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Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee Point - Camdale Coastal Reserve

Bushways Environmental Services –Tasmania


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee Point - Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Author “Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania” Helen Morgan and Anna Povey, 175 Glenford Farm Rd, Underwood TAS 7268. Email: bushways@intas.net.au Mobile: 0429 197 671 © Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania 30th October 2009 Prepared for: Cradle Coast Natural Resource Management, A business unit of the Cradle Coast Authority P.O. Box 338, Burnie TAS 7320.

Acknowledgements This project is supported by Cradle Coast NRM, through funding from the Australian Government’s Caring for our Country. Bushways thanks the following people who provided assistance or were consulted in the preparation of this report: Anna Wind, Cradle Coast NRM; Simon Crombie and Lexie Paul, Cooee to Camdale Coastcare Group; Patrick Earle, Burnie City Council; Perviz Marker, Penguin Monitoring Group; Drew Lee, DPIPWE; Alex Buchanan, Tasmania Herbarium; Peter Hefferon and Mark Fordham, Parks and Wildlife Service, DPIPWE.

Mapping data in this draft has been taken from the TASMAP Series, DPIPWE Natural Values Atlas, The List, TASVEG, and field work conducted by Bushways.


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Table of Contents Summary ........................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 Background......................................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Description of the study area ............................................................................................... 6 1.3 Location map ...................................................................................................................... 7 1.4 Little Penguin life cycle and habitat use ............................................................................... 7 2 Survey Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 9 2.1 Background research .......................................................................................................... 9 2.2 Vegetation survey and Little Penguin habitat assessment .................................................... 9 2.3 Limitations .......................................................................................................................... 9 3 Site Assessment ........................................................................................................................... 10 3.1 Vegetation communities .................................................................................................... 10 3.1.1 Coastal scrub ............................................................................................................. 10 3.1.2 Coast Wattle scrub ..................................................................................................... 11 3.1.3 Saltmarsh .................................................................................................................. 11 3.1.4 Marram grassland (introduced)................................................................................... 11 3.2 Little Penguin habitat......................................................................................................... 12 3.3 Plant species of conservation significance ......................................................................... 14 3.4 Fauna species of conservation significance ....................................................................... 14 3.5 Weed invasions................................................................................................................. 14 4 Threats to Little Penguin Habitat and Management Recommendations .......................................... 16 4.1 Native vegetation loss and degradation ............................................................................. 16 4.2 Weeds .............................................................................................................................. 17 4.3 Climate change and sea level rise ..................................................................................... 18 4.4 Erosion ............................................................................................................................. 19 4.5 Dog and cat control ........................................................................................................... 20 4.6 Access tracks and recreational use ................................................................................... 21 4.7 Rubbish tipping (including garden refuse) and litter............................................................ 21 4.8 Tree removal and pruning ................................................................................................. 21 4.9 Fire ................................................................................................................................... 22 4.10 Water quality ................................................................................................................... 22 4.11 Works in Little Penguin colonies ...................................................................................... 22 5 Management Zones and Actions ................................................................................................... 24 5.1 Management zones........................................................................................................... 24 5.2 Summary of on-ground priority actions .............................................................................. 25 5.3 Management actions ......................................................................................................... 27 5.3.1 Habitat restoration at Cooee Point and Camdale ........................................................ 27 5.3.2 Revegetation.............................................................................................................. 28 5.3.3 Weed control.............................................................................................................. 29 5.3.4 Dog control ................................................................................................................ 30 5.3.5 Track closure ............................................................................................................. 30 5.3.6 Monitoring .................................................................................................................. 31 5.3.7 Community involvement ............................................................................................. 32 5.4 Management Zones 1 and 2.............................................................................................. 33 5.5 Management Zones 3 and 4.............................................................................................. 34 5.6 Management Zones 5 and 6.............................................................................................. 35 6 Strategic Priorities ......................................................................................................................... 36 7 References ................................................................................................................................... 37 8 Appendices ................................................................................................................................... 39 Appendix 1 Native plants found Camdale-Cooee..................................................................... 39 Appendix 2. Plants suitable for revegetation ........................................................................... 40 Appendix 3 Threatened flora previously recorded within 5 km of site. ...................................... 41 Appendix 4 Threatened fauna known or possible on site ......................................................... 42 Appendix 5. Birds of the area .................................................................................................. 43 Appendix 6. Weeds found at Camdale-Cooee. ........................................................................ 44 Appendix 7. Some native species that resemble weeds........................................................... 45 Appendix 8. Weed control recommendations........................................................................... 46 Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 3


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Summary Cradle Coast Natural Resource Management, through Caring For Our Country funding, engaged Bushways Environmental Services - Tasmania to provide a penguin management plan for Little Penguin habitat from Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve in northern Tasmania. The coastal reserve includes penguin habitat area managed by the Burnie City Council. The coastal reserve is a narrow strip of foreshore between the Cam River mouth and Cooee Point, bounded by the railway line and the Bass Highway. There is evidence that Little Penguins currently use most of the study area as habitat. In this highly urbanised landscape, the very narrow coastal strip remaining here is critical habitat for this species (and others). Penguins could occupy almost all of the larger and high priority sites, Cooee Point and Camdale, if fences were moved further back from shore and more habitat plants were restored. Considerable rehabilitation has been undertaken by the Cooee to Camdale Coastcare Group throughout the existing vegetation in the study area, with the majority of effort focused at Camdale and Cooee Point. Penguin fencing has been installed with significant benefits, especially along the railway line. There is further work to be done on fencing for optimum habitat provision at Cooee and Camdale. Threats to Penguin habitat were identified during the survey and from discussion with local people and experts. Sea level rise is a major factor likely to impact a high proportion of the Little Penguin habitat on this narrow site, with associated issues such as erosion, loss of habitat and increased storm water flows. Other issues include proposed developments, limited area of habitat, human disturbance, dog control, weed invasions, tree removal and pruning of vegetation, informal tracks through the habitat area and fire threat. Further threats to penguins were identified as potential predation by cats and competition from rabbits, litter and water quality issues. Works of any kind in Little Penguin habitat may be disturbing unless implemented strategically with respect for the penguins’ life cycle and seasonal stage. Management recommendations are made according to current knowledge regarding penguin behaviour and include proposing further habitat restoration, dog restrictions, track rationalisation, weed control, monitoring, community involvement and liaison with stakeholders. Six management zones have been defined based on environmental characteristics, habitat condition, habitat recovery potential and the actions required to improve penguin habitat considering the major impacts identified and likely to occur. Recommended actions for all zones include:  protection of existing native vegetation,  weed control,  continuing and maintaining revegetation,  closure of informal tracks,  review and enforcement of the current dog policies,  cat management,  controlling littering,  increasing community involvement and  carrying out monitoring programs. Throughout the area it is important to also consider and protect other fauna (especially threatened and protected wildlife such as shorebirds and Eastern Barred Bandicoots). The highest priority sites were identified as Cooee Point and Camdale, with highest numbers of penguins and the most likely areas to provide future habitat considering the effects of sea level rise. Cooee Point and Camdale are critical for penguins, especially given the extreme narrowness Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 4


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

of habitat elsewhere in the study site. Of these, Cooee Point is especially important for long-term habitat as it is higher and firmer ground than the rest of the site (and much of the coast in this area), therefore probably less vulnerable to shoreline recession. A section of Ocean Vista was also identified as a high priority for habitat protection and rehabilitation. 

Management Zone 1: Camdale – mostly good native vegetation and penguin habitat Priority actions: move fence further back to increase penguin habitat, restore penguin habitat and protect from development, weed control, maintain penguin protection fence, maintain and continue revegetation with more Coastal Saltbush and Tetragonia, install more artificial burrows, increase dog control and signage, install educational signage.

Management Zone 2: Camdale Beach – Marram Grass-dominated vegetation Priority actions: maintain and continue revegetation, control weeds, improve dog signage and discourage informal beach access with signage.

Management Zone 3: Ocean Vista – good native vegetation although narrow and weedy in places. Priority actions: protect and maintain good vegetation areas, maintain revegetation, control weeds, revegetation with Tetragonia on banks, close informal tracks, improve dog signage.

Management Zone 4: Narrow, eroded zone Priority actions: Plant vigorous natives to maintain banks, possibly requires erosion control works.

Management Zone 5: Cooee Beach – Marram Grass with scattered native vegetation (Same as zone 2) Priority actions: maintain and continue revegetation, control weeds, improve dog signage and discourage informal access.

Management Zone 6: Cooee Point – good habitat from native vegetation and restoration work Priority actions: move fence further back to increase penguin habitat, revegetate new larger habitat areas, modify fence where necessary, monitor penguin movement, install more artificial burrows, install educational signage, weed control, increase dog control and signage, cat control, protect habitat for Eastern Barred Bandicoots.

Strategic Priorities have been identified as: 1. Negotiate to secure expanded Penguin habitat areas at Cooee and Camdale 2. Maintain existing revegetation across the site (e.g. address fallen guards, control weeds around plantings) 3. Survey penguins across the site, and particularly at Cooee where they have been accessing the saleyards (recently removed). 4. Move fences at Cooee and Camdale to increase Penguin habitat (and accommodate the results of above surveys). 5. More revegetation, especially at Cooee and Camdale. 6. Construct and place more artificial burrows, especially at Cooee and Camdale 7. Target isolated and notable bad weeds across the site. 8. Involve the community by – providing educational signage (e.g. for penguin information, better viewing practices and dog control) – conducting community events, etc.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

1 Introduction 1.1 Background Cradle Coast NRM1 engaged Bushways Environmental Services - Tasmania to provide a management plan for Little Penguin habitat between and including Cooee Point and Cam River Coastal Reserve in northwest Tasmania. The study area is coastal reserve leased from the Crown by Burnie City Council. This penguin management plan identifies threats and sensitive areas for the Little Penguin colony and provides management recommendations and zoned work plans based on a broad vegetation and fauna habitat assessment of the coastal reserve. The plan refers to Guidelines for Works in Areas of Little Penguin Habitat (Marker and Wind, revised 2008) and the Guide to Rehabilitation by Drew Lee, Marine Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries and Water (2003). It is prepared with reference to the Nature Conservation Branch Brief for Consultants (Lawrence, 2004), and in liaison with specified stakeholders. 1.2 Description of the study area The Cooee Point and Cam River Coastal Reserve is located on the North West coast of Tasmania, 3-6 kms west of Burnie. Most of the study area is vegetated with native coastal scrub with some areas dominated by Marram Grass. South of the reserve is the Bass Highway and railway line, an industrial zone and residential area. The area has a northerly aspect and the Cam River enters Bass Straight at the western end of the reserve. The area can be found on the Burnie TASMAP 1:25000 map sheet no: 4045. It is an important recreational area and has high scenic values for residents and visitors. It is utilized by Cooee Primary and Burnie High Schools. As the north coast of Tasmania is a popular tourist destination, it must be acknowledged that this area has significance for locals, national and international visitors. A location map of the area is overleaf.

