowflake ( ) . . . . . . . \SnowflakeChevron ( ) . \SnowflakeChevronBold ( snowflakes . . . . . . . . . . . .







`

^



25, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 90, .. .. .. .. .. ) ..

_

40 79 30 48 48 48 48 48 48 90 88 98 35 91 91 78 78 78 78

\SNPP ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 \snststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \sntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \snttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \SO (â?&#x17D;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \SOH (â? ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 South Arabian alphabet . . . . 87 space thin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 visible . . . . . . . . . . . . see \textvisiblespace \Spacebar ( ) . . . . 72 spades (suit) . . . . . . . 65â&#x20AC;&#x201C;67, 80 \spadesuit (â&#x2122; ) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \spadesuit (â&#x2122; ) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Sparkle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \SparkleBold ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 sparkles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 â&#x20AC;&#x153;specialâ&#x20AC;? characters . . . . . . . . 9 \SpecialForty (Ă&#x161;) . . . . . . 90 \sphericalangle (?) . . . . . 66 \sphericalangle (^) . . . . . 66 \sphericalangle (â&#x2C6;˘) . . . . . 66 \SpinDown () . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \SpinUp () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;) . . . . . . . 58 \spirituslenis (a \spirituslenis (â&#x20AC;&#x201D;) . . . . . . . 58 \splitvert (ÂŚ) . . . . . . . . . . 72 spoon symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \spreadlips (a Ë&#x2122;) . . . . . . . . . 16 \sqbullet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqcap ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqcap (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \sqcap (â&#x160;&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqcapdot (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqcapplus (}) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqcapplus (G) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqcup (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqcup (t) . . . . . . . . . . 21, 22 \sqcup (â&#x160;&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

]

)

*

\

\sqcupdot (D) . . . . . . \sqcupplus (|) . . . . . \sqcupplus (F) . . . . . \sqdoublecap (^) . . . \sqdoublecup (_) . . . \sqdoublefrown (-) . . \sqdoublefrowneq (7) \sqdoublesmile (,) . . \sqdoublesmileeq (6) \sqeqfrown (5) . . . . . \sqeqsmile (4) . . . . . \sqfrown (+) . . . . . . . \sqfrowneq (3) . . . . . \sqfrowneqsmile (9) . \sqfrownsmile R (1) . . \sqiiint ( ) . . . . . P \sqiint ( ) . . . . . . . â&#x20AC;? \sqiint ( ) . . . . . . . \sqint ( ) . . . . . . . . â&#x20AC;ş \sqint (â&#x2C6;&#x161;) . . . . . . . . . \sqrt ( ) ........ \sqsmile (*) . . . . . . . \sqsmileeq (2) . . . . . \sqsmileeqfrown (8) . \sqsmilefrown (0) . . \Sqsubset (^) . . . . . . \sqSubset (Â&#x201D;) . . . . . \sqsubset (Â&#x20AC;) . . . . . \sqsubset (@) . . . . . \sqsubset (â&#x160;?) . . . . . . \sqsubseteq (Â&#x201E;) . . . . \sqsubseteq (v) . . . . \sqsubseteq (â&#x160;&#x2018;) . . . . \sqsubseteqq (Â&#x152;) . . . \sqsubseteqq (\) . . . \sqsubsetneq (Â&#x2C6;) . . . \sqsubsetneq (â&#x2039;¤) . . . \sqsubsetneqq (Â?) . . \sqsubsetneqq (Ăś) . . \Sqsupset (_) . . . . . . \sqSupset (Â&#x2022;) . . . . . \sqsupset ( ) . . . . . \sqsupset (A) . . . . . \sqsupset (â&#x160;?) . . . . . . \sqsupseteq (Â&#x2026;) . . . . \sqsupseteq (w) . . . . \sqsupseteq (â&#x160;&#x2019;) . . . . \sqsupseteqq (Â?) . . . \sqsupseteqq (]) . . . \sqsupsetneq (Â&#x2030;) . . . \sqsupsetneq (â&#x2039;Ľ) . . . \sqsupsetneqq (Â&#x2018;) . . \sqsupsetneqq (á) . . \sqtriplefrown (/) . . \sqtriplesmile (.) . . \Square ( ) . . . . . . . \Square ( vs. vs. \Square () . . . . . . . \Square ( ) . . . . . . . \square () . . . . . . . . \square () . . . . . . .

0

f

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) .. .. .. ..

f 0

155

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 24 . . . 23 . . . 24 . . . 23 . . . 23 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 27 . . . 27 . . . 28 . . . 27 . . . 28 59, 106 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 36, 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 36 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 36, 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 36 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 37 . . . 48 . . . 48 . . . 79 . . 101 . . . 77 . . . 80 . . . 23 . . . 66

\square (â&#x2014;ť) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 square root . . . . . . . see \sqrt hooked . . . . . see \hksqrt \SquareCastShadowBottomRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \SquareCastShadowTopLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \SquareCastShadowTopRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \Squaredot (á) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \squaredots (â&#x2C6;ˇ) . . . . . . 24, 64 \Squarepipe (â&#x20AC;&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . . 73 squares . . . . . . . . . . . 79â&#x20AC;&#x201C;80, 94 \SquareShadowA ( ) . . . . . . 79 \SquareShadowB ( ) . . . . . . 79 \SquareShadowBottomRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \SquareShadowC ( ) . . . . . . 79 \SquareShadowTopLeft ( ) . 80 \SquareShadowTopRight ( ) 80 \SquareSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \Squaresteel (â&#x20AC;&#x153;) . . . . . . . . 73

k

m

l





g

B

h

j i

\squarewithdots ( ) . . . . \squigarrowdownup (Âł) . . \squigarrowleftright (â&#x2020;­) \squigarrownesw (´) . . . . \squigarrownwse (Âľ) . . . . . \squigarrowrightleft (²) \squigarrowsenw (¡) . . . . \squigarrowswne (Âś) . . . . \squigarrowupdown (Âą) . . . \squplus (]) . . . . . . . . . . \SS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ss (Ă&#x;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

80 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 23 10 10

\ssdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \ssearrow (%) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \sslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ssststile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\sststile (

) . . . . . . . . . . 35

\ssttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \sswarrow ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \stackrel . . . . . . . 21, 104, 108 standard state . . . . . . . . . . 104 \star (?) . . . . . . . . . . 22, 107 \star (â&#x2039;&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Star of David . . . . . . . . 77, 78 \starredbullet (d) . . . . . . . 78 stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66, 77â&#x20AC;&#x201C;79 \stater (áż?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 statistical independence . . . 106 \staveI (

) . . . . . . . . . . 97

\staveII () . . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveIII () . . . . . . . . 97 \staveIV () . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveIX () . . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveL (1) . . . . . . . 97, 98


\staveLI (2) . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveLII (3) . . . . . . . . 97 \staveLIII (4) . . . . . . . . 97

\staveXLVIII (/) . . . . . 97 \staveXV () . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXVI () . . . . . . . . . 98

: ::: ::

\StrokeOne ( ) . . \StrokeThree ( ) \StrokeTwo ( ) . â&#x2014;Ś \stst (â&#x2C6;&#x2019; ) .....

.. . .. ..

