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ARCHITECTURAL THESIS

BAMBOOVILLE

Cultural Center and Tourist Retreat in Aizawl, Mizoram

DIVYA CHAND A/2441/2012 5th B, B. Arch SPA, New Delhi 1


DECLARATION

The thesis titled BAMBOOVILLE: Cultural Center and Tourist Retreat in Aizawl, Mizoram has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the Bachelors Program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi – 110002, India under the supervision of Ar. Shiriesh Malpani & Prof. Manoj Mathur (Design Guides) and Prof. Jaya Kumar (Research Guide). I hereby submit 2 hard copies of the report for internal and external evaluation respectively. The undersigned hereby declares that this is his/her original work and has not been plagiarized in part or full from any source. Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other University.

DIVYA CHAND A/2441/2012 Fifth Year B.Arch. Section-B School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi

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CERTIFICATE

This thesis was carried out during the January – May 2017 semester in the Department of Architecture under our guidance. Thereafter, based on the declaration dated 2nd June 2017 by the candidate, the work was placed in front of the Juries held in May 2017. On successful completion of the Jury process and completion of the Report in all respects including the last chapter by the Candidate we provisionally accept the Thesis Report and forward the same to the Studio Director.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to begin by thanking my thesis mentors Shiriesh Malpani Sir and Manoj Mathur Sir, whose invaluable guidance and encouragement helped me push through this project. I would also like to express gratitude to my Research Guide and Studio Coordinator, Jaya Kumar Ma’am whose inputs at all stages were incredibly valuable. I am highly indebted to all members of the Lalramzauva family for being extremely gracious and genial hosts in Aizawl, for introducing me to the wonderful city and its culture and for trusting me with this project. I am incredibly grateful to all the kind and welcoming people whom I encountered in Mizoram. This project is dedicated to them. I would especially like to thanks Shri. Zoramthanga (Ex-Chief Minister of Mizoram and President of the Mizo National Front) for taking out his valuable time to speak to me at such short notice and for helping me understand the intricacies of Bamboo Development in the state. I would also like to thank Shri. Zothan Khuma, Executive Director of Bamboo Development Agency of Mizoram for speaking with me. I also thank the team at Zonun Mat Ply Pvt. Ltd. for showing me around their establishment and introducing me to the process behind manufacturing this ingenious product. I would also like to express my gratitude to Ar. Mayank Mishra and Ar. Sanjay Prakash from the Studio for Habitat Futures (SHiFt) in Delhi for taking out time to explain to me their new Bamboo Research and Technology Center project and for the invaluable notes on bamboo architecture and its practice in India. I am thankful to Mr. Vaibhav Kaley at Wonder Grass Initiative Pvt. Ltd. at Nagpur for teaching me to work and design with Bamboo in a hands-on, comprehensive way throughout my internship. I am exceedingly thankful to all the faculty members and friends I’ve made at SPA for everything they’ve taught me and for the support they’ve provided. I thank my family for being their amazing selves through the whole process and for taking care of me. DIVYA CHAND

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“We owe it to the fields that our houses will not be the inferiors of the virgin land they have replaced. We owe it to the worms and the trees that the buildings we cover them with will stand as promises of the highest and most intelligent kinds of happiness.� (Alain de Botton,The Architecture of Happiness)

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SYNOPSIS

The chief aim of this topic as a research and design thesis project is to explore and experiment with Bamboo as a viable (primary) building material for contemporary architecture in India. There is a strong need to bring bamboo based building systems to the mainstream of the construction industry. A sufficiently large scale, iconic architectural project can act as an exemplar in doing so. The project is based close to the city of Aizawl, in the far north eastern state of Mizoram. The research begins with exploring and understanding the society and its needs in Mizoram. The Bamboo building practices in the state’s traditional past and in the present are looked at. Studies and analysis of contemporary bamboo architecture across the world is carried out while keeping in mind the scope for the industry here. Alongside, the tourism status and potential of this breathtakingly beautiful land is also explored and the role this project can play in benefiting and benefiting from it are looked into. The research work includes site visits, interviews and related secondary research. With a vision to create a Celebration of Mizoram, a unique program is arrived at. A range of appropriate and locally viable building technologies are suggested and applied. Learnings from the research, site and technological studies combine to help arrive at a design proposal for a Cultural Center and Tourist Retreat. It hopes to act as a destination for tourists and a pride for locals. Where the academic exercise ends, the interim product hopes to initiate further ideation, discussion and hopefully action for bamboo architecture, not just in Mizoram, but other places in India as well, where Bamboo is an abundant natural resource.

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साराांश इस विषय का मुख्य उद्दे श्य शोध और वडजाइन थीवसस पररयोजना के रूप में बाांस को भारत में समकालीन िास्तुकला के वलए एक व्यिहायय (प्राथवमक) वनमायण सामग्री के रूप में तलाश और प्रयोग करना है। वनमायण उद्योग की मुख्यधारा के वलए बाांस आधाररत वबल्डां ग वसस्टम लाने की एक मजबूत आिश्यकता है। एक पयाय प्त ब बे े पैमाने पर, प्रवतवित िास्तुकला पररयोजना ऐसा करने में एक उदाहरण के रूप में कायय कर सकती है। यह पररयोजना उत्तर पूिय वमजोरम राज्य में ऐजािल शहर के करीब ल्थथत है। वमजोरम में समाज और इसकी जरूरतोां को तलाशने और समझने के साथ शोध शुरू होता है। राज्य के पारां पररक अतीत में बाांस की इमारत प्रथा और ितयमान में उपयोग दे खा जाता है। उद्योग के दायरे को ध्यान में रखते हुए पूरे विश्व में समकालीन बाांस िास्तुकला का अध्ययन और विश्लेषण वकया जाता है। साथ ही, पययटन की ल्थथवत और इस लुभािनी सुांदर भूवम की सांभािना का भी पता लगाया गया है और इस पररयोजना को लाभ और इसमें लाभ लेने में भूवमका वनभाई जा सकती है। शोध कायय में साइट विवजट, साक्षात्कार और सांबांवधत माध्यवमक अनुसांधान शावमल हैं। वमजोरम की एक उत्सि बनाने के वलए एक दृवि के साथ, एक अनूठा काययक्रम तैयार वकया गया है। उवित और थथानीय रूप से व्यिहायय भिन वनमायण प्रौद्योवगवकयोां की एक श्रेणी का सुझाि वदया गया है और लागू वकया गया है। एक साांस्कृवतक केंद्र और पययटन ररटर ीट के वलए एक वडजाइन प्रस्ताि पर पहुांिने में मदद करने के वलए अनुसांधान, साइट और तकनीकी अध्ययन से सीखने के वलए गठबांधन। यह पययटकोां के वलए एक गांतव्य और थथानीय लोगोां के वलए एक गौरि के रूप में कायय करने की उम्मीद करता है। जहाां शैवक्षक अभ्यास समाप्त ब हो रहा है, अांतररम उत्पाद को उम्मीद है वक िह बाांस िास्तुकला के वलए आगे की वििारधारा, ििाय और उम्मीदिार की कारय िाई शुरू करे , न वक वसर्य वमजोरम में, बल्ि भारत के अन्य थथानोां में भी जहाां बाांस एक प्रिुर प्राकृवतक सांसाधन है।

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration 2 Certificate 3 Acknowledgments 4v Synopsis 6-7 Table of Contents 8-9 List of Figures 10 List of Maps 13

1. INTRODUCTION About Mizoram About Aizawl Desiderata Thesis Proposition Thesis Project Why Bamboo?

3. PROJECT PROFILE 15-29

2. RESEARCH 31-69 Areas of Research Traditional Tribal building practices of Mizoram and their current prevalence Present-day Bamboo Development in Mizoram Sustainable Tourism Model for Mizoram Contemporary Bamboo Construction practices around the World Large Span Structures using Bamboo Multi-story Structures using Bamboo Some Precedents: Green Village in Bali, Indonesia Green School in Bali, Indonesia Naman Retreat Resort Hotel, Vietnam Atali Ganga Resort, Rishikesh, India 8

Project Vision Program Development Area Program Reading of Areas

71-79

4. ABOUT THE SITE Introduction Location Climate Around the site Site Features Site Dimensions Site 3D Building Laws Photographs

81-89


5. TECHNOLOGY DRIVERS STRUCTURES 91-109 Species of Bamboo to be used Techniques Employed Glu-Lam Using Bundled Bamboo Poles Experimental Structures SERVICES Energy generation Water Supply Sanitation SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES SAFETY MEASURES

6. DESIGN DETERMINANTS SWOT Analysis 111-115 Design Directives Key Design parameters Relationship diagram of program components

7. DESIGN TRANSLATION Disposition of functions and technologies Site Planning Strategies

117-119

8. DESIGN OUTCOMES Drawings Views Model

121-141

Bibliography 142 Appendix Interview with Shri. Zoramthanga 144

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LIST OF FIGURES

Page No.

Content

Source

4

Site Flora

Author

16

Pic1 & Pic3

Author

16

Pic2

Getty Images

17

Bamboo Dance

Alamy stock photo

17

Tribal Village

Myzone Blog spot

17

Church group

The North East Today

18

Reiek Peak

Alok Chand

19

Walking in Bamboo Grass

Author

19

Bamboo crafts

Google Images

19

Airport

Author

20

Aizawl Photographs

Author

21

Waiting Shed

Author

22

Aizawl Photographs

Author

23

Aizawl Street

Author

23

Urban and rural Comparison

Ian Lockwood

24

Aizawl Photographs

Author

25

Mizo Tourism Logo

tourism.mizoram.gov.in

27

Bamboo

Flaticons.com

28

Site and Owners

Author

29

Bamboo

Flaticons.com

32

Pic 1 and 2

Author

32

Pic 3

clipart.com

32

Pic 4

ArchDaily

10


34

Mizo Village

Myzone Blogspot

35

Mizo houses painting

Myzone Blogspot

35

Reiek Heritage village photographs

Alok Chand

36

Zawlbuk photographs and sketches

Author

37

Pic 1, 2, 3

Google Images

37

Pic 4: Convention Centre

Author

38

Sketches

Author

39

Photographs

Author

40

Photographs

Author

41

Lookout tower

BDA pamphlet

41

BMPTC Houses

BMPTC publication

42

Zonun MAt Ply Photographs

Author

43

Images

Flaticons.com

44

Image

Flaticons.com

45

Pic1

Author

45

Pic2

Arch Daily

46, 48, 49

Sen Village Community Centre

Arch Daily

46, 48, 49

Conference hall at Naman Retreat

Arch Daily

46, 48, 49

India Pavilion Wold Expo 2010

SHiFt Studios

46, 48, 49

ZERI Pavilion - Expo Hannover

Zeri.org

50, 51, 53

Ecological Activity and Learning Centre

Design Boom

50, 51, 52, 53

Sharma Springs

Arch Daily, Ibuku

50, 51, 52, 53

Integer Bamboo House

InHabitat

50, 51, 52, 53

One With The Birds

Penda

54

Green Village

http://greenvillagebali.com

55-63

Green Village photographs and drawings

Arch Daily

64

Render Naman Retreat

Vo Tring Nghia Architects

65-67

Naman Retreat photographs and drawings

Arch Daily

68-69

Atali Ganga photographs and drawings

Arch Daily

75

Graphics

Author

82

Site Photo

Author

83

Climate Graphics

https://en.climate-data.org/location/24529/

87

Site 3D

Author 11


88, 89

Site Photographs

Author

93

Muli Bamboo

Guadua Bamboo + Author

94

Burma Bamboo

Guadua Bamboo

95

Technology details

Building Trust International

95

Slab details

Author

96

Plan and sectional view

Author

96

Glu Lam Timber

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

97

Tech drawings

Author

98

Facade Drawings

Author

99-102

Bundled bamboo tech

Building Trust international

103

Gallery Structure

Author

104

Sen Village community center

Arch Daily

104-105

Audi drawings

Author

106

Tech drawings

Author

107-109

Tech drawings

Class report

113

Icons

Flaticons.com

114

Sketches

Author

115

Relationship Diagram

Author

118

Site Drawings

Author

119

Site Drawings + views

Author

122-137

Design Drawings + views

Author

138-141

Model Photographs

Author

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LIST OF MAPS

Page No.