1

Cradle Coast NRM operates as a business unit of the Cradle Coast Authority

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

1.3 Location map

1.4 Little Penguin life cycle and habitat use Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) are the smallest penguins in the world and, fortunately, a considerable number of their colonies exist along the North West, North, East and South coasts of Tasmania (Watts 1999, Marker and Wind 2003). Little Penguin colonies occupy a wide variety of habitats including rock crevices, deep burrows or simply scrapes in the sand beneath a dense vegetation canopy. Their habitat often extends from near the coast line, to over 100 metres above sea level (a.s.l.), and many colonies occupy the offshore islands of Tasmania (Pemberton et al. 2001). Fig 2 Little Penguin (photo by Anna Wind)

Little Penguin habitat generally occurs in coastal vegetation dominated by native plant species such as Boobyalla (Myoporum insulare), Coastal wattle (Acacia longiflora subsp. sophorae), Bower Spinach (Tetragonia tetragonoides), Coastal saltbush (Rhagodia candolleana) and Native fuchsia (Correa alba and C. backhouseana). Nevertheless, Little Penguins have regularly been recorded utilising habitat dominated by introduced species such as African boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum), Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), Mirror bush (Coprosma repens), and Cape ivy (Delairea odorata). Hence, weed management in Little Penguin colonies must allow for this, as Little Penguins may make use of any suitable habitat whether it is dominated by weeds or native plants (Marker and Wind 2003). Adult birds may be present in a colony at any time throughout the year, although their numbers generally fluctuate in response to various stages of their life cycle. Pairs of birds breed annually and a clutch of two eggs may be laid as early as May, or as late as November. Male penguins return to the colony to renovate or dig their burrows between May and August, and as the female birds return, mates are chosen through noisy male courting displays. While Little Penguins select a single mate, they may not remain paired Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 7


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

for life. An adult pair share incubation shifts of one-two days and hatching usually takes place within 33-37 days. At three to five weeks old the chicks are left unguarded by parents and at night can be seen outside burrows waiting to be fed. At an age of seven to eight weeks the chicks are ready to take to the sea where they will mature and then return to their original colony to begin breeding as young two year old birds. Once chick rearing is complete adult birds return to the sea to feed for about 15 -21 days before returning to commence moulting. Moulting takes place between February and April and can take up to 15 days to shed the old feathers and grow their replacements. During this time the penguins remain entirely in their burrows or on land, living off their food reserves (Marker and Wind 2003).

Fig 3 Little Penguins moulting (photo by Anna Wind)

Little penguins are most susceptible to human disturbance during the chick raising and moulting periods. Furthermore, survey results have indicated that breeding in the colonies can be quite variable, reflecting variations in seasonal conditions and food supply. Hence, there is often only a small window of opportunity to undertake works such as revegetation, weeding and construction in little penguin colonies.

Fig 4 Penguin Life Cycle Calendar

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

2 Survey Methodology 2.1 Background research A Natural Values Report was conducted through the Natural Values Atlas (DPIPWE, August 2009) for all threatened flora and fauna records within 5 kilometres of the site, as well as TASVEG communities. “Tasmania’s Threatened Fauna Handbook” (Bryant & Jackson 1999) was used to identify any other threatened fauna found within the area of the Burnie mapsheet 4045 that would be likely to occur in the study site. On site meetings were held with Anna Wind, Cradle Coast NRM, Patrick Earle, Burnie City Council, Simon Crombie, Coastcare volunteer, and Perviz Marker, Penguin Monitoring Group. 2.2 Vegetation survey and Little Penguin habitat assessment Field surveys were conducted on 25th August and 1st September 2009 by Helen Morgan and Anna Povey. Vegetation communities and major flora species, including weeds, and the general condition of the vegetation were identified. Evidence of Little Penguins including burrows, feathers, tunnels, tracks, carcasses and scats, were noted during the course of the survey. Issues arising from recreational use and other threats to vegetation and Little Penguin habitat were noted. Data (unpublished) from past Penguin counts was provided by Perviz Marker. Particular attention was paid to the apparent areas of Little Penguin habitat and the type and distribution of impacts including weeds, dog and cat control, informal tracks, erosion and loss of native vegetation. Ecological vegetation communities were described according to TASVEG Version 1.0 classifications (Harris & Kitchener 2005). All botanical names are in accordance with the recently updated “A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania” (Buchanan, 2008). Locations were recorded with a handheld GPS, using datum WGS84 (equivalent to GDA94). 2.3 Limitations Determining burrow or population density of the Little Penguin colony on this site is beyond the scope of this project. However, once knowledge and data pertaining to these is available it may be necessary to review the management aims and recommendations made in this document to ensure best possible outcomes for the penguins. A survey of this type can be expected to identify the vegetation communities and most vascular plant species. However the flora survey was not intended to be comprehensive, and any sampling technique is limited in what can be recorded during one or two visits. Some species vary in abundance from year to year. In particular many orchids emerge in different seasons or sporadically under conditions as yet poorly understood. Bryophytes and lichens were not surveyed. No threatened lower plants were recorded on the Natural Values Atlas as occurring within 5 km. A full fauna survey was not carried out.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

3 Site Assessment 3.1 Vegetation communities The native vegetation here is very limited and largely consists of past and recent revegetation. No native vegetation at all has been mapped here by TASVEG. However, very small remnants do exist of Coastal Scrub (TASVEG code SSC) and Saltmarsh (AUS). In addition, although much of the Coastal Wattle Scrub (SAC) here appears to have been planted in the past, it is possible that some is natural remnant. The revegetation that has occurred here recently and in the past has consisted largely of appropriate local native species, such that the developing vegetation resembles natural Coastal Scrub and Coastal Wattle Scrub. If this is continued, more of the area will be returned to a semi-natural state. Due to the presence of the Bass Highway and railway along the coast, and a long history of development and urban areas, there is almost no remnant coastal vegetation nearby. The nearest mapped coastal vegetation is a tiny area of Coastal Scrub some 5-6 km southeast at Wivenhoe Beach, and a small area some 6 km northwest at Doctors Rocks. Although the native vegetation on this study site is small, it is as significant as any coastal vegetation in the wider region. Habitat for penguins (and other fauna) in coastal vegetation is clearly very constrained in this region. Most of the narrow strip between the beach and the railway line and road in this area supports introduced Marram grassland, with scattered native plants and other weeds amongst it. There is a small area of weedy Mirror Bush-dominated scrub on the north-eastern part of Cooee Point. The native plant species found across the site (both naturally occurring and planted) are listed in Appendix 1, with introduced plants listed in Appendix 6. The vegetation communities are described in summary here. 3.1.1 Coastal scrub Boobialla, Coast Wattle, Coast Beardheath, Seabox, Coast Saltbush, Bower Spinach, Native Pigface, Bracken, Kidneyweed, Australian Saltgrass and Spreading Flaxlily are some of the plants which grow in Coastal Scrub here. Where there are wet seeps, there are small clumps of Swamp Paperbark and some rushes. Figure 5 A narrow track passes between Coast Beardheath and Seabox on a Coastal Scrub knoll.

Coastal Scrub on a rocky knoll just west of Cooee Point is a lovely, though tiny, natural remnant which can be used as a guide for revegetation in the area. Other patches of Coastal Scrub include some planted areas and some which may have occurred naturally. Such patches exist at Ocean Vista and the western part of Cooee Point. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 10


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

3.1.2 Coast Wattle scrub This vegetation is similar to Coastal Scrub but is more dominated by Coast Wattle and Boobialla. On sites with mobile sand, Coast Wattle tends to dominate because of the difficulties for other species to establish. In places here, Coast Wattle and Common Boobialla probably dominate because they were the major species planted and successful. Around Camdale the fenced areas are now Coast Wattle Scrub, and there are smaller clumps of Coast Wattles within the Cooee Marram Grassland.

3.1.3 Saltmarsh A tiny remnant of saltmarsh can be found at the northeast corner of Cooee Point, on the edge of the tidal Zone. This patch has succulents Beaded Glasswort and Southern Seablite, as well as Creeping Brookweed (pretty white flowers) and Coast Speargrass, Australian Saltgrass, Coast Sawsedge and other smaller sedges.

3.1.4 Marram grassland (introduced) Introduced Marram Grass dominates much of this coastal strip on the dunes, particularly along Camdale Beach and Cooee Beach (and is also present in smaller amounts within the small areas of native vegetation which do exist). Within the matrix of Marram Grass there are scattered native plants as well as scattered other weeds. Some of the native plants found in this grassland include Coast Wattle, Coast Saltbush, Bower Spinach, Native Pigface, Knobby Clubsedge, Sea-celery, Kidneyweed, and Buzzy. Other native plants which may occur naturally or which have been planted include Boobialla, Coast Teatree, Velvet Correa and White Correa. Some of the other weeds found throughout these Marram grasslands include Sea spurge, Mirror Bush, South African Daisy, Purple Ragwort, Blackberry and introduced Pigface (probably Chilean Pigface).