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. 92 . 92 . 92 104

\staveLIV (5) . . . . . . . . 97 \staveLIX (:) . . . . . . . . 98

\staveXVII () . . . . . . . . 98

\stststile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\staveXVIII () . . . . . . . 98

\sttstile (

) . . . . . . . . . . 35

\staveLV (6) . . . . . . . . . . 97

\staveXX () . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXXI () . . . . . . . . 98

\stttstile (

\staveLVI (7) . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveXXII () . . . . . . . . 98 \staveLVII (8) . . . . . . . . 97 \staveLVIII (9) . . . . . . . 98 \staveLX (;) . . . . . . . 98

\staveXXIII () . . . . . 98

\staveLXI (<) . . . . . . . . . 98

\staveXXIV () . . . . . . . . 97 \staveXXIX () . . . . . . . 97 \staveXXV () . . . . . . . . 97

\staveLXII (=) . . . . . . . . 98

\staveXXVI () . . . . . . . 97

\staveLXIII (>) . . . . . . . 98

\staveXXVII () . . . . . . . 97

\staveLXIV (?) . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveLXV (@) . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveLXVI (A) . . . . . . . . 98 \staveLXVII (B) . . . . . . . . 98 \staveLXVIII (C) . . . . . . . 98 staves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 staves (package) . . . . . . 97, 119 \staveV () . . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveVI () . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveVII () . . . . . . . . 97 \staveVIII () . . . . . . . 97 \staveX ( )

. . . . . . . . . . 97

\staveXI ( )

. . . . . . . . . . 97

\staveXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXIX () . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXL (') . . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXLI (() . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXLII ())

. . . . . . . 98

\staveXLIII (*) . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXLIV (+) . . . . . . . 98 \staveXLIX (0) . . . . . . . . 97 \staveXLV (,) . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXLVI (-)

. . . . . . . . 98

\staveXLVII (.) . . . . . . . 97

\staveXXVIII () . . . . . . 97 \staveXXX ()

. . . . . . . . 97

\staveXXXI () . . . . . . . . 97 \staveXXXII () . . . . . . 97 \staveXXXIII (

) . . . . . . . 97

\staveXXXIV (!) . . . . . . 97 \staveXXXIX (&) . . . . . . 98 \staveXXXV (")

. . . . . . . 98

\staveXXXVI (#) . . . . . . 98 \staveXXXVII ($) . . . . . 98 \staveXXXVIII (%) . . . . 98 ) . . . . . . . . . 35

\stdtstile (

\steaming (â&#x2122;¨) . . . . . . . . . . 67 steinmetz (package) 70, 119, 121 Steinmetz phasor notation . . 70 sterling . . . . . . . . . see \pounds stick figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Stigma (Ď&#x161;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \stigma (Ď&#x203A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 stmaryrd (package) 22, 26, 31, 37, 40, 42, 48, 53, 54, 101, 104, 118â&#x20AC;&#x201C;120 stochastic independence see \bot \StoneMan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Stopsign (!) . . . . . . . . . . 74



Â&#x2DC;

\StopWatchEnd ( ) . . . . . . . 91

Â&#x2014;) . . . . .

\StopWatchStart ( \stress (h) . . . . . \strictfi (K) . . \strictif (J) . . \strictiff (L) . \strokedint (�) . \StrokeFive ( ) \StrokeFour ( ) .

; ::::

156

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

91 18 31 31 31 29 92 92

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\STX (â?&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . . . . \SUB (â?&#x161;) . . . . . . . . . . . . subatomic particles . . . . \subcorner (a) . . . . . . . ^ (a) . . . . \subdoublebar ÂŻ \subdoublevert (a) . . . . \sublptr (a) . . . "". . . . . . \subrptr (aÂĄ ) . . . . . . . . . subscripts Âż new symbols used in \Subset (Â&#x201D;) . . . . . . . . . \Subset (b) . . . . . . . . . \Subset (â&#x2039;?) . . . . . . . . . . \subset (Â&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . . . \subset (â&#x160;&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . \subset (â&#x160;&#x201A;) . . . . . . . . . . \subseteq (Â&#x201E;) . . . . . . . \subseteq (â&#x160;&#x2020;) . . . . . . . \subseteq (â&#x160;&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . \subseteqq (Â&#x152;) . . . . . . . \subseteqq (j) . . . . . . \subseteqq (âŤ&#x2026;) . . . . . . . \subsetneq (Â&#x2C6;) . . . . . . . \subsetneq (() . . . . . . \subsetneq (â&#x160;&#x160;) . . . . . . . \subsetneqq (Â?) . . . . . . \subsetneqq ($) . . . . . . \subsetneqq (âŤ&#x2039;) . . . . . . \subsetplus (D) . . . . . . \subsetpluseq (F) . . . . subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . \succ () . . . . . . . . . . . \succ (â&#x2030;ť) . . . . . . . . . . . \succapprox (Ă&#x2021;) . . . . . . \succapprox (v) . . . . . . \succapprox (⪸) . . . . . . \succcurlyeq (ÂĽ) . . . . . \succcurlyeq (<) . . . . . \succcurlyeq (â&#x2030;˝) . . . . . \succdot (Ă?) . . . . . . . . \succeq () . . . . . . . . . \succeq (⪰) . . . . . . . . . . \succeqq () . . . . . . . . . \succnapprox (Ă&#x2039;) . . . . . \succnapprox () . . . . . \succnapprox (⪺) . . . . . \succneq (­) . . . . . . . . \succneqq () . . . . . . . \succnsim (Ă&#x2026;) . . . . . . . \succnsim () . . . . . . . \succnsim (â&#x2039;Š) . . . . . . . . \succsim (Ă ) . . . . . . . . \succsim (%) . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 105 . . 37 . . 36 . . 37 . . 37 . . 36 . . 37 . . 37 . . 36 . . 37 . . 37 . . 36 . . 37 . . 37 . . 36 . . 37 . . 37 . . 36 . . 37 . . 37 . . 37 36, 37 . . 30 . . 32 . . 32 . . 30 . . 32 . . 32 . . 30 . . 32 . . 32 . . 30 . . 32 . . 31 . . 32 . . 31 . . 34 . . 32 . . 31 . . 32 . . 31 . . 34 . . 32 . . 30

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

72 72 74 16 16 16 16 16






 



T



\swrsquigarrow (®) . . . . . . 43 \swspoon (n) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \swswarrows (–) . . . . . . . . 43 swung dash . . . . . . . . see \sim \swVdash (î) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \swvdash (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \syl (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \syllabic (j) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \symA ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \symAE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \symB ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \symbishop (B) . . . . . . . . . 94 Symbol (font) . . . . . . . 51, 103 symbols actuarial . . . . . . . . . . 108 alpine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 ancient language . . 81–87 annuity . . . . . . . . . . . 108 APL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 astrological . . . . . . . . . 71 astronomical . . . . . 71, 98 biological . . . . . . . . . . . 74 block-element . . . . . . . . 97 body-text . . . . . . . . . 9–20 bold . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 box-drawing . . . . . . . . . 97 chess . . . . . . . . . . . 93, 94 cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 clock . . . . . . . . . 88, 90–92 communication . . . . . . . 73 computer hardware . . . . 72 contradiction . . . . . 21, 48 currency . . . . . . 18, 19, 68 dangerous bend . . . . . . 89 definition . . . . . . . 21, 108 dictionary . . . . . 11–14, 96 dingbat . . . . . . . . . 75–80 dot . . . . . . . 9, 63, 64, 107 electrical . . . . . . . . . . . 70 engineering . . . . . . 70, 73 extensible . . 47, 59–63, 70, 102, 107–109 Feynman diagram . . . . . 74 Frege logic . . 47, 53, 65, 67 frown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 gates, digital logic . . . . 73 genealogical . . . . . . . . . 88 general . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Go stones . . . . . . . . . . 94 information . . . . . . . . . 90 informator . . . . . . . . . . 93 inverted . . . 11–13, 17, 103 keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Knuth’s . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 laundry . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 legal . . . . . . . . . 9, 19, 116 letter-like . . . . . . . . 51–53 life insurance . . . . . . . 108 linear logic . . . . 21–23, 25, 29–30, 36, 51, 52 linguistic . . . . . . . . 11–14 log-like . . . . . . . . 49, 113

Á Û Â

157

logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 magical signs . . . . . . . . 97 mathematical . . . . . 21–69 METAFONTbook . . . . . 89 metrical . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 miscellaneous . . 65–67, 80, 88–99 monetary . . . . . . 18, 19, 68 musical . 20, 65, 66, 88, 89 navigation . . . . . . . . . . 90 non-commutative division 63 particle physics . . . . . . 74 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . 81 phonetic . . . . . . . . 11–14 physical . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 pitchfork . . . . . . 30, 47, 66 Pitman’s base-12 . . . . . 65 present value . . . . . . . 108 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . 81 pulse diagram . . . . . . . 70 recycling . . . . . . . . 98, 99 relational . . . . . . . . . . . 30 reversed . . . . . . . . . . . 103 rotated . . . 11–13, 17, 103 safety-related . . . . . . . . 74 scientific . . . . . . . . 70–74 Simpsons characters . . . 96 smile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 spoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 staves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 subset and superset 36, 37 technological . . . . . 70–74 TEXbook . . . . . . . . . . . 89 transliteration . . . . . . . 14 upside-down 11–13, 17, 103, 114 variable-sized . 25–30, 100, 102 weather . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 zodiacal . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 symbols.tex (file) . . . . 100, 119 \symC ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \symking (K) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \symknight (N) . . . . . . . . . 94 \symOE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \sympawn (p) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \symqueen (Q) . . . . . . . . . . 94 \symrook (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \symUE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \SYN (␖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Ã