Content

Source

18

Mizoram in the North East States

Tribal Cultural Heritage in India Foundation

21

Aizawl District Map

mapsofindia.com

54

Location Green Village

MapStack

54

Green Village

http://greenvillagebali.com

55

Green Village MasterPlan

http://greenvillagebali.com

64

Location Naman Retreat

MapStack

68

Location Atali Ganga

MapStack

82

Location of Site wrt Aizawl

Google Maps

82

Land Use Map of Aizawl

NLUP Mizoram

84

Site Surroundings

Google Maps and Author

85

Site

Author

86

Site Plan

Author

13


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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

About Mizoram About Aizawl Desiderata Thesis Proposition Thesis Project Why Bamboo? 15


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ABOUT MIZORAM

INTRODUCTION

Mi-Zo-Ram, or the Land of the Highlanders is located in the far North-East corner of India. It is a land of great natural beauty and has an endless variety of landscape with rich flora and fauna. The cities of Mizoram are cocooned by the mighty mystic mountains and thick bamboo forests. Clusters of whispering pines contain quaint villages with sloping roads and houses on stilts.

HISTORY

CULTURE

PEOPLE

The culture of the Mizo tribes has undergone tremendous change since the arrival of Christianity in late 1890s. In modern Mizoram, much of the social life often revolves around the church. Small community establishments exist in urban centers that arrange various social events, sports event, musical concerts, comedy shows and people celebrate Christmas, Easter etc. replacing many of old tribal customs and practices. The traditional culture is retained in aspects of dress, language, dances and handicrafts. 17

The origin of the Mizos, like those of many other tribes in the northeastern India, is shrouded in mystery. Before the British Raj, the various Mizo clans lived in autonomous villages. Mizoram was previously part of Assam until 1972, when it was carved out as a Union Territory. It became the 23rd state of India, a step above Union Territory, on 20 February 1987.

Mizoram, with a population of 1,091,014, according to 2011 census, is amongst the least populous states in India. About 95% of current Mizoram population is of diverse tribal origins who settled in the state, mostly from southeast Asia. This is the highest concentration of tribal people among all states of India. The tribes converted from Animist religions to Christianity over the first half of 20th century. Today, Mizoram has a Christian majority (87%).

The tribes of Mizoram were previously believers of the Pathan (good spirit). The nomadic Chakmas practiced a curious mix of Hinduism, Buddhism and Animism. In the tribal villages, Chief was considered very important, the sense of community was strong and there was a complete lack of gender and class discrimination.


TERRAIN

Mizoram is a land of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hill ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with occasionally scattered plains. Mizoram’s terrain is, according to Geological Survey of India, an immature topography, and the physio-graphic expression consists of several almost North-South longitudinal valleys containing series of small and flat hummocks, mostly anticlinal, parallel to sub-parallel hill ranges and narrow adjoining synclinal valleys with series of topographic highs. Mizoram, lies in seismic zone V, according to the India Meteorological Department; as with other northeastern states of India, this means the state has the highest risk of earthquakes relative to other parts of India.

GEOGRAPHY

It is a landlocked state sharing borders with three states: Tripura, Assam, Manipur and also with the neighboring countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar. It is the fifth smallest state of India with 21,087 km2 of total area. The tropic of cancer runs nearly through the center of the state.

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LANDSCAPE

About 76% of the state is covered by forests, 8% is fallows land, 3% is barren and considered un-cultivable area, while cultivable and sown area constitutes the rest. Slash-and-burn or jhum cultivation, though discouraged, remains in practice in Mizoram and affects its topography. Around 57% of the geographical area of Mizoram is under Bamboo cover found at heights ranging from 400m – 1500m above mean sea level.

OPPORTUNITIES

Agriculture is no longer economically feasible for the maximum workforce in Mizoram and thereby people belonging from this sector tend to shift from it. People who came out of agricultural sector in search of employment in government offices or other non-governmental agencies could not be absorbed at once and so remained unemployed. For Mizoram, two of the ideal areas for investment where the state government or private entrepreneurs may have many advantages to take forward these sectors and also provide employment are:

Bamboo Sector

Tourism Sector

Bamboo is abundantly available here and is an ideal raw material for many industries like furniture, construction, handicrafts, food, hand-loom, agriculture and more.

The state is rich in its scenic natural beauty of valleys and hills with pleasant climate all year round. With proper development and marketing, tourism would flourish here. 19


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ABOUT AIZAWL

INTRODUCTION

CONNECTIVITY

Aizawl is the capital city of Mizoram. Its located north of the Tropic of Cancer in the northern part of Mizoram at a height of 3715 feet from the sea level, with the Tlawng river valley to its west and the Tuirial river valley to its east. Its strategic location, pleasant climate, hilly topography and enchanting landscape along with high concentration of govt. amenities and facilities has attracted many people from its nearby villages.

By Air: Aizawl is connected by air transport through Lengpui Airport which it is situated at an hours drive from the Aizawl city center. The airport provides connectivity to Kolkata, Guwahati and Imphal. Helicopter services are also available between cities within Mizoram. By Rail: Mizoram is connected by railroad up to Bairabi, there are plans to connect Bairabi with Sairang with broad gauge railway track, near Aizawl. Construction of a new railway station is underway near Aizawl which will connect it to Silchar. The government is now planning to start broad gauge railways within the state for better connectivity. By Road: Aizawl is connected by road with Silchar through National Highway 54, with Agartala through National Highway 40 and with Imphal through National Highway 150. Yellow-and-white taxis are widely available; Maruti cars are most widely used. Privately owned blue-and-white mini buses are on regular service as city buses. People within the city drive cars and two wheelers in abundance. Pedestrian traffic is a lot as connectivity is easier through stairs. Cycles are hardly used due to the high sloping roads and pathways.

POPULATION

As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Aizawl in 2011 is 293,416; with a sex ratio of 1029 females per 1000 males. Average literacy rate of Aizawl city is 98.80 percent of which male and female literacy was 99.30 and 98.31 percent. The population of Aizawl strongly reflects the different communities of the ethnic Mizo people. More than 90% of the local population is Christian. Hindu, Muslim and Buddhist people are also present in minority. There are a few immigrants who have come for construction jobs etc, from northern states as well. 21


CITY STRUCTURE

Aizawl is set high on the ridges of steep hills. Flanked on the north by the craggy peaks of Durtlang, the hill city overlooks the valley of the river Tlawng and ranges of blue hill beyond. The roads wind on the slopes and stairs cut through the buildings for pedestrians. It is a very densely built mass with few breather spaces in the city. It has a mild, sub-tropical climate due to its location and elevation.

Stairs cutting through the built in Aizawl as they connect parallel winding roads on different levels. 22


ARCHITECTURE

Most private buildings have similar vocabulary throughout Aizawl. Majority are on stilts and are RCC framed structures except a few old wooden buildings. There are no set backs from the streets and private recreational open spaces are rare within the city. The government buildings are like any other throughout India. Branded stores and foodchain restaurants have sprung up in the city now, and even they look exactly like they would anywhere else in the country. The various churches in the city add a unique character to the skyline.

There is a major disparity seen in rural and urban Mizoram. As the contrasting views of the above images illustrate, the use of natural and biodegradable resources in the rural construction systems has been completely given up by the contemporary urban practices. This has resulted in setting of similar aspirations for even the rural populace, who hope for having “pukka� concrete homes. This will only lead to pollution of the landscape in many ways. There is a need to initiate development in a sustainable direction, employing traditional ingenuity while meeting the rising aspirations of the people. 23


MAJOR PUBLIC SPACES

Bara Bazar is the main shopping center of Aizawl in Dawrpui Veng locality. The steep Zion Street is lined with stalls selling garments. The main bazar is where the people are best seen in their traditional costumes selling produce from the farms as well as imports from China brought through Myanmar border area. The Millennium Centre in this locality is a popular shopping Mall and one of the major public spaces. The street-scapes are frequently covered in Graffiti art and Christian decorations. These active commercial areas also have some hotels and tourist lodges. The Mizoram State Museum contains important relics and gives a good insight into Mizo traditions, culture and history. It lies in a dilapidated state right now and has very few visitors. The city has a lot of churches with their own community centers and open grounds. This is where the locals celebrate festivals and arrange various social events, sports events, musical concerts, comedy shows etc. The flora, fauna and landscape that surrounds the city center of Aizawl is a splendid resource. Locals and tourists have few options to go enjoy these in terms of the Aizawl Zoo, Reiek Village or private picnic resorts. These aren’t extremely popular due to lack of maintenance, development, marketing and also due to the difficulty in reaching there because of hilly roads. 24


STATUS OF TOURISM

Aizawl is a beautiful place that holds tremendous and unique tourism opportunities. Much like the rest of the North Eastern states of India though, this has not been fully tapped into. The following table shows statistical data of tourist visits in the northeast and Mizoram:

Due to socio-political and geographical reasons, tourism development in the Northeast has remained neglected and backward. The concept of Tourism development is in its infant stage here. While Mizoram has many wonderful and breathtaking, ecologically rich sites for travelers, the city of Aizawl is very ‘local’ oriented. Apart from a bunch of hotels and lodges, not much is available for tourists. There is no information center to learn about the cultural and ecological riches of the state. The State Museum has much scope for improvement and in terms of curation, maintenance and attracting visitors. With regards to architecture, it does not celebrate the uniqueness of the state at all and is extremely difficult to locate in the city, with even locals clueless about its existence right in the midst of the central city areas. The lack of efficient infrastructure and good connectivity between the cities also plays a role in discouraging tourists. The entry permit formality required for a few states for both domestic and international tourists is a major deterrent to the region’s tourism attractiveness. Mizoram is a peaceful place with highly congenial and welcoming people. The lack of awareness about the state in the country and beyond is a major problem holding people back.

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DESIDERATA

A need is felt for: For the Citizens of Aizawl

• • • •

For the Local Community

• Creation of jobs in the tourism industry: marketing, management and maintenance services etc. • Development of the bamboo construction and allied industries and simultaneous creation of jobs

For Tourists

A definitive Eco-tourism destination to head to that• Is close to nature with a beautiful landscape • Provides a peaceful yet culturally stimulating environment • Teaches about the local culture and practices • Is unique and appealing, and not a replica of globalized resorts elsewhere

As a Development Model

• Using bamboo as a primary construction material for contemporary architecture in Mizoram • Creation of a tourist destination that promotes sustainable materials and development at a larger scale • An Eco-tourism centre that doubles up as a cultural public space for the locals • A sustainable project at the fringes of a fast growing city that embraces nature yet does not hinder future urbanization

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A cultural center where the new contemporary culture can merge with traditional tribal culture A space for art exhibits, theatre, music and film screenings To provide a public picnic-spot that is close to the city and yet one with nature A local iconic space that appeals to their modern tastes and they can be proud of


THESIS PROPOSITION

The chief aim of this topic as a research and design thesis project is to explore and experiment with Bamboo as a viable (primary) building material for contemporary architecture. There is a strong need to bring bamboo based building systems to the mainstream of the construction industry. A sufficiently large scale architectural project can act as an exemplar in doing so. More than 30% land in Mizoram covered in Bamboo plantations so there is abundant supply. The objective is of creating a truly natural and ‘green’ building, that goes beyond just achieving a green rating to creating a sustainable complex, suitable and homogeneous to the context. While Aizawl is a remote area, it is quite modernized in its practices and tastes. The challenge with this project would be to use bamboo construction in a way to address these westernized tastes. The attempt is to disrupt the conventional practice of making eco-tourist resorts with small huts imitating a glorified rural past , and aim for a truly sustainable urbanity.

The proposition is to design, in the fringes of Aizawl city, a cultural center that is a pride of locals and a destination for tourists. A sustainable complex, it is to be suitable and homogeneous to the context and built using Bamboo as the primary construction material.

Bambooville

A Cultural Center and Tourist Retreat The designed complex hopes to act as not just a tourist recreation and accommodation center, but also a destination in itself, doubling up as a cultural hub and picnic spot for locals. It would help in stimulating the newly developing tourism industry in Mizoram, act as a model for developing Bamboo as a viable construction material and provide for the locals an inspiring cultural space for performances, exhibitions and social gatherings.