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

3.2 Little Penguin habitat In this highly urbanised landscape, the very narrow coastal strip remaining here is critical habitat for Little Penguins (and other species). Little Penguins nest in burrows in banks above the high tide mark, under vegetation and in rocky crevices (pers com. Perviz Marker). From Camdale to Cooee Point penguin habitat occurs mostly in vegetation, with some rocky habitat at Cooee Point, and habitat under saleyards. Tunnels and burrows were found in Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach. There were some tracks on the beach and scats on rocks and in understorey litter, while feathers and nests were found occasionally throughout the site. Fig 6 Moulted feathers in the saleyard habitat.

Little Penguins use most or all of the study area as habitat, favouring the native vegetation areas, with more evidence recorded at Cooee, Camdale and Ocean Vista than in the Marram dominated areas in between. At Camdale, 52 Penguins were counted coming ashore during one hour on 15th January 2006, resulting in a population estimate of up to 104 birds at that time (P.Marker, unpublished data). At Cooee Point, a total of 132 Penguins (adults and chicks) was counted on 13 th January 2009, with the heaviest concentration around the saleyard areas – a full population estimate would be higher than this (P. Marker, unpublished data). A number of artificial burrows have been placed throughout the area, many of which show signs of use. Some of these in the eroding areas have been broken or washed away but many are still available as habitat. Erosion and sea-level rise are likely to continue to reduce the habitat available to Penguins between the penguin fence and the shoreline. Fig 7 Natural and artificial burrows in native vegetation, Zone 3 at Ocean Vista

In previous years the saleyards were favoured by penguins, with many burrows under the edges of the concrete, before fencing reduced (but did not eliminate) access and then demolition removed the habitat. One penguin was found in September this year (2009) occupying a nest under the saleyard concrete at Cooee (see image front cover) with a cracked, deserted egg found 1m away. The recent saleyard demolition works had left broken concrete and considerably increased potential habitat with many more holes in the slab. This concrete is to be removed completely. Fig 8 Little Penguin egg found near saleyard slab.

It is clear that penguins have been accessing the saleyards, presumably from some part of the unfenced area on Cooee Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 12


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Point. Monitoring penguin movement here is recommended to gain knowledge of where they are moving and how many penguins are involved. It is likely that the removal of the saleyards will change penguin use of the site. A penguin fence has been installed between the vegetation and the railway line from Cooee Point to Camdale to prevent penguin deaths on the road and railway line. At Camdale the fence has defined the car park area and penguin habitat. Previously penguins used to occupy more land at Camdale, as they could get through the old fence, but the new fence limits their habitat here (P. Marker, pers.comm.). There are some burrows south of this fence, which may still be used by penguins getting over or around the fence or under gates. The fence terminates at the western end of Camdale, and it is thought that Penguins get around this end. It is possible that some Penguins could reach the railway line and road this way. It is desirable to move this fence back both for increased habitat area now and as sea level rise encroaches further. In places fallen trees and weeds are growing over the fence which requires maintenance. The habitat at Camdale could be further enhanced with revegetation and more artificial burrows. At Cooee Point the penguin habitat is excellent, although very limited in width, with past restoration efforts being beneficial for the penguins, and this is apparently the most used habitat in the study area. At Cooee Point too, Penguins used to occupy a larger area before the penguin fence was constructed (P. Marker, pers.comm.). The saleyard was a favoured habitat, but access has been greatly restricted by the fence. The fence here has caused some issues for the penguins, such as trapping birds on the wrong side of the fence, separating parents from chicks and there is potential for increased predation by dogs through the corralling effect. These issues and others at Cooee were outlined in the report Bushways produced in June 2009 for Burnie City Council; Cooee Saleyards Penguin Habitat Management Plan. This report assessed penguin habitat and made recommendations on mitigation of impacts to the penguins of the proposed saleyard demolition. Since then the saleyards have been partially removed and the Council has obtained a permit to destroy penguin habitat in order to complete the works. Penguins could occupy almost all of these high priority sites, Cooee Point and Camdale, if fences were moved further back from shore and more habitat plants were restored. Many threats to penguin habitat were identified during the survey and in discussion with local people and experts. These are discussed in more detail in Chapter 4.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

3.3 Plant species of conservation significance No threatened flora species were found on site, but Island Purplegrass could exist here. Coastal Tussockgrass (a non-threatened variety of the same species) is found here, along with other native tussock grasses. As these plants differ only in finer features, it is possible that the threatened variety exists here in low number. Threatened flora species that were recorded as occurring in the vicinity are listed in Appendix 3. Some threatened plants, especially orchids, may not have been visible at the time of the surveys, but most are unlikely in such an altered environment. 3.4 Fauna species of conservation significance Little Penguins are not listed as threatened but are considered of high conservation significance, and are protected by legislation (Nature Conservation Act 2002). Bandicoots are found at Cooee; probably the Eastern Barred Bandicoot which is listed as Vulnerable under national legislation. Their diggings are visible in the grassy area next to the saleyards. This species forages in open grassy areas for invertebrates etc, but shelters in dense understorey. It is important that habitat is retained for this species and not to plant out its favoured grassy areas with shrubs. Shorebirds such as Pied Oystercatchers and Red-capped Plovers occur here (survey results, and P. Marker, pers.comm.). Pied Oystercatchers are generally declining in numbers due to disturbance while nesting (Lawrence, 2004). Other shorebirds such as Hooded Plovers and migratory birds listed under international agreements are subject to similar threats and may also occur in the study site. Birds which have been recorded in this area are listed in Appendix 5. All these fauna species should be considered during management of the site. Threatened fauna species that were recorded as occurring in the vicinity are listed in Appendix 4. Most of these, apart from Eastern Barred Bandicoots, are unlikely in such an altered environment, although White-bellied Sea-eagles, Tasmanian Devils and Spottedtailed Quolls could forage here occasionally. Rufous wallabies have also been occasionally seen on the beach. 3.5 Weed invasions Weeds were noted throughout the site during the survey, (see Appendix 6 Weed List) and those recorded are mapped in the management zones (see Section 5). Some weeds on site, such as Mirror Bush, may be important for Little Penguin habitat either by providing shelter and refuge from predators or nesting sites beneath foliage and roots. Weeds are also playing a role in controlling erosion in places. However native species, such as Coast Wattle, Bower Spinach and Coastal Saltbush, appear to be more effective both as Penguin habitat and erosion control. The most established weeds in the penguin habitat areas include Marram Grass, Sea Spurge, Mirror Bush, Cape Ivy, South African Daisy, Purple Ragwort and Chilean Pigface. There are many other weeds that presently exist in smaller numbers but have high Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 14


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

invasive potential, including Blackberry, African Boxthorn, Cape Wattle, Rambling Dock, Soursob and Myrtleleaf Milkwort. Isolated or patchy occurrences of weeds are noted on Management Zones Maps, to assist with location and control. Some weeds are widespread across much of the site, so all locations could not be marked individually (e.g. Sea Spurge, Purple Ragwort, etc). The work of the local Coastcare group is to be credited for keeping many weeds under control and in small numbers.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

4 Threats to Little Penguin Habitat and Management Recommendations 4.1 Native vegetation loss and degradation The coastal vegetation is critical as habitat for the Little Penguin. The introduced Marram Grass which otherwise covers this site is not favoured by Penguins; although it is occasionally used, native vegetation is clearly preferred. A primary aim should be to maintain a natural canopy and understorey cover and diversity, thereby providing the habitat niches and structure required for penguin habitat. Additionally, aim to retain and enhance maximum width and connectivity of vegetation wherever possible to provide optimum refuge and nesting areas. Maintaining the good condition areas and working out from these to the surrounding areas is a high priority. Some sections of the coastal reserve are in good condition, at Cooee Point, Camdale and Ocean Vista, and these should be maintained as a priority. Fig 9 Excellent native vegetation and Little Penguin Habitat at Ocean Vista. Dense Bower Spinach and Coastal Saltbush cover the ground, providing burrow sites. Coast Wattle and Boobialla provide wind protection and canopy.

Loss of native vegetation has occurred as a result of multiple degrading and interactive forces including past clearing, fragmentation, erosion, weed invasion, removal of vegetation for views, lopping and pruning etc. Fragmentation, weed invasion and erosion are insidious while others may result from a single event such as fire and storm surge erosion. Revegetation has been carried out with considerable success. Further activities including maintenance of past works and continuing with planting are recommended. Allowing natural regeneration wherever possible is a good option. Ensure Eastern Barred Bandicoot habitat is retained – do not plant more into their favoured grassy foraging areas at Cooee (between the saleyards and the railway line). Plantings elsewhere, however, will help provide cover for this species, provided some open grassy areas are retained within this area for foraging. Weed control planning should consider prevailing winds, storm conditions and other disturbances likely to impact the vegetation structure if weeds are to be removed. During works retain existing native vegetation and avoid damage. Fallen branches, dead limbs on living trees, dead standing trees and fallen logs are important wildlife habitat and should be retained as much as possible. Public awareness-raising and promoting community involvement will assist successful outcomes.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Areas to be targeted as a priority for revegetation include Cooee Point and Camdale (zones 1 and 6). Ocean Vista (zone 3) revegetation would focus on replacement of weedy areas, to reinforce the good native vegetation and Penguin habitat here. There are areas recommended in Chapter 5 for revegetation in all management zones. Ongoing revegetation into the Cooee and Camdale marram zones will improve habitat in these areas. Revegetation may be done at the narrow and eroding Zone 4 as a means of slowing the rate of erosion. Local native plants and plants suitable for penguin habitat should be utilised. 4.2 Weeds Weed invasion is one of the greatest threats to dry coastal vegetation in Tasmania (Kirkpatrick and Gilfedder 1999) and to the long term health of this reserve at present. Weeds invade by wind and animal vectors, by spread of garden plants, through dumping of garden refuse and other rubbish, and through transport on vehicles of seeds and vegetative material. Weeds recorded in the study area are mapped as indications of weed distribution and occurrence but this is not a complete record. Weeds are listed in Appendix 6 and recommendations for weed control are in Appendix 8. Note that there are some native species which resemble weeds but should be avoided. These are listed in Appendix 7. Marram grass is dominant in continuous swathes in places and scattered along the foreshore throughout the site. Sea Spurge is being controlled to some extent but also occurs along the entire foreshore. Blackberry is being controlled but will need persistence and follow-up to maintain control. The storm water outlets are a hot spot for weeds, and there are clumps of dominant South African Daisy and Cape Ivy in places. Some weeds provide nesting habitat for Little Penguins, offering protection from predation and control erosion in places. Issues such as whether to remove them at all, the timing of removal and techniques for removal must be considered carefully prior to works. Fig 10 Revegetation in a Cape Ivy infestation in Zone 3. Works should continue here with maintenance of revegetation and connection over time to the native vegetation either side of the weedy area. Staged removal of the Cape Ivy as revegetation establishes will ensure habitat remains intact. Recommend additional plantings of Bower Spinach here.