Ü

Ý

T \T . . . . . . . . . . . . \T ( ) . . . . . . . . . \T (⊗) . . . . . . . .  ......... \t (a) \t (⊗) . . . . . . . . . t4phonet (package) 120 → − − ) ... \Tab ( − − → \tabcolsep . . . . . tacks . . . . . . . . . . a

\succsim (≿) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 such that . . . . . . . . . . 103, 105 \suchthat − ) . . . . . . . . . 105 P (3 \sum ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \sum (∑) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \sumint (⨋) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Summit ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \SummitSign ( ) . . . . . . . . . 91 \Sun (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Sun (À vs. vs. @) . . . . 101 \Sun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Sun (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \sun (☼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \SunCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 91 \SunshineOpenCircled ( ) . 80 \sup (sup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 superscripts new symbols used in . . 105 supersets . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 37 supremum . . . . . . . . . see \sup \Supset (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Supset (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Supset (⋑) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supset () . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supset (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \supset (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteq (…) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteq (⊇) . . . . . . . . . . 36 \supseteq (⊇) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteqq () . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteqq (k) . . . . . . . . . 36 \supseteqq (⫆) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneq (‰) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneq ()) . . . . . . . . . 36 \supsetneq (⊋) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneqq (‘) . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneqq (%) . . . . . . . . . 36 \supsetneqq (⫌) . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetplus (E) . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetpluseq (G) . . . . . . . 37 ` \surd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \SurveySign ( ) . . . . . . . . . 91 \Swarrow (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Swarrow (⇙) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swarrow (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \swarrow (.) . . . . 41, 106, 107 \swarrow (↙) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swarrowtail (&) . . . . . . . . 43 \swfilledspoon (v) . . . . . . 47 \swfootline (~) . . . . . . . . . 32 \swfree (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \swharpoonccw (F) . . . . . . . 46 \swharpooncw (N) . . . . . . . . 46 \swlsquigarrow (¦) . . . . . . 43 \swmapsto (.) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swModels (ö) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \swmodels (æ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \swnearrows (ž) . . . . . . . . 43 \swneharpoons (^) . . . . . . . 46 swords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \swpitchfork (Ž) . . . . . . . . 47

. . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . 10 . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . 95 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . 95 14, 17, 119,

. . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . 30, 51


\taild () . . . \tailinvr (H) . \taill (0) . . . . \tailn (9) . . . \tailr (F) . . . . \tails (L) . . . . \tailt (P) . . . . \tailz (_) . . . \Takt . . . . . . . \talloblong (8) tally markers . . \tan (tan) . . . . \tanh (tanh) . . \Tape ( ) . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

–

. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 85, ... ... ...

13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 89 22 92 49 49 80

\Taschenuhr ( ) . . . . . . . . 91 Tate-Shafarevich group see sha \tau (τ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Taurus (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Taurus (á) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \taurus (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tautology . . . . . . . . . see \top \tauup (τ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \tccentigrade (℃) . . . . . . . 65 \tcmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \tcohm (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \tcpertenthousand (‱) . . 65 \tcperthousand (‰) . . . . . . 65 \td (a ..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \tddtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \tdststile ( \tdtstile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35 )

. . . . . . . . . 35

) . . . . . . . . 35 \tdttstile ( technological symbols . . 70–74 \Telefon (T) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Telephone ( ) . . . . . . . . 92 \Telephone ( ) . . . . . . . . . 98 Tennent, Bob . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Tent ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Terminus (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \terminus (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Terminus* (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \terminus* (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \tesh (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 testfont.dvi (file) . . . . . . 111 testfont.tex (file) . . . 111, 112 \tetartemorion (Β) . . . . . . . 19 teubner (package) 19, 64, 87, 95, 119, 120 TEX . . . 40, 47, 64, 70, 97, 100, 103–109, 111–113, 115, 117, 118, 122 TEXbook, The 103–107, 109, 112 symbols from . . . . . . . . 89 \text . . . . . . . . . . 21, 105, 106 \textacutedbl (˝) . . . . . . . 18 \textacutemacron (´ a) . . . . . 15 ¯ \textacutewedge (´ a) . . . . . . 15 ˇ \textadvancing (affi) . . . . . . . 15 \textaolig (") . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textasciiacute (´) . . 18, 116

( @



\textasciibreve (˘) . . . . . . 18 \textasciicaron (ˇ) . . . . . . 18 \textasciicircum (ˆ) . . 9, 115, 117 \textasciidieresis (¨) 18, 116 \textasciigrave (`) . . . . . . 18 \textasciimacron . . . . . . . 115 \textasciimacron (¯) 18, 116 \textasciitilde (˜) 9, 115, 117 \textasteriskcentered (∗) . 9, 20 \textbabygamma (È) . . . . . . . 11 \textbackslash (\) . 9, 114, 115 \textbaht (฿) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textbar (|) . . . . . . . . . 9, 114 \textbarb (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarc (c) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbard (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbardbl (‖) . . . . . . . . . 20 \textbardotlessj (é) . . . . . 11 \textbarg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarglotstop (Ü) . . . . . 11 \textbari (1) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarl (ł) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbaro (8) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarrevglotstop (Ý) . . 11 \textbaru (0) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbeltl (ì) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbenttailyogh (B) . . . . 12 \textbeta (B) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbigcircle (○) . . . . . . 20 \textbktailgamma (.) . . . . . 12 \textblank (␢) . . . . . . . . . . 20 \textblock ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textborn (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \textbottomtiebar (a <) . . . . 15 \textbraceleft ({) . . . . . . . . 9 \textbraceright (}) . . . . . . . 9 \textbrevemacron (˘ a) . . . . . 15 ¯ \textbrokenbar (¦) . . . 20, 116 \textbullet (•) . . . . 9, 20, 117 \textbullseye (ò) . . . . . . . 11 \textcelsius (℃) . . . . 70, 117 \textceltpal ( ) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcent (¢) . . . . . . . 18, 116 \textcentoldstyle () . . . . 18 \textchi ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcircled ( ) . . . . . . . . 14 \textcircledP (℗) . . . . . . 19 \textcircumacute (Ż a) . . . . . 15 ˆ˙ . . . . . . . 15 \textcircumdot (a) \textcloseepsilon (Å) . . . . 11 \textcloseomega (Ñ) . . . . . . 11 \textcloserevepsilon (Æ) . . 11 \textcolonmonetary (₡) . . . 18 \textcommatailz (Þ) . . . . . . 11 textcomp (package) . . . . . . . 8, 9, 14, 18–20, 41, 57, 67, 70, 88, 100, 115, 119 \textcopyleft («) . . . . . . 19 \textcopyright (©) . 9, 19, 116 \textcorner (^) . . . . . . . . . . 11

)

158

\textcrb (ă) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcrd (ą) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcrd (ž) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textcrg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcrh (è) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcrh (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textcrinvglotstop (Û) . . . 11 \textcrlambda (ň) . . . . . . . 11 \textcrtwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctc (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctd (ć) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctdctzlig (ćý) . . . . . . 11 \textctesh (š) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctinvglotstop (D) . . . 12 \textctj (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctjvar (2) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctn (ő) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctstretchc (%) . . . . . . 12 \textctstretchcvar (&) . . . 12 \textctt (ť) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcttctclig (ťC) . . . . . . 11 \textctturnt (@) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctyogh (ÿ) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textctz (ý) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcurrency (¤) . . . 18, 116 \textcypr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \textdagger (†) . . . . . . . 9, 20 \textdaggerdbl (‡) . . . . . 9, 20  \textdbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . 89 \textdblhyphen (-) . . . . . . . 20 \textdblhyphenchar () . . . . 20 \textdblig ()) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textdctzlig (dý) . . . . . . . . 11 \textdegree (°) . . . . . 67, 116 \textdied (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \textdiscount (œ) . . . . . . . 20 \textdiv (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \textdivorced (c) . . . . . . . 88 \textdkshade ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textdnblock ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textdollar ($) . . . . . . . 9, 18 \textdollaroldstyle () . . 18 \textdong (₫) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textdotacute (§ a) . . . . . . . 15 \textdotbreve (˘ a˙ ) . . . . . . . 15 \textdoublebaresh (S) . . . . 11 \textdoublebarpipe (}) . . . 11 \textdoublebarpipevar (H) . 12 \textdoublebarslash (= / ) . . 11 \textdoublegrave (‚ a) . . . . . 15 \textdoublegrave (a Ÿ) . . . . . 17 \textdoublepipe ({) . . . . . . 11 \textdoublepipevar (G) . . . 12 \textdoublevbaraccent (İ a) . 15 \textdoublevbaraccent (a ¼) . 17 \textdoublevertline (Ş) . . 11 \textdownarrow (↓) . . . . . . . 41 \textdownfullarrow (ˇ) . . . 12 \textdownstep (Ť) . . . . . . . . 11 \textdyoghlig (Ã) . . . . . . . 11 \textdzlig (dz) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texteightoldstyle () . . . 20