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THESIS PROJECT

The land that is the site for this project is owned by Dr. Lalramzauva from Aizawl. He is used to work at the Civil Hospital in Aizawl and is now retired. He resides with his family in the heart of the city and practices as a doctor part-time. He enjoys visiting the land parcels he has invested in around the city where he maintains plantations of fruits and teak etc. The selected piece of land, currently, is partially being used for a teak plantations that is to be harvested in the coming year. As the yield is not too profitable, there is a desire to utilize the land for something more effectual. Considering the bounty of natural beauty it offers, keeping in mind the scope of tourism in Mizoram, and the encouragement and benefits offered by the governments for a tourism related project, this specific program was arrived at. The intent is to create a tourist destination that attracts visitors and locals alike. The project should also generate revenue to be financially viable to the clients. Something that appeals to the young and western taste of the trend conscious youthful city of Aizwal while also celebrates the natural beauty and rich tradition of the area. The project would be a Public Private Partnership. It creates an opportunity for forming a development model for the neighboring areas in terms of the program as well as the architecture and construction technologies employed.

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WHY BAMBOO?

Bamboo is a copiously available commodity around the site and throughout Mizoram. Bamboo addresses human issues in thousands of ways. Needless to state, usage of bamboo is traditionally well established in the area and is the most sustainable building material with numerous applications in the field of construction. However, the utilization of bamboo has been to a great extent confined to temporary structures and second rate working because of limited natural durability, difficulties in jointing, a lack of structural design data and exclusion from building codes and manuals. Despite the fact that India claims the most abundant bamboo forests in the world, this extraordinary advantage hasn’t been appropriately tapped into as of yet. With reducing timber resources and limitations forced on felling of trees, especially after the Supreme Court forced a prohibition on such exercises, there is a need to distinguish a substitute material, which ought to be sustainable, Eco-friendly and easily accessible. This is where bamboo comes in as the best option.

Bamboo is: • Strong • Straight • Ductile • Rapidly renewable • Inexpensive • Locally sourced • Abundant • Beautiful

Advantages of Building with Bamboo: • Bamboo is a versatile, strong, renewable and environment friendly material. • It is exceedingly strong for its weight and can be used both structurally and as a finish material. • Bamboo is recognized as one of the most important non-timber forest resources because of the high socio-economic benefits from bamboo based products. • Bamboo can be recombined into useful products and elements such as flooring, ceiling, walls, partition walls, trusses, domes, etc. • Bamboo has good engineering properties and it is a feasible substitute for other materials for housing and construction sector. • Bamboo has high tensile strength, very good strength to weight ratio. It can be easily worked upon by simple tools. • It can resist forces created by high velocity wind and earthquake. • Bamboo and components made of bamboo are environment friendly, energy efficient and cost effective. • With proper treatment that is now available, the structure can last for more than 30 years. 29


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CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH

Areas of Research Traditional Tribal building practices of Mizoram and their current prevalence Present-day Bamboo Development in Mizoram Sustainable Tourism Model for Mizoram Contemporary Bamboo Construction practices around the World Some Precedents

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AREAS OF RESEARCH

The key areas of research arising from the theoretical proposition and site-specific nature of the project are as follows:

Traditional Tribal building practices of Mizoram and their current prevalence Mizoram, especially Aizawl, is going through a phase of speedy development as the whole city gets lined up with concrete buildings. The rich heritage of building tribal Mizo structures using natural materials is dying and there is need to study and revive it in a way such that it adapts to contemporary needs and tastes

Present-day Bamboo Construction and Development in Mizoram With abundant supply of Bamboo and scope for further development, the current practices of using bamboo in construction in Mizoram are looked at. The local government and various other agencies are working towards the promotion of this material and affiliated industries. Their proposals and scope for further development are to be analyzed.

Sustainable Tourism Development Model developed by the government for Mizoram In spite of the abundance of natural and cultural beauty, tourism in Mizoram is negligent. Aizawl city has few destinations and an iconic destination built in bamboo could act as not just a tourist recreation and accommodation center, but also a destination. The government has been working towards developing tourism in Mizoram and studies have been conducted to arrive at various strategies to employ.

Contemporary Bamboo architecture in the world and its adaptability into the Mizo context As the youth there has extremely western aspirations, it is favorable to address their contemporary tastes instead of replicating old huts. Various masters in bamboo architecture throughout the world have created some exemplary structures that can be studied for this cause. The various kinds of material and structural technologies available are explored.

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TRIBAL ARCHITECTURE OF MIZORAM SETTLEMENT The Mizos are usually settled which means they have a well organized community and houses that reflect this lifestyle. Hill tribes usually build houses on top of hills with the house of the tribal chief at the center. The bachelor’s quarter known as Zawlbuk is located close the chief’s house and serves as the center of activity since the youth work, learn and are trained at these centers.

The house of the tribal chief and the Zawlbuk are at the center of the village. Surrounding the Zawlbuk is the primary communal space of the clan. Separate houses are scattered throughout the terrain.

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HOUSE OF THE TRIBAL CHIEF

ZAWLBUK


HOUSES

Predominant materials used: Bamboo and Wood Foundations: Wooden posts of varied lengths, so that the house is balanced horizontally with the level of the road as most of the houses are built on the slopes to avoid flooding. Flooring: Cross beams are fastened against stilt posts and over the beams long solid bamboos are laid. Bamboo matting is then laid over the bamboo frame, which forms the floor of the house. In case where the floor of the house is much above the ground, a ladder made entirely of a piece of log is placed across the intervening space between the floor of the house and the ground. Walls: Made up of bamboo matting fastened to the outer posts. Roof: Solid as well as split bamboo frames covered with thick thatch or straw Joints: Generally tied using cane, iron nails are also used in some cases. Doors and Windows: Usually of bamboo matting fastened against the wall. Interior: Rectangular structure partitioned into rooms by screens made of bamboo matting or with a cloth fixed to bamboo or wooden frame, with separate sections for married and unmarried members of the family. Heating: Hearth at corner of the house, near the front floor. It is made of clay and stones and is raised about 2-3 ft above the floor supported by raised poles.

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ZAWLBUK

In Mizo zâwl literally means flat, and bÝk means hut. With the basic use of a dormitory for all unmarried men of the village, it was much more a social institution where education, entertainment, skill and personal developments, and security of the tribal community were (almost) entirely centered. It used to be a very large dwelling place capable of accommodating all young men and boys in the village, erected on stout timber stilts on the slope of a steep ridge. Now recognized as a cultural epitome of the tribal societies, it was practically a social network by which all sorts of information were conveyed, from news to family squabbles. It was a kind of oral library where indigenous knowledge was shared and inculcated to new generations. It also served as rendezvous in times of social conflicts, disasters and wars. One of the principles behind such gathering is clearly for safety of the entire village, as all the most able men are readily called in action. Hence it was also a form of military barracks. It was particularly important as the village lives were frequently interrupted by wild beasts and enemy invasions. 36


CURRENT PREVALENCE With tribal culture almost extinct, the traditional building practices of Mizoram are fast dying . These techniques are still only used in remote-villages and in some structures seen along the highways. The government and department of tourism have tried to maintain a few model villages where-in these structures are conserved to be studied and observed by tourists and locals. An example of this is at Falkawn. Reiek was also a popular destination close to Aizawl city, having a model village till a few years back, which has now been replaced by a rather disheartening concrete “interpretation� center.

Traditional home of a Mizo chief at Falkawn

Reiek Model-Heritage Village a few years back

The Zawlbuk at Falkawn

New interpretation centre at Reiek

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ANALYSIS of Tribal construction Practice:

Positive Highlights • Use of only locally sourced, completely natural materials • Climatically Responsive • Naturally Ventilated • Resilient to natural calamities such as flood, earthquakes etc. • Structure sits lightly on ground i.e. no cut & fill of sloping land • Blends in with the natural landscape • Relates to traditional cultural identities • Completely Biodegradable Drawbacks • Prone to fire (due to usage of non treated bamboo and wood) • Prone to termite infestation (due to usage of non treated bamboo and wood) • Dampness of Wall during rainfall (due to lack of damp proofing) • Occasional washouts during rainfalls (due to use of non stabilized soil) • Does not relate to contemporary westernized tastes • Lack of incorporation of modern services

DESIGN TAKEAWAYS:

ECO-FRIENDLY 38

ON STILTS

LARGE OVERHANGS

NATURALLY VENTILATED


PRESENT-DAY BAMBOO DEVELOPMENT in Mizoram

Bamboo forests cover a large extent of area in Mizoram. Around 57% of the geographical area of Mizoram is under Bamboo cover found at heights ranging from 400m – 1500m above mean sea level. The State possesses the maximum percentage of its geographical area under bamboo forests as compared to other States of the country. It is used for a number of purposes such as: Handicrafts like: Bamboo hats (Khumbeu), Baskets, Tooth picks, Pen Stands, Ornaments, Coffins, Brooms, Tea Coasters, Key Chains, Hangers, Ash Trays, Spoons etc. In buildings as: Venation Blinds /Bamboo Blinds, Bamboo Ply Boards, Furniture, Bamboo Mat Board, Partitions, Fencing, Ladders etc. It is also used for making Charcoal, Pickle, Vinegar and for consuming Bamboo Shoots. Mizoram’s iconic Cheraw or the Bamboo Dance is performed by people holding crossed pairs of bamboo staves.

Traditionally, Muli Bamboo is available in abundance in Mizoram naturally. It is used for all the above listed products. Since it is small in size, and the seedlings haven’t been developed, the industrialized use of bamboo and large scale usage in urban construction has not yet kicked off. People in power have recognized the immense potential of using bamboo and new species are being researched to start plantations in the state. Development is envisioned for all sectors i.e. primary: agricultural plantations, secondary: processing and construction industries, and tertiary: development of the market and related services. Organizations are working towards developing technologies in horticulture, industries, handicrafts and construction to take this forward, although it is happening at a slow pace. Some of the organizations working towards this are the Bamboo Development Agency, the State Bamboo Mission, Cane and Bamboo Technology Centre (CBTC) etc. 39


Prevailing Bamboo Construction practices Structures like these, housing small shops or restaurants, are found along the highways and country roads near Aizawl. Made with Bamboo and makeshift materials like tin sheets, these use the same techniques like the tribal housing previously discussed. However, these aren’t maintained too well and have a shack like experience.

Houses in the villages in Mizoram are either still built in the traditional tribal way or as in the following picture. Here, locally acquired timber is used for the framing and the wall infill is done using flattened bamboo that may or may not be plastered. Corrugated Tin sheets are also used. The use of thatch or straw for roofing is rarely seen anymore.

Tourist Guest lodges, especially in the forest areas, use bamboo mat infill for walls to achieve a localized look. The structure is RCC framing and roofing is of corrugated tin sheets.

Guest House at Reiek Tourist Village

Farmhouses in the country areas are also made using timber and bamboo.

Hotel on the banks of Tlawng River

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House at Edenthar Village

Farm House near Edenthar Village


BDA: Bamboo Development Agency of Mizoram During the year 2002, the Government of Mizoram, Industries Department established Bamboo Development Agency, Mizoram; a society with an objective to encourage, start, organize, carry on, assist, lease, develop and regulate resources, plantation, utilization, research and development of bamboo and perform other such functions. The BDA has carried out much important work as illustrated below: UNIDO Projects In collaboration with United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Agency has organized training on ‘Bamboo Product Development’ and Bamboo Ornamental Training, Development of prototype products etc.

National Bamboo Mission Under the NBM scheme by the local government the agency has worked towards: 1. Demonstration of Technology at Sairang 2. Bamboo Retail Outlets in the city and at the airport. 3. Bamboo Wholesale & Retail Markets 4. Bamboo Bazaar: One unit has been set up at Bamboo Technology Park, Sairang 5. Post harvest storage & treatment facilities provided 6. Innovative Intervention of manufacturing Agarbatti Stick for Aizawl central Jail inmates

Bamboo Technology Park The Agency has set up Bamboo Technology Park (BTP) at Sairang, 36 km from Aizawl city. It is used for demonstration of bamboo technology and Research and Development purpose. Japan Bamboo Research Team, University of Kyoto has also conducted research on bamboo at BTP. Area has been leased for bamboo based industries to develop here.

