January 16, 2014
WALKS IN HISTORY: The toponymy of Cádiz Story by José Antonio Pilares / Photos provided by Wikipedia
he word toponymy in the heading might be “all Greek” to some, and indeed it is! It is the study of placenames, their origins, meanings, use and typology. It comes from the Greek words tópos ("place") and ónoma ("name"). To anyone interested in History, toponymy can give us a wealth of information on a region's past. Today we are going to travel through 3000 years of history thanks to the place-names of the province of Cádiz. Starting with the capital city, Cádiz was first founded by Phoenitians from Sidon and Tyre in 1104 BCE as Gadir; which means “palisade” or “fortress” in ancient Punic language. Gadir became a rich and famous city in Antiquity, with the Greeks translating the name as “ta Sidearm” and the Latins as “Gades”.With the Muslim invasion of 711 CE, Gadir was remained in Arabic as Qadish, from which the modern Cádiz stems. Also dating from pre-Roman times is Jerez. It was first known as Xera and by the time that Arabic was spoken in Spain it had mutated to Sherrish. Here we have a curious evolution of the name. In modern Spanish it derived to Xerez-Jerez. Jerez became famous overseas for its' wine which became a luxurious drink in northern Europe. Merchants from Britain came to enrich themselves on the trade, but found themselves unable to properly pronounce Xerez; instead of “Jerez” they would say “Sherry”...And the word stuck. Today the city is Jerez, and the wine Sherry. South from Cádiz, and often visible from Rota on clear days, is the white-washed hilltop town of Medina Sidonia. It was founded some years later that Cádiz by Phoenitians from Sidon, hence the “second-name” and until the Muslim conquest it simply was known as Sidon, or Asido. Under Muslim rule the city received the title “Madinah”, meaning “city”. After the Christian conquest not only did “Medina-Sidonia” continue in usage but was elevated to be the head of one of the most
important dukedoms in Spain; “el ducado de Medina-Sidonia y condado de Niebla. Near to Rota, and home to many Americans, is Chipiona. Although it might seem an unimportant coastal resort town, Chipiona has been vital for centuries to shipping. It guards the entrance to the Guadalquivir River, and to mark that, it has the highest lighthouse in Spain. That lighthouse is a modern one dating from 1867, but is a worthy heir to the one built in 140 BCE by the Roman pro-consul Quintus Servilio Caepio. The lighthouse became known as “Turris Caepionis” -the tower of Caepio- evolving later on to Chipiona. With the fall of the Roman Empire in the West in 476 CE and the Germanic invasions which swept through Spain, most cities were abandoned as organised government crumbled. By 711 several tribes had ruled over Spain, the most important of which was the Visigoths and their kingdom based in Toledo; however, their time had come. Profiting from a civil war in Spain, the Muslim Berbers of North Africa sent an army across the Strait, making landfall on what they called “the Rock of Tarik”, Gebal at-Tarik; today the British occupied Gibraltar. Just across the bay from Gebel atTarik there was a wooded island that quickly became a great harbour and shipyard for the invaders.The Arabs called it “the green isle” or Al-yazira al-hadra.Al-Yariza eventually became Algeciras and still is one of the mayor ports of Spain. As the Muslim conquerors moved north they renamed most places to better suit their Arab language. In some places only changing the pronunciation -Corduba became Qurtuba, today's Córdoba- but in others the old names were sent to oblivion. The river known as Baetis in Antiquity was seen by the conquerors as “the great river”. It was second to no other river in Andalusia; hence
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they began referring to it as Al-Wadi al-Kabir... Guadalquivir. Guadalquivir means exactly the same as many other rivers in the world such as the Ohio, Rio Grande, or Yangtsí. After 500 years of Arabic-speaking rule in Andalusia, Muslim power began to crumble after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. A coalition of three Christian kingdoms smashed the almohad armies forcing their retreat to Morocco. Portugal, Castile-León and Aragon all built upon the victory conquering city after city with little or no resistance with the exception of Seville. By 1275 even Algeciras had fallen and the long frontier between Castile and Granada arched like a crescent across Andalusia. That frontier gave name to many cities and towns: Jerez de la Frontera, Arcos de la Frontera, Conil de la Frontera, Chiclana, Jimena, Castellar, Aguilar, Morón... All these places became border outposts in a war that would still last until 1492. If you get a modern map of Andalusia and find all the towns named “de la Frontera” you can actually mark what was the dividing line between East and West for 300 years. A place that could have been “de la Frontera”, but wasn't was Alcanatir. Alcanatir in Arabic means “Harbour of the Salterns” and referred to today's El Puerto.After the Christian conquest, the Castilian king Alfonso X renamed it as Santa María del Puerto; several “reconquered” places received similar names: Santa Maria do Faro, Santa María del Mar... With time the name changed itself around to El Puerto de Santamaría. Still, all were not Christian victories. In the highlands of upper Andalusia the Moorish kingdom of Granada held out defiant, and the old Roman town of Laccipo was a spearhead into Castilian territory.Time and time again Castilian armies assaulted the city which is dug into a canyon, and time and time again they failed to take it. Seven times