\textellipsis (. . . ) . . . . . . . 9 \textemdash (—) . . . . . . . . . 9 \textendash (–) . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textepsilon (E) . . . . . . . . 11 \textepsilon (¢) . . . . . . . . 14 \textesh (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textesh (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textestimated (℮) . . . . . . 20 \texteuro (€) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \texteuro (€) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \texteuro (€) . . . 18, 115, 117 \textexclamdown (¡) . . . . . . . 9 \textfemale (7) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textfishhookr (R) . . . . . . . 12 \textfiveoldstyle () . . . . 20 \textfjlig () . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textflorin (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textfouroldstyle () . . . . 20 \textfractionsolidus (⁄) . . 67 \textfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \textfrbarn (5) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textfrhookd (’) . . . . . . . . 12 \textfrhookdvar (() . . . . . . 12 \textfrhookt (?) . . . . . . . . 12 \textfrtailgamma (-) . . . . . 12 \textg (ě) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textgamma (G) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textglobfall (Ů) . . . . . . . 12 \textglobrise (Ű) . . . . . . . 12 \textglotstop (P) . . . . . . . 11 \textglotstopvari (T) . . . . 12 \textglotstopvarii (U) . . . 12 \textglotstopvariii (V) . . 12 \textgoth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \textgravecircum (Ž a) . . . . . 15 \textgravedbl () . . . . . . . 18 \textgravedot (đ a) . . . . . . . 15 \textgravemacron (` a) . . . . . 15 ¯ \textgravemid (Ź a) . . . . . . . 15 \textgreater (>) . . . . . 9, 114 \textgrgamma (,) . . . . . . . . 12 \textguarani () . . . . . . . . 18 \texthalflength (;) . . . . . . 11 \texthardsign (ż) . . . . . . . 11 \textheng (0) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \texthmlig (4) . . . . . . . . . 12 \texthooktop (#) . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtb (á) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtbardotlessj (ê) . . . . 11 \texthtbardotlessjvar (3) . 12 \texthtc (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtc (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtd (â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtd (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtg (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texththeng (Ê) . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtk (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtk (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtp (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtp (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \texthtq (Ó) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

\texthtrtaild (č) . . . . . . . 11 \texthtscg (É) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtt (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthtt (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \texthvlig (ß) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textifsym . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \textinterrobang (‽) . . . . . 20 \textinterrobangdown (•) . . 20 \textinvglotstop (Û) . . . . . 11 \textinvomega (;) . . . . . . . 12 \textinvsca (p) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textinvscr (K) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textinvscripta (!) . . . . . . 12 \textinvsubbridge (a „) . . . . 15 \textiota (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textiota (à) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textlambda (ń) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textlangle (〈) . . . . . 57, 114 \textlbrackdbl (〚) . . . . . . . 57 \textleaf (l) . . . . . . . . . . 88 \textleftarrow (←) . . . . . . 41 \textlengthmark (:) . . . . . . 11 \textless (<) . . . . . . . 9, 114 \textlfblock ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textlfishhookrlig (I) . . . 12 ~ \textlhdbend ( ) . . . . . . . 89 \textlhookfour (#) . . . . . . . 12 \textlhookp (<) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textlhookt (ş) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textlhti (1) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textlhtlongi (ę) . . . . . . . . 11 \textlhtlongy (ű) . . . . . . . 11 \textlinb . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 86 \textlira (₤) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textlnot (¬) . . . . . . . 67, 116 \textlonglegr (Ô) . . . . . . . . 11 \textlooptoprevesh (>) . . . . 12 \textlowering (afl) . . . . . . . 15 \textlptr (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textlquill (⁅) . . . . . . . . . 57 \textltailm (M) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textltailn (ñ) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textltailn (©) . . . . . . . . . 14 \textltilde (ë) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textltshade ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textlyoghlig (Ð) . . . . . . . 11 \textmarried (m) . . . . . . . . 88 \textmho (℧) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \textmidacute (Ÿ a) . . . . . . . 15 \textminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \textmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . 70, 116 \textmusicalnote (♪) . . . . . 20 \textnaira (₦) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textnineoldstyle () . . . . 20 \textnrleg (6) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textnumero (№) . . . . . . . . . 20 \textObardotlessj (Í) . . . . 11 \textObullseye (9) . . . . . . 12 \textohm (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \textOlyoghlig (ŋ) . . . . . . . 11 \textomega (ř) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textonehalf (½) . . . . 67, 116

159

\textoneoldstyle . . . . . . . . 20 \textoneoldstyle () . . . . . 20 \textonequarter (¼) . . 67, 116 \textonesuperior (¹) . 67, 116 \textopenbullet (◦) . . . . . . 20 \textopencorner (_) . . . . . . 11 \textopeno (O) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textopeno (ª) . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textordfeminine (ª) 9, 20, 116 \textordmasculine (º) . . 9, 20, 116 \textovercross a) . . . . . . . 15 — (‰ \textoverw (a) . . . . . . . . . . 15 \textpalhook (%) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textpalhooklong (ˆ) . . . . . 12 \textpalhookvar (˜) . . . . . . 12 \textparagraph (¶) . . . . 9, 20 \textperiodcentered (·) . 9, 20, 116 \textpertenthousand (‱) . 20 \textperthousand (‰) 20, 117 \textpeso (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textphi (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textpilcrow (¶) . . . . . . . . 20 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textpipevar (F) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textpm (±) . . . . . . . . 67, 116 \textpmhg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \textpolhook (a˛ ) . . . . . . . . 15 \textprimstress (") . . . . . . 11 \textproto . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \textqplig (=) . . . . . . . . . 12 \textquestiondown (¿) . . . . . 9 \textquotedbl (") . . . 10, 114 \textquotedblleft (“) . . . . . 9 \textquotedblright (”) . . . . 9 \textquoteleft (‘) . . . . . . . . 9 \textquoteright (’) . . . . . . . 9 \textquotesingle (') . 20, 114 \textquotestraightbase (‚) 20 \textquotestraightdblbase („) . . . . . . . . . 20 \textraiseglotstop (ij) . . . 11 \textraisevibyi (ğ) . . . . . . 11 \textraising (afi) . . . . . . . . 15 \textramshorns (7) . . . . . . . 11 \textrangle (〉) . . . . . 57, 114 \textrbrackdbl (〛) . . . . . . . 57 \textrecipe (“) . . . . . 20, 102 \textrectangle (¨) . . . . . . . 12 \textreferencemark (※) 20, 21 \textregistered (®) 9, 19, 116 \textretracting (affl) . . . . . . 15 \textretractingvar (˚) . . . 12 \textrevapostrophe (\) . . . . 11 \textreve (9) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrevepsilon (3) . . 11, 103 \textreversedvideodbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . 89 \textrevglotstop (Q) . . . . . 11 \textrevscl (v) . . . . . . . . . 12


