Construction Review Africa

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Since 1989

September September 2018, 2018, Vol Vol 29 29 No.9 No.9 Africa's leading construction journal

Kitchen fire suppression Crafting creative floors Surfactant leaching

Corruption in construction An impediment to development




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MANAGING EDITOR Robert Barnes DEPUTY MANAGING EDITOR Francis Makari EDITOR - inEDITOR - CHIEF FEATURES Dennis Ayemba COUNTRY EDITORS Uganda Uganda -- Betty Betty Nabakooza Nabakooza Nigeria Nigeria -- Boladale Boladale Ademiju Ademiju South Africa Jimmy South Africa - Jimmy Swira Swira WRITERS WRITERS Yvonne Yvonne Andiva, Andiva, Dorcas Dorcas Kang'ereha, Kang'ereha, Pascal Musungu, Anita Anyango, Pascal Musungu Moreen Gakii WEB & GRAPHIC DESIGN WEB &Margaret GRAPHIC DESIGN Atieno Margaret Atieno Sales and Marketing Manager Sales and Marketing Ken Okore Manager Ken Okore ADVERTISING ADVERTISING Kenya: William Mutama, Lilian Khavosa, Kenya: William Mutama, Lilian Khavosa, Fredrick Otieno Fredrick Otieno

CON Since 1989

October October 2018, 2018, Vol Vol 29 29 No.10 No.10

Next Issue

Africa's leading construction journal

In the next issue we look at the new Nile Cable Stayed Bridge being built across the River Nile at Jinja in Uganda.

South Africa: Thuli Nkosi, Winnie SentSouth Africa: Thuli Nkosi, Winnie Sentabire, Angeline Ntobeng, abire, Angeline Ntobeng, Uganda: Uganda: Nobert Nobert Turiyo, Turiyo, Selina Selina Salumah Salumah Namuli Namuli Botswana: Botswana: Dickson Dickson Manyudza, Manyudza, Gerald Gerald Mazikana Mazikana Ethiopia: Haimanot Haimanot Tesfaye, Tesfaye, Ruth Ruth Girma Girma Ethiopia: Tanzania: Tom Tom Kiage Kiage Tanzania: Malawi: Anderson Anderson Fumulani Fumulani Malawi: Ghana: Ghana: Samuel Samuel Hinneh, Hinneh, Caleb Caleb Donne Donne Hadjah Hadjah Zambia: Susan Kandeke Zimbabwe: Chiedza Chimombe Rwanda: Collison Lore Nigeria: Seni Bello China:Weng Jie

The editor accepts letters and manuscripts for publication from readers all over the world. Include your name and address as a sign of good faith although you may request your name to be withheld from publication. We reserve the right to edit any material submitted .

Send your letters to: Construction Review is published eleven times a year and is circulated to members of relevant associations, governmental bodies and other personnel in the building and construction industry as well as suppliers of equipment, materials and services in Africa, the Middle and Far East. The editor welcomes articles and photographs for consideration. Material may not be reproduced without prior permission from the publisher. The publisher does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or authenticity of advertisements or contributions contained in the journal. Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the publisher. Š All rights reserved.

REGULARS Editor's Comment 3 Corporate News 4 Association News 5 Events 6 Product News 7 Management 8 Interview


COVER STORY: Focus on Corruption 12 Flooring: Crafting creative floors for commercial spaces 17 Demolition: Proper Planning and Execution of Demolitions 19 SAPOA Awards: The Cream of the Crop 21 Advertorial: A Growing Network 24

Published by Group Africa Publishing Ltd Head Office and for all enquiries: Consolidated Bank House, 4th floor, Koinange Street, Nairobi 00100 Kenya, Tel: +254 772642042, +254-20-2213607 Email: Uganda Agent Projects Unusual Uganda Ltd. Jemba Plaza, Luwum St. Kampala, Uganda Tel: +256 776 883181 Botswana Agent Cadline (Pty) Ltd. P/Bag 494 Gaborone, Botswana.

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September 2018 Volume 29 No. 9

Editor's Comment

Crafting creative floors for commercial spaces

PPPs can be the answer to Africa’s developmental funding headache

A well-designed floor can provide a

Africa is a continent rich in natural resources and boasts a large young, ambitious, and entrepreneurialminded population. Harnessed properly, these endowments and advantages could usher in a period of sustained economic growth and increased wellbeing for all Africans.

wealth of benefits, as its design can help to create a vibrant and engaging customer experience.


However, a lack of modern infrastructural developments is a major challenge to Africa’s economic development and constitutes a significant impediment to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Heard of surfactant leaching?

Given the colossal sums required to fund these developmental projects, an increasing number of countries, notably emerging markets and developing economies (EMDE), are turning to Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in order to tap private capital.

Surfactants influence a range of properties in paint including paint colour and stability, but are not always effective in every application.

Although PPPs cannot fully solve this problem, they can provide significant financing where viable projects are carved out. Despite the fact that some African countries are hesitant to embark on PPPs as a result of prior bad experiences with ill-prepared PPPs or even with less-than competent PPP project sponsors; there are ample PPP opportunities waiting to be realized on the African continent for the benefit of all stakeholders.Governments therefore need to urgently put in place an enabling environment in order to attract more private participation if SDGs are to be met.

28 Air-conditioning: Choosing an air-conditioner and understanding BTU 26 Surfactant: Heard of Surfactant Leaching? 27 Kitchen Fire: Kitchen Fire Suppression 28 Project: Astoria Apartments 30 Project: Gitutho Architects and Planners Ltd 35 years of impeccable service 32

Robert Barnes



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Floor Tazara House

Kenya Agent Northwest Ventures Ltd P.O. Box 16414 - 00100 G.P.O Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 2679808

Rwanda Agent Kolline & Hemed Inc., B.P. 3328, Kigali, Rwanda Tel: +250 03 748106 E-mail: Website:

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Tanzania Agent: Group Africa Publishing Ltd Dar-es-salaam


Cifa and Euromecc join their forces in the batching plants industry

Phanes Group kicks off solar incubator programme in subSaharan Africa Cifa and Euromecc , two leaders in the batching plants industry have entered into a technical, production, and commercial collaboration agreement.

Solar Park in Namibia has installed capacity of 6.5MW which supplies electricity to the largest Namibian cement factory.

GILDEMEISTER energy solutions builds solar park in Namibia

On 26th March 2018, CIFA, a company leader in the design, development, production, distribution, and sales of machinery for the concrete industry and Euromecc, a company specializing in the manufacture of batching plants signed a technical, production, and commercial collaboration agreement within the batching plants industry.

Dubai-based Phanes Group, an international end-to-end solar provider, has announced the 2nd edition of its Solar Incubator programme. The programme is aimed at identifying PV projects of potential in sub-Saharan Africa by providing commercial and technical knowledge support.

In contrast to many other parks of this size, the Ohorongo PV system does not feed the public grid, but directly supplies the neighbouring industrial customer, the largest cement factory in Namibia.

Therefore, the two leaders will provide a complete range of solutions to meet the requests of the most demanding customers and provide a complete service, from the design to after-sales, including installation.

The initiative held under the theme, “Your Project, Our Expertise, For a Sustainable Future”, will be held in collaboration with Hogan Lovells, responsAbility Renewable Energy Holding, RINA and Solarplaza, and invites PV developers to submit proposals for projects based in sub-Saharan Africa that have a clear corporate social responsibility (CSR) component.

20,000 solar modules installed It is a tracked system with an installed capacity of 6.5 MWp. At the end of June, the 20,000 solar modules installed will go into operation and feed around 14 GWh electricity per year directly into the cement plant network.

The new range of products This new range of products will be distributed and sold under the CIFA brand and will replace CIFA’s and Euromecc’s existing ranges of products.

Candidates are asked to submit their proposals by September 27th 2018 (11.59 pm CET) via the process established on Phanes Group’s website.

Another large scale project has been realized in Namibia by GILDEMEISTER energy solutions.This time in Namibia. A total of 6.5MWp is provided by the solar park, which supplies electricity to the largest Namibian cement factory. In addition to the central activity as the general contractor, GILDEMEISTER energy solutions was responsible for the codevelopment of the project, developed by the German SunEQ GmbH as IPP.