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they met with defeat! So low was the morale that Christians began referring to this place as “Septem Nihil”, that is “Seven-Nothing”. When the town was finally conquered in 1484 the name Setenil de las Bodegas was used to rename it. But, why “de las Bodegas”? Well, the caves that humans had dug into the canyon for their houses were great for storing foodstuffs as they never changed their humidity nor their temperature.“De las Bodegas” means “of the cellars/stores”. But, “what about Rota?” you may ask. Surely it cannot simply come from the Spanish word for “broken”. Rota historians have traced back several names for the town, the oldest of which is the pre-Roman “Astaroth”; some have hypothesised that it means in ancient Iberian “The harbour of Asta”. Asta, or Hasta, was a disappeared city west of modern-day Jerez. The Roman name “Speculum Rotae” has also been considered, although no translations of the name really make much sense. After the Muslim conquest, a fortified Islamic monastery -a “rabita”- was built where the Castillo de Luna now stands. Rabitas were commonplace on the coasts of Muslim realms and many modern places in Spain are still named after them. La Rabida in Huelva, La Rápita in Tarragona, Arrábida in Portugal... or even Rabat in Morocco. Our rabita was named Rabita ar-Rutta; meaning “Rabita of the Frontier”. After the Castilian conquest the name was shortened to Rotta and later to simply Rota. Curiously enough, today Rota is still a “border town” because of the Naval Station. A border of shared life between two cultures that -in my understanding- feed back and enrich each other. José Antonio de Pilares firstname.lastname@example.org
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January 16, 2014
Who was Dr. Martin Luthe Story by A.M. Ávila / Photos by Dick DeMarsico, World Telegram staff photographer
r. Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American clergyman, political activist, humanitarian, and leader in the AfricanAmerican Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience.Although he was born Michael King, his father changed both his name and his son´s, in honor of the German religious reformer Martin Luther. Dr. King helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. On October 14, 1964, Dr. King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In the final years of his life, he expanded his focus to include poverty and the Vietnam War. On April 4th, 1968, Dr. King was planning a nationwide protest, to be called the Poor People´s Campaign, when he was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor Dr. King. It was observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, and it is called Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. This national holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of Dr. King's birthday, January 15th.” The preceding paragraph is a summary of information that I found on the Wikipedia internet site. Although it is accurate, it does not come anywhere near to describing the life of an amazing American. Volumes have been written about this great man. Attempting to summarize his life and his achievements, in a short article such as this, would be a disservice to those who want to know more about him and, in my personal opinion, a dishonor to his memory. Accordingly, I thought about how best I could attempt to demonstrate who Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was and the reason why we will honor him on this January 20th. After having looked at some of his written work, I thought that a good start would be
to quote some of those profound words that he is remembered for. There is no doubt that those words are apt for pondering in today´s world of conflict and turmoil. There is also no doubt in my mind that these words are the result of deep reflection based on true intellect, and that this type of understanding only comes from experiencing the harsh reality and the great beauty that exists, ironically at the same time, in our world. If we are to honor Dr. King, perhaps the best way is to ponder on the thoughts of this great man and to realize what it was that he sought to do with them. About Equality: I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’ Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream, 1963. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream, 1963. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. Martin Luther King, Jr. About Education: To save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction. Martin Luther King, Jr., The Purpose of Education The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. Martin Luther King, Jr.,The Purpose of Education Intelligence plus character--that is the goal of true education. Martin Luther King, Jr., The Purpose of Education Rarely do we find men who willingly engage in hard, solid thinking. There is almost a universal quest for easy answers and half-baked solutions. Nothing pains some people more than having to think. Martin Luther King, Jr., About Racism and Nonviolence: I refuse to
January 16, 2014
er King, Jr.?