\textrevscr (z) . . . . . . . \textrevyogh (ź) . . . . . . \textrhooka ( ) . . . . . . . \textrhooke (*) . . . . . . . \textrhookepsilon (+) . . \textrhookopeno (:) . . . . \textrhookrevepsilon (Ç) \textrhookschwa (Ä) . . . . \textrhoticity (~) . . . . . \textrightarrow (→) . . . \textringmacron (˚ a) . . . . ¯ \textroundcap (“ a) . . . . . \textrptr (¿) . . . . . . . . . \textrquill (⁆) . . . . . . . \textrtaild (ã) . . . . . . . \textrtaild (ð) . . . . . . . \textrtailhth (/) . . . . . \textrtaill (í) . . . . . . . . \textrtailn (ï) . . . . . . . \textrtailr (ó) . . . . . . . \textrtails (ù) . . . . . . . \textrtailt (ú) . . . . . . . \textrtailt (») . . . . . . . \textrtailz (ü) . . . . . . . \textrtblock ( ) . . . . . . \textrthook ($) . . . . . . . . \textrthooklong (´) . . . . \textsarab . . . . . . . . . . . \textsca (À) . . . . . . . . . . \textscaolig (q) . . . . . . \textscb (à) . . . . . . . . . . \textscdelta (r) . . . . . . \textsce (ď) . . . . . . . . . . \textscf (s) . . . . . . . . . . \textscg (å) . . . . . . . . . . \textsch (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . \textschwa (@) . . . . . . . . \textschwa (¡) . . . . . . . . \textsci (I) . . . . . . . . . . \textscj (ĺ) . . . . . . . . . . \textsck (t) . . . . . . . . . . \textscl (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . \textscm (w) . . . . . . . . . \textscn (ð) . . . . . . . . . . \textscoelig (Œ) . . . . . . \textscomega (ś) . . . . . . \textscp (x) . . . . . . . . . . \textscq (y) . . . . . . . . . . \textscr (ö) . . . . . . . . . . \textscripta (A) . . . . . . \textscriptg (g) . . . . . . \textscriptv (V) . . . . . . \textscriptv (¬) . . . . . . . \textscu (Ú) . . . . . . . . . . \textscy (Y) . . . . . . . . . . \textseagull (a ) . . . . . . \textsecstress (­) . . . . . \textsection (§) . . . . . . \textservicemark (℠) . . . \textsevenoldstyle () . \textSFi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \textSFii ( ) . . . . . . . . . \textSFiii ( ) . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9, .. .. .. .. ..

12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 41 15 15 12 57 12 14 12 12 11 11 11 11 14 11 97 11 12 87 11 12 11 12 11 12 11 11 11 14 11 11 12 11 12 11 11 11 12 12 11 11 11 11 14 11 11 15 11 20 19 20 97 97 97

\textSFiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFix ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFl ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFli ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFlii ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFliii ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFliv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFvi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFvii ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFviii ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFx ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxix ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxl ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxli ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlii ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxliii ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxliv ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlix ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlvi ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlvii ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxlviii ( ) . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxx ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxii ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxiii ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxvi ( ) . . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxvii ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxviii ( ) . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxxix ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxxvi ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxxvii ( ) . . . . . . . 97 \textSFxxxviii ( ) . . . . . . . 97 \textshade ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \textsixoldstyle () . . . . . 20 \textsoftsign (ž) . . . . . . . . 11 \textspleftarrow (˝) . . . . . 12 \textsterling (£) . . . . . 9, 18 \textstretchc (Â) . . . . . . . 11 \textstretchcvar ($) . . . . . 12 \textstyle . . . . . 105, 106, 113 \textsubacute (a) . . . . . . . 15 \textsubarch (a)› . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubbar (a)“ . . . . . . . . . 15 ¯ \textsubbridge (a ”) . . . . . . . 15 \textsubcircum (a) . . . . . . . 15 \textsubdot (a) ˆ. . . . . . . . . 15 ˙ \textsubdoublearrow (˙) . . 12 \textsubgrave (a) . . . . . . . 15 ‹ (a) . . . . 15 \textsublhalfring – \textsubplus (aff) . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubrhalfring (a» ) . . . . 15 \textsubrightarrow (¯) . . . 12 \textsubring (a) . . . . . . . . 15 \textsubsquare˚(a «) . . . . . . . 15 \textsubtilde (a) . . . . . . . 15 \textsubumlaut ˜(a) . . . . . . . 15 \textsubw (a —) . . ¨. . . . . . . . . 16 \textsubwedge (a) . . . . . . . 16 ˇ

160

\textsuperimposetilde (a &) . 16 \textsuperscript . . . . . . . . 16 \textsurd (√) . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \textswab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \textsyllabic (a) . . . . . . . 16 \texttctclig (tC)" . . . . . . . . 11 \textteshlig (Ù) . . . . . . . . 11 \textteshlig (œ) . . . . . . . . 14 \texttheta (T) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textthing (N) . . . . . . . . . . 91 \textthorn (þ) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textthornvari (P) . . . . . . . 12 \textthornvarii (Q) . . . . . . 12 \textthornvariii (R) . . . . . 12 \textthornvariv (S) . . . . . . 12 \textthreeoldstyle () . . . 20 \textthreequarters (¾) 67, 116 \textthreequartersemdash () . . . . . . . . . 20 \textthreesuperior (³) 67, 116 \texttildedot (˜ a) . . . . . . . 16 ˙ \texttildelow (~) . . . 20, 115 \texttimes (×) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \texttoneletterstem (£) . . . 11 \texttoptiebar (> a) . . . . . . . 16 \texttrademark (™) . 9, 19, 117 \texttslig (ţ) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturna (5) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturncelig (ŕ) . . . . . . 11 \textturnglotstop (E) . . . . 12 \textturnh (4) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnk (ľ) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnlonglegr (Õ) . . . . 11 \textturnm (W) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnmrleg (î) . . . . . . 11 \textturnr (ô) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnrrtail (õ) . . . . . . 11 \textturnsck (u) . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnscripta (6) . . . . . 11 \textturnscu ({) . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnt (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnthree (C) . . . . . . . 12 \textturntwo (A) . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnv (2) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnw (û) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textturny (L) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texttwelveudash () . . . . . 20 \texttwooldstyle . . . . . . . . 20 \texttwooldstyle () . . . . . 20 \texttwosuperior (²) . 67, 116 \textuncrfemale (8) . . . . . . 12 \textunderscore ( ) . . . . . . . 9 \textuparrow (↑) . . . . . . . . 41 \textupblock ( ) . . . . . . . . 97 \textupfullarrow (˘) . . . . . 12 \textupsilon (U) . . . . . . . . 11 \textupstep (Ţ) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textvbaraccent (IJ a) . . . . . . 16 \textvbaraccent (a ¿) . . . . . . 17 \textvertline (Š) . . . . . . . . 12 \textvibyi (ğ) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textvibyy (ů) . . . . . . . . . . 12


\textvisiblespace ( ) . . . . . 9 \textwon (â&#x201A;Š) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \textwynn (Ă&#x;) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textxswdown (U) . . . . . . . . 91 \textxswup (T) . . . . . . . . . 91 \textyen (ÂĽ) . . . . . . . 18, 116 \textyogh (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textyogh (Âś) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textzerooldstyle (ď&#x153;°) . . . . 20 \TH (Ă&#x17E;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 116 \th (Ăž) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 116 Th` anh, H` an Th´ Ë&#x2020;e . . . . . . . . 107 \therefore (6) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \therefore (â&#x2C6;´) . . . . . . . 30, 64 \therefore (â&#x2C6;´) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \Thermo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Theta (Î&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \theta (θ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \thetaup (θ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \thething (N) . . . . . . . . . . 91 \thickapprox (â&#x2030;&#x2C6;) . . . . . . . . 30 \thicksim (â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \thickvert (~) . . . . . . . . . . 55 thin space . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \ThinFog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \thinstar (â&#x2039;&#x2020;) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \third (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 thirty-second note . see musical symbols \Thorn (Ă&#x17E;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \thorn (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \thorn (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \thorn (Ăž) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 thousandths . . . . . . . . . . . see \textperthousand â&#x2C6;ź \threesim (â&#x2C6;ź â&#x2C6;ź) . . . . . . . . . 104 tick . . . . . . . . . see check marks tilde 9, 11, 13, 15â&#x20AC;&#x201C;16, 18, 20, 57, 59, 61, 107, 115 extensible . . . . . . . 59, 61 vertically centered . . . 115 \tilde (Ë&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . 57, 107 \tildel (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 time of day . . . . . . . . . . 91, 92 \timelimit (T) . . . . . . . . . 93 \times (Ă&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \times (Ă&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Times Roman (font) . . 18, 102 timing (package) . . . . . . . . . 70 tipa (package) 11, 12, 14â&#x20AC;&#x201C;17, 103, 119, 120 tipx (package) . . . . 12, 119, 120 \tndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \tnststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \tntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \tnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \to . . . . . . . . see \rightarrow \ToBottom (½) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \top (>) . . . . . . . . . 22, 51, 105 \top (â&#x160;ş) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52