BMPTC Houses 2005 BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION COUNCIL has involved with BDA in construction of 10 demonstration structures, each, using bamboo based technologies in Mizoram and Tripura (North Eastern Parts of India). These include houses, community buildings, Library buildings, Picnic huts, Schools, etc in order to propagate use of locally available bamboo. The cost of construction is considerably reduced by 25% to 30% using bamboo based technologies for different types of structures as compared to conventional construction. During constructing various types of structures local contractors, masons, artisans were provided training on use of bamboo in building construction.

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Bamboo Mat Ply board industry Bamboo Mat Ply (also known as Bamboo Board) is prepared from hot-pressing the woven bamboo mats and using high quality resins. Mat board is better than common wood plyboard for it is stronger, more durable and has better dimensional stability, It is humidity resistant and smooth in texture. It is waterproof in nature and can be used for outdoor, exposed functions like walls and roofings. Though it is double the cost of normal plywood, it lasts for almost 30 years due to chemical impregnation and inherent properties of Bamboo. Benefits: • Fire retardant • Insect/Termite resistant • Stain resistant • Strong and shatter resistant • Long Life span( around 30 years) • Boiling water resistant • Eco friendly

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Range of patterns and appearances available that can be used for: • Ceilings • Partitions • Furniture • Cabinets or paneling • Flooring, counter tops, wardrobes • Roofing • Cavity Walls


ANALYSIS The following inferences about the use of Bamboo in architecture in Mizoram are made: • Currently it is used in rural areas only, and rarely in the urban context • The supply of better quality of bamboo for construction is not developed yet but there is much scope and it will develop much in the coming years • The style of using bamboo in buildings is primitive and new technologies should be implemented as development models to appeal to the needs and tastes of people • While discussed organizations are working towards bamboo development, their focus is currently in the handicraft industry and more work is needed in the architectural innovation regard • Laminated Bamboo Mat Ply board industry is slowly developing in the state but the demand hasn’t caught up and good examples using the new material can help • There is a lack of unique, iconic structures made of bamboo that the locals can be proud of.

DESIGN TAKEAWAYS:

USE LAMINATED BAMBOO

APPEAL TO URBAN TASTES

CREATE SOMETHING ICONIC

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM MODEL FOR MIZORAM

The 20 Years Perspective Plan for the Sustainable Development Of Tourism in the State of Mizoram laid by the Ministry Of Tourism And Culture, Government Of India lists a range of various guidelines to be adopted to make the state more tourist friendly. Some of the relevant points that could affect and be achieved through the chosen project are as follows:

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• Priority consideration for tourism development should be environmental and ecological conservation • Development should be sensitive to all the heritage parameters of the rich ethnic tribal culture • Development to follow principles of Eco-Tourism • Government to work in collaboration with private parties to develop tourism • Creation of tourism based jobs to bring in the feeling of ownership amongst the local people. • Development of transport and telecommunication networks to take place • Need to develop proper Information Centre • Need to provide restaurants, also having vegetarian food as it is hard to find in the state • There are a very few places for general entertainment and spaces are needed for Music/Dance and other Ethnic festivities • User-friendly and interactive database of tribal culture – art, music, dance, food, textiles needed • Barrier Free Design approach for physically challenged people • Architecture must reflect the ethnic character and identity of Mizoram • Landscape design should follow ecological concepts • Innovative tourist attractions should be designed in Aizawl to promote Urban Tourism. • Tourist festivals including ethnic cultural programme, handicraft exhibitions and special food to be organized in collaboration with hotels


CONTEMPORARY BAMBOO CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES

PERCEPTION

vs. POSSIBILITY

“Bamboo is an old thing but for most of the world it is a new thing.” While bamboo has been used for making houses and sheds for centuries, recent advancements in horticulture and treatment sector has allowed for a leap in architectural possibilities using bamboo. With the right kind of chemical treatments, the right thickness of bamboo poles, complex joints made employing metals, bending technologies, and complex 3D modeling using computers, it is now possible to create large span and multi-story structures using bamboo. Such practices can be observed across the world today from South American to South-east Asian countries. The lack of thumb rules and guidebooks is why bamboo isn’t used more around the world. While work is ongoing in this direction, the method of design and construction adopted in each part of the world is unique, using local species, deriving from the local traditions while being inspired by best practices around the world. The following study of some remarkable bamboo structures is done to understand some of the various ways bamboo can be used in a contemporary architectural vocabulary.

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LARGE SPAN BAMBOO STRUCTURES (Span12 metres and more)::

Example

Sen Village Community Centre

Conference hall at Naman Retreat

India Pavilion Wold Expo 2010

ZERI Pavilion Expo Hannover

Parameters Location

Sen Village, Ho Chi Minh City, NgĹŠ HĂ nh Son, Da Nang, Shanghai, China Vietnam Vietnam

Manizales, Colombia (present) Hannover, Germany (demolished)

Immediate Surroundings

Circular podium above the Located within Naman One of the multiple pond of a 48-hectare park Retreat resort, a qualified pavillions spread around coastal escape Shanghai for the Expo

One of the multiple pavillions in the Expo grounds

Building Typology

Community meeting space Conference hall for nearby residents

Span Achieved

Hall- 22m dia, roof- 30m Dia

13.5 m hall and 4 m corridor 35m diameter

Architect

Vo Trong Nghia Architects

Vo Trong Nghia Architects

Design-C, EDS

Completion

April, 2015

2015

2010

Capacity

Up to 250 people for parties, Up to 300 people for Large Display Area with Large Exhibition Area banquets, exhibitions and conferences, lectures, market stalls on the music performances concerts, meetings etc mezzanine floor

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Exhibition space for the A cultural pavilion India pavilion SHiFt,

40 m dia and 7 m eaves PSDA, Simon Velez 2000


Sen Village Community Centre Area Covered

1395.0 sqm

Visibility

Conference hall at Naman Retreat 773 sqm

India Pavilion Wold Expo 2010

ZERI Pavilion Expo Hannover

980sqm

1650 + 500 (gallery) sqm

Iconically visible from across First building of the resort’s the lake, beaautiful reflection facility that the guests see in the night when approaching from the reception zone.

The dome exemplifies the duality of India, rising high like a temple in front of the court where the bazaar has cultural shows, displays, shops, eateries etc.

It is a circular construction, without a beginning, or an end, open in design as to invite everyone to participate without obstacles.

Architectural language

The circular base and large cone-shaped roof give the building the appearance of a bandstand, thatch roof matches with the context

It is a rectangular shaped hall with an asymmetrical pitched roof. The vault bamboo structure gives the building an iconic and impressive look.

Inspired by the Buddhist Stupa at Sanchi, it rejoices in a common cultural thread between China, and India. The Tree of Life is echoed in the pattern of the herbs on the roof.

The pavilion with its wide roof looks like a mushroom. The organic form accentuates the materiality of the pavilion. In addition to this mushrooms play a important role in one of ZERI’ s farming projects.

Nature of Space

It is a fully covered but permeable structure and passive design methods contribute to reducing energy consumption witholding use of Air consitioners

The building consists of 2 parallel spaces; the closed hall and the open corridor. The exterior corridor serves as an outdoor lobby as well. The glass facade is stepped 3 frames backwards into the volume, opening the entrance as a foyer to welcome the guests.

It is large bamboo dome It is open and completely – a herb roofed, indoor unobstructed. space provided with lowlevel air-conditioning. There is a mezzanine level inside the some as well.

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Structural System

Sen Village Community Centre

Conference hall at Naman Retreat

India Pavilion Wold Expo 2010

ZERI Pavilion Expo Hannover

A simple umbrella-like structure that consists of 28 pure bamboo frame units holding a thatched roof, pierced with an overhead oculus

The arch-like impression is created by the bent bamboo that are part of the main vaulted structure.

Comprising of 36 arched compound ribs, each of six interconnected bamboos and eight horizontal rings are made from Moso Bamboo.

The building rests on two concentric courses of 20 supporting wooden pilars measuring 8 to 14 meters height.

Height of Structure

Total 14.40 m – Mezzanine 4.50 m

Vertical Supports

28 pure bamboo frame units

Other Materials used (If any)

Thatch for podium

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roofing,

Two types of bamboo were Arched compound ribs used in the making of this building: ‘luong’ bamboo, due to its strong and durable qualities, for the straight columns while reaching lengths up to eight meters and the “tam vong’ bamboo chosen for its flexibility.

RCC Glass for the facade

The purlins give their load to 40 radial arranged and in an angle of 9° standing towards each other framework griders. There is a ring-shaped framework on the height of the pillar´s heads, that distributes the horizontal loads

stapled fabric, copper, Concrete for Roof, steel piles, ferrocement Footings, mezzanine


Sen Village Community Centre Provision of Services

No artificial lighting for daytime uses, skylight and open periphery provide defused daylight. The skylight functions to discharge hot air from the top of the roof as breeze cooled by adjacent pond flows through the building. A 4m wide terrace surrounds the hall, partially sheltered by the roof. This leads to a small brick volume housing toilets, a kitchen and an office.

Conference hall at Naman Retreat

India Pavilion Wold Expo 2010

ZERI Pavilion Expo Hannover

System stapled fabric The organic shrubs in the trays are a carbon sink and purify the air. Lowenergy efficient systems are used for cooling and lighting. A small windmill and roof mounted solar cells integrate renewable energy which is generated at almost all times. It is a zerochemicals area with safe runoff and no effluents.

Plan

Sectional Elevation

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MULTI-STOREY BAMBOO STRUCTURES (Levels G+1 and more):

v

Example

Ecological Activity and Learning Centre

Sharma Springs

Integer Bamboo House

One With The Birds

Parameters Location

Ko Kut, Trat 23000, Thailand

Immediate Surroundings

Located on a rocky slope Within dense vegetation At Expo INTEGER Site in Conceptual close to the sea within Soneva overlooking the Ayung river Kunming, designed for hilly Kiri resort on the island valley and Green Village terrain in western China

Building Typology

ProgramAuditorium/Cinema, Libary, Art room, Music room, Fashion room, Chill balcony and slide

Escape home: tunnel Multi-storey laminated entering living room area, bamboo house staircase, four bedrooms, children’s playroom, library

Modular Hotel: reconfigurable into a single-family house, hotel, or rest station

Architect

24H > architecture

Ibuku

The Oval Partnership

Penda

Completion

2009

2012

2009

2014

Number of Levels

3 levels

6 levels

2 levels

varies

Built-up Area

165.0 sqm

750 sqm

Architectural language

Manta-ray inspired bamboo dome Perched in elevated position to offer magnificent views, seems to launch itself into the bay.

Organic and unavoidable, forms, shapes and overall design boasts bamboo as a material Interactive display of a living, all-natural environment.

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Sibang Gede, Bali, Indonesia Yunnan Province, China

China

varies The structure, the external and the internal wall panels are all made of engineered bamboo and A serene and minimal modern feel

Inspired by Native American Tipis, which are moveable and reusable, the structure, made from bamboo sticks latched together with rope,


Ecological Activity and Learning Centre

Sharma Springs

Integer Bamboo House

One With The Birds

Nature of Space

A large organic translucent canopy cantilevers up to 8m over all the program to provide adequate shading from the intense sun and protection from the heavy rains. The set back footprint means that the interior is always well ventilated and lit from indirect light, helping to maintain a comfortable temperature at all times.

It has expansiveness and depth, plenty of space, and is well ‘appointed’. With carefully designed details, in some strange way it’s almost like a spaceship. A warmly coloured, audaciously designed spaceship made of supergrass.

The project looks luxurious, the idea was to show what the material was capable of. The entire house is built from bamboo including the furniture, doors, the structure, external and interior walls.

Structure can grow as tall as the trees. Connected to their verticality, we can experience a forest from the perspective of a child climbing a tree, in between the treetops, with the birds, fully connected with nature in 3D and HD

Structural System

The construction uses all sizes of bamboo reeds, taking full advantage of its versatile characteristics. Larger poles are used for the two anchoring columns that end directly into a large concrete pylon. As the column base transitions into the roof structure the size of the members diminishes, instead creating beams out of grouped members on perpendicular grids.