Both Cifa and Euromecc will join their history, experience, and expertise, developing a new and more extended range of products with superior characteristics for stationary and mobile plants.

WACKER will debut high-performance sealants and adhesives at INTERBUILD AFRICA 2018 WACKER, the Munich-based chemical company, will debut high-performance sealants and adhesives for the construction industry alongside polymer binders for waterproofing membranes and cementitious tile adhesives at INTERBUILD AFRICA 2018. One of the booth highlights is VINNAPAS® 760 ED a water-repellent

WACKER Presents Polymer Binders for Waterproofing Membranes and High Performance Silicone Construction Sealants 4

dispersion that can be used to manufacture flexible two-component waterproofing membranes.

the launch of the mobile technical laboratory in Johannesburg last year has helped our customers test applications in real-time and to engage with our technical experts directly.

WACKER will also present INNAPAS®8118 E, a polymer powder for formulating cementitious tile adhesives that meet C1 and C2 standards (EN 12004). WACKER Silicones will be showcasing a general purpose acetoxy silicone sealant for industrial and do-ityourself applications along with a water based acrylic sealant suitable for building repair. INTERBUILD AFRICA takes place from August 15 to 18 in Johannesburg, South Africa. “South Africa is a market with tremendous growth potential for construction applications; we are working closely with our customers to invent formulations suitable for this region,” says Cyril Cisinski, managing director at WACKER Middle East & Africa. Furthermore,

CR | September 2018

VINNAPAS® 760 ED VINNAPAS® 760 ED is a terpolymer based on vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl ester that can be used as a hydrophobic binder in two component waterproofing membranes such as sealing slurries. Together with ethylene, its vinyl esther component considerably increases the elasticity of the end product. As a result, the coating is more extensible and very flexible. VINNAPAS® 760 ED ensures outstanding crack bridging, even at exceptionally low temperatures down to -20 °C. Additionally, it is highly resistant to hydrostatic pressure.


KAM commits to promote Kenya’s Green Economy strategy The







collaboration with the Government

REAN to provide financing for solar energy projects The Renewable Energy Association of Nigeria (REAN) in association with Sterling Bank, the only Nigerian bank with a functional renewable energy practice, has decided to finance renewable energy projects for industrial, small business and residential users in Nigeria.

under the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum, have committed to promote the Kenya’s green economy strategy in bid to boosting the country’s energy sector. Speaking during a conference themed “Catalysing Sustainable Renewable and Energy Efficiency in Kenya” which was held by the two parties, KAM Vice Chairman Mr. Mucai Kunyiha noted that affordable and clean energy as the key in the realization of the Big 4 Agenda. “The Association seeks to increase the



contribution to 15% by 2022, in line with the Government’s Big 4



Confirming the statement Segun Adaju, president of REAN said they are in talks with the bank adding that five companies including Abuja based Blue Carmel and Elec3city, have signed a memorandum of understanding to provide off-grid power to industrial and residential users respectively. Upfront costs involved in acquiring solar energy Segun Adaju noted that the challenge of huge upfront costs involved in acquiring solar energy is the strongest discouraging factor for rapid solar energy adoption in the country. To set up a 2KV system capable of powering a refrigerator, 5 lighting points, a television and sound system set; a user would be required to pay as much as US $2 in a three bed-room apartment. Systems that can power an entire building including air conditioners and pumping machine could cost between US $6K – US $11K. Considering that the lifespan of solar panels is over 20 years and good batteries can last up to five years, the cost over time is cheaper than buying diesel which pollutes the environment.


efficiency has the clearest impact on




business results and fostering economic




continue to undertake projects that stimulate investment and policy initiatives that promote green growth in the country,” said Mr Kunyiha. Promoting renewable energy The




conference aimed at promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency







and challenges by the industry on

SAWEA to set standardized metric to assess energy sector employment The South African Wind Energy Association (SAWEA) is set to standardize metric in bid to asses energy sector employment. This after a recent Meridian Economics study commissioned by the association for a highly unequal middle-income country such as South Africa, showed the employment implications of the energy transition are both politically and socially significant.

energy management and green growth policy initiatives.

According to Brenda Martin, CEO of SAWEA, standardised employment metrics and methodologies should be used across all energy technologies. Such understanding can then usefully inform the planning choices that need to be made in the short term.

AAK calls for lawful demolitions The Architectural Association of Kenya (AAK) has called for ‘humane’ demolitions in line with the law following concerns of the manner in which ongoing demolitions of buildings on riparian and public land is being carried out. Emma Miloyo, AAK president urged the government to mind innocent victims such as second and third generation buyers and tenants who stand to lose millions of shillings during the demolition exercise. She also said conflicting legislation on riparian land such as the Survey Act, Agriculture Act and Water Act 2016 fueled confusion on the matter. “We support the efforts by the government to uphold the law as it is the only way we can operate as a civilized society and achieve the Kenya we want. However, the application of the law must be consistent and non-selective,” said Emma. Agencies behind the demolitions Emma Miloyo also raised concerned over the agencies behind the demolitions. She said that the same agencies were involved in issuing developers with the necessary regulatory and statutory documentation to develop the land. The agencies include the National Environment Management Authority, Water Resources Authority and the Nairobi City County. “Why did these agencies wait for these structures to be built only to then demolish them? A lot of uncertainty and fear has been set to get into the real estate industry as it is not clear anymore which permits are valid and there is no process to validate them either.

Structural transition She further added that globally, the power sector is undergoing a complex structural transition away from a model of regulated, monopolistic, centralised and coal-based electricity supply.

September 2018 | CR



Regional Energy Co-Operation Summit

Ports and Rail Evolution: Africa’s premier transport event

Nigeria Build Expo 201811th-13th October 2018

The Regional Energy Co-operation

Transport Evolution is proud to present African Ports

Summit is an annual investors’ meeting

and Rail Evolution, Africa’s largest transport event

focused on cross-border energy

welcoming dozens of African ports and rail authorities

infrastructure and the financing of projects

and thousands of qualified maritime, transport and

in West Africa. The next edition of

logistics professionals. African Ports and Rail Evolution

the Summit will take place in Accra in

unites buyers and sellers from across the value chain to

NIGERIA BUILD EXPO is the only place to be if you are in construction sector. With key dedicated product groups you can be part of, there is no better time to secure your stand space for 2018! This is the most important event to be held in Nigeria

September 2018.

provide comprehensive access to planned blue economy

As Ghana leads the way for crossborder energy trade, this high-level regional Summit will not only be the platform to showcase power, trade and infrastructure investment opportunities, but will also engage decision makers from ECOWAS public and private sectors to explore how project bank ability can be increased.

development and expansion projects across the African continent. Join us this October to optimize hinterland and maritime connectivity, increase passenger rail services in major cities, develop autonomous and automated ports, boost security strategies for ports and rail and define the future of transport infrastructure development across the continent.

WHO ATTENDS? ECOWAS Energy Ministers, Government Representatives, Heads of Utilities, Regulators, power developers, technology providers, financiers and multilateral agencies from across West Africa attended the summit, discussing strategies to engage the private sector and multilateral.