\topbot (â&#x160;Ľ >) . . . . . . . . 105, 107 \topdoteq () . . . . . . . . . . 32 torus (T) . see alphabets, math \ToTop (Âź) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 trademark . see \texttrademark \TransformHoriz ( ) . . . . 36 transforms . . . . . . . . . . 36, 63



\TransformVert ( ) . . . . . . 36 transliteration semitic . . . . . . . . . . 14, 17 transliteration symbols . . . . 14 transpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 transversal intersection . . . see \pitchfork trema (¨ a) . . . . . . . see accents trfsigns (package) 36, 52, 63, 119 \triangle (4) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \triangle (â&#x2013;ł) . . . . . . . . . . 40 triangle relations . . . . . . 39, 40 \TriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \TriangleDown ( vs. ) . 101 \TriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . 80 \triangledown (O) . . . . . . . 66 \triangledown (â&#x2013;˝) . . . . . . . 40 \triangleeq (â&#x2030;&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . 40 \TriangleLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \triangleleft (Â&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . 40 \triangleleft (/) . . . . . . . 22 \triangleleft (â&#x2014; ) . . . . . . . 40 \trianglelefteq (Â&#x153;) . . . . . 40 \trianglelefteq (E) . . . . . 39 \trianglelefteq (â&#x160;´) . . . 39, 40 \trianglelefteqslant (P) . 40 \triangleq (,) . . . . . . 21, 39 \triangleq (â&#x2030;&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . . 40 \TriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . 79 \triangleright (Â&#x2122;) . . . . . . 40 \triangleright (.) . . . . . . . 22 \triangleright (â&#x2013;ˇ) . . . . . . 40 \trianglerighteq (Â?) . . . . 40 \trianglerighteq (D) . . . . 39 \trianglerighteq (â&#x160;ľ) . . 39, 40 \trianglerighteqslant (Q) 40 triangles . . . . 66, 73, 79â&#x20AC;&#x201C;80, 94 \TriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 79 \TriangleUp ( vs. ) . . . 101 \TriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \triple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \triplefrown () . . . . . . . . 48 \triplesim (â&#x2030;&#x2039;) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \triplesmile () . . . . . . . . 48 trsym (package) . . . 36, 119, 120 \tsbm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

3

o 3 o 2

4

1

n 1 n

\tsdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \tsmb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \tsmm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \tsststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \Tsteel (Ĺ&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \tststile (

)

\tsttstile (

. . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 35

161

\ttdtstile (

) . . . . . . . . 35

\TTsteel (ĹĄ) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \ttststile ( \tttstile (

) . . . . . . . . . 35 )

\ttttstile (

. . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 35

TUGboat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \Tumbler (Â?) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 turnstile (package) . 35, 119, 120 \TwelweStar ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 twiddle . . . . . . . . . . . see tilde \twoheaddownarrow (â&#x2020;Ą) . . . . 43 \twoheadleftarrow () . . . 41 \twoheadleftarrow (â&#x2020;&#x17E;) . . . 44 \twoheadnearrow () . . . . . 44 \twoheadnwarrow () . . . . . 44 \twoheadrightarrow () . . 41 \twoheadrightarrow (â&#x2020; ) . . 44 \twoheadsearrow () . . . . . 44 \twoheadswarrow () . . . . . 44 \twoheaduparrow (â&#x2020;&#x;) . . . . . . 44 \twonotes () . . . . . . . . . . . 88 txfonts (package) . . . . . . 21â&#x20AC;&#x201C;23, 27, 30, 31, 36â&#x20AC;&#x201C;38, 41, 42, 48, 50â&#x20AC;&#x201C;52, 65, 66, 68, 100, 102, 115, 119, 120 type1cm (package) . . . . . . . 100 Type 1 (font) . . . . . . . . . . 112

J

U \U (a) . . . . . . . . . . \U (a ÂźË&#x2DC;) . . . . . . . . . . \u (Ë&#x2DC; a) . . . . . . . . . . \UArrow ( â&#x2020;&#x2018; ) . . . \UB (<) . . . . . . . . . \ubar (u) . . . . . . . \ubarbbrevis (Îľ) \ubarbrevis (δ) . . \ubarsbrevis (Ď&#x2020;) \ubrevislonga (Îş) ubulb.fd (file) . . . ucs (package) . . . . . \udesc (u) . . . . . . \udot () . . . . . . . . \udotdot () . . . . . \udots (â&#x2039;°) . . . . . . \udtimes (]) . . . . \UHORN (ĆŻ) . . . . . . \uhorn (Ć°) . . . . . . \ulcorner (x) . . . . \ulcorner (p) . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 17 . . . . 14 . . . . 14 . . . . 72 . . . . 89 . . . . 13 . . . . 95 . . . . 95 . . . . 95 . . . . 95 111, 112 117, 118 . . . . 13 . . . . 23 . 24, 64 . . . . 64 . . . . 24 . . . . 10 . . . . 10 . . . . 53 . . . . 53

\ulcorner (â&#x152;&#x153;) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \ullcorner (6) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \ulrcorner (;) . . . . . . . . . . 55 ulsy (package) . 24, 48, 103, 119 \Umd (g a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 umlaut (¨ a) . . . . . . see accents


unary operators . . . . \unclear (k) . . . . . \underaccent . . . . . \underarc (a ) ..... ^ \underarch (a ) . . . . \underbrace (loomoon)

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. 21 . 93 107 . 17 . 16 . 60

\underbrace ( ) . . . . . . . . . 60 ® \underbrace (|{z}) . . . . . . . 60

\underbrace (|{z}) . . . . . . . 59 \underbracket ( )

. . . . . . . 60

\underbracket ( )

. . . 108, 109

\underdots (r) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \undergroup (looo n) . . . . . . . 60 \undergroup ( ) . . . . . . . . 60 ´¶ \underleftarrow (← −) . . . . . 59 \underleftharp (() . . . . . . . 47 \underleftharpdown ()) . . . 47 \underleftrightarrow (← →) 59 underline . . . . . . . 9, 21, 59, 61 \underline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 59 \underlinesegment ( ) . . . . 60 z x \underparenthesis (|}) 108, 109

\underrightarrow (− →) . . . . 59 \underrightharp (*) . . . . . . 47 \underrightharpdown (+) . . 47 \underring (y) . . . . . . . . . . 18 underscore . . . . . see underline underscore (package) . . . . . . . 9 \underset . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 undertilde (package) 61, 119, 120 \undertilde (|) . . . . . . . . . 18 \underwedge (}) . . . . . . . . . 18 Unicode . . . . . . 8, 97, 117–118 union . . . . . . . . . . . . see \cup unit disk (D) . . . see alphabets, math \unitedpawns (u) . . . . . . . . 93 units (package) . . . . . . . . . . 67 unity (1) . . see alphabets, math universa (package) . 80, 90, 119, 120 universal (package) 75, 77, 80, 90, 119, 120 \unlhd (E) . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23 \unlhd (⊴) . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \unrhd (D) . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23 \unrhd (⊵) . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \upalpha (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \UParrow (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Uparrow (⇑) . . . . . . . . . 41, 54 \Uparrow (⇑) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \uparrow (↑) . . . . . . 41, 54, 100 \uparrow (↑) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \uparrowtail (!) . . . . . . . . 44 \upbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \upbeta (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upbracketfill . . . . . . . . 109 \upchi (χ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

\Updelta (∆) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \updelta (δ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Updownarrow (m) . . . . . 41, 54 \Updownarrow (⇕) . . . . . . . . 44 \updownarrow (l) . . . . . 41, 54 \updownarrow (↕) . . . . . . . . 44 \updownarrows (Ö) . . . . . . . 42 \updownarrows (™) . . . . . . . 44 \updownharpoonleftright (Q) 46 \updownharpoonrightleft (U) 46 \updownharpoons (ê) . . . . . . 43 \updownharpoons (⥮) . . . . . . 46 \Updownline (∥) . . . . . . . . . 33 \updownline (∣) . . . . . . . . . 33 \upepsilon (ε) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upeta (η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upfilledspoon (q) . . . . . . . 47 \upfootline (y) . . . . . . . . . 33 \upfree () . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Upgamma (Γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upgamma (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 upgreek (package) . 51, 119, 120 \upharpoonccw (↿) . . . . . . . . 46 \upharpooncw (↾) . . . . . . . . 46 \upharpoonleft (ä) . . . . . . . 43 \upharpoonleft () . . . . . . . 41 \upharpoonright (æ) . . . . . . 43 \upharpoonright () . . . . . . 41 \upiota (ι) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upkappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Uplambda (Λ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \uplambda (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \uplett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \uplsquigarrow (¡) . . . . . . . 44 \uplus (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \uplus (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \uplus (⊎) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \upmapsto (↥) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \upModels (ñ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \upmodels (á) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \upmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upnu (ν) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Upomega (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upomega (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upp (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \upparenthfill . . . . . . . . 109 \Upphi (Φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upphi (φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Uppi (Π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \uppi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \uppitchfork (⋔) . . . . . . . . 47 \uppropto () . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Uppsi (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \uppsi (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 upquote (package) . . . . . . . 115 \uprho (ρ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 upright Greek letters . . . 50, 51 \uprsquigarrow (©) . . . . . . . 44 upside-down symbols . . . . . 114 upside-down symbols 11–13, 17, 103 \Upsigma (Σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \upsigma (σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