The house is built around a circular central staircase with beams that radiate out from its columns. These beams are supported by inclined bamboo columns at different intervals. Inclined bamboo poles allow for higher floors to project out furthen than lower floors. The inclined roofing cantilevers out to shade and protect the structure.

The structure is a columnbeam framed structure made of laminated bamboo elements. Walls are based on a rainscreen system and sandwich panels that provide a very high thermal insulation value.

X-shaped bamboo joints that hold horizontal bamboo rods in place. The horizontal rods support the flooring, and the joints could be multiplied horizontally and vertically to increase the width and height of the structure

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Ecological Activity and Learning Centre

Sharma Springs

Slab- System

The floor structure has bolted Beams that are bamboo bamboo joints filled with poles support floor slabs cement injection to prevent made of laminated boards. bamboo splitting. Roof has a cieling of split bamboo with a waterproof membrane on top, covered with shingles.

Interiors

The interior is made from local plantation River Red Gum wood and rattan structural elements for the inner domes. Walls of are made from mosquito netting, clad with bamboo sawdust, red soil, white sand or wood chippings for separate rooms. Music room is insulated with cellulose insulation and clad with note music. Circular steps of the stairs form a small theatre/cinema area.

The interior furniture is custom-designed for each room. There is harmony in a repetitive pattern, in contrast to the smooth surface of the floors, with only a few soft pastel color spots being placed in the shape of the furniture.

Provision of Services

The open design with the translucent elevated rooftop and setback floors allow a natural airflow inside and the use of natural daylight, limiting the building’s energy consumption.

The plumbing and the other metal features are also custom-built. Master metal smiths custom-built the shower stalls; stone carvers from Java carved boulders into counter slabs. Surrounding gardens follow permaculture design principles.

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Integer Bamboo House

One With The Birds

Similar to walls, glu-lam beams are used with smaller secondary beams. Cieling and flooring is laminated bamboo boards.

The span of each structural grid is 4.7 metres, so quite narrow, and eight sticks of structural beams are combined at each joint, so the system will be able to hold a lot of weight The design intends to make users feel like a part of the natural environment.

Cavity spaces present in the walls and floor are used to accomodate plumbing and electric services.


Ecological Activity and Learning Centre

Sharma Springs

Integer Bamboo House

One With The Birds

Plans

Sectional Elevation

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PRECEDENTS GREEN VILLAGE Badung, Bali, Indonesia

Architects: PT Bambu Design Consultant: IBUKU Project Year: 2010 Area:18700.0 sqm Size: up to 6 levels Type: Residential/Hospitality Programme: Master-planned neighbourhood community of guest-homes built entirely from bamboo

Immediate Surroundings: Set within a river valley landscape along Bali’s sacred Ayung River. Green School, PT Bamboo Pure, and Green Village are the main anchors of this green development area, which are interconnected with each other, to create a green zone which sustain themselves. almost Bali

Bali

Green Village

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Concept: The Bamboo houses are designed and built around the natural contours of each plot with rare views of the river front and the volcanoes of Bali. The concept is to create beautiful living spaces, in which people can live where luxury and comfort fit into natural landscapes. The ethos is to combine sustainability and style without destroying the environment in which we live.

Masterplan of the Green Village

The unique homes are constructed around radial clusters of bamboo columns to which bamboo tile and a thatched canopy are attached. Bamboo is used both as the structure and the dominant element of the interior – the walls, staircases, floors and furniture are all constructed from the plant. Its flexibility enables the creation of sweeping forms that, while maintaining its load-bearing role, can be integrated into natural stone foundations. Playful and lightweight, the structure connect with nature without disrupting it. 55


SUNRISE HOUSE in Green Village, Bali Building type: Home Size: four-levels Area: 265 sqm

Sunrise House is a feast for the eyes, combining black and white bamboo in intricate patterns to create luxurious floors, walls, ceiling, stairs and railings. Even the roof is an innovative arrangement of bamboo shingles. All the rooms are furnished with bespoke bamboo furniture and look out to the breathtaking scenery and view of the Ayung River Valley below. 56


SHARMA SPRINGS in Green Village, Bali Building type: Home Size: six-levels Area: 750 sqm Site Area: 2602sqm

Project Year: 2012 Building Material: Almost entirely bamboo Building Components: A tunnel bridge, 4 double bedrooms, kitchen, lounge and dining area, an office/work area on the highest level, a media room, a kids play room,a dedicated guest house and an outside barbecue area, a private garden and pool

Siteplan of Sharma Springs

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The house itself can be entered via a tunnelbridge that opens out to living, dining, and kitchen spaces – all open-air rooms on the fourth storey. The staircases circle around the central tower to the levels below: a play room, as well as four bedrooms and a library that are each enclosed for air-conditioning with full length spinning glass windows and doors. The 6thfloor lookout is a front-row seat to the amazing sunset views over the Ayung river valley and Green Village. Master metal smiths custom-built the shower stalls; stone carvers from Java carved boulders into counter slabs. Our team also customdesigned each item of furniture in this house. Ibuku, Gardens follows permaculture design principles, designed the surrounding gardens.

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GREEN SCHOOL Badung, Bali, Indonesia

Architect: PT Bambu Client: Yayasan Kul Kul Gross floor area: 7,542 sq. m Project Year: 2007 Size: up to 3 levels Built-up area: 15,000 sq. m Site Area: 103,142 sq. m Ground Coverage: 7% Type: Education

Occupancy: 200 students, 160 staff Operational hours: 1,820/ year Programme: Classrooms, Gymnasium, Heart of school, Sports field, Assembly hall, Staff housing, Medical clinic, Science laboratory, Library, Kitchen

Sections and Plans of the Heart of School

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Comfort modes: I. Thermal comfort Passive (natural ventilation): 100% Active (air conditioning): Nil I. Visual comfort: Passive (daylight): 95% Active (electrical light): 5% 100% of gross floor area was designed for natural ventilation Almost 95% of gross floor area was designed for daylight Energy consumed each year is less than 10KWh/sqm

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MEPANTIGAN EVENT CENTER in Green School, Bali Building type: Common Gathering Hall This is a common hall for the school and community to hold festivals, reunions and activities. The large oval footprint is delineated by natural stones on a compacted earth ground forming three tiers of seating in an arena-like fashion. A bamboo structure extends from the ground supporting a large canopy split longitudinally by a skylight for ample illumination.

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While new technology is employed to create the complex large span structure, the local craftsmanship is utilized for the details such as in the thatch roofing done as seen above.


LEARNINGS FROM THE GREEN VILLAGE : • Plentiful recreational fields are provieded outside of the main buildings which merge with nature • Several rice fields, gardens, a fish pond and compost toilets allow the institutions to become a teacher of sustainability for the village. • International and regional artists who visit often times organize activities in which the structure and spaces are decorated, and in a sense designed, by the students; a harp was even installed on several of the wood. So the space is living and it interacts with the user. • Traditional tools and methods are used in the detailing of the construction. • Each structure is unique and displays the vast potential of bamboo as a construction material • Iconic structures are beacons of bamboo construction throughout the world now and act as destinations in themselves, promoting economy of the whole place.

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NAMAN RETREAT

NgĹŠ HĂ nh Son, Da Nang, Vietnam Architects: Vo Trong Nghia Architects Project Year: 2015 Area: 30,000 sqm Program Components: eighty bungalows, a hotel, six VIP villas and other twenty villas.

64

Concept: The Resort concept of Naman Retreat is providing physical and mental treatment for the long stay guests by the nature friendly environment and healthy activities such as spa, yoga, beach sports and so on. To achieve a perfect atmosphere that enables the guests a maximum body and mind purification and relaxation, the resort was designed by harmonious mix of greenery, natural stone and bamboo.

Da Nang


THE HAY HAY RESTAURANT AND BAR Central space is given priority with a larger area with open spaces, mainly created from bamboos functioned as Lobby, Restaurants and Bar.

65


POOLSIDE BAR

The Hay Hay Restaurant and Bar face towards a swimming pool and a sandy beach. The restaurant has a rectilinear plan and a thatched roof with a series of domes topped by circular skylights that help bring natural light into the structure. The roof is supported by a network of 29 conical bamboo columns and two bamboo domes.

66


CONFERENCE HALL Area: 730 sqm The hall can accommodate up to 300 people at once and can serve for different occasions such as conferences, lectures, concerts, meetings etc. It is a rectangular shaped hall with an asymmetrical pitched roof. The vault bamboo structure gives the building an iconic and impressive look. The building consists of 2 parallel spaces; the closed hall and the open corridor. The exterior corridor serves as an outdoor lobby as well, welcoming the guests.

67


ATALI GANGA

Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India Architects: RLDA ConstructionArea: 2045.0sqm Project Year: 2012

Rishikesh

Programme: A storage facility on the lower level and a dormitory on the upper level, a veranda with a tensile roof, a cafe and cottages for guests. Building studied to understand design on slope.

Atali Ganga

Located on the sloping banks of river Ganga, and distinguished by its use of stone, reed and steel wire, the project abandons a commonplace aesthetic and other such iconographic elements to distinguish itself in favor of a building that draws its aesthetic from the means, methods and modes of its construction 68


The building, made of stone, encased in galvanized gabion boxes and tied to each other with steel wire was constructed mainly out of material that was either found on site or excavated from it. The suppression of a foreign image and its alignment with constructional technologies historically used to secure river embankments, aligns and situates the building within the visual and tactile vocabulary of the historic river.

Master Plan of the resort

69


70


CHAPTER 3

PROJECT PROFILE

Project Vision Program Development Area Program Reading of Areas

71


PROJECT VISION

Bambooville

A Cultural Center and Tourist Retreat The designed complex hopes to act as not just a tourist recreation and accommodation center, but also a destination in itself, doubling up as a cultural hub and picnic spot for locals. It would help in stimulating the newly developing tourism industry in Mizoram, act as a model for developing Bamboo as a viable construction material and provide for the locals an inspiring cultural space for performances, exhibitions and social gatherings.

A CELEBRATION OF

MIZORAM

GENIALITY

TRADITION

CULTURE

BAMBOO NATURE

72


PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

73


PROPOSED AREA PROGRAM

Capacity (people) Area per person

Area (in sq.m) No. of Units

Total Area (in sq.m)

Reception Counter

6

50

1

50

Lobby area (Waiting)

30

70

1

70

General Restaurant

100

135

1

135

70

1

70

15

1

15

15

1

15

15

1

15

15

1

15

Function

MOTHER BLOCK

Kitchen for Restaurant Dry Store Chilled Store Waste disposal Area Dish Wash Area Staff Toilet

1

4.5

2

9

Visitors Toilet

1

4.5

6

27

Chair person’s room

1

30

1

30

General manager’s room

1

30

1

30

ADMIN AREA

74


Deputy manager’s room

1

5

2

10

HR manager’s room

1

15

1

15

House Keeping manager’s room

1

15

1

15

Engineering Department

5

40

2

80

Admin Staff room

12

90

1

90

Accounting Staff room

3

20

1

20

Meeting/presenatation Hall

15

50

2

100

10

2

20

1

4.5

4

18

2

10

1

10

100

3

300

Utility/Store Rooms Rest Rooms

CULTURAL CENTRE Reception Counter

Prefunction Areas Lounge/ Waiting Area

30

100

1

100

Tourist Information Centre

20

30

1

30

Museum of Tribal culture

40

200

1

200

Gallery of Local Bamboo products

20

100

1

100

Curio Shop

2

20

1

20

Library

20

80

1

80

Cyber Café

10

20

1

20

Observatory

10

50

1

50

Toilet

1

4.5

8

36

Exhibition Hall

60

300

1

300

Large Art Gallery

40

200

1

200

Small Art Gallery

20

100

2

200

Cuarator and office

2

50

1

50

Toilets

1

4.5

2

9

5

759 75


Convention Hall

250

400

1

400

Auditorium

400

800

1

800

Green Rooms

20

30

4

120

75

2

150

50

2

100

50

2

100

30

2

60

4.5

12

54

25

1

25

Rehearsal Rooms Light and sound control rooms UPS Room Dimmer Room Toilets

1

Store

Conference Hall 1

100

300

1

300

Conference Hall 2

50

150

2

300

Meeting Rooms

15

50

2

100

Toilets

1

4.5

8

36

Coffee/ Tea Shop

8

20

1

20

Reception Counter

2

10

1

10

Operation manager’s room

1

15

1

15

Lobby area/ Lounge

40

90

1

90

Banquet Hall Pre-Function Area

200 to 300

440

1

440

60

1

60

Coffee/ Tea Shop

8

20

1

20

Speciality Restaurant Kitchen with accessory spaces

100

150

1

150

60

1

60

Rest room for restaurant

1

4.5

4

18

20

1

20

225

1

225

TOURSIT RETREAT

Utility room/Store room All Day Dining 76

150


Kitchen with accessory spaces Utility room/Store room

90

90

20

1

20

Toilets

1

4.5

4

18

Fitness center

20

100

2

200

Spa

6

60

1

60

Meditation Hall

20

50

2

100

Activity Rooms

25

100

2

200

Rest rooms

1

4.5

6

27

8 bed Dorms

8

120

4

480

Guest rooms

2

40

20

800

Family Guest houses

5

150

10

1500

40

1

40

100

1

100

STAFF ACCOMODATION BACK HOUSE

and

Satff Kitchen Satff Dining

40

Wash Area Laundry and Storage Maintenance Area

15

15

60

60

80

1

80

Accomodation Units

2

15

20

300

Lounge Room

15

50

2

100

4.5

4

18

60

8

480

40

3

120

Rest Rooms Family Suite for High level Staff

4

Generator and Battery room Staff locker rooms

15

35

3

105

Guards’ Common Room

3

20

1

20

77


Total Area:

11919

Adding area for circulation and structural envelope (40%)

16,686.6

Approximate Total Built Up area:

17,000 Sq. Metres

OUTDOOR SPACES Security Rooms Car Parking

1

Motor Cycle Parking

5

3

15

12.5

100

1250

1

2

50

100

Amphitheatre

100 to 120

800

1

800

Central Plaza

50

300

1

300

Evening Plaza

50

300

1

300

Badminton Court

4

80

2

160

Volleyball Court

12

170

1

170

200

1

200

Play ground Outdoor Seating areas Animal rearing area Fruit Gardens Plantations

78

300 4000

remaining site


READING OF AREAS

All areas are calculated in sq. m Functions: • Administrative = 460 sqm • General Spaces = 470 sqm • Exhibition Area = 1060s qm • Museum & tourist info = 586 sqm • Performance & Entertainment = 1809 sqm • Convention and conference = 1800 sqm • Visitor Accommodation = 2780 sqm • Tourist services & Recreation = 2293 sqm • Staff Accom and back house = 1598 sqm Circulation spaces + building envelope: 40% Total built up area (approx) = 17,000 sqm

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80


CHAPTER 4

ABOUT THE SITE

Introduction Location Climate Around the site Site Features Site Dimensions Site 3D Building Laws Photographs

81


ABOUT THE SITE

INTRODUCTION

LOCATION Site is located Aizawl district of the state of Mizoram, in the far north east of the country. It is situated in the fringes of the capital city, amongst large privately owned plots of lands. Most of these are covered in plantations and some people have started building farmhouses and tourist resorts. As the city progresses, people have started using their lands for small scale industries and factories to generate revenue. There is hardly any development around the site.

The land that is the site for this project is owned by the  Malsawmtluanga family. They are a family of doctors and reside in the heart of Aizawl city. They wish to develop their country land keeping in mind the scope of tourism in Mizoram considering its bounty of natural beauty.

82

Site is 12km, a 42 minute drive away from the capital city of Mizoram, Aizawl .

Land use map of Aizawl district shows site located on the fringes of the proposed built up area of the city. ( in RED) Other colours denote various kinds of vegetation. There are no building use specified in the current master plan.


CLIMATE Mizoram has a mild, humid, sub-tropical climate.

SOURCE: https://en.climate-data.org/location/24529/

The weather is relatively cool in summer 20 to 29 째C (68 to 84 째F) with winter temperatures ranging from 7 to 22 째C (45 to 72 째F).

The region is influenced by monsoons, raining heavily from May to September with little rain in the dry (cold) season.

The humidity levels and cloudcover varoies between 50 to 80% through the year.

Graph shows the lack of sun hours in the area except during the winter months. 83


AROUND THE SITE Green field site Close to Tanhril Village, Aizawl, Mizoram Site Area: 13 acres = 52609.1 square metres The site is situated amongst large vegetated plots of lands. Most of these are covered in plantations and some people have started building farmhouses and tourist resorts. As the city progresses, people have started using their lands for small scale industries and factories to generate revenue. There is hardly any development around the site except a couple of industries. Current primary access to site is through a kuchcha road in the east. Proposed is to bring a bridge over the ravine near the factory in the north connecting to the closes pucca road.

84


SITE FEATURES It has ravines to the north and site from which natural water can be pumped up, otherwise from the east the pipelines can be availed. Currently few trees have been planted in the periphery of the site and the rest is left natural, waiting to be planned.

NORTH

85


SITE DIMENSIONS

B4

B1

B2

B3

Figure A2

86


SITE 3D

BUILDING BY-LAWS

ACCORDING TO THE “THE AIZAWL MUNICIPAL COUNCIL BUILDING REGULATIONS, 2012”:

Figure A2 B4

B1

B3 B2

Site slopes doe from east to west as shown. There is a mound on the north west part of site.

• Minimum setback on site: Front: 2m Side: 1.2m Rear: 1.2m • The minimum distance between any two or more buildings within one plot shall be 2.4 m if one of the buildings or both the buildings is/are multi-storied. • Provision of lifts is mandatory for buildings having four floors or more. • A suitable rain water harvesting facility shall also be provided in all buildings. • A suitable solar heating system shall be installed. • Buildings having covered area of 500sq.m or minimum discharge of 1000 lts. and above per day shall incorporate waste water recycling system. • Maximum Permissible Floor Area Ratio (F.A.R.) on site = 1.5 • The maximum permissible ground coverage on site = 50% • Height Limitation= 19m (works out to around g+5 floors at the max)

87


SITE PHOTOGRAPHS FIGURE A1: Looking onto site from higher ground on the South Local Industry

SITE

FIGURE A2: Looking into site from from the East Mound with Teak plantation

88


Picture B1

Picture B2

Picture B4

Picture B3

89


90


CHAPTER 5

TECHNOLOGY DRIVERS

STRUCTURES Species of Bamboo to be used Techniques Employed Glu-Lam Using Bundled Bamboo Poles Experimental Structures SERVICES Energy generation Water Supply Sanitation SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES SAFETY MEASURES 91


STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY:

The 2 species of Bamboo to be used for construction are: Melocanna Baccifera Or ‘Muli’ Bamboo Dendrocalamus Brandisii Or ‘Burma Bamboo’

Primarily 3 types of Bamboo structural technologies will be adopted in the project: Bamboo reinforced GLU-LAM timber Bundled Bamboo Experimental structures

92


SPECIE: MELOCANNA BACCIFERA or ‘MULI’ BAMBOO

Muli Bamboo is a bamboo found in abundance in NE India. The flowering of Muli bamboo is an event of great significance. Large tracts of land are affected, as bamboo forests burst into bloom and then die. It is easily available in the forests of Mizoram for local construction practices. This is the specie that has traditionally been used for building and crafts by the tribal communities. Usually gathered from the wild, it is occasionally cultivated for these uses. Height 10-20 m Diameter 3-7 cm Climate Tropical - Subtropical Internodes 20-25 cm long Colour young: green, old: straw coloured FAVOURABLE PROPERTIES: • Slender elongated necks, 3-5 mm in thickness of culm wall • Non thorny, erect nature • Can be used for ornamentation • The culms are widely used in house building; • Used to make woven wares such as baskets, mats, handicrafts, wall plates, screens and hats; and for domestic utensils • Multiple utility (provides edible shoots, medicine, fleshy edible fruits apart from culms that have a wide range of uses) • Important source of superior paperpulp

93


SPECIE: DENDROCALAMUS BRANDISII or ‘BURMA BAMBOO’

Of the thousands of bamboo species in the world, about 50 species exhibit favourable properties for construction related purposes, like flooring, panelling, laminated lumber, etc. These woody bamboos (BAMBUSEAE) have the most economical value. The government of Mizoram has introduced new plantations and seedligs for DENDROCALAMUS BRANDISII in just a few years it would be abundantly available in the state. It would be the one to be primarily used in project in various ways. Height Diameter Climate Hardiness Internodes Colour

19 - 33 m 13 - 20 cm Tropical - Subtropical -3°C 30-38 cm long Ashy to greenish gray FAVOURABLE PROPERTIES: • Strong and thick walled culms • Non thorny, erect nature • Large size of culms and long internodes • Comes up very well in tropical humid conditions and can be planted along site boundaries, on sides of farm ponds/water bodies, and also along sides of streams • Being a non-thorny, erect giant bamboo species, it can be planted in gardens or lawns for its aesthetic value in landscaping • Multiple utility (edible shoots, agricultural implements like ladders, baskets,containers for storing grains, bamboo mats,as fencing material, house hold handicrafts, furniture, etc) • Copious amount of litter from leaves, sheath and side branches can be used for insitu vermicomposting on the site

94


BUILDING TECHNOLOGY TO BE EMPLOYED: FOUNDATION

Bamboo Columns are fixed to RCC footings to create stilts.

WALLS

The method commonly used for making walls is to lash bamboo strips or bamboo culms, horizontally and at close intervals to both sides of hardwood or bamboo uprights or main posts which are erected at all corners, spaced at about 1.2m. The spaces between the strips or culms are filled with mud alone or with mud and stones.

FLOOR SLAB

The bamboo-steel composite floor slab is composed by two pieces of bamboo-based panel and one piece of profiled steel sheet in the center adhered by high strength structural adhesives. The slab has cavity which can be filled by benzene particle or other insulation materials and can be traversed by wires or other pipelines.

Bamboo Board vaults in combination with a ferrocement filling can be used for creating floor slabs. This system also has good fire retardancy. In another method, flexible bamboo strips are woven together and plastered on one or both the sides

95


BAMBOO REINFORCED GLU-LAM TIMBER

96


97


98

FACADE DETAILS


BUNDLED BAMBOO TECHNOLOGY BEAMS JOINTS Joints for horizontal bamboo poles:

Beams can be straight or curved. It is better to make beams with an even number of poles to make them level (as poles usually taper)

Poles should lie exactly on top of each other and any curvature should be in the plane of the beam not outside of it.

Lengthening joints for continuing a pole for longer beams:

Pins(Smooth steel bars) at the ends of the beams should be diagonal to tha poles and middle ones should be perpendicular. Steel wire wrapped to tighten at each pin.

99


COLUMNS Roughly described, the column poles need to be sturdy, straight and as evenly thick as possible from top to bottom to carry the vertical loads through them.

In a column all the poles should have their thick end downwards.

Making of columns

100

All pins (threaded steel rod) are perpendicular to the poles. The pins should be just below nodes to avoid cracking. Attach the pins to metal parts connecting the columns to the foundation (i.e.. height 70cm) Cut protruding part of pins and add washers and bolts. Poles should be exactly on top of one another and that curvature happens in the plane of the column and not out of it. It’s better for poles to curve outwards than inwards (to make installing the beams easier).


JOINERY BUTT JOINTED BAMBOOS

CROSS-OVER JOINTS

Connecting beams and columns When columns and floor or roof beams have been installed, a central pole should be measured in place and added to support the upper part of the column.

TENON JOINTS

When the columns and the upper floor beams have been installed, a fourth pole should be measured in place and added behind the central pole to support the side beam. 101


TRUSS ROOFING The roof should be ideally as light as possible. This would not only reduce lateral seismic loads, but would also reduce the risk of casualties in the event of collapse. Simple couple roof is adopted with bamboo trusses for rafters. The rafters are fixed to the timber top beam by means of steel clamps. Bamboo mat board (BMB) gussets, in combination with mild steel bolts, are used for the truss rafter joints. For purlins are used smaller diameter canes. Bamboo mat corrugated sheets (BMCS) are used for roof cladding.