- Ethiopian Association of Civil Engineers

- Institute of Engineers of Kenya - Association of Consulting Engineers of - Kenya - Association of Professional Societies of East Africa APSEA)

Association Partners



- Association of Consulting Engineers Nigeria - Association of Professional Women

- Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers

- Institution of Surveyors of Kenya

- The Construction Industry Federation of Zimbabwe (Cifoz)


Surveying Profession

Ghana - Ghana Institute of Engineers

Engineers Of Nigeria - Council of Registered Builders of Nigeria - The Nigerian Institute of Architects - American Association of Petroleum Geologists Africa Region

- Khuthaza ( Women for Housing)

- Architects Registration Council

- Concrete Manufacturers Association

- Ghana Institute of Surveyors

- Green Building council of SA

- Ghana Green Builders Association

- South African Property Owners Association

- Ghana Institute of Planners

- Master Builders South Africa

- Association of Building and Civil Engineering

- Building and Construction Skilled Artisans

Contractors of Ghana

Association of Nigeria (BACSAAN)


- Nigeria Society of Engineers - Nigeria Institute of Architects

Institute of Surveyors of Uganda


Uganda Institute of Professional Engineers (UIPE) &

Institute of Namibian Quantity Surveyors


Uganda society of Architects

Association of Consulting Engineers of Namibia

- Zambia Institute of Architects (ZIA)


- Tanzania Institute of Quantity Surveyors

- Institute of Botswana Quantity Surveyors 6

- Construction Contractors Association of Ethiopia

- Zimbabwe Institute of Quantity Surveyors

- Kenya Property developers Association

- South African Council for the Quantity

and Quantity Surveyors (AQSRB)

- Association of Ethiopian Architects

- Institute of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya

South Africa - ASAQS

- Tanzania’s Registration Board of Architects


- Architectural Association of Kenya

The exhibition and the workshop fruitful opportunity to meet the most important political and economic figures in Nigeria in order to further discuss all possible business ways. •B2B meetings between professionals and decision makers meet. •This exhibition will gather exports and decision makers from the world to introduce opportunities and launch. Find out what suits you best from about 14.3 million business prospects during the three-day event, with over hundreds of products, equipment and machinery.


- Construction Regulation Board (CRB)

CR | September 2018

- Association of Building and Civil Engineering Contractors (ABCEC).


Ditch Witch introduces its largest trencher, the HT275

JCB introduces 19C-1, zero tailswing 18Z-1 compact excavators

Ditch Witch has introduced the company’s largest trencher, new HT275 trencher that is able to handle heavy-duty installations of up to 10 feet deep and 26 inches wide. The company says its tracked trencher can tackle a broad range of jobs, including water, sewer, gas, power and underdrain installations and



The HT275 is powered by a 275-horsepower



4 Final diesel engine – more than twice the horsepower of its secondlargest




RT125, at 121 horsepower. The HT275’s hydro-static trencherchain drive allows the operator to match chain speeds to soil conditions. The company further

JCB has introduced two new compact excavators with rental-ready common design.The company says the common design is focused on increased durability for the rental market. The new 18Z-1 has an operating weight of 3,856 pounds and is JCB’s first zero tails wing model in the 1-2 ton excavator size class. The 19C-1 is a 4,211-pound conventional tails wing machine. JCB North America president of product and direct sales, Steve Fox, said that both new machines are more durable and require less maintenance than competing 1-2 ton compact excavators. Features They feature all-steel bodies, protection for hydraulic rams and hoses, 500-hour greasing intervals and a swing-out counterweight for full access to the engine bay. There’s also a separate service access door for daily checks. “The JCB 18Z-1 and 19C-1 compact excavators are designed to exceed the requirements of the most demanding construction and rental customers. They get the job done, they’re cheaper to operate and they represent a better return on your investment over the life of the machine.” said Fox in a statement. New undercarriage design with updated dozer blade Both machines sit on the same new undercarriage which JCB says provides extended component life over previous models. The new undercarriage features an updated idler design that improves ride quality and reduces track stalling in loose material.

increased productivity by making it easier and quicker to change attachments. HT275 features The HT275 features four hydraulic quick-disconnect blocks that allow rear attachments to be changed without heavy lifting equipment. Attachments include a center line

Panasonic launches W1 Series switches and sockets for the Kenyan market

attachment for installations of

Panasonic Homes & Living, has unveiled the all new high-quality BS

4 to 10 feet and 14 to 26 inches

Type wiring devices ‘W1 Series’ switches and sockets for the Kenyan

wide, and an offsetting, sliding

market. The W1 Series switches and sockets, which complement



the brand’s comprehensive range of innovative solutions for the

to 6 feet deep and 8 to 24 inches

construction segment, are uniquely designed for commercial and

wide, which has an optional truck-

residential use.


loading conveyor.


The event, attended by senior management representatives from PMMAF, also included a product orientation on the full W1 Series

Bobcat targets heavy lift handling with new compact telehandler for Middle East and Africa

Bobcat has launched TL43.80HF telehandler in the Middle East and Africa for heavy lift handling applications such as in manufacturing, building materials, warehousing, quarrying and mining. With the new TL43.80HF, Bobcat now offers a range of fifteen different rigid frame telehandler models, covering maximum lifting capacities between 2.6 and 4.3 tonne and maximum lifting heights from six to 18 m. “At Bobcat, for over 60 years, we have been constantly innovating the market – always developing new machines for customers’ needs. The new TL43.80HF is no exception to this legacy as it completes our range of telehandlers and ensures customers can benefit from unmatched loading productivity and lift capacity. Bobcat machines are made for tough jobs, whilst still providing all the agility and versatility any application would require,” said Olivier Traccucci, Bobcat telehandler senior product manager. Unlike any other manufacturer on the market, all Bobcat telehandlers are covered by a three-year/3,000 hour warranty as standard, with the option of extending the warranty to five-year/5,000 hours. All Bobcat telehandlers are designed and produced at the company’s plant in Pontchâteau, France. High lift capacity Thanks to a high lift capacity of 4.3 tonnes and a maximum lift height of almost eight metres, the TL43.80HF is a compact telehandler offering an impressive package, which brings together robustness, rough terrain ability and ease of use for the operator in the same machine.

switches and sockets. Celebrating its 100th anniversary this year, the Japanese electronics giant has expansions and new product launches as key strategies for this year to strengthen their position in the Middle East and Africa market as a leader in the development of diverse electronics technologies and solutions for both B2B and B2C segments.

September 2018 | CR



IMPORTANCE OF CLIENT RELATIONSHIPS IN CONSTRUCTION has changed significantly over the past 50 years. Historically, plant managers approached us with a single problem that they needed rectifying, such as a drive on a pump that was not working effectively. We are now being asked to look at the scope of a project on a much wider scale. Rather than installing one single piece of equipment, if the project requires it we develop a bespoke system that impacts on the overall facility.


close working relationship between client and contractor is important for any project success. But how do you manage client relationships without over promising? Dave Friar International Operations Director at engineering solutions provider Boulting Ltd explores the importance of building and maintaining a strong relationship with the client. The success of any engineering project often revolves around the quality of the relationship between client and service provider. A good working relationship should be based on trust and understanding between all parties and, if managed correctly, this can lead to a more permanent contract between all parties and, through good relationship management can be fruitfully beneficial to both parties for the longer term. Construction client management The services that engineers provide are often not judged until the end of a project or even for some time after. If you’re looking to improve plant efficiency by integrating automation technologies or design and build a new high voltage distribution network, the success of the project may not be immediately measurable. However, the client’s experience in ‘Word of mouth’ is very powerful in the industrial world, as it can both lead to new project wins or result in the loss of potential contracts. A client’s 8

Increasingly, clients are looking at the design and build of a facility as one single element, rather than breaking it into two. At Boulting, we provide both services, taking clients through the entire journey; from concept to creation. Concepts such as Industry 4.0 have led to a great number of new possibilities for the design and build of a project, and while clients may have an initial idea for a scheme, it is our job to help them shape and develop their vision into something that can deliver the results they require. experience will shape how they publicly talk about a project, even if the results are not yet available. While it does take time to build and maintain a strong working relationship, it is a cost-effective exercise that can improve productivity and efficiency. Equally, if not managed appropriately complaints and misunderstandings can have a detrimental affect on the relationship, costing both time and money. Building relationships With any new client or project, it’s important to lay the foundations and get to know who you are working with and build up a rapport by exploring how they like to work. Do they prefer weekly or daily calls? Perhaps they’d prefer everything to be done by email. Whatever the approach, it needs to be defined in the early stages. It isn’t just about a single client though. Building relationships with individuals, whether they are the decision makers or not, is equally as important. Some projects may span across continents and require conversations in various languages, which brings their own set of challenges, further emphasizing the importance of establishing strong communication channels. Communicating the project brief How we communicate with clients and maintain that healthy relationship

CR | September 2018

One way to manage larger integrated projects is by using building information modelling (BIM). By integrating information from a variety of sources linked with the construction or renovation of a facility, BIM allows for the creation of a digital model of the plant. The level of detail in the model is dependent on the chosen BIM level. BIM is a collaborative process that is particularly useful when working with modular builds on pre-fabrication sites. By using one digital model that all contractors have access to, you can ensure that all pre-fabricated components fit into the facility. Clients will also have access to the model should they require a more in-depth update on the status of a project. Client collaboration can also be achieved through integrated project delivery, an alliance between suppliers and the client that aims to integrate the best aspects of people, systems, business structures and practices. By using this system, clients become part of the team, ensuring all interests and objectives are aligned across every aspect of the project. Transparency is a key benefit of this particular model as costs, time frame and progress are shared among all relevant parties, creating a sense of security and involvement. There is no one single way to perfectly manage a client relationship as every project is different. Whatever model is chosen,communication remains key. While technologies such as BIM have a wealth of advantages, it’s important not to rely on technology and forget to simply pick up the phone and talk.