162

\Upsilon (Υ) . . . . \upsilon (υ) . . . . . \upsilonup (υ) . . . \upslice (À) . . . . \upspoon (⫯) . . . . . \upt (l) . . . . . . . . \uptau (τ) . . . . . . . \uptherefore (∴) . \Uptheta (Θ) . . . . \uptheta (θ) . . . . . \uptodownarrow (þ) \upuparrows (Ò) . . \upuparrows () . \upuparrows (⇈) . . \upupharpoons (Ú) \Upupsilon (Υ) . . . \upupsilon (υ) . . . \upvarepsilon (ε) . \upvarphi (ϕ) . . . . \upvarpi (ϖ) . . . . \upvarrho (ρ) . . . . \upvarsigma (σ) . . \upvartheta (ϑ) . . \upVdash (⍊) . . . . \upvdash (⊥) . . . . . \Upxi (Ξ) . . . . . . . \upxi (ξ) . . . . . . . \upY ()) . . . . . . . . \upzeta (ζ) . . . . . . \Uranus (G) . . . . . \Uranus (Ç) . . . . . . \uranus (Z) . . . . . . \urcorner (y) . . . . \urcorner (q) . . . .

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50 50 50 25 47 18 51 64 51 51 42 42 41 44 43 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 33 33 51 51 24 51 71 71 71 53 53

\urcorner (⌝) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 url (package) . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \US (␟) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \usepackage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ushort (package) . . 61, 119, 121 \ushort ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \ushortdw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \ushortw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \ut (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ˜ . . . . . . . . . . . . 117, 118 UTF-8 utf8x (inputenc package option) . . . . . . . . . 117 \utilde ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 e \utimes (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \utimes ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Utopia (font) . . . . . . . . . 18, 30 V \v (ˇ a) . . . . . . . . . \vara (a) . . . . . . \varangle () . . \varbigcirc (,) \VarClock ( ) . . \varclub (♧) . . . \varclubsuit (p) \varcoppa (ϙ) . . . \varcurlyvee ()

›

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14 13 66 22 91 67 66 87 22


\varcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . 22 \vardiamond (â&#x2122;Ś) . . . . . . . . . 67 \vardiamondsuit (q) . . . . . . 66 \varEarth (J) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \varepsilon (Îľ) . . . . . . . . . 50 \varepsilonup (Îľ) . . . . . . . . 50 \VarFlag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 91 varg (txfonts/pxfonts package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \varg (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \varg (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \vargeq (Š) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \varhash (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \varheart (â&#x2122;Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \varheartsuit (r) . . . . . . . 66 \varhexagon (9) . . . . . . . . . 78 \varhexstar (B) . . . . . . . . . 77 \vari (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 variable-sized symbols . . 25â&#x20AC;&#x201C;30, 100, 102 \VarIceMountain ( ) . . . . . 91 \varinjlim (lim) . . . . . . . . . 49 r â&#x2C6;&#x2019;â&#x2020;&#x2019; \varint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \various (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \varkappa (Îş) . . . . . . . . . . 50 \varleq (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \varliminf (lim) . . . . . . . . . 49 \varlimsup (lim) . . . . . . . . . 49 \varmathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \VarMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . 91 \varnothing (â&#x2C6;&#x2026;) . . . . 21, 65, 66 \varnothing (â&#x2C6;&#x2026;) . . . . . . . . . 66 \varnotin (T) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \varnotowner (U) . . . . . . . . 52 \varoast () . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varobar () . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varobslash () . . . . . . . . . 22 \varocircle () . . . . . . . . . 22 \varodot () . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varogreaterthan (5) F. . . . 22 \varoiiintclockwise ( ) . 27 N \varoiiintctrclockwise ( ) . . . . .!. . . . 28 \varoiint ( ) . . . . B . . . . . . 28 \varoiintclockwise ( ) . . 28 J \varoiintctrclockwise ( ) 28 u \varoint ( ) . . . . .- . . . . . . 26 \varointclockwise ( ) . . . . 28 ff \varointclockwise ( ) +. . . . 28 \varointctrclockwise ( ) . 28 fl \varointctrclockwise ( ) . . 28 \varolessthan (4) . . . . . . . 22 \varomega () . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \varominus () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varopeno (C) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \varoplus () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varoslash () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varotimes () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varovee (6) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varowedge (7) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \varparallel (â&#x2C6;Ľ) . . . . . . . . 31







\varparallelinv ( ) . \varpartialdiff (Ă&#x2021;) . \varphi (Ď&#x2022;) . . . . . . . \varphiup (Ď&#x2022;) . . . . . . \varpi ($) . . . . . . . . \varpi ($) . . . . . . . . \varpiup ($) . . . . . .  \varprod ( ) . . . . . . \varprojlim (lim) . . . â&#x2020;?â&#x2C6;&#x2019; \varpropto (â&#x2C6;?) . . . . \varpropto (â&#x2C6;?) . . . . . \varQ ( ) . . . . . . . . . \varrho (%) . . . . . . . . \varrho (%) . . . . . . . . \varrhoup (%) . . . . . . \varsigma (Ď&#x201A;) . . . . . . \varsigmaup (Ď&#x201A;) . . . . \varspade (â&#x2122;¤) . . . . . \varspadesuit (s) . . \varsqsubsetneq (Â&#x160;) \varsqsubsetneqq (Â&#x2019;) \varsqsupsetneq (Â&#x2039;) \varsqsupsetneqq (Â&#x201C;) \varstar () . . . . . . . \varstigma (Ď&#x203A;) . . . . . \varsubsetneq (Â&#x160;) . . \varsubsetneq ( ) . . \varsubsetneq (â&#x160;&#x160;) . . \varsubsetneqq (Â&#x2019;) . \varsubsetneqq (&) . \varsubsetneqq (âŤ&#x2039;) . . \VarSummit ( ) . . . . \varsupsetneq (Â&#x2039;) . . \varsupsetneq (!) . . \varsupsetneq (â&#x160;&#x2039;) . . \varsupsetneqq (Â&#x201C;) . \varsupsetneqq (') . \varsupsetneqq (âŤ&#x152;) . .

Â&#x192;



Â&#x201D;

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\VarTaschenuhr ( ) . . \vartheta (Ď&#x2018;) . . . . . . . \varthetaup (Ď&#x2018;) . . . . . \vartimes (") . . . . . . . \vartriangle (M) . . . . \vartriangle (â&#x2013;ł) . . . . \vartriangleleft (Â&#x2DC;) \vartriangleleft (C) \vartriangleleft (â&#x160;˛) . \vartriangleright (Â&#x2122;) \vartriangleright (B) \vartriangleright (â&#x160;ł) \varv (3) . . . . . . . . . . \varvarpi (Ă&#x2C6;) . . . . . . \varvarrho (Ă&#x2020;) . . . . . . \varw (4) . . . . . . . . . . \vary (2) . . . . . . . . . . \VBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \vbipropto (Â&#x160;) . . . . . . \vcentcolon (:) . . . . . . \vcenter . . . . . . . . . . \vcrossing (Â&#x2019;) . . . . . . \VDash (() . . . . . . . . .