TYPICAL ROOFING SYSTEM

ROOF COVERING SYSTEMS Using Bamboo Culms

Stage 1

GUSSET JOINING OF TRUSSES

Stage 2

Stage 3

102

The simplest form of bamboo roof covering is made of halved bamboo culms running full length from the eaves to the ridge. Large diameter culms are split into two halves and the cross section at the nodes removed. The first layer of culms is laid side by side with the concave face upwards. The second is placed over the first with the convex face upwards. In this way the bamboo overlaps as in a tile roof and can be made completely watertight.


GALLERY STRUCTURE DETAILS WITH BUNDLED BAMBOO TECHNOLOGY

Vierendeel girders made of Bamboo are used as side beams to achieve a column to column distance of 8 meters in the structure. 103


EXPERIMENTAL STRUCTURES

104


105


COTTAGE STRUCTURE

106

RETREAT STRUCTURE


TECHNOLOGY: Services Water:

HVAC:

Electricals:

Due to pleasant climate throughout the year, no air cooling would be required. Passive techniques used for insulation.

Solar photovoltaic (SPV) panels provide the electricity in combination with a wood waste based gasifier. This gasifier reactor converts biomass into clean gaseous fuel called producer gas. This electricity generating plant and battery banks to be provided in the site.

Heating to be restricted to accomodation areas that would be used in the night-time. Appropriate induced Ventialation measures to be provided in the design of buildings to keep the indoor spaces comfortable during the heavy monsoons.

Water on the site will only be utilised from the nearby stream and the collected rainwater. Water resorvoirs, and filtration plants to be provided in the site.

107


Sustainability measures: • Landscape to be Preserved and protected during construction • Cut and fill avoided, buildings on stilts • Much vegetation preserved in gardens and plantations • Hard Paving avoided on site • Much air pollution during construction is minimmized since bamboo construction doesnt need mixing of concrete • Solar Water Heaters used which comprise of Solar collectors and insulated hot water tanks • Waste water treated within site in Dewats. Grey water used in farming and gardening. • Multiple Passive ventilation and insulation techniques to be applied. • Efficient Daylighting techniques encorporated Landcape techniques used : Trees planted around peripheri of performnace areas to absorb unwanted sound. Surfave runoff reduced by plantations and and mounds.

108

• Heating System to be adopted in dormitory and guest rooms


SAFETY Protection by preservation

Protection by design

In general, the natural durability of bamboo can be enhanced by the application of preservative compounds which help to prevent insect and fungal attack. A wide range of preservatives is available, including oil based, oil soluble, water soluble and water soluble “fixed” types. However, chemicals over which there are environmental and health and safety concerns should be discounted. Tar oil and boron based chemicals are relatively safe options, and are often available locally. Four treatment methods are ideally suited to site or workshop application: • internodal injection of creosote oil • dip diffusion with boric acid and borax • hot and cold creosote method • the Boucherie method (see Fig. 4) using boric acid and borax Preservative treatment is covered in detail in the book by Jayanetti and Follett

Protection by design involves 4 basic principles: • Keeping the bamboo dry • Keeping the bamboo out of ground contact • Ensuring good air circulation • Ensuring good visibility Large roof overhangs prevent direct wetting of walls in heavy and driving rain, and drainage channels and/or gutters can be used to discharge water a safe distance from the building. The risk of more general flooding can be reduced by building on a graded or slightly sloping site, and using raised masonry or concrete footings. The effects of water inside the building should not be overlooked. Simple provision can be made to drain away washing and cooking water, avoiding the hazards of prolonged wetting. Raising bamboo columns or wall panels clear of the ground also reduces the risk of termite infestation, and improves visibility, making inspection easier. Termite shields can be used between the footings and walls, if the risk is considered high. Where possible, the roof space should be left exposed to improve both visibility and airflow, and aid routine maintenance. Bamboo constructions can also provide ideal nesting areas for rodents and other pests. In general, open culm ends should be plugged and cavity construction should be avoided. 109


110


CHAPTER 6

DESIGN DETERMINANTS

SWOT Analysis Design Directives Key Design parameters Relationship diagram of program components

111


SWOT analysis

S

• • • • •

O

Location in between Aizawl and Airport Natural flora and fauna in and around the site Pleasant weather throughout the year Perennial water supply through streams No commercial land use around the Site, hence there will not be much noise

• Green field site and surroundings offers opportunity for innovation • Development of surrounding infrastructure would lead to coming up of correspond functions around site • Great views from site can be used to determine building orientations • Large size of site allows for interesting landscaping and provisions of plantations and gardens

112

W

• • • • • •

T

Very low economic growth and population growth. Not easily accessible from Aizawl city center Currently Disconnected from any nearby settlement Highly contoured and sloping site Inactive neighborhood Long distance from anything close by discourages pedestrianism.

• Earthquake and landslid prone area • High rainfall through most of the year • If surrounding infrastructure does not develop in time, project would not be able to function smoothly


DESIGN DIRECTIVES

113


KEY PARAMETERS OF DESIGN

Basic Relationship of open and built spaces

Basic Zoning on site

• • • •

To respect and celebrate the contours and levels of the site To create a permeable built-open structure Create a easy to navigate pedestrian network with ramps at all places Showcase bamboo technologies through appropriate programmatic functions • Grasshopper Footprints: Buildings to sit lightly on site

Increasing level of Privacy on site

Technology disposition

al

t en

im

er

G

lu

B

m

led

d un

les

po

-L a

p ex

114


115


116


CHAPTER 7

DESIGN TRANSLATION

Disposition of functions and technologies Site Planning Strategies

117


118


119


120


CHAPTER 8

DESIGN OUTCOME

Drawings Views Model

121


122

AERIAL VIEW OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT


TOP VIEW SHOWING ROOFS ON SITE

Roofing done with bamboo shingles and skylights provided in all structures 123


124


CULTURAL CENTER CLUSTER PLAN 125


CULTURAL CENTER ELEVATIONS 126


CULTURAL CENTER SECTIONS 127


MAIN BLOCK FLOOR PLAN 128


MAIN BLOCK 3D VIEW 129


130

MAIN BLOCK DETAILS


TOURIST RETREAT CLUSTER PLAN 131


132

TOURIST RETREAT 3D VIEW


TOURIST RETREAT CLUSTER SECTIONS 133


134

COTTAGE PLANS


COTTAGE VIEWS

135


136

TOURIST RETREAT DRAWINGS


TOURIST RETREAT VIEWS 137


SITE MODEL AT 1:500 138


SITE MODEL AT 1:500 139


STRUCTURAL MODEL OF GALLERY SPACE AT 1:50 SHOWING BUNDLED BAMBOO STRUCTURE 140


STRUCTURAL MODEL OF GALLERY SPACE AT 1:50 SHOWING BUNDLED BAMBOO STRUCTURE

141


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Minke, G. (2016). Building with Bamboo: Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture. Basel: Birkhäuser 2. Kaley, V. Venu bhāratī = Venu bharati: a comprehensive volume on bamboo. Nagpur: Aroop Nirman. 3. Bamboo Development Agency, Mizoram. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://mizobamboo.nic.in/ 4. MiYzone- Tluanga Colney. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://miyzone.blogspot.in/2014/02/reiek-heritage-village.html 5. Guadua Bamboo. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://www.guaduabamboo.com/ 6. Indian pavillion at world expo 2010, Shanghai. Retrieved February 15, 2017, from http://www.sanjayprakash.co.in/indianpavillion.html 7. Waterproofing Bamboo Roofs. (2016, December 6). Retrieved March 1, 2017, from https://www.bamboo-earth-architecture-construction.com/in-thenews/waterproofing-bamboo-roofs/ 8. tetraleaf.com/tetsu. Naman Retreat. Retrieved February 15, 2017, from http://votrongnghia.com/projects/naman-retreat/ 9. ArchDaily | Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide 10. designboom magazine | your first source for architecture . 11. Homepage - Domus, from http://www.domusweb.it/en/home.html 12. Dailai conference centre by Vo Trong Nghia Architects. (2014, July 16). Retrieved February 15, 2017, from https://www.dezeen.com/2013/01/20/ dailai-conference-centre-vo-trong-nghia/ 13. Multi-story Bamboo Treehouse Held Together Only By Rope. (2016, August 19). Retrieved March 1, 2017, from http://interestingengineering.com/multistory-bamboo-treehouse-held-together-only-by-rope/ 14. ZERI Foundation. www.zeri.org 15. Village, G. About. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://greenvillagebali.com/about/green-village/ 16. Mizoram - Alchetron, The Free Social Encyclopedia. (2013, January 18). Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://alchetron.com/Mizoram-4917-W 17. More Information ->Aizawl - the State Capital. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://mizoram.nic.in/more/aizawl.htm 18. Climate-Data.org. (2015, August 9). Retrieved March 2, 2017, from https://en.climate-data.org/location/24529/ 19. DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM: MARKET RESEARCH DIVISION, by ‘The Designers’ 20 YEARS PERSPECTIVE PLAN FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE STATE OF MIZORAM (Janyary 2003) 20. Types of Bamboo Poles. Retrieved March 2, 2017, from http://bamboohabitat.com/types-of-bamboo-poles/ 142


21. Uses for Bamboo in Sustainable Building. (2012, June 12). Retrieved March 2, 2017, from http://www.greenbuild.org/new-construction/uses-forbamboo-in-sustainable-building/ 22. Bamboo diversity in India. Retrieved March 2, 2017, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/ad871e/ad871e10.htm 23. Penda · One with the birds. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from https://divisare.com/projects/291782-penda-one-with-the-birds 24. Inhabitat - Green Design, Innovation, Architecture, Green Building. from http://inhabitat.com/ 25. Huang, P. D. (2015, October 14). Applications of Engineered Bamboo as an Construction Material. School of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University 26. Harjani, K. SUSTAINABLE BUILDING / CREATING LIVELIHOODS (rep.). SUSTAINABLE BUILDING / CREATING LIVELIHOODS. INBAR-ICIMOD Bamboo Workshop 27. Vengala, Jagadish , B. N. Mohanthy, and S. Raghunath. Seismic performance of Bamboo housing– an overview. Publication. Bangalore: Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute 28. Komitu Architects. Building with bamboo - the basics. Publication. N.p.: Building Trust International 29. Cane and Bamboo Technology Centre (CBTC). Affordable Bamboo Housing in Earthquake Prone Areas. Rep. Aizawl, Mizoram: Government of Mizoram, 11th November, 2001. Print. 30. Modern Bamboo Structures. Proc. of FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MODERN BAMBOO STRUCTURES, Changsha, China. N.p.: CRC Press, 2007. Print 31. Manjunath, Neelam . Contemporary Bamboo Architecture in India and its Acceptability. Proc. of 10th World Bamboo Congress, Korea 2015. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print