September 2018||CR CR 99 May 2018


Crowdfunding Renewable Energy solutions in Africa Crowdfunding is a financing method that uses the power of digital and mobile technology and the internet to pool resources from a large number of people, in varying amounts to fund projects. The routine thought that follows the mention of crowdfunding is a Gofundme or Kickstarter account entreating people to fund a charity project or a humanitarian cause. Caleb Adebayo is an Associate with the law firm of S.P.A Ajibade & Co.


he statistics of energy access and

has driven the move for cleaner energy forms

availability on the African continent is

like gas and renewable energy in recent times.

worrying, perhaps even alarming, and

Unlike fossil energy projects however, which

definitely a cause for continent-wide concern.

(while having their own peculiar challenges)

Only seven countries in Africa have energy

are a familiar terrain for investors, renewable

access rates of up to 50% (the lowest among

energy (RE) projects do not spell certainty

emerging markets across the world), and Nigeria,

of any kind. Apart from the fact that they are

the much peddled big brother of the continent

expensive to undertake and there are very few

is not one of them. The rest of the region has an

bankable RE projects on the continent, the

average grid access rate of about 20%, and even

immediate metrics and mathematics for investing

when there is access, there is never enough to go

in fossils look better than that of an RE project.


Thus, accessing bank loans, project financing, syndicated loans, and equity for RE projects have

This means that on the average, about 625

proved a tad difficult. Yet seven of the ten most

million people in Africa do not have access

suitable countries for renewable energy potential

to energy. There is an increase in investments

are in Africa, so it is only a no-brainer that the

coming into Africa, and the infrastructure deficit,

continent should drive investment in that sector.

especially in the area of energy, is crippling these investment opportunities. Certainly, the continent

With the rising challenge of financing RE

is in a dire energy crisis that it needs to fix, and it

projects, there has been a foray into innovative

does have the energy resources it needs to fix it.

and alternative means of financing for which

While the quest for an energy-rich Africa is at

Private Equity (PE), Venture Capital (VC)

the front-burner of the discourse on economic

funding, Pension funds, Sovereign Wealth

development, there is side-by-side the global

funds, and Green Bonds have been explored. An

conversation on climate change, sustainability

alternative financing method that has not been

and clean energy; a constant reminder of the

explored as much though, is crowdfunding.

continent’s commitments to international

The global call to combat climate change is an enabling factor for tapping into the need for social good in crowdfunding RE projects.


treaties and various regional, and sub-regional

Crowdfunding is a financing method that uses the

agreements on environmental protection.

power of digital and mobile technology and the internet to pool resources from a large number

This means that Africa has to grapple with

of people, in varying amounts to fund projects.

development while putting sustainability into

The routine thought that follows the mention

consideration for every step of the journey. This

of crowdfunding is a Gofundme or Kickstarter

CR | September 2018

account entreating people to fund a charity

Still, there are prospects for crowdfunding

it will serve as a commingling of technology,

project or a humanitarian cause. While this is

Africa’s power sector, especially with the

finance, energy and social good, birthing a

part of what crowdfunding is, it is not all of it.

rise of mini-grids and off-grid projects,

formidable solution for the continent. The

Independent Electricity Distribution Networks

Ubuntu and community spirit of Africa also

Crowdfunding in fact includes investing in

(IEDNs) and the Renewable Energy Feed-

sits well with this form of financing, as it

projects and ventures, through pooling capital

in-Tariffs (REFITs). Many African countries

piggy-backs on local involvement in finding

from various individuals while offering them

too, realizing the benefits of privatisation,


return on investments (ROIs) either in form

have tapped into it for their core industries

of equity or debt. In this form, it is usually

including energy and this has enabled private

Furthermore, with high interest rate and

referred to as investment crowdfunding.

players to get more involved in investment.

constrained access to credit in Africa,

The investment appetite for African projects by

crowdfunding will provide a viable option for

The crowdfunding market, unsurprisingly, is

foreign investors also works for the continent

small off-grid projects requiring financing.

doing pretty well around the globe, as most

in many ways.

people are seeking new forms of investment

While it is appreciated that there are challenges

outside traditional means; also because

The global call to combat climate change is

to crowdfunding in Africa, especially with

technology and the internet have disrupted a lot

an enabling factor for tapping into the need

the continent’s legal regime, high level of

in the investment market, and finally, because

for social good in crowdfunding RE projects.

technological illiteracy and low level of

projects are actively exploring new methods

Crowdfunding in Africa has mostly been

confidence in online platforms and mobile

of funding that do not have the bottlenecks

explored in Eastern Africa, and even that,

technology, the possibilities are enormous.

of bank loans and other traditional methods.

has not been done on a large scale. However,

It is an area the region should explore to

In fact the global value of crowdfunding in

the results from that sub-region show that if

close its energy infrastructure gap, encourage

2015 stood at US $34.4bn, topping the global

explored in-depth by the continent, there are

investments and avoid the deleterious effect of

investments in VC funding in the same year

very favourable prospects.

carbon-intensive development.

which stood at US $30bn. Sadly though, Africa contributes only less than half of one percent to

With crowdfunding, the need for sustainable

the global crowdfunding market.

and clean energy is met while simultaneously solving the problem of financing. Essentially,

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September 2018 | CR



bribes paid are in industries such as transport (which accounts for 15% of bribes paid), construction (also at 15%) and the extractive industry (at 19%). In construction the high rate of corruption is attributed to factors such as the project cycle, the uniqueness of projects and government control, which is often characterized by poor management. The high levels of corruption has also resulted in high prices of products, poor quality of final

FOCUS ON CORRUPTION Demand is growing rapidly for services essential for development in Africa but despite this, the continent is lagging behind in infrastructure development as compared to the rest of the developing world and the scourge of corruption has not helped the situation.


being invested in Africa on a yearly basis; an

across Africa was carried out over a

amount that needs to double by 2030.