Do not remove weeds that are clearly established as penguin habitat but do remove young weeds that are not yet developed as habitat. For example, African Boxthorn is here represented only by a handful of small shrubs in zone 3 (Ocean Vista). Although at other sites this weed can be Penguin habitat, here it is too small to provide such habitat and should be removed as soon as possible. Another example is Mirror Bush, which should be removed wherever seedlings are found. Clumps of Mirror Bush which are providing habitat should be gradually replaced by native vegetation. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 17


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

4.3 Climate change and sea level rise This area is likely to be affected by sea level rise and climate change in ways that we cannot be certain yet. The vulnerability to climate change of the North West Tasmanian coastline and infrastructure has been assessed (Sharples 2006) and flooding and erosion due to sea level rise and storm tides are identified threats. Most of the site is classified as “open sandy shore backed by soft sediment plain – potential erosion and shoreline recession vulnerability” (Sharples 2006). Only Cooee Point is different; “Vulnerability unclassified – requires site-specific assessment of vulnerability or otherwise”. Being slightly higher ground than the rest of the site and having heavier soil and rocks, it is likely to be less vulnerable. There is little that can be done under this management plan to address climate change, but awareness of the potential issues may influence prioritisation of other actions. For example, identifying higher sites for long term habitat provision and protection of the dune vegetation is even more important given its vulnerability to erosion. Fig 11 Incoming tide at Camdale 25/8/09. The waves were reaching the penguin fence at the car park.

The rocky nature of Cooee Point and its higher elevation makes it the priority site for penguin habitat in the future considering potential threats to the lower sandy habitats from sea level rise, storm surge and associated erosion. Camdale and parts of Ocean Vista have a role to play in future habitat but these areas are lower and likely to be subject to the affects of sea level rise sooner than Cooee Point. Cooee Point appears to currently be the most penguin-inhabited area and has potentially more space for penguin habitat for longer into the future than the rest of the study area. However, the present fence line will need to be moved further back to allow a greater area for habitat restoration, along with revegetation and artificial burrow installation. It is likely that the penguin colony will expand in this area given the opportunity, especially after the recent loss of habitat in removal of the saleyards. Given the narrowness of habitat from Cooee to Camdale and its vulnerability to sea level rise, Cooee Point, and in the shorter term Camdale, have the only potential for habitat expansion in this area.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

4.4 Erosion Erosion is currently evident throughout the site where high tides and storm events are eroding the foredunes, even under existing vegetation. Erosion was less in areas that are protected by the rocky foreshore, such as parts of Camdale, Ocean Vista and Cooee Point. On sandy beaches erosion was more active. In places (all of Zone 4 and sections of Zone 3) the remaining vegetation is extremely narrow, only 12 metres in width, and the banks so steep that penguins would have difficulty negotiating them. Fig 12 Narrow banks are vulnerable to considerable erosion, but native plants help to reduce this.

In many places it is clear that native plants, such as Coast Wattle, Bower Spinach and Coastal Saltbush, are better at reducing erosion than Marram Grass. These plants, with their trailing branches and roots, also appear to provide access potential for Penguins which have trouble scaling tall sandy banks. Fig 13 Coast Wattle patches have less erosion than surrounding Marram areas. Some tracks indicated that Penguins are scaling the bank at these patches, using trailing branches and roots for grip.

Erosion has the potential to thwart natural regeneration and revegetation attempts and reduce existing habitat for Little Penguins. It is recommended that artificial burrows are not positioned too close to the high tide mark. Fig 14 Artificial burrow displaced by erosion.

Storm water outlets are likely to develop as erosion points due to debris accumulation and blockages. Little Penguins have also been noted to nest in storm water drains opposite Young’s Vegie shed.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Fig 15 Storm water outlet blocked by high water debris

Sea level rise will continue to enforce the effects of erosion but in the meantime some actions can be carried out to promote habitat as long as possible. Closing informal tracks, restricting random access to the dunes from the beach and strengthening dune vegetation with revegetation will assist in reducing the effects of erosion. It may be necessary in some places to reinforce bank stability by undertaking erosion control works (e.g. jute matting).

Fig 16 Debris dumped from high tides in revegetation area at Camdale.

4.5 Dog and cat control Dog control is an important management issue for the Little Penguin colony as evidenced by dog kills of 12 birds last summer on Ocean Vista (pers. com. Perviz Marker) and at West Ulverstone in January 2009, which reduced the penguin population by an estimated 50% (The Advocate 20.1.09). Public access with a dog to this reserve is regulated by the Dog Control Act 2000 and the Dog Control Regulations 2001, which are administered by the Burnie City Council. Dogs are prohibited from accessing all of the Cooee Point to Camdale area. The 'dog exercise areas', are Cooee Creek Beach (from Saleyards to Cooee Creek), South Burnie Beach (east of the Yacht Club bund wall and to the Emu River), Yacht Club Beach (restricted access) and Tioxide Beach. Public education regarding dog access laws within the reserve have been conducted by the Burnie City Council at several levels. Signage has been erected at the majority of formal access points. However, in spite of this, the effectiveness of current dog regulations remains questionable, as dogs have been regularly sighted frequenting the no dog zones. Dog control signage needs to be clear and well situated.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Cats, both feral and domestic, are a potential threat to the penguin colony. Cat owners need to keep their cats at home. Feral cats are trapped and removed whenever possible by the Coastcare Group. 4.6 Access tracks and recreational use Formal accesses are situated at Camdale, Cooee and Ocean Vista, totalling nine. There are many informal tracks through the scrub at Ocean Vista that are unnecessary and contributing to erosion, weed invasion and habitat loss. The vegetation is narrow in these places and could easily be planted and signed to remind people to use the formal access. Inappropriate penguin viewing can create problems for the penguins with disturbance from bright lights, noise and the sight of humans. Recommendations include the provision of educational opportunities for residents and visitors and advice on how to view penguins with minimal disturbance, promoting the nearby Burnie Penguin Centre. 4.7 Rubbish tipping (including garden refuse) and litter Litter and rubbish, including garden refuse was apparent, to a small degree, throughout the coastal reserve. This is unsightly and is also a threat to Little Penguins, their habitat and natural regeneration. Garden clippings can lead to weed invasion, plastic bags, bottles and tins can harm penguins. Include this issue on interpretation signs to raise awareness and ask people to take their rubbish with them and not dump garden waste. 4.8 Tree removal and pruning Lopping of vegetation occurs along the railway line annually as part of their maintenance program. Over-zealous maintenance activity has occurred here; removing excessive vegetation and reducing its viability and robustness, potentially allowing weed species to become more vigorous as a result. Railway authorities should be communicated with to ensure they understand the significance of this vegetation, its importance to Little Penguin habitat and the aims of the Penguin Management Plan. It is critical that maintenance is not undertaken during penguin moulting and nesting season and so timing of works is avoid these periods is very important. Illegal removal of trees may be occurring for views. This removes habitat, increases light levels to the understorey and exposes the dunes to wind, and can increase weed invasion and dieback. It can also result in increases in noise and wind for local residents. Liaison with the land manager, and awareness-raising of these issues is recommended, through signage, letter box drops and field days.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

4.9 Fire Any bushland has the potential to burn. Coastal vegetation is especially vulnerable to bushfire due to the dryness of the environment, the volatile oils in the salt hardy plants, and often windy conditions. The Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit (Kirkpatrick & Gilfedder 1999) recommends that fire be excluded from coastal vegetation. Random access and proximity of the bush to urban areas increases the risk of accidental fire, arson, and intentional burning off. Fire had burnt much of the Camdale Marram area recently, and is an ever present risk in Australia. Every effort should be made to avoid fires in coastal vegetation. 4.10 Water quality As previously mentioned, storm water pipes have been constructed to feed storm water out to sea from the nearby roads and residential area. This may be an issue for the penguins if the storm water is not treated or filtered. Oils, plastics, sediment, pesticides, detergents, paints, petrol and nutrients may be flushing out to sea and impacting penguins. Aim to ensure that no untreated waste or storm water is piped out to the sea. An oiled penguin was rescued last March 2009 from South Burnie Beach and taken to rehabilitation (Anna Wind pers. comm.) 4.11 Works in Little Penguin colonies Works, including revegetation and weed control, can cause disturbance to Little Penguins during their breeding and moulting seasons. Timing of works in penguin colonies will need to coincide with the least sensitive periods within their life cycle and there will only be small windows of opportunity to conduct works. Breeding and moulting are the most sensitive times for penguins so avoid works within these times. Plan to undertake works from May to July. Have the site checked by a Biologist from the Biodiversity Conservation Branch or a Parks and Wildlife Ranger to be sure of the birds’ activity stage at that time (Marker and Wind 2003), as it can vary from year to year Weed removal must be considered carefully as weeds may be providing or protecting habitat. Penguins are known to nest under Cape Ivy, Blackberry and Mirror Bush and all these are on site and in areas where nests occur. Removal techniques can ensure that least disturbance occurs:     

Kill weeds in situ, leave roots in the ground and leave the dying tops standing and plant quick growing native climbers like Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach at the base. Be sure, with this method, to cut, bag and remove from the site fertile vegetative parts like flowers or seeds. Dispose of them properly. Hand-pull weed seedlings before they grow and become an issue. Plant a vigorous native in place. In areas where weeds are dense, plan staged control so that there is minimum disturbance to canopy and habitat. Replant natives where weeds have been removed at the same time. Do not use chemicals before checking that there are no penguins present. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 22


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

   

Use specific chemicals and preferred methods like cut and paint, drill and fill, and frilling. Always adhere to safety directions and application rates (follow the herbicide label) Avoid foliar spraying as much as possible. If foliar spraying is used, do so in windfree conditions, using a careful operator so that there is no risk of spray drift affecting surrounding natives or penguins. Follow-up control will be necessary as some vigorous weeds can reshoot.