accept the view that mankind is so tragically bound to the starless midnight of racism and war that the bright daybreak of peace and brotherhood can never become a reality. Martin Luther King, Jr., Nobel Price Acceptance Speech Nonviolence means avoiding not only external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. You not only refuse to shoot a man, but you refuse to hate him. Martin Luther King, Jr. Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that. Martin Luther King, Jr. About Poverty: The curse of poverty has no justification in our age. It is socially as cruel and blind as the practice of cannibalism at the dawn of civilizationâ€Ś. The time has come for us to civilize ourselves by the total, direct and immediate abolition of poverty. Martin Luther King, Jr., Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? 1967. LifeÂ´s most persistent and urgent question is: what are we doing for others? Martin Luther King, Jr. About Courage: Our lives begin to end on the day that we become silent about things that matter. Martin Luther King, Jr. Faith is taking the first step even when you donÂ´t see the whole staircase. Martin Luther King, Jr. The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy. Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1977, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was posthumously awarded to Dr. King by President Jimmy Carter. The citation read: "Martin Luther King, Jr., was the conscience of his generation. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet."
January 16, 2014
Happy New Year to All! by Karen Lucas / Photos provided by La Rotonda & TK3 Here is hoping that the New Year is off to a good start for all of you. As always, we will try to keep you informed of what is new and going on in the local area and we welcome any news you may want to share with other. Cervecería La Rotonda The New Year brings a new ad: Cervecería La Rotonda in Rota. It is open from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m. and serves breakfasts, meals and tapas. It is located across from the Carefour store as you come into Rota from the industrial area. Some of the specialties you will find at La Rotonda are tenderloin
with Pedro Ximenez sauce or cheese sauce, chicken with mustard sauce, garlic shrimp and shrimp a la crema de jabugo – shrimp with a cream sauce and pieces of ham. There is a big variety of tapas and you will always feel welcome. Give it a try! Molly Malone Tomorrow night, January 17th, Molly Malone is hosting a new, exclusive theme night. Get ready for a mouth watering, juicy, tremendously appetizing explosion of flavors! Life is complicated enough so take time out and enjoy this new theme night. If you are wondering what the theme is, you need to go to find out! Surprises are fun so don’t miss out.
TK3 – Beach Bar – Cocktail Lounge TK3 is also a new ad since it has only appeared in the last paper of 2013 and now in the first of 2014. TK3 is the only bar right on the beach in Puerto; Calle Goleta, 40 in El Manantial. It is a very inviting and relaxing place with the sound of the ocean in the background. It’s a great place to “mellow out”.
Giovi Giovi, the gift shop located in La Plaza on base, has good news for its customers! During January and February, there is 30% off everything in the shop. Stop by and pick up some of those things you have wanted and now can get at a reduced price. Shamrock Spice up your Wednesdays! Shamrock now offers hot & spicy nights every Wednesday. Also, they cater for parties so keep that in mind. Anything you want us to pass along? Let us hear from you about your favorite places or coming events. We do like hearing from you! Send an e-mail to Karen@ coastline.e.telefonica.net or give a call to 607-564132. Support your paper by supporting the advertisers.