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APPENDIX

A talk with Shri. Zoramthanga

(Ex-Chief Minister of Mizoram and President of the Mizo National Front) on the 30th of January, 2017 D – I would love to get your insights about the use of Bamboo and its scope in Mizoram. Z – Bamboo is an old thing but for most of the world it is a new thing. Bamboo development is done in southern part of China and Taiwan. They have a type of bamboo called Mosho bamboo which springs up from the roots and not from the seedlings. Mosho bamboo is like Muli bamboo of Mizoram, but it is bigger. So this is the kind of development they are having in China. But in the areas that have Monsoons like India and other places, we have the big bamboos and not the small Bamboos, that grows in groups. So that is the kind of Bamboo that we are trying to develop. China has developed bamboo, but in the whole of India, other parts of Asia, Europe and also may be United States, No other country has developed Bamboo yet. In order to develop Bamboo, Number One is – Selection of the species. There are different kinds of bamboos, but you have to select the one that will be commercially viable. Number two – You have selected the species, but how to get the seedlings. This is the most important and the most difficult one. Because there are two ways by which you can get the bamboo seedlings for plantation No. 1 – Buy the original bamboo flowering and seeds, but that happens at an interval of 50 years. So it takes very long time. No. 2 – Buy Scientific tissue culture system and in the world bamboo congress held in Delhi I was one of the chairman when I was the Chief Minister. Quite a lot of bamboo experts come from different parts of the world and I asked them if anybody was successful in trying to find the right protocol for the tissue culture for the bamboo, none of them have succeeded. ”Oprin” company in Belgium who are supposed to be the most advanced in the tissue culture of Bamboo, I asked them if they were successful, They said not yet. So when I was the chief Minister for 10 years, and I was jokingly the failure called the Bamboo Chief Minister, but nevertheless it is not the failure of the politician, it is if the scientists since they couldn’t develop the seedlings, the right medicine, the right protocol, the tissue culture of the bamboo. I have selected the good species of bamboo but in order to do this tissue culture it is important to find the combination of right medicine and Protocol. One medicine and protocol works for only one type of bamboo and cannot be used for other kinds of bamboo. This is the most challenging and most difficult thing for bamboo development. So during my 10 years of chief minister-ship nothing could be developed, because in order to develop bamboo, we need millions of seedlings. So it has to be either from the bamboo plant seedlings which occur once every 50 years or finding the tissue culture samples for which the scientists have failed so far in the world to develop. My period as the chief minister was from 1998 to 2008. In 2010 at last I found one scientist who could find the right kind of protocol for tissue culture of only one kind of bamboo which is called Brandiisci. It was doctor Bharati in Hoshur near Bangalore at grow more biotech, after trial and error for 10 years, he found the right protocol for the tissue culture for brandisii. They British, more than 100 years ago got this bamboo from Burma and planted it in south India in Coorg district in Karnataka and has been growing over there ever since. Dr Bharati has found the correct protocol for this big commercially viable bamboo at last after trying for more than 10 years and can produce seedlings for this bamboo. I have found one more species of bamboo as big as this called as Latifloras from Nagaland. Dr Bharati came to Mizoram and I gave him 3 to 4 stems of this bamboo and he took it down to his place and up till now 5 years have gone by and so far he has not succeeded to find the right protocol for this bamboo. Hence so far in all of India and Asia, I have not 144


found any commercially Viable Production oriented type of bamboo cultivation. So my idea is that in order to do this, it needs crores of Rupees for the project. If you grow the bamboo in the jungles where there is a lot of rainfall, whole of Mizoram can be covered with bamboo but it is a very heavy thing. It needs a road transport system. So apart from the seeds and the seedlings, you need the Road transportation and land allotment and because it is a heavy thing you need a processing industry. Processing industry is not a problem at all. Marketing is also not a problem. Next year we are going to have elections. So if by the grace of god if I will be able to form the government and if I come to power, my flagship program will be all of this because I am ready in every aspect. I have got the seedlings, and for the road and Land development and the industry has to be there in every village, otherwise it is too heavy to get it over here in the center. Since you are interested, for example the question arises that here in Mizoram you have those bamboos, so why don’t you utilize them as Mizoram is full of bamboos. In a way it is correct but most of the bamboo here in Mizoram are Muli bamboo, small ones and it sprouts from the roots and it is not very economical at all. Suppose you said that I am going to have an industry in chicken, here in villages they have desi murgis, but why don’t you use them. When you are going to use them for large scale commercial production you need large scale hundreds and thousands of broiler chickens because they are big ones, desi murgis are small. So it is something like that. Here they are small bamboo. So when you are really going to utilize it for a commercial purpose, they have to be big, and that is why I selected the species. Now about how are you going to process the bamboo, here in Mizoram there are 3 to 4 factories are there. It is very simple. Suppose we cut the big bamboo into 6 ft or 3 ft or 4 ft depending on the requirement and we split it and then we keep the small pieces and then we dry it and we put the gum or the paste on it and then heat it to more than 100 degrees and then with a hydraulic presser press it to the tune of 1000 quintals and metric tonnes and then just like ply wood it becomes very good. D – I have visited the factory for Zonun Mat Ply which is the same. Z –Yes that. For example, this wood, is very good for the flooring, very good for the wall and very good for the ceiling and it is a total substitute of timber in every way, even for furniture. Now trees are dwindling down, if you cut down a tree, in order for it to grow up again it takes 30 to 50 years but bamboo shoots can be as big as its mother in 6 months. No other tree can achieve that, not even banana. Bamboo is the only one. So what I have in my mind is that, here in a place like Mizoram, which is a landslide prone area, earthquake prone area, very heavy cement and concrete buildings are sometimes not advisable. Therefore what I have in my mind is that here I need a light and cheap and easy to build kind of house. If it is only one story or two stories, then there is no need of the Iron rod. Bamboo rod is enough, but if it going to be a tall building, one may have iron rods. Japanese say that if you make the bamboo rod strong enough, it is as strong as iron rod. Anyhow that is another thing. With that you make a structure. Then for the wall, waving of flattened bamboo can not be broken at all. You can make it of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15mm. depends upon your choice, as thick as you like. And of size 4x4, 8x4, 6x4 again depends upon your choice. So for the wall no problem. And for the flooring, you can make it one inch thick or more as much as you want. And you can make it thin for the ceiling. Very light and very reliable structures which will not be dangerous at the times of earthquake or in the land slide prone areas. That is why in a hilly place like Mizoram and other hilly places. Bamboo is very suitable. It is a god given kind of technology, and the price will come down to less than half of concrete. Also in a plain area where the people need a house, having a concrete building might be a problem, ex poor people’s housing system, we can make readymade houses here prefabricated and with one truck load we can bring 3 to 4 houses down and assemble there and finish it in one day or two days which makes it very easy. With the cost of one or two lakhs you can finish the house. Therefore, what I have in mind is, suppose if it is feasible, Mizoram can supply 1 lakh houses like these, 2 Lakh rupees per house. This would be helpful for poor people. Govt. of other states can order millions of houses for poor people. So this would be helpful for poor people as well as rich people. As well as used for furniture. So bamboo is the total substitute for timber. The other day I went to Delhi, there I met the agriculture Secretary, who is also in charge of horticulture. Bamboo comes under horticulture because it is not considered as a tree but is a grass. When I talked with him, he said that you are the only person who knows so much about bamboo in all of India. Therefore, when you come next time, give me an advanced notice of one week or so to arrange a meeting with all the directors and secretaries who are interested in this and you give them a lecture. But I didn’t go there since I am not in the power at the moment and they would start the project prematurely and there would be a risk of spoiling it. 145


D – What about skill and craftsmanship over here? If the industry develops then are there people who are trained to do the work? Z– Even the plantation of Bamboo hasn’t started yet; it is in the Vision stage. Of course with the bamboo there are small scale industries for example making hats etc. and have a lot of prospect. Bamboo can be a substitute of timber, can be used in paper industry, can be made into cloth and yarn. So bamboo is multipurpose. I have heard that even from the leaves of bamboo beer can be distilled, but I am not sure. So lot of things can be done from bamboo and lots of prospects are there. D – The seedling that you have spoken about, has the plantation of that seedling been tried anywhere? Z – Yes it has been tried in Bangalore. But Bangalore much plantation can not be done because they don’t have land, Bangalore doesn’t receive enough rainfall and there are no politicians who have this kind of a project idea. I believe I am the only one in India who have this kind of an Idea. Dr Bharati has sent about 100 seedlings of which we have done the plantation here. D – Do you think there is scope of tourism development in Mizoram? Z– Well certainly there is a scope of tourism, ecotourism specifically. We don’t have the old historical sites, but we have ecotourism. The hills, the forest, the rivers so there is a lot of untapped scope for ecotourism. D – Bamboo was used a lot for construction of old houses, but it has reduced a lot. So what is the perception of local people about bamboo? Z – In old houses bamboo was used in a primitive form by weaving etc. Now the industries which are there cannot run properly because of a lack of supply. So even though people might have ideas but they cannot be implemented. D – Bamboo grows in the forest, so is cutting of forest bamboo allowed by the government for the people who want to use it in small scale industries? Z – Yes sure, actually most of the land belongs to the villages, there are some private owned lands. But most of the far flung areas where good bamboo grows, the land is not owned by anyone. So people can use the bamboo but transporting it is very difficult. D – Has bamboo been used in any new modern building yet here in Mizoram? Z – Not yet. D – Have you seen the sort of modern buildings made in Indonesia and Bali, the multistoried bamboo structures. Z – Yeah yeah, I have seen them in the pictures. 146


D – Do you envision that once the plantations happen, buildings like those are possible here. Z – Yes, there is a possibility. As I have said, once we have planted the bamboo and when we manufacture it and we commercialize it, it is can be used for anything that can be imagined. Bamboo rods can be used for making of reinforced concrete instead of iron rods. Which can be used on the roadsides for the support to prevent landslides like retaining walls? D – Are there architects in Mizoram who are interested in working with bamboo? Z – Yes, there are many architects who are interested. But we need all the development and coordination of those, right from the production stage to manufacturing stage. And to do this it cannot be taken up personally, it needs to be taken up by the government. Because for example, road construction cannot be taken up by a single person. This kind of a bamboo project in the north east of India, the insurgency that comes out of the poverty of the people, may be greatly solved. For the Central government in One year 1000 Cr rupees or 2000 Cr rupees is a small amount but for a State it is quite a lot of money. D – Are there any villages or tribal communities left in Mizoram who still live in in old traditional bamboo constructed buildings? Z – Yeah yeah, in some far flung places, yes. Special among the Reams, Bruce and Chakma tribes still live in old bamboo houses D – We went to Reiek to see the old bamboo houses but they have been brought down, and a convention center made of concrete has replaced them, so I thought it was a very wrong move from the point of view of tourism because people come from far off places to see those kind of houses but they have not preserved it. D – Does bamboo ever have to be imported from outside of Mizoram? Z – No, there is a lot of land in Mizoram, more than 21,000 square kilometers with a population of only one million people. So Mizoram can feed more than 3 to 4 times its present population. With so much amount of good rainfall, everything is in plenty and there is no need of importing, rather we are trying to export. For Mizoram’s consumption we need about one tenth of the total product. The rest 90% is for export. D– That’s good to know. I think I will be finishing my project in May-June 2017. I will envision the project using the bamboo you have told me about and I will see what kind of a modern building can be made out of it and I would love to send it to you so you can see if it is possible to do anything like it in the future. Z–That sounds great. So development of bamboo in India is waiting for me. Unless I form the government, it can’t be made. Till then it can be made only in a small scale, primitive state. As I have jokingly said that if somebody asks that would you like to see the chicken development and chicken production, you go to the village and see one lady is having about 10 to 20 chickens. But if you are going to produce in a large scale like KFC, then what will be the use of those 10 chickens. In order to do that you have to have a broiler farm, where thousands and thousands of broilers are kept there and only then they can be commercially viable. So even bamboo is something like that. D– I sincerely hope you can do what you have envisioned. 147


Z– Well, let us hope so, because a lot of my vision is concentrated on this. Suppose I say that if the government provides the road construction and seedling supplies and I give two hectares of land to the people, they can harvest at least 3000 bamboos every year in that land. One bamboo will cost at least 300 or 400 Rupees. That means with the 2 hectares of land you will be able to earn 8 lakh to 10 lakh rupees every year. Potentially every household can have that and also in the villages there will be industries. One industry can employ 70 to 100 workers so all the young men of the village can get employment at a very profitable salary. Their family will supply the raw material and then the workers can process the raw material in the industries. As in economics there is a Primary Sector, Secondary sector and a tertiary sector. So primary sector will be giving the land, secondary doing the production and processing and then tertiary controlling the market. D– It seems like a very viable project. Last year I was working in a prefabricated bamboo housing facility in Maharashtra. We developed the entire system but the supply of the raw material was the limitation and also labor is not easy to find over there. But I can see that being overcome in this project. Z– The other point to consider is in a bamboo growing area if the bamboo shoots grow to the size of its mother bamboo in 6 months, how much carbon dioxide it will consume and how much volume of oxygen will it produce. So according to the scientists it purifies the atmosphere 6 times as compared to the trees. I should say that, here in the world, where everyone is worried about the pollution and the purification of the air that we are breathing, Bamboo is one of the answer, one of the best purifier of our air. Mizo people are also very enthusiastic, but this is a venture which no body has carried out in a big commercial way.

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THANK YOU

Undergraduate Thesis: Bambooville  

Design of a Cultural Center and Tourist Retreat in Aizawl, Mizoram and an exploration of Bamboo construction technologies.

Undergraduate Thesis: Bambooville  

Design of a Cultural Center and Tourist Retreat in Aizawl, Mizoram and an exploration of Bamboo construction technologies.

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