Revegetation should be planned specifically for penguin habitat requirements:   

Plant using penguin habitat species (see Appendix 2) propagated from local seed. Plant species similar to those present in surrounding penguin habitat. In burnt sites, plant vigorous climbers, Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach, near remaining stumps and branches as frames for understorey canopy. Plant taller shrubs also, for canopy and increased shelter.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5 Management Zones and Actions 5.1 Management zones Management Zones have been defined based on topographical and vegetative characteristics, habitat condition, habitat recovery potential and the kind of actions required to improve penguin habitat. Fig 17. Map of management zones

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee Point - Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5.2 Summary of on-ground priority actions Table 1. Management Zones Zone

Current Condition

Zone 1 Camdale

GOOD - Revegetation has been carried out here successfully, but area is limited in width. Good penguin habitat exists here and can be enhanced with understorey plants. Proposed rehabilitation area will become good habitat with supplementary plantings. POOR – Marram grass is dense and eroding banks are high. Revegetation is in need of maintenance and enhancement.

Highest Priority

Zone 2 Camdale Marram

Zone 3 Ocean Vista High Priority

FAIR - Intact native vegetation, Some weedy areas that can be improved. Some erosion from sea and informal tracks, but rocky shoreline helps protect the coast.

Penguin Habitat Recovery Potential EXCELLENT – If further habitat is provided, understorey is planted, weed control practiced, informal tracks closed.

Priority Actions

MODERATE – Planting penguinfriendly species into marram will increase habitat, and strategic plantings may help with erosion. Weed control around storm water outlets will prevent these areas from becoming more of a weed source. GOOD – If revegetation and weed control practiced and informal tracks closed.

1. Continue revegetation 2. Maintain past revegetation 3. Weed control, especially around storm water outlets 4.Continue Sea Spurge and Blackberry control 5. Increase dog control and signage 6. Discourage informal access

1. Move fence further back to increase habitat area 2. Protect existing native vegetation 3. Close informal access by finishing penguin fencing at the western end 4. Install more artificial burrows 5. Increase dog control and signage, continue revegetation in open areas 6. Conduct maintenance on penguin fence and revegetation 7. Continue weed control, especially Sea Spurge and Blackberry

1. Protect existing good native vegetation 2. Weed control 3. Plant vigorous natives into weedy areas. 4. Close and rehabilitate informal access 5. Increase dog control and signage


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Zone

Current Condition

Zone 4 Narrow and eroding

EXTREMELY POOR – Very narrow vegetation and steeply eroding banks.

Zone 5 Cooee Marram

Zone 6 Cooee Point Highest Priority

Penguin Habitat Recovery Potential POOR - Unlikely to provide long term habitat considering rate and intensity of erosion and narrowness of site.

Priority Actions

POOR - Mostly Marram Grass with scattered clumps of coast wattle.

MODERATE - If revegetation and weed control carried out. Maintenance and follow-up weed control will be critical to success.

1. Continue revegetation 2. Weed control 3. Educational signage 4. Increase dog control and signage

GOOD – Some well established revegetation and artificial burrows in use as habitat, but area limited in width.

EXCELLENT- If habitat restoration, revegetation and weed control is continued and maintained. Rocky headland and elevation will protect the area from sea level rise for some time. This area is the highest priority for penguin habitat.

1. Move fence further back to increase habitat area 2. Continue revegetation and maintenance 3. Ongoing weed control 4. Increase dog control and signage 5. Monitor penguin movement onto headland from the sea

1. Plant vigorous natives (such as Coast Saltbush and Bower Spinach) 2. If erosion control works are to be carried out, also plant vigorous natives

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5.3 Management actions 5.3.1 Habitat restoration at Cooee Point and Camdale Penguin habitat restoration can be achieved by revegetating with penguin friendly native plants and installing artificial burrows in places where penguin habitat expansion will occur. (“Igloos� appear to be the most successful according to Drew Lee, pers. comm., although rock slab burrows are favoured at Cooee according to Lexi Paul, pers.comm.) Zone 6 Cooee Point and Zone 1 Camdale are highest priorities for habitat restoration given the threats of sea level rise. Significant habitat loss is already occurring in Zones 25. Cooee Point There is a lot of space on the western side of Cooee Point suitable for habitat restoration, leaving the eastern portion for other land uses. 1. The penguin fence in Zone 6 will need to be moved inland to allow for greater habitat expansion (see map). 2. Extend fence to include coastal vegetation on northeast side of Cooee Point. 3. Revegetate the new areas. Predominantly low-growing plants such as Coastal Saltbush can be used so that views are retained. 4. Monitor the movement of penguins across unfenced area. 5. Install ramps into fence line to give trapped penguins an easy exit route. Obtain advice regarding the best design and locations for ramps. 6. Monitoring the movement of penguins in unfenced areas is important to establish numbers and guide further management regarding fencing and habitat requirements at Cooee. 7. Retain some open grassy habitat for Eastern Barred Bandicoots. 8. Install educational signage about habitat restoration, responsible penguin viewing, dog control etc. Fig 18 Proposed habitat restoration area on the western side of Cooee Point. This would increase penguin habitat by 0.6ha, retain habitat for the Eastern Barred Bandicoot and provide a lovely natural area.

Camdale There is space on the eastern and western side of Camdale suitable for habitat restoration, leaving part of the existing car park area for other land uses if necessary. 1. The penguin fence will need to be moved inland to allow for greater habitat expansion (see map). This will close an informal access so a gate could be placed for walkers and fishers. 2. Continue revegetating area with penguin friendly plants, install more igloos. 3. Replace woody weeds and lawn with native plants. 4. Install educational signage about habitat restoration, responsible penguin viewing, dog control etc. Fig 19 Proposed rehabilitation site at Camdale. Native Poa grasses are already providing some habitat. Further plantings, installing igloos and weed control will have great benefit for penguins. This site provides an excellent opportunity for community involvement and education.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5.3.2 Revegetation Revegetation is recommended for all zones, to be done in stages during May to July according to penguin sensitivity. It should be integrated with the weed removal program and done in liaison with stakeholders. Priority sites for revegetation are Cooee Point and Camdale. The species in Coastal Scrub should guide revegetation efforts. The characteristics of each site, such as type of soil and level of moisture, will determine the most appropriate species and which are hardiest. A mix of plants should be used, as they have various values for coastal stability and shelter, and for habitat for other fauna as well as penguins. For example, although Coast Wattle does not appear to be favoured by penguins (perhaps because of the openness at ground level below its dense canopy), it is a very drought-hardy plant, provides wind shelter and a better microclimate for other plants, helps slow erosion, and provides food for insects etc. Appendix 2 is a list of suitable local native species and penguin friendly plants. Key points for successful revegetation:  In pasture grass sites, spot spaying prior to planting will be necessary as grass is a very strong competitor. Spot spray 1 metre around where the plant will go.  In Marram Grass sites, plant into bare patches, or spotspray or dig to create a 1 metre bare area. Continue to remove Marram Grass that grows into plant guards, until plants are well established.  Water plants well following planting.  Planting should be done from autumn to early spring, to ensure adequate soil moisture during establishment.  When planting, ensure that the plant’s roots are deeply planted, sand/soil is firm around the plant, and ideally a small “dish” remains in the soil surface, to assist water penetration to the plant.  Stake and guard plants against browsing and wind damage to ensure success.  Monitor survival and plan future plantings accordingly.  It is not advisable to plant Coast Tea Tree everywhere, even though a native, as it can be invasive. Useful for planting into Marram.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5.3.3 Weed control There are weeds in these communities in all the management zones but control and eradication will be more easily achieved in zones 1 and 6 than the other zones. In zones 1 and 6 weeds are scattered as isolated individuals and, when removed and replaced with native habitat plants, the habitat in these areas will be in good condition. Individual weed control methods are detailed in the Weed Management Table (Appendix 8), and it is important that any weed control is performed in adherence with the guidelines outlined in section 4.14 (Works in Little Penguin colonies). Generally, it is important that isolated weed individuals are targeted first, rather than attempting to control large clumps of weeds growing amongst native vegetation. These are to be controlled strategically by killing individuals using the appropriate methods and leaving them in-situ. Native species should then be planted in their place. If the weed is obviously critical as penguin nesting habitat (indicated by the presence of scats, feathers, burrows, runways – e.g. climbing weeds like Cape Ivy are likely to be providing penguin habitat) use the cut-and-paint method to maintain the structure of the vegetation and plant penguin favourites such as Bower Spinach and Coastal Salt Bush to revegetate the site. Additionally, it is important to assess the susceptibility of a site to erosion and particular care should be taken when controlling weeds that are growing in erosion prone areas. Preferably, revegetation with native species should be performed in erosion prone sites prior to weed removal. If this is not possible then the weeds should be removed incrementally and native plants planted in their place. Foredune weeds Marram Grass, Sea Spurge and possibly Sea Wheat Grass occur here. Refer to Cradle Coast NRM Beach Weed Strategy. These three weeds are the most devastating weeds found on Tasmanian beaches (Rudman 2003). Foredune weeds are common throughout the coastal reserve in all management zones. In Zones 2, 4 and 5 the Marram grass occupies the majority of the foredune, creating an almost continuous swath of weed-dominated vegetation. All the other management zones have a scattered distribution of these weeds. Sea Spurge control has been carried out with successful results but will need maintenance. Controlling Marram Grass and Sea Wheat Grass has proven to be very difficult, and most management recommendations simply say that the best control method is to prevent population expansion through maintaining healthy native vegetation condition and to control small isolated populations and those that are newly established (Rudman 2003) (see Weed Management Table Appendix 5 for further details regarding control methods). Planting penguin-friendly natives into the Marram Grass and then ensuring follow up maintenance for their best chance of survival is recommended. When planting into a Marram Grass area, it is a good idea to plant into bare patches or to dig and remove the Marram Grass rhizomes from a patch before planting. Marram Grass can provide some nesting habitat for Little Penguins, but does not seem to be favoured. The primary management aim for foredune weeds should be to ensure that they do not invade the native scrub vegetation, which appears to be preferred penguin habitat. Weed proof matting can be used in Marram Grass if necessary for penguin runs, ensuring runways are available from the beach to nesting habitat (Lee 2003).