67% of those polled agreed that corruption is

integrity forum report, almost half of the

in turn, has limited the potential that African

Despite this, African countries and

construction related persons from

According to the OECD anti-corruption and

maintenance and low returns on projects. This,

and that of the entire world.

needing US $6tn. Currently, about US $80bn is

com. The survey (see figure 1.1) showed that

inappropriate project choice, inadequate

citizens have in contributing to their economies

recent survey of over 5000

one year period by constructionreviewonline.

product, wasted project time, cost overruns,

governments (mostly through pressure from donors) are making changes by putting in place frameworks such as anti-corruption and bribery agencies to deal with and eradicate corruption in the industry, but regardless of these efforts success in curbing corruption has been varied.

the greatest impediment to the development of infrastructure in Africa. This was compared to political insecurity, funding shortfalls and lack of skills. Participants also felt that political interference was a greater impediment than lack of funding at 17% compared to 11% while not many felt that skills was a major issue given that only 10% felt it was the most important issue that needed to be tackled. The survey shows that overwhelmingly corruption then is a major threat to efforts to ensure sustainability of Africa’s economic growth where heavy investment is required in infrastructure covering roads, energy, rail and water supplies a well as housing. According to the Global Infrastructure Outlook, there is a US $15tn infrastructure gap globally; with Africa 12

Corruption plays a major threat to efforts ensuring sustainability of Africa's economy where heavy instrument is required in infrastructure covering roads, rails etc

CR | September 2018

To understand how corruption occurs in the construction industry, it is important also to understand what influences the opportunities for corruption. There are various factors that may influence corruption these include the size of the contract, the complexity of technology used in the process, the type of sector involved, discretion of the tendering process, lack of proper financial control, restricted access to information, urgency to complete a project, and conflict of interest. Tendering The tendering process is perhaps the construction stage most prone to corruption as contractors can pay considerable bribes to be awarded a contract. Projects that attract large amounts of resources and funding

Projects that attract large amounts of resources and funding are particularly vulnerable to corruption incidences.

are particularly vulnerable to corruption incidences. This is because of the high returns it promises to the stakeholders involved, both in the private and public sector. Additionally, these large projects are in most cases divided into phases making it even more difficult to manage and follow the money trail and all the contract links along the way. This allows for more loopholes for corruption. The more unique the project, the more the chances there are for corruption to occur.

Bid rigging

Complementary bidding-this occurs when

During tendering there is the aspect of bid

competitors agree in advance who will submit

rigging. This usually occurs when companies

the winning bid. Therefore, one participant

or contractors conspire to fix the price for

puts forward a bid that is higher than the bid

goods and services purchased through a

of the appointed bidder, another puts in a bid

bidding process. This may take place in a

that is too high to be accepted, while another

number of ways which include wrongfully

submits a bid that contains special conditions

excluding qualified bidders so as to promote

that are known to be undesirable to the

a favored bidder and manipulation of bids by


procurement officers who may tamper with the bids after submission by making changes

Bid suppression- this occurs where one or

to parts of bids or bid scores to ensure a pre-

more of the competitors agree to refrain from

determined company gets the tender award.

bidding so that one of the competitors can win

Bid rigging may also occur when specifications

the tender.

are rigged by the procurement officer, who may modify the criteria in the requests for proposals

Bid rotation- this occurs when competitors take

to fit a particular company and also unbalanced

turns being the successful bidder of a tender

bidding which occurs when the procurement


officer provides a favored company with information that is not shared with other

Market division- this occurs when the


conspirers curve up segments in the market and agree not to compete in each other’s segment.

Collusion between bidders This occurs when contractors work together

A case in point occurred in 2012 when fifteen

to get a tender award. It can occur in several

construction firms in South Africa agreed


September 2018 | CR



Introducing CIBDS ensures that construction tender rules are applied and followed encouraging healthy and fair competition between bidders.

to pay fines totaling to US $104 million

that maximum value for public money is not

procedures, unreasonable pre-qualification

for collusive tendering. This was after the

achieved. This, in turn, limits the economic

requirements, ambiguous, misleading or

companies reached a settlement with South

potential of a country.

incomplete contract specifications.

investigates and refers restrictive business

Distorting the tender in favor of a particular

In the tendering process: failure to make

practices, abuse of dominance and large

company is another area where corruption

bidding documents available, short or


occurs. This is usually through those who can

inadequate notice to bidders, excluding

Africa Competition Commission, a body that

influence the process such as the procurement

qualified bidders, multiple contracts awarded

Collusion of contractors and supervision

officer, the financial controller or a politician.

to the same companies, rotation of winning


This can also be done when information is

bidders, non-transparent bid-opening

In a corruption laden project, contractors

leaked for the benefit of a bidder. Giving a

procedures, long unexplained delays in the

and supervision staff often collude together

bidder confidential information makes them

contract award or negotiations.

in order to win lucrative tenders. This is

have the upper hand in the process and will

perhaps the most common form of collusion

make them the most likely be selected for the

In the post-award process: use of questionable

in infrastructure projects. According to OECD,

tender. Alternatively, the data from the tender

agents or subcontractors, continued acceptance

collusion involves a horizontal relationship

evaluation may be falsified so as to eliminate

of poor quality goods, works or services,

between bidders in public procurement, who


questionable contract changes, questionable

conspire to remove the element of competition from the process.

invoices, absent or questionable documentation Red flags that indicate corruption There are several red flags that can indicate

Being able to eradicate corruption in Africa’s

Contractors bribe to win tenders while the

corruption in a construction project, especially

infrastructure sector will help boost the

supervision staff or procurement officers

in the tendering process. These red flags

continent’s economy and development. To

receive bribes to allocate tenders. This form


do this, it is important for African countries

of corruption may be discrete offences;

to adopt practices that emphasize value for

however, it involves a public contract being

In the pre-tendering process: manipulation

money, and ensure that projects are cost-

awarded on a basis other than fair competition

of the procurement threshold to avoid prior

effective and sustainable. This can be made

and the merit of the successful contractor, so

review, inadequate evaluation criteria or

possible through:


CR | September 2018

Accountability- It is essential to ensure that accountability measures are put in place that will ensure transparency in procurement and in public participation. This can be done by empowering and promoting anti-corruption agencies and platforms in regional, sub-regional and continental levels. E-Procurement - Introducing technology such as E-procurement will also help in limiting corruption occurrences. This technology organizes tenders by electronic means via an internet portal. However, it is important to note that care must be taken to ensure that the e-procurement procedure itself does not facilitate collusion, especially as this method eliminates the paper trail that might otherwise have provided evidence of bid It is important for African countries to adopt practices that emphasize value for

rigging in the process.

money, and ensure that projects are cost effective and sustainable.

September 2018 | CR



Certificates of Independent Bid Determination


(CIBD)- introducing CIBDs, which require bidders to certify that they have arrived at their tender price absolutely independent of other bidders, ensures that tender rules are applied and followed. It also makes it easier to find and charge colluders. Redesign of the procurement process- this ensures that there is transparency in the

What is the greatest impediment to development in infrastructure in Africa Corruption ( 67%, 3,966 Votes) Political Interferance ( 17%, 1,004 Votes)

tendering process as well as reducing the chances of leaked information to favored bidders. It also encourages healthy and fair competition between bidders.

Lack of funding ( 11%, 634 Votes) Lack of skilled manpower ( 6%, 328 Votes)

Auditing of public procurement proceduresthis can be done internally or externally by an independent State body with specific powers

Total Voters: 5,932

of audit. Audit reports help detect corruption

Figure: 1:1

incidences and irregularities. Prosecution- this is perhaps one of the most effective ways to reduce corruption incidences. Most contractors and companies get involved in corruption because they know they can get away with it. Arresting and prosecuting them will discourage others from involving themselves in corruption.

Being able to eradicate corruption in Africa’s infrastructure sector will help boost the continent’s economy and development. 16

CR | September 2018


Crafting creative floors for commercial spaces

The seamless and impermeable nature of floors facilitates a sanitary environment, as the floor will harbour contaminants, and can be easily cleaned.


he developers and managers of

hygienic, easy to clean and which minimizes

commercial spaces have to ensure that

the need for repairs and refurbishments.

the building materials they choose are

aesthetically pleasing and also cost-efficient,

The many different types of resin floors

functional and able to withstand the inherent

available to the commercial sector means

challenges of the location.

that there is a wide variety of different styles, colours and effects to choose from. This

This is especially true of the flooring system,

versatility means that there is a resin flooring

as on average the floor makes up one-sixth of

solution for any location regardless of size,

a facilities’ entire surface, meaning that it is

complexity or the image they want to portray.

important to realize the full potential of this aspect of the building.