XXIII FIESTA DE SAN ANTÓN; Sunday 26 January Program: 10:00 : Registration of pets 11:00 : Judging in all classes begins 14:00 : Benediction of all animals 14:15 : Training exhibition by Club K2. 14:45 : B.I.S choice. 15:00.:Awarding of prizes and qualifications to the participants ALCALDE FELIPE BENÍTEZ THEATER Family Theatre, The Valiant Little Guy in "The Lost Treasure" 21:00, Sunday, 26 January Entrance: 3€ + 1 free child. Ticket office is open Monday to Friday from 18:00 to 20:00 and two hours before the show. Avenida San Fernando, s/n. Tel.956 810022. Web: www.aytorota.es ASOCIACIÓN EN RUTA; 07:30 Saturday 18 January The Old Mill Trail Route.Alcala de Guadaira Leaves from the Mayeto Park in Rota with breakfast on the road. Cost is 12 euros for members and 17 euros for non members This route is of medium difficult, we go 8.2 km along the bank of the Guadaira river and it's mills. We stop for a sandwhich at the recreation zone and later visit the Castle of Marchenilla and the partk of the Rivera (river bank). Information: Recinto Deportivo “La Forestal” Monday to Thursday from 17:30 to 18:30 Tel.: 619 958 214. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Blog: www.asociacionenruta.blogspot.com. Sunset Walk Walk the bridges in the pine forest of Rota, a natural area with high ecological value Days: Tuesday at 19:00h Price: 1 € It’s necessary to pick up a ticket at the tourist information office. Botanical Garden “Celestino Mutis” from Tuesday to Sunday, from 10:00 to 14:00 and again from 16:30 to 18:30 Guided tours of the Luna castle Saturdays and Sundays at 13:00 and 19:00, prior reservation needed (call 956 84 63 45 or email email@example.com) Flea Market Saturdays 10 a.m. to 2
p.m. in the Central Market. To get a table, you must sign up previously in the bar in the Central Market. Flea Market Sundays 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Calle Sargento Céspedes, Chorillo Beach
PUERTO DE SANTA MARIA
Fiesta de San Antón; 18 & 19 January in Las Dunas Park starting at 10:00. Concert of `VARGAS BLUES BAND´ in Sala Milwaukee; 23:30, Saturday, 18 January Avenida Baja Mar, 10 Entrance is 12 € in advance and € at the door (includes one drink) Concert by the group TANGARIA in Sala Milwaukee; 23:00, Friday, 24 January Entrance 6 euros Concert of the `THE SMOGS´ in Sala Milwaukee; 23:30, Saturday, 25 January 60's and 70's singing band in the mod-eyé style advance ticket sales at: Restaurante 24hDiner - Tel: 956 540 914 SHORT WEEK- International Short Film Festival; 23 - 26 January 300 Short films from all over Spain, Japan, Argentina, Germany, Russia, France and the USA, for more information: www.shortyweek.com/ Poker Tournaments at the Casino Casino Bahía de Cádiz; 21:00, Thursdays Casino Bahía de Cádiz - Camino del Juncal, s/n FORTY FIVE 45'S 21:00, every Sunday. Buy-in: 45€ + 5€. 4.000 points. Freezout limited seating. Inscriptions: Daily at the Casino from 20:00 or via credit card at www.pokercomar.com, up to one hour before the tournamentw Guided Tour, Path of the Senses This 4 and ½ hour tour explores the origins of the Sherry wines of El Puerto and it´s progress from the vine to the barrel. Oenologists meet you, after a short bus trip, at a vineyard in the countryside and explain how the vineyard operates, later at the bodega a wine tasting accompanied by tapas and an explanation of the elaboration process, this last taking place in the famous Caballero bodega. Reservations: 649 882 288 - 956 853 960, www.rutadelossentidos.
Navy Lodge Donates Toys to Jerez's Hospital
Located in Champions on Base · 956 825 608 · OPEN: 11:00 – 19:00 Mon.- Sat.