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5.3.4 Dog control It is necessary to increase the level of dog control in all areas, as some people are evidently ignoring the current signs. Communication with dog owners and users of the reserve will need to be increased and targeted towards improving dog control. Signage for dog control needs to be clear and located in effective positions. Holding “Dogs Breakfasts� has proved successful in raising awareness of dog control on beaches.

5.3.5 Track closure In Zones 1 and 3 there are several informal walking tracks recommended for closure. This will require signage, fencing in Zone 1, replanting, weed control and community cooperation not to continue using them.

Fig 19 End of penguin fence in Zone 1 near the bridge allows access for people and penguins. If the fence is extended or moved, a gate may be needed for walkers and fishers.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5.3.6 Monitoring There is always an immense amount of monitoring that could be undertaken to better inform projects such as this. Monitoring is important for providing baseline information and to show trends over time. It can be invaluable to guide the progress of projects as well as measuring achievements. Effective and meaningful monitoring requires dedication over time and collection of sound data that can be stored and used later. For this management plan there are several parameters that could be monitored to give useful information. The scope of monitoring, however, may be more than volunteers can manage so prioritising monitoring efforts will probably be necessary. Expert advice and support from the Biodiversity Conservation Branch, Parks and Wildlife and Penguin Monitoring Group should be sought for Little Penguin monitoring. Monitoring of the Little Penguin population and the way in which they use habitat would provide valuable information to guide management of the habitat area. Examples:  The numbers of penguins and how they use the habitat area  Movement from the sea to habitat areas especially at Cooee Point  Density and distribution of burrows  Locations of runways and tunnels  Preferred vegetation structure and species for nests. Variables to monitor for habitat condition could include: Track recovery:  Establish photo points and take photos of site before and one year after track closure. Erosion:  Establish photo points and take photos of sites on an annual basis, as well as recording any catastrophic event.  Measure eroding rates with stakes (but not in volatile areas where more damage may occur from the stake). Weeds:  Take photos of site before, during and after weed control activity.  Take notes of species and extent of weeds and of native vegetation before weeding.  Keep records of weed control methods used, especially any herbicides used.  Inspect sites annually, take photos, and program follow-up weed control. Revegetation:  Keep records of plants planted, site preparation, date, and other notes.  Take photos of site at planting and as plants grow.  Check weed growth in early spring, especially around each plant.  Check survival of plants (e.g. after summer). Consider cause of deaths and replant if possible. Plan management and re-plantings accordingly.  Take photos of site as plants grow.  Remove guards once plants are established. Habitat condition:  Photos can be taken every five years of various representative sites (fixed photo points are particularly useful for comparison), and notes taken of apparent condition. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 31


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

For measures of bushland condition such as species diversity, structural complexity, and regeneration of trees and shrubs, various simple monitoring methods are available. Bushways can assist with setting up monitoring systems.

Pest animals:  Rabbit presence, numbers and burrow density and distribution.  Cats trapped, numbers and locations, feral or domestic.  Dogs on site, off lead or unattended. Water quality monitoring:  Storm water and the Cam River - liaise with Burnie City Council and Cradle Coast NRM regarding current water quality monitoring procedures and further opportunities for monitoring storm water and the Cam River or for accessing existing data. 5.3.7 Community involvement Community involvement is already effective here as evidenced by the involvement of Cooee to Camdale Coastcare Group, Cradle Coast NRM, Burnie City Council, Parks and Wildlife Service, North West Coastcare Association of Tasmania and the Penguin Monitoring Group in the development of this penguin management plan. Rehabilitation of penguin habitat and revegetation has been carried out successfully and community involvement should be encouraged and supported to continue protecting and conserving Little Penguin habitat in the area. News stories, field days, educational events will all help to involve and maintain community interest. Involve local people in special events and related project activities such as bird surveys, working bees, monitoring activities, etc. Letter box drop to local residents about the Penguin Habitat Management Plan and include brochures like “Creeping Backyards”, “Coastal Weeds of the Cradle Coast Region” and “Grow Local”. Interpretation signage about sensitive bird habitat should be installed at several strategic points, eg: Cooee Point, Cooee Car Park, Ocean Vista and Camdale. Better penguin viewing practices could be encouraged by a sign at the informal viewing site at Ocean Vista. For example the sign could recommend: - Wear dark clothes - Red cellophane over torches makes a less disturbing light - Be as quiet and still as possible - Visit Burnie Penguin Centre Habitat rehabilitation signs should be placed where informal tracks are closed and revegetation is continuing, along with clear “no dogs” signs.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve September 2009

5.4 Management Zones 1 and 2 Actions Zone 1 Camdale 1. Move fence further back to increase habitat area 2. Protect existing native vegetation 3. Close informal access by finishing penguin fencing at the western end 4. Install more artificial burrows 5. Increase dog control and signage, continue revegetation in open areas 6. Conduct maintenance on penguin fence and revegetation 7. Continue weed control, especially Sea Spurge and Blackberry

Actions Zone 2 Camdale Marram 1. Continue revegetation 2. Maintain past revegetation 3. Weed control, especially around storm water outlets 4. Continue Sea Spurge and Blackberry control 5. Increase dog control and signage 6. Discourage informal access

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5.5 Management Zones 3 and 4 Actions Zone 3 Ocean Vista 1. Protect existing good native vegetation. 2. Weed control. 3. Plant vigorous natives into weedy areas. 4. Close and rehabilitate informal access. 5. Increase dog control and signage.

Actions Zone 4 Narrow and eroding 1. Plant vigorous natives (such as Coast Saltbush and Bower Spinach) 2. If erosion control works are to be carried out, also plant vigorous natives

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

5.6 Management Zones 5 and 6

Actions Zone 6 Cooee Point 1. Move fence further back to increase habitat area 2. Continue revegetation and maintenance 3. Ongoing weed control 4. Increase dog control and signage 5. Monitor penguin movement onto headland from the sea

Actions Zone 5 Cooee Marram 1. Continue revegetation 2. Weed control 3. Educational signage 4. Increase dog control and signage

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

6 Strategic Priorities For greatest overall effectiveness and to address the most immediate issues, efforts should initially be focussed on the following priorities: 1. Negotiate to secure expanded areas dedicated to Penguin habitat at Cooee and Camdale 2. Maintain existing revegetation across the site (e.g. address fallen guards, control weeds around plantings) 3. Survey penguins across the site, and particularly at Cooee where they have been accessing the saleyards. 4. Move fences at Cooee and Camdale to increase Penguin habitat (and accommodate the results of above surveys). 5. More revegetation, especially at Cooee and Camdale. 6. Construct and place more artificial burrows, especially at Cooee and Camdale 7. Target isolated and notable bad weeds across the site. 8. Involve the community by – providing educational signage (e.g. for penguin information, better viewing practices and dog control) – conducting community events, etc.

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7 References Bryant, S. L. and Jackson, J. (1999), Tasmania’s Threatened Fauna Handbook. Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart. Buchanan, A.M. (2007), A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, Tasmanian Herbarium website, www.tmag.tas.gov.au/Herbarium/TasVascPlants.pdf Cradle Coast Natural Resource Management Committee (2008), Coastal Weed Strategy for the Cradle Coast NRM Region. Cradle Coast Authority, Burnie. DPIW (2005), Threatened Native Vegetation Communities List (Version 6.0). Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, November 2005. Edgar, G.J., N.S. Barrett and D.J. Graddon (1999). A Classification of Tasmanian Estuaries and Assessment of their Conservation Significance using Ecological and Physical Attributes, Population and Land Use. Technical Report number 2. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute. Greening Australia (Tasmania) and the Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Steering Committee, (2005) Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Strategy. Greening Australia (Tasmania) and the Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Steering Committee, Burnie. Guidelines for the Listing of Species under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LBUN-59X7G2?open Harris, S and Kitchener, A (2005), From Forest to Fjaeldmark: Descriptions of Tasmania’s Vegetation. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Printing Authority of Tasmania. Hobart. Kirkpatrick, J.B. and Gilfedder, L.A. (1999), Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Lawrence, N. (2004), Nature Conservation Branch Brief for Consultants. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Lee, D., (2003), A guide to rehabilitation of Little Penguin habitat. Wildlife Marine Conservation Section, Biodiversity Conservation Branch DPIW, Hobart. Marker P. and Wind A., (2003, revised 2008), Guidelines for Works in areas of Little Penguin Habitat. Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment, Tasmania Muyt, A., (2001) Bush Invaders of South East Australia: a guide to the identification and control of environmental weeds found in South East Australia. R.G and F.J. Richardson PO Box 42 Meredith, Victoria 3333 Australia Natural Values Atlas, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Hobart. www.naturalvaluesatlas.dpiw.tas.gov.au Pemberton D., Pryor H. and Halley V. (2001), Tasmania’s Offshore Islands: seabirds and other natural features, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 37