A significant design benefit of specifying a resin floor is that it can be colour matched to

A well-designed floor can provide a wealth

any shade of the RAL colour palettes, which

of benefits, as its design can help to create a

is ideal for locations eager to achieve a design

vibrant and engaging customer experience, tie

scheme consistency or who want to assert a

a location to a brand identity or even fulfil vital

brand identity.

navigational and safety criteria. However if the chosen material is unable to cope with the

The seamless and impermeable nature of resin

anticipated level of traffic or with the inevitable

floors facilitates a sanitary environment, as the

spillages and wear then it can quickly fail

floor will harbour contaminants, can be easily

and present an unsightly, unhygienic and

cleaned and its hard wearing and chemically

potentially costly problem for the facilities

resistant finish won’t crack or erode when


faced with harsh cleaning chemicals, foot traffic and continuous use.

Because of these issues developers are

A signifcant design beneft of specifying a resin floor is that it can be colour matched to any shade of the RAL colour palettes.

increasingly turning to seamless resin floors

Bespoke floor designs, including complex

thanks to the many on-site advantages they

geometric shapes, corporate logos and

hold over alternative solutions. Resin systems

intricate patterns, can be created using resin

offer a wider choice of aesthetic possibilities

floors. Commonly this is done by setting out

whilst ensuring a durable surface that is

aluminium or brass trims in the desired outline

September 2018 | CR


and then pouring the resin material into each shape. The floor is then ground, sealed and polished to reveal the finished design. Whilst the aesthetic merit of the floor is important – it could be rendered completely irrelevant if the financial and functional aspects of the floor are not sufficiently taken into account during the floor specification process. Failing to take into consideration the long term requirements of the floor by conducting an in depth lifecycle costing could mean choosing a solution that looks great directly after installation but which is ultimately unable to withstand the on-site conditions. This situation could lead to an early floor failure that compromises the appearance and functional efficiency of the floor area while also incurring hefty repair or refurbishment costs.

A well-designed floor can provide a wealth of benefts, as its design can help to create a vibrant and engaging customer experience materials can even offer an enhanced life expectancy, with some lasting equal to the lifetime of the building provided it is properly cared for. The

The lifecycle costs analysis needs to take into account the face-value

combination of its high durability, low maintenance requirements and

price of the flooring material as well as the life expectancy, care and

minimal need for repair or replacement means that resin flooring offers

maintenance programmes, repair work and end-of-life options.

one of the lowest lifecycle costs of any hard floor covering.

When comparing flooring solutions a major benefit of resin systems is

By taking advantage of the creative, hard-wearing and hygienic

that end-of-life materials can be easily and quickly overlaid with a new

properties of resin systems, facilities managers can ensure that their

floor covering – avoiding the cost, labour and time of ripping-out the

locations have eye-catching floors that will reliably support efficient,

existing material for disposal. Much hardier, more robust resin flooring

safe and productive activities over an extended period of time.



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CR | September 2018


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Proper Planning and Execution of Demolitions

Demolition can be a huge undertaking, requiring a great deal of pre-planning in order to coordinate all facets of a project to minimize the overall impact.


ringing a tall steel-framed building

input at this stage of the project can help

should be made clear as to which party will

down into their footprints is a

with the project’s success. Determining if the

secure permits.

considerable engineering feat since it

demolition contractor will carry the cost and

necessitates overcoming the natural tendency

responsibility of utility disconnections is key

In addition, expected conditions of site at

of such structures to topple.The demolition

at this stage. If not, the owner should provide

completion of demolition should be clear

project can therefore be a huge undertaking,

all disconnect documentation to the demolition

and conveyed to the contractor prior to the

requiring a great deal of pre-planning in order


commencement of the task.

the course of the project some detours and

If material from the project are to be reused,

The key issues during the planning phase

changes will inevitably occur, but a solid

the contractor should be made aware as early

to be taken care of as part of the planning

plan and direct course of activities will assist

as possible. The ownership of the salvaged

process include fall from height, injury from

in minimizing the overall impact on project

materials should be made clear and the extent

fall materials, uncontrolled collapse, risks

schedule, cost and liabilities.

of underground removals should be clearly

from connected services, traffic management,

defined. Any hazardous materials should

hazardous materials, noise and vibration, fire

Planning Stages

be determined and whether they will have

and worker involvement during the process of

If the intended use of the site is known, it is

environmental remediation completed by the


helpful to make the contractor aware of that

demolition contractor or by a separate entity.

information. The contractor’s expertise and

Permits should be secured, alternatively it

to coordinate all facets of the project. Through

September 2018 | CR


Demolition Technologies Demolition technologies have continued to evolve over the years in order ensure increased efficiency, cost effectiveness, improved safety. From conventional mechanical methods to pneumatic and hydraulic tools, non-explosive demolition, controlled explosives as well as remote controlled demolition systems, minimizing the overall impact on project schedule, cost and liabilities should be the top priority of the method chosen. Controlled Explosive Demolition Techniques Where space and conditions permit, it is often best to use controlled explosive methods as the primary demolition technique for large, tall structures, with mechanical methods used for secondary demolition of the structure and subsequent processing of the debris. In such situations the controlled use of explosives is supremely superior to any other

Minimizing the impact of the project schedule, cost and liabilities should be the top priority of the method chosen for the demolition.

form of demolition, both in terms of safety and speed, as well as efficiency. It is accomplished in conventional controlled demolitions by the synchronized detonation of numerous small explosive charges, placed adjacent to support columns throughout the building. Through precise timing of the detonations of the hundreds or thousands of explosive packages, interior structures are destroyed ahead of exterior ones, pulling the exterior walls toward the central axis in a classic controlled demolition implosion. Presumably the detonations throughout the interior or exterior could be simultaneous, or marched up the building as it sinks into its footprint.

Mechanical Methods

resulting in not only reducing noise and dust

Mechanical demolition involves both the

but also dramatically improving the rate of

pulling down and the knocking down of the

recycling disassembled materials.

structure by machines. Mechanical demolition

In spite of the challenges facing the demolition

uses such machinery as bulldozers, cranes,

industry, a number of companies have

and excavators, while larger structures involve

continued with the quest to improve and

wrecking balls.

make the process as environmental friendly as possible, minimizing the direct exposure

These methods are normally top down methods

of employees to hazards of demolition as far

where the demolition starts from top floor and

as practical. In-house and imported design of

proceeds towards the ground. For structural

specialized demolition equipment has assisted

projections, such as balconies, canopies and

in meeting the versatility and durability

verandas extending beyond the building lines,

requirements of the demanding demolition

demolition by hand held tools or the cut and


lift process may be a safe solution. The systematic approach to demolition projects Quake-proof Demolition Method

is a team effort involving a number of people

Unlike the Tecorep System that dismantles

who have the responsibilities to make sure

building from top down, another demolition

that the process is executed according to the

process, dubbed the “Kajima Cut and Take

plan. Whatever, explosive, mechanical tool and

down Method,� has been developed to break

method, or demolition contractor is chosen-

buildings from bottom up for the first time in

improved safety, increased speed and cost

the world. Under this method, the shape of a

savings for the project are key.

building can be very much intact. The method is attracting a lot of attention because all dismantling work is conducted underground, 20

CR | September 2018


A new commercial development by Zenprop,140 West Street, Sandton

The Cream of the Crop Though a structurally-complex project, 140 West Building is both elegant and timeless. And it is this aspect, amongst others, that the project emerged the cream of the crop in the 2018 SAPOA Awards.


he 140 West Street building was the

Paragon Project Architect, Kay Hausler,

She adds that the client was very open-minded

overall winner in the Commercial

comments. “We wanted to come up with

in wanting something “fresh and new, and

Office Development category at the

something different and new.” Describing it as

gave us quite a lot of freedom to explore

2018 the South African Property Owners’

a structurally-complex project, Hausler adds

some somewhat unconventional and custom

Association (SAPOA Property Development

that the building is both elegant and timeless.

design elements.” Enriching the internal

Awards) for Innovative Excellence. This year’s

user experience and the urban environment

event was held at the International Convention

Implementation highlights

was achieved by activating the street edge

Centre in Durban, South Africa. Paragon

“The original brief from the client was that

by means of a restaurant; a convenient and

carried out all the architectural design aspects

we should design the building to achieve the

beneficial addition to the bustling pedestrian

of the project.

highest possible green design rating,” Hausler

route between the Gautrain Station and the

notes. Taking four years in total, of which the

Sandton hub.