163

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31 53 50 50 50 51 50 28 49 30 33 90 50 51 50 50 50 67 66 37 37 37 37 23 87 37 36 37 37 36 37 91 37 36 37 37 36 37

\VDash (â&#x160;Ť) . . . . . . . \Vdash (,) . . . . . . . \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . \Vdash (â&#x160;Š) . . . . . . . \vDash (() . . . . . . . \vDash () . . . . . . . \vDash (â&#x160;§) . . . . . . . \vdash (`) . . . . . . . \vdash (â&#x160;˘) . . . . . . . \vdotdot (â&#x2C6;ś) . . . . . . . \vdots (..) . . . . . . . . \vdots (â&#x2039;Ž) . . . . . . . . \vec (â&#x192;&#x2014;) . . . . . . . . . \vec (~) . . . . . . . . . \Vectorarrow (p) . . . \Vectorarrowhigh (P) \vee (_) . . . . . . . . . \vee (â&#x2C6;¨) . . . . . . . . . \vee (â&#x2C6;¨) . . . . . . . . . \veebar (Y) . . . . . . \veebar (Y) . . . . . . \veedot (/) . . . . . . \veedoublebar ([) . \Venus (B) . . . . . . . \Venus (Ă&#x192;) . . . . . . . \venus (â&#x2122;&#x20AC;) . . . . . . . \vernal () . . . . . . versicle Â&#x201C;( ) . . . . . . .

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33 32 30 33 32 30 33 30 33 64

63 64 58 57 67 67 23 22 24 23 22 24 23 71 71 71 71 118

Â&#x201C;

\VERT (Â&#x201C; Â&#x201C;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Vert (k) . . . . . \vert (|) . . . . . . \vertbowtie (â§&#x2013;) \vertdiv () . . . \VHF (@) . . . . . . \Vier (Ë&#x2021; â&#x20AC;&#x153; ) . . . . . vietnam (package)

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54, 56 54, 56 . . 24 . . 24 . . 70 . . 89 . 119

\Village ( ) . . . . . . . . 91 \vin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 vinculum . . . . . . see \overline \ViPa (> ) . . . . \Virgo (ĂĽ) . . . \virgo (`) . . \VM (>) . . . . . . vntex (package) \vod (v) . . . . . Ë&#x161; \voicedh (h) . . \vppm ( Ë&#x2122; ) . . . . \vpppm ÂŻ( Ë&#x2122; ) . . . \vrule ÂŻ. . . . . . \VT (â?&#x2039;) . . . . . . \vv ( #Âť) . . . . . \VvDash () . . \Vvdash (,) . . \Vvdash () . . \Vvdash (â&#x160;Ş) . . \vvvert (~) . .

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89 71 71 89 14 13 13 95 95 97 72 61 31 32 30 33 55

W \WashCotton (â&#x20AC;°) . . . . . . . . 90 \WashSynthetics (Ĺ ) . . . . 90


\WashWool (‹) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \wasylozenge (◊) . . . . . . . . 88 \wasypropto () . . . . . . . . . 31 wasysym (package) . . 13, 18, 20, 22, 23, 26, 30, 31, 36–38, 41, 64–66, 70, 71, 73, 77, 78, 88, 101, 119, 120 \wasytherefore (∴) . . . . . . 64 wavy-line delimiters . . . . 55, 56 \wbetter (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \wdecisive (h) . . . . . . . . . 93 \weakpt (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \WeakRain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 91 \WeakRainCloud ( ) . . . . . . 91 weather symbols . . . . . . . . . 91





š

\Wecker ( ) . . . . . . \wedge (^) . . . . . . . . \wedge (∧) . . . . . . . . \wedge (∧) . . . . . . . . \wedgedot (.) . . . . . . Weierstrass ℘ function \wfermion ( ) . . . . . . \Wheelchair (w) . . . . \whfermion ( ) . . . . \whistle (aŢ ) . . . . . . .

d m

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A) \WhiteBishopOnWhite (B) \WhiteEmptySquare (0) . \WhiteKingOnBlack (J) . \WhiteKingOnWhite (K) . \WhiteKnightOnBlack (M) \WhiteKnightOnWhite (N) \WhitePawnOnBlack (O) . \WhitePawnOnWhite (P) . \WhiteQueenOnBlack (L) \WhiteQueenOnWhite (Q) \WhiteRookOnBlack (S) . \WhiteRookOnWhite (R) . \WhiteBishopOnBlack (

94 94 94 94 94

\wideparen ( ”) \wideparen (Ì) \wideparen (Û) u) . \widering (˚ ˚ \widering ( ”) . \widering (˚ Û) .

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60 60 59 60 60

. . . . . . . . . . 59 \widetilde (̃) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widetilde (e) . . . . . . . 59, 61 \widetriangle (Ê) . . . . . . . 59 \wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Windows® . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 \with (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \with (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \withattack (A) . . . . . . . . . 93 \withidea (E) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \withinit (C) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \without (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \wn (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 woman . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 90 \Womanface (þ) . . . . . . . . . 90 won . . . . . . . . . . see \textwon world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \wp (℘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \wp (℘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \wr (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \wr (≀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \wreath (≀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 wreath product . . . . . . see \wr \Writinghand (b) . . . . . . . . 90 wsuipa (package) 13, 16, 18, 101, 103, 107, 119, 120 \wupperhand (c) . . . . . . . . . 93

94

X \x (X) . . . . . . . \x (˙˙) . . . . . . . ˙˙ (4) . . . . \XBox Xdvi . . . . . . . . XELATEX . . . . . xfrac (package)

94

\xhookleftarrow (← −-) . . . . . 62

94 94

94 94

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\xhookrightarrow (,− →) \Xi (Ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \xi (ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \xiup (ξ) . . . . . . . . . . =) \xLeftarrow (⇐

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62 50 50 50

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94

\xleftarrow (← −) . . . . . . . . 61

94 \whitestone . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 whole note see musical symbols Wick contractions . . . . . . . 109 \widearc (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widearrow (t) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widebar (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widecheck (q) . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widehat (̂) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \widehat (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 \wideOarc (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \wideparen (u) . . . . . . . . . . 60

\xleftharpoondown () −) . . . 62 \xleftharpoonup (( −) . . . . . 62 \xLeftrightarrow (⇐ ⇒)

. . . 62

\xLeftrightarrow (⇐ ⇒)

. . . 62

\xleftrightarrow (← →)

. . . 62

\xleftrightarrow (← →)

. . . 62

\xLongleftarrow (⇐= =) . . . . 62 −) . . . . 62 \xlongleftarrow (←− \xLongleftrightarrow (⇐= =⇒) . . . . . . . . . 62 \xlongleftrightarrow (←− −→) . . . . . . . . . 62 \xLongrightarrow (= =⇒) . . . 62 \xlongrightarrow (− −→) . . . 62 \xmapsto (7−→)

. . . . . . . . . . 62

\xmapsto (7−→) . . . . . . . . . . 63 XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 \xRightarrow (= ⇒) . . . . . . . . 62 \xrightarrow (− →) . . . . . . . 61 +) . . 62 \xrightharpoondown (− \xrightharpoonup (− *) . . . . 62 * \xrightleftharpoons (− ) −) . 62 − * \xrightleftharpoons () −) . 62 Xs . . . . . . . . . . . \XSolid ( ) . . . . \XSolidBold ( ) \XSolidBrush ( ) \xswordsdown (U) \xswordsup (T) .

#

$ %

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . .

77, .. .. .. .. ..

\xtwoheadleftarrow (−−−)

90 77 77 77 91 91 63

\xtwoheadrightarrow (−−−) 63 XY-pic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Y \Ydown () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 yen . . . . . . . . . . . see \textyen yfonts (package) 68, 69, 119, 120 yhmath (package) 58, 59, 61, 64, 107, 119 \Yinyang (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Yleft () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \yogh (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \yogh (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Yright () . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Yu, Billy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 \Yup () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Z Zapf Chancery (font) Zapf Dingbats (font) \Zborder ( ) . . . . . \zeta (ζ) . . . . . . . . \zetaup (ζ) . . . . . . . \Zodiac . . . . . . . . . zodiacal symbols . . .

Z

\Ztransf (

....

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

... 75, ... ... ... ... ...

68 77 80 50 50 71 71

) . . . . . . . . . 36

....

( −) . 62 \xleftrightharpoons (− +

\ztransf ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 \zugzwang (D) . . . . . . . . . . 93

\xlongequal (===) . . . . . . . . 63

\Zwdr (ˇ “* ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

\xlongequal (===) . . . . . . . . 62

\ZwPa ( A ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

164

The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List  

All LaTeX symbols and how to find them

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