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Rudman T. 2003. Tasmanian Beach Weed Strategy for marram grass, sea spurge, sea wheatgrass, pypgrass & beach daisy. Nature Conservation Report 03/2, Nature Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania Sharples, C., 2006: Indicative Mapping of Tasmanian Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise: Explanatory Report (Second Edition); Consultant Report to Department of Primary Industries & Water, Tasmania, 173 pp., plus accompanying electronic (GIS) maps. The Advocate, Tuesday 20th January 2009, p7, Penguin protection patrols turn high-tech. Thorp, V. (2003), Community Coastcare Handbook – Caring for the Coast in Tasmania. Coastcare Tasmania Watts D.(1999), Field Guide to Tasmanian Birds. New Holland Publishers, Sydney

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

8 Appendices Appendix 1 Native plants found Camdale-Cooee. Survey conducted by Bushways, 25th August and 1st September 2009. Major vascular plants only surveyed. This list includes both naturally occurring and local native plants that have been planted. Key: eT= endemic in Tasmania

Family Species name Broad-leaved plants (DICOTYLEDONAE) Carpobrotus rossii AIZOACEAE Tetragonia implexicoma Apium prostratum APIACEAE Alyxia buxifolia APOCYNACEAE Leucophyta brownii ASTERACEAE Allocasuarina verticillata CASUARINACEAE Rhagodia candolleana CHENOPODIACEAE Sarcocornia quinqueflora Suaeda australis Dichondra repens CONVOLVULACEAE Leucopogon parviflorus EPACRIDACEAE Vicia sp. FABACEAE Acacia longifolia subsp. MIMOSACEAE sophorae Acacia stricta Myoporum insulare MYOPORACEAE Leptospermum laevigatum MYRTACEAE Melaleuca ericifolia Bursaria spinosa PITTOSPORACEAE Samolus repens PRIMULACEAE Banksia marginata PROTEACEAE Acaena novae-zelandiae ROSACEAE Correa alba RUTACEAE Correa backhouseana Dodonaea viscosa SAPINDACEAE

Common name

Status

native pigface bower spinach sea-celery seabox cushionbush drooping sheoak coastal saltbush beaded glasswort southern seablite kidneyweed coast beardheath vetch coast wattle hop wattle common boobialla coast teatree coast paperbark prickly box creeping brookweed silver banksia common buzzy white correa velvet correa broadleaf hopbush

Narrow –leaved plants (MONOCOTYLEDONAE) Ficinia nodosa CYPERACEAE Gahnia trifida Dianella revoluta LILIACEAE Austrostipa stipoides POACEAE Distichlis distichophylla Phragmites australis Poa labillardierei Poa poiformis XANTHORRHOEACEAE Lomandra longifolia

knobby clubsedge coast sawsedge spreading flaxlily coast speargrass Australian saltgrass southern reed silver tussockgrass coast tussockgrass sagg

Ferns (PTERIDOPHYTA) Pteridium esculentum DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

bracken

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Appendix 2. Plants suitable for revegetation Plants in bold are those which should form the bulk of any planting, due to their high suitability for penguin habitat and erosion control. Other plants are important for diversity. Species name Rhagodia candolleana Tetragonia implexicoma

Common name coastal saltbush bower spinach (ice plant)

Myoporum insulare

common boobialla

Correa alba

white correa

Correa backhouseana

Velvet correa

Carpobrotus rossii

native pigface

Lomandra longifolia

Sagg

Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae

coast wattle

Leucopogon parviflorus

coast beardheath

Ozothamnus turbinatus

Coast everlasting

Banksia marginata

Banksia / honeysuckle

Bursaria spinosa

prickly box

Allocasuarina verticillata

Sheoak

Leucophyta brownii

Cushion bush

Leptospermum laevigatum

Coast teatree

Dodonaea viscosa Ficinia nodosa Dianella revoluta and Dianella brevicaulis Austrostipa stipoides and Poa poiformis Poa labillardierei Distichlis distichophylla

Hopbush knobby clubsedge flax lily coast speargrass and coast tussockgrass Silver tussockgrass Australian saltgrass

Comments Excellent penguin habitat understorey plant. Excellent penguin habitat understorey plant. Excellent penguin habitat, but should not be planted everywhere to the exclusion of understorey plants. Prefers moister sites. Hardy shrub once established. Excellent penguin habitat. Hardy shrub once established. Excellent penguin habitat. Dune plant, excellent ground cover. Be sure to propagate Native Pigface, not the larger weed Chilean Pigface. Do not plant near burrow entrances, which can become blocked. Hardy tussock, probably best on heavier soils rather than dunes. Excellent penguin habitat. Excellent shelter. Uncertain penguin habitat and a dominating tree, but an important component of coastal vegetation and useful in harsh, dry sites. Limit plantings of this species and plant more understorey. Hardy once established and provides abundant fruits for birds. Worth persisting with – monitor planting success to learn its preferred sites. Hardy shrub on dunes, good for added diversity. Hardy small tree, most suitable for hind-dune areas such as Cooee and Camdale. Does not provide penguin habitat, but is an important near-coastal tree. Hardy small tree, most suitable for hind-dune areas and rocky sites. Does not provide penguin habitat, but is an important near-coastal tree. Hardy small tree, most suitable for inland areas such as Cooee and Camdale. Does not provide penguin habitat, but is an important near-coastal tree. Lovely grey, compact shrub, suitable in any sunny site. Very hardy shrub. Plant into marram grass areas but not into good vegetation areas where it may replace other native species. Hardy shrub, probably best on rocky sites. Hardy almost anywhere, especially swales between dunes. Hind-dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds Fore-dune plants, excellent ground covers. If available, use to replace foredune weeds Suitable for damper hind-dune areas such as Cooee and Camdale. Dune plant, excellent ground cover. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 40


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Appendix 3 Threatened flora previously recorded within 5 km of site. (Natural Values Atlas August 2009) Species possible on site in bold. Key: Tasmanian status (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995): e = endangered; x = presumed extinct; v = vulnerable; r = rare; pv/pr = protected as vulnerable/rare (This taxon is either a component of a vulnerable/rare taxon, or the name has changed from that which appears in the official legislation.) Commonwealth status (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999): EX = extinct; CR = Critically Endangered; EN = Endangered; VU = Vulnerable.

Scientific name

Common name

Conservation Status State

Glycine microphylla

patersons spiderorchid small-leaf glycine

Poa poiformis var. ramifer

island purplegrass r

r

Podotheca angustifolia

sticky longheads

x

Caladenia patersonii

Comments

Cwth

No suitable near-coastal heathland on site. Not on site. Suitable shoreline dunes and rocky habitats on site and could occur here. Very similar to non-threatened variety (P. poiformis var. poiformis). Sheaths and internodes are often purple in rare variety, and it branches from the lower nodes.

v v

Not on site.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Appendix 4 Threatened fauna known or possible on site Species that have been recorded within 5 km of the site (Natural Values Atlas, August 2009). Species found on site in bold. Common name

Scientific name

Australian Grayling

Prototroctes maraena

Eastern Barred Bandicoot

Perameles gunnii

Giant Freshwater Crayfish Burrowing Crayfish (Burnie) Masked Owl (Tasmanian)

Astacopsis gouldi Engaeus yabbimunna Tyto novaehollandiae castanops

Tas. status TSPA 1995

Cwth status EPBC 1999

v

VU

VU

v

VU

v

VU

e

Swift Parrot

Lathamus discolor

e

EN

Wedge-tailed Eagle

Aquila audax fleayi

e

EN

White-bellied Seaeagle

Haliaeetus leucogaster

v

Spotted-tailed Quoll

Dasyurus maculatus subsp. Maculatus

r

Tasmanian Devil

Sarcophilus harrisii

e

Grey Goshawk

Accipiter novaehollandiae

e

VU

EN

Comments

Known from the Cam River, and likely juveniles in the sea but not on site. Diggings found at Cooee saleyards and is known in area. Leave grassy areas adjacent to dense vegetation for habitat. No freshwater habitat here. No burrows found. Damp habitats. No suitable trees or tree hollows. May feed on Blue Gum blossom here, but trees are probably too small at present. No nesting habitat here. Likely to forage along coastline here, but no suitable nesting trees on site. No suitable forest habitat here. Wide-ranging species, is possible here but unlikely due to urban development and lack of shelter on site. No suitable riparian or forest habitat.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Appendix 5. Birds of the area From the “Ocean Vista to East Cam Native Bird Check List� provided by Lexi Paul. Species Name Anas superciliosa Anthochaera sp. Ardea novaeholandiae Cacatua roseicapilla Calyptorhynchus funereus Charadrius ruficapillus Corvus tasmanicus Diomedea sp. Eudyptula minor Haematopus fuliginosus Haematopus longirostris Haliaeetus leucogaster Larus novaehollandiae Larus pacificus Lathamus discolor Malurus cyaneus Morus serrator Pelecanus conspicillatus Petroica multicolour Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocorax fuscescens Phalacrocorax melanoleucos Phalacrocorax sulcirostris Platycercus caledonicus Rhipidura fuliginosa Sterna bergii Vanellus miles Zosterops lateralis

Common Name pacific black duck wattlebird white-faced heron galah yellow-tailed black cockatoo red-capped plover forest raven albatross little / fairy penguin sooty oystercatcher pied oystercatcher white-bellied sea-eagle silver gull pacific gull swift parrot superb fairy wren Australian gannet Australian pelican scarlet robin great cormorant black-faced cormorant llttle pied cormorant little black cormorant green rosella grey fantail crested tern masked lapwing silvereye

T

eT

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Appendix 6. Weeds found at Camdale-Cooee. Approximate locations are shown on zone maps (sections 5.4, 5.5, 5.6). Common name Trees Cape wattle

Species name

Family

Comments

Paraserianthes lophantha Salix fragilis

MIMOSACEAE

Near Cooee Beach carpark Beside Cam River

Cistus salviifolius Cytisus multiflorus Genista monspessulana Malva dendromorpha Polygala myrtifolia Rosa canina/rubiginosa Rubus fruticosus Coprosma repens Lycium ferocissimum