A new commercial development by Zenprop,

construction phase was two years, the aim

140 West Street comprises 27 000 m² of

was for the building to be sensitive in scale

Most prestigious celebration of excellence

P-grade office space in two linked towers on a

and response to the pedestrian zone. It was to

Hosted by the South African Property Owners’

lush landscaped podium, namely a ten-storey

be an iconic building that would function as a

Association (SAPOA), the awards is the most

North Tower, a 14-storey South Tower, and

head office, while still being considerate of its

prestigious programme of its kind within

eight parking levels. Located in Sandton, the

inhabitants and context.

the South African commercial real-estate

project has received a four Green Star rating

industry, aimed at defining excellence in the

from the Green Building Council of South

“We achieved this by incorporating natural

property industry. The awards provide public


elements, planting, designing for human scale,

recognition, as well as setting a benchmark,

creating a landscape deck on the ground floor,

for top-quality design and functionality.

The award is a recent addition to a growing

landscaped roof terraces, break-out spaces,

Outstanding contributions from world-class

list of accolades which Paragon has earned

and spaces that encourage interaction and the

owners, developers, and built environment

over the years. “We could not be prouder of

awareness of others in the building,” Hausler

professionals are showcased at the annual

this building, or more grateful for this award,”



September 2018 | CR


Astoria developer provides world-class facilities in addition to regular features that discerning clients have come to expect of luxury apartments. The Judging Criterion Although functional aesthetic appeal is a pivotal requirement for the awards, SAPOA embraces a holistic approach that evaluates various designs, innovation, and efficiency elements, such as social transformation, overall impact, environmentally-sustainable design, design industry and community perception, and interiors that ensure the local commercial real estate sector is on par with international standards, SAPOA Property Development Awards for Innovative Excellence Chairperson, Pieter Engelbrecht, concludes.


CR | September 2018

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A Growing Network

with a lot of potential; that is why they are continuously investing in the continent developing new products like the specific new range of truck mounted pumps; the so-called Classic line, definitively easy to use and maintain at the highest quality level as per European standards. These kind of truck pumps have already been used for different private and civil construction projects in more countries within the Sub-Saharan Africa territories, such as Djibouti, Nigeria, Ghana, Mauritius, South Africa, Kenya, Mozambique and more


Moreover, CIFA has boastedits reach in Africa through the enlargement


and also looking for more dealers in other virgin areas.

CIFA equipment has been used for a while to build the main

This venture will be finalized within 2018, having attained its target

infrastructures that brought innovation and economic growth to the

of getting within the CIFA partners network, those trading companies

continent. CIFA has always seenthe African market as a good market

already involved with the construction equipment business.

IFA a worldwide concrete equipment supplier from Italy, has

and renewal of distributorship networks seeking to expand its business

had a strong presencein the Sub-Saharan territories for decades;

in growing countries such as: Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya, Mauritius,

with a wide range of its products spread over all African

South Africa, Uganda, Mozambique, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Senegal;

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CR | September 2018






September 2018 | CR



For example, the walls and windows exposed to direct sunlight gain heat during different times of the day which increase the amount of cooling required, but ideal materials, insulation and shaded areas can limit its effect. Addressing the space and not just the floor area is important, as the volume can vary due to different ceiling heights. “The number of occupants and the activity taking place also makes a difference. Some appliances can increase the levels of heat

Choosing an airconditioner and understanding BTU


here is more to choosing the right air-

More isn’t always the best either; for example,

conditioner for your needs than mere

a unit with a higher BTU than what is required

design. But, just how do you figure

for the room means that the air will cool

out which air-conditioner will suit your unique

quickly, but then the unit will be forced to


shut off and on again if not equipped with

and you may need to compensate the cooling power,” adds Larkan. Cooling space Also consider whether the space you are cooling is open or confined. If the room opens into another space without the option of closing a door, add that space to the calculation. While this may sound a little complicated, Larkan concludes that these are calculations that your air-conditioner installer will make for you. It is good to understand what will be considered, so you can make a well-informed decision.

Samsung’s digital inverter compressor. A British Thermal Unit (BTU)

digital inverter compressor ensures the air

First, you need to understand how much

conditioner maintains a constant temperature

cooling and heating is needed for the space.

in the room by slowing down and speeding up

British Thermal Unit (BTU) is a traditional

as needed. With traditional air conditioners,

unit of heat, or thermal energy much like the

a lower than ideal BTU will also mean your

measurement of a calorie. It is the amount of

room is unlikely to reach optimal heat or chill.

heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. When

Choosing an air conditioner

it comes to heating and cooling systems,

Robert Larkan, Head of Digital Air Solutions

the measurement is BTU per hour. When

for Samsung South Africa, says it is important

choosing an air-conditioner this measurement

to understand the space where it will be used

is expressed in terms of how much heat can be

when choosing an air-conditioner. “Calculating

added or removed from the air.

the required BTU’s is an essential part of the decision-making process,” he says.


CR | September 2018


Heard of Surfactant Leaching?


urfactant leaching, also referred to as exudate

“Darker and tint-heavy paint colours are predisposed to

staining or weeping, results in unsightly, oily residue

surfactant leaching while lighter shades are less affected,”

on the surface of paint coatings. Largely due to

continues Engelbrecht. “Choice of colour, and more

water-soluble properties (surfactants or surface active

importantly, its application is critical to assess the potential

agents) concentrating on the paint surface, symptoms appear

for surfactant leaching.”

within weeks of first application of the affected product. According to building refurbishment company, Indawo,

How can surfactant leaching be avoided?

surfactants are used in paint and, among other properties,

Use reputable paint manufacturers and a compliant

allow for easy coating of a surface.

contractor with the status of “approved applicator” with the paint manufacturer.

Surfactants influence a range of properties in paint including paint colour and stability, but are not always effective in

Never apply paint in low temperatures (below10 degrees

every application. Surfactant leaching is a paint failure that

Celsius), especially if conditions are expected to plummet

manifests as either brown or clear sticky, sometimes glossy,

overnight. In some cases, surfactant leaching symptoms can

spots or streaks.

be rinsed off with steady, strong stream of water.

Barend Engelbrecht, Indawo’s General Manager, says

Engelbrecht concludes by saying that there is not always

that surfactant leaching can occur with any paint, and is

cause for alarm. Weathering may remove the stains and

influenced by atmospheric conditions, which could slow

surfactant leaching does not affect the coating’s durability.

down the drying process, conditions conducive for surfactant

Do not repaint as this may lead to further surfactant leaching

leaching. These include cooler and wetter weather where

on the new coat and affect the adhesion of the newly applied

there is a lowering of temperatures, an increase in humidity,

top coat. Rather leave the wall for a short period to allow the

dew forming on surfaces or misty conditions. Surfactants

coat to dry and adhere to the surface.

rise to the paint surface depositing residue prior to the formation of the paint film, which is designed to reduce the

If signs are still apparent, contact the paint supplier and the

risk of surfactant leaching.

contractor to assess the reason for the paint failure.

September 2018 | CR



Kitchen Fire Suppression •

All staff should be trained to handle a fire extinguisher

All fire extinguishers must be serviced and maintained regularly

Ventilation System Each and every commercial kitchen requires a hood, which is joined to a ventilation system. The ventilation system must be directed to the exterior of the building. The hood and vents should:


he Risk-Based Approach

serious fire if proper safety precautions are not

“Better safe than sorry” rings true

taken. All fryers should:

for restaurant business owners.