CISTACEAE FABACEAE FABACEAE MALVACEAE POLYGALACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE RUBIACEAE SOLANACEAE

Camdale carpark Camdale carpark Camdale carpark Cooee Point Occasional Occasional Occasional across site Patchy across site Occasional along Ocean Vista

Groundcovers Chilean / angled pigface

Carpobrotus aequilaterus

AIZOACEAE

hemlock

Conium maculatum

APIACEAE

fennel capeweed Sth African daisy

APIACEAE ASTERACEAE ASTERACEAE

purple ragwort sweet alice/allysum

Foeniculum vulgare Arctotheca calendula Osteospermum fruticosum Senecio elegans Lobularia maritima

Occasional across site. NB Larger than the Native Pigface which is also here. Patch at Camdale. Poisonous! Isolated patches. Occasional Widespread across site.

sea spurge soursob

Euphorbia paralias Oxalis pes-caprae

EUPHORBIACEAE OXALIDACEAE

freesia

Freesia hybrid

IRIDACEAE

agapanthus 3 cornered/ triangular garlic snowflake NZ flax

Agapanthus praecox Allium triquetrum

LILIACEAE LILIACEAE

Leucojum aestivum Phormium tenax

LILIACEAE LILIACEAE

marram grass cocksfoot yorkshire fog buffalo grass

Ammophila arenaria Dactylis glomerata Holcus lanatus Stenotaphrum secundatum

POACEAE POACEAE POACEAE POACEAE

Climbers cape ivy

Delairea odorata

ASTERACEAE

rambling dock

Acetosa sagittata

POLYGONACEAE

crack willow Shrubs rockrose white broom canary broom tree mallow myrtleleaf milkwort sweet briar blackberry mirrorbush African boxthorn

SALICACEAE

ASTERACEAE BRASSICACEAE

Occasional across site. Patches along Cooee Beach Widespread Patches along Cooee Beach Patches along Cooee Beach Patches along Cooee Beach Camdale carpark Isolated plants on Cooee and Camdale Beaches Dense along beaches Dense near urban areas, Cooee Pt, Camdale.

Dense at Ocean Vista, patches elsewhere. Occasional patches

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Appendix 7. Some native species that resemble weeds It is important to be sure of the identification of a plant before removing it as a weed. Below is a selection of native species that are sometimes mistaken for weeds. The Tasmanian Herbarium can assist with plant identification. Plants known to be on site are in bold. WEED Chilean Pigface (Carpobrotus aequilaterus) - is bigger in all parts (leaves 5-10cm) - stamens have yellow filaments Purple ragwort (Senecio elegans)

NATIVE PLANT Native Pigface (Carpobrotus rossii) - leaves 4-6cm - stamens have white filaments Various native Senecios. - None have purple flowers Dune Thistle (Actites megalocarpa, was Sonchus megalocarpus) - perennial with stolons Prickly Box (Bursaria spinosa) - spines delicate and thin, very sharp - flat brown capsules Native Raspberry (Rubus parvifolius) - not currently any on site. Goldentip (Goodia lotifolia) and other bushpeas - not currently any on site. Drupe Bush (Leptomeria drupacea), Golden Spray (Viminaria juncea) and Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada) - not currently any on site. Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata), Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) - not currently any on site. Coast Fescue (Austrofestuca littoralis), Coast Speargrass (Austrostipa stipoides), Coast Tussockgrass (Poa poiformis), Silver Tussockgrass (Poa labillardierei), Spinifex (Spinifex sericeus) - some have runners, some are tussocks. Obtain advice. Australian Saltgrass (Distichlis distichophylla) - fine leaves arranged tightly in opposite rows Coastal Wattle / False Boobyalla (Acacia longifolia ssp. sophorae) - Phyllodes (“leaves”) shorter (50-100mm) and rounder. - Pod twisted when mature

Sow thistle (Sonchus asper) - annual, with taproot - sticky white sap (can irritate skin & eyes) African Box-thorn (Lycium ferocissimum) - spines robust, very sharp - red berries Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.) Canary/Montpellier Broom (Genista monspessulana) English/Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) and White Broom (Cytisus multiflorus)

Cape Wattle (Paraserianthes lophantha) - large feathery leaves fold up at dusk. - flowers resemble bottlebrushes Marram Grass (Ammophila arenaria) - has long runners - very long pointed ligule (membrane where leaf comes away from stem)

Twitch, couch, buffalo grass and other creeping lawn grasses.

Sallow Wattle (Acacia longifolia ssp. longifolia) Often sold as a “native” in nurseries, can become invasive. - Phyllodes (“leaves”) longer (80-200mm) and pointer. - Pod straight when mature.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Appendix 8. Weed control recommendations (Rudman 2003; Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit 2006; Marker and Wind 2003; Muyt 2001) Herbicides include non-selective Glyphosate (e.g. Roundup 速, Weedmaster速, etc) and broadleaf-specific Metsulfuron Methyl (e.g. Brush Off 速, Brush Killer速 etc). Some herbicides come already mixed with a wetting agent (surfactant); others may need a wetter to be added so that the herbicide is absorbed by the plant. Marker dyes can also be useful. Targeted control methods such as cut-and-paint are preferable to foliar spraying which may affect penguins. ALWAYS READ THE LABEL BEFORE USING HERBICIDES AND FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS. ALWAYS FOLLOW BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES. Weed Treatment alternatives Follow up Cape Ivy, Cut-and-paint large vines and those intertwined with native vegetation and leave Dig up new seedlings while Rambling Dock to die hanging. Do not allow stems to contact soil. small. Spray (if clear of native vegetation) or paint foliage with herbicide. Beware of Cut-and-paint or spray regrowth. drips. Broadleaf-specific herbicides (e.g. metsulfuron methyl) tend to have better results and do not affect grasses. Dig up smaller plants, including roots, rhizomes and all tubers. Bag and remove seeds and tubers and dispose of safely. Blackberry, Briar rose

Mirror bush

Cut-and-paint (with glyphosate). Leave to die standing where they are providing habitat and wind protection etc. Foliar spraying: Metsulfuron Methyl is the most effective herbicide to use for blackberry growing within grasses like Marram. Take every care to use away from any wet area and do not risk any run off or spray drift into water or onto native plants. Blackberry control has already been done on site, but is likely to be an ongoing and long term management activity. Establish native vegetation as alternative penguin habitat before removal of large Mirror Bush clumps. Frill-cut and poison larger trees and leave to die standing. This will reduce the risk of fruit or broken twigs re-establishing if removal was attempted and also retain some shelter for penguins while native plants establish. Cut-and-paint smaller plants. Hand pull or cut-and-paint seedlings.

Continue to follow up where needed every year.

Check every year and continue control until all are eradicated. Plant Bower Spinach to climb over dead Mirror Bushes.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Cape Wattle, Myrtle-leaf Milkwort Canary Broom, White Broom, Rock Rose, Tree Mallow, Cordyline Crack Willow

Cut-and-paint with glyphosate. Any ripe pods/seeds should be removed carefully (e.g. in bags).

Boxthorn

Cut-and-paint with herbicide, or drill-and-fill larger plants. Seedlings can be hand-pulled or dug out. NB While boxthorn plants can be penguin habitat, here they are small, isolated and surrounded by native plants. The plants here should therefore be removed ASAP. Dig up and remove. Spray with herbicide. Dig up if possible and remove, ensuring all corms/rhizomes are removed. Spray or wipe with herbicide (wetting agent will be necessary). Bag and remove seeds. NB Agapanthus parts and sap are poisonous and a skin irritant. Dig out small plants, making sure to get all crowns and roots. Cut-and-paint larger plants. Spray (best in winter. Use a marker dye as people may harvest fennel). NB Hemlock is very poisonous! Distinguish hemlock by the purple spots on stems. Spray with glyphosate early in flowering period (late winter-early spring). Never handpull soursob, as bulbils will be dislodged. Three-cornered garlic can be pulled or dug carefully, ensuring all bulbs are removed.

Sth African Daisies Agapanthus New Zealand Flax Freesias Fennel Hemlock

Soursob, Three-cornered garlic (angled onion)

Check for seedlings and regrowth every year and control. Cordyline re-growth may need to be sprayed with herbicide and wetting agent.

Drill-and-fill with herbicide.

Spray regrowth.

Continue every year until eradicated. Control any regrowth.

Monitoring and follow up control will be essential for success. Establish vigorous groundcover such as Bower Spinach to cover bare ground. Control regrowth annually. Will require at least 2-5 years of follow-up.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan Cooee to Camdale Coastal Reserve October 2009

Seaspurge

Marram Grass

Chilean Pigface Sea Wheat Grass

Protective clothing (e.g. gloves) must be worn to protect skin and eyes from the milky sap, which is toxic. Do not allow sap to enter eyes. Start with isolated clumps and eradicate in stages. Small sea spurge infestations can be eradicated by manually removing the plants. Small plants hand pull easily; large plants will need to be dug out. Seedlings may be present in large numbers. These are best left until large enough to pull, but before flowering, or they may be raked or buried. An effective herbicide treatment is available where disturbance from hand pulling is unacceptable. Consult PWS and DPIWE if contemplating herbicide use. Do not control large areas. Control any small infestations in otherwise native areas. Dig out small area of rhizomes to a depth of 50cm if possible before planting native plants into Marram grassland. Not necessary to remove, but dig up any new plants. Ensure revegetation is only done with Native Pigface.

Pull out any plants that appear annually before they seed. Substantial declines in density of sea spurge can be achieved by this method but it may take 3 or 4 years of concerted effort. Occasional seedlings may reappear.

Digging out the rhizomes can control small areas of sea wheatgrass. Care must be taken to remove as much as possible and monitor regularly for re-emerging plants. Effective aquatic registered herbicides are available for use on sea wheatgrass. Contact PWS or DPIW.

Monitor annually for germinating seedlings until no further plants are found for a few years running

Pull up any marram grass invading revegetation plant guards until native plant is well established.

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