The prospects of the occurrence of a fire in a commercial kitchen is always a case of “when

Be sturdy

Be made from a non-combustible material, such as steel

Be able to automatically shut off in the

not if”. The critical step is identifying the

Be cleaned and maintained regularly to prevent grease build-up

event of a fire Be placed at least 40 cm away from any

Contain grease filters that are easy to remove and clean

equipment that produces an open flame •

inherent risks in a respective fire kitchen and

Cover all equipment that produces heat, namely stoves, ovens, fryers, etc.

employing appropriate measures to manage



The best way to prevent a fire from occurring

It is ghastly to contemplate the colossal losses

as a result of the oven is to:

The Lights

that a restaurant business owner can incur as

Clean the oven regularly - which will

While it is not likely for lights to cause actual

a consequence of neglecting critical areas in

ensure there is no build-up of combustible

fires, light bulbs can cause injuries in the event

kitchen fire protection. A business owner can


of a fire in a commercial kitchen. If a light bulb

Only put non-combustible materials in the

becomes too hot, the air inside the bulb will


expand and cause the bulb to explode. Light

Place the oven far away from other

bulbs should:

equipment to prevent heat transfer

bear huge legal costs of collateral damage to

property in the vicinity or evenfatalities or even death of employee or a customer. Moreover,

excruciatingly, he can experience loss of

Be covered using explosion-resistant covers when above or near cooking

potential revenue in tens of thousands of


dollars as a result of interruption to business.

The Trash Disposal

So, what should a business owner do when

Trash cans should be:

faced with this situation?

Comprised of non-combustible materials

Fire Suppression System

Emptied regularly to prevent the build-up

In order to manage the abovementioned

of combustible substances

risks, Ricketts says having an adequate,

Targeting Top Hazards The most effective approach is first identifying

Kept away from any open flame

well-maintained fire suppression system in a

high risk areas, and accordingly mitigating

Have a sturdy covering

commercial kitchen is absolutely crucial. Most importantly, he emphasizes, staff need to be

their impact by employing appropriate measures, says Kirstie Ricketts, from Fireco

The Fire Extinguisher

well-acquainted with it.

SA, a prominent commentator in South

Commercial kitchens should have at least two

“During each shift, at least one staff member

Africa’s fire protection industry. He particularly

fire extinguishers. Keep in mind that:

is required to have access to and be trained

cites the following as top hazards: deep fryers,

One Class K fire extinguisher is necessary

regarding gas control valves (or any other fuel

as these respond best to grease fires

valves) in order to shut these valves off in the

A standard ABC fire extinguisher should

event of a fire.

be available for any other type of fire

“All staff are to be trained with respect to the

It is necessary for one fire extinguisher

safety equipment in the kitchen and systematic

The Deep Fryer

to be placed 3 meters from any cooking

fire safety and fire prevention training should

Deep fryers are full of oil, which could cause a


be provided,” he says.

ovens, trash cans, fire extinguishers,ventilation systems and lights. These are explained in

detail below. •


CR | September 2018

Kitchen products • Sinks

• Sink Mixers

Washroom products

• Washroom Accessories • Bathroom Accessories • Hospital and Mortuary • Industrial and Security • Sanware






For more information on our local representation in your market please contact us on +27 31 450 6300 or email us at




ecent research has shown that luxury

Junction Shopping Mall, the newly expanded

apartments especially in the 1 and

Ngong Road and a host of other conveniences.

2-bedroom categories are in high

According to the developer, each apartment is

demand in Nairobi. These fast-moving units

designed to benefit from breathtaking views of

are the preferred choice for young upwardly

the valley offering vistas that encompass the

mobile home owners who are typically

green city scape and accentuate living that is

single or with young families. They want the


convenience of close proximity to their work,

“Astoria is set to be a path carver, with a

educational institutions, healthcare, leisure and

multitude of recreational luxuries that will

other social amenities.

delight its occupiers and help create a fun

• • •

Parklands suburbs.

Astoria Apartments, developed by AHCOF

Bespoke entrance foyer with inbuilt utility

is located on Mbaazi Avenue, at the heart

of Lavington. The development consists of tastefully designed 1 and 2-bedroom luxury

Fitted kitchen that maximizes function and design aesthetics Spacious dining and lounge area that opens onto a panorama terrace

apartments set on one acre. There are 192 units

Master suite with large windows, maximizing flow of light and air

in total spread over three detached 12-storey buildings.

Features of Two Bedroom Apartments

The location is a stone’s throw from The


Bespoke entrance foyer

CR | September 2018

Master suite with ample closet space and private bathroom

area Investments (Kenya) Company Limited,

Multi-purpose utility area accessed from the kitchen

Road and Limuru Road, covering Kilimani, Features of one Bedroom Apartments

Spacious dining and lounge area that opens onto a panorama terrace


Kileleshwa, Lavington, Westlands and

Open plan fitted kitchen featuring a builtin breakfast bar

loving and energetic community,” said by The area most desired is between Ngong

Astoria developer provides world-class facilities in addition to regular features that discerning clients have come to expect of luxury apartments.

Secondary bedroom featuring large wardrobe and access to shared bathroom

Common Features and Conveniences The developer has done everything possible to make Astoria a delightful address to call home by providing world-class facilities in addition to regular features that discerning clients have come to expect of luxury apartments. These include a resident’s lounge with wraparound heated pool, a fully equipped gym, landscaped Zen gardens, outdoor gazebos

The 1-bedroom apartments start from Ksh 6.5 million while the 2-bedroom ones start from 10.95 million. Mortgage financing is available. The project began on 24th July 2017 and is expected to be ready in June 2019.


Astoria apartments has Spacious dining and lounge area that opens onto a panorama terrace with fire pit, panoramic roof terrace, entertainment deck and a secure parking for residents and visitors. In addition, there is manned security


: Bowman Associates Architects

Quantity Surveyor

: Mace YMR

Civil & Structural Engineer : Ngasi Consulting Engineers MEP Engineer

: Emplan Limited

Main Contractor

: China Jiangsu International East

African Company

Electricity Subcontractor

: Radiant Power

Water Subcontractor

: Plumbing System

power back-up for common areas, pressurized fire escape and facilities

Elevator Supplier

: Kone

for management staff.

Borehole Supplier

: Sparr Drilling

access, access control facility, intercom, satellite TV and fiber optic infrastructure, CCTV surveillance, borehole water supply, water storage facilities and solar water heating. Others include a car wash facility,

Integrated YMR Partnership Lion Place, 4th Floor, Waiyaki Way, P.O. Box 2403-00606 Westlands, Nairobi, Kenya. Wireless: +254 020 3286000 Mobile. +254 707 963094, +254 786 425729 Email : Website:

We are proud to be associated with AHCOF Kenya on their Astoria Apartments project

September 2018 | CR




KU Post Modern Library

Arch Kamau Njendu and Mugure Njendu on Site


The Hive at Westcom Point Building Westlands

itutho Associates was established in 1982 by its principal

In 2006 December he was joined by his daughter Arch Mugure Njendu

architect, Kamau Njendubut formally registered in March

who was employed within the Firm as a Graduate Architect. Mugure

1983.The Company started off with the construction of an

returned to Kenya after earning her Bachelor of Architecture Degree in

office block in Muranga County,(now the County offices of the County

WIT, in Boston, MA and University of Miami where she obtained her

Government of Muranga) its incredible output on the structure was the

Masters of Architecture Degree in Suburb and Town Planning. During

beginning of the company’s success, synonymous with excellence and

the eight years she spent in the United States, Mugure worked with


various architectural firms including Stirling Brown Architects and

Arch Kamau Njendu, the founder and Principal of the Firm, studied

Brockhouse Associates.

at the University of Nairobi where he obtained both his bachelor and

Gitutho Associates operated under the management and guidance of

master’s degrees in architecture. He briefly worked at the Ministry of

Arch Njendu until 2010 when the consultancy was rebranded to become

Public Works in various positions, eventually working with Municipal

Gitutho Architects and Planners Ltd and incorporated Mugure Njendu as

Council of Mombasa and becoming the first African Chief Architect of

a partner in the Business.

the City of Mombasa. He is FELLOW of the Architectural Association of Kenya, the highest privilege bestowed by the Association.

Unlike many family practices, the two have worked well together for 12 years, in a partnership framed with respect and confidence in each

The architect has built a career synonymous with excellence and

other’s strengths. Arch Mugure has nothing but praise for her father,

reliability. He is not only a well-known architect in the fraternity of

who she credits as her mentor and role model through his stoic career.

architects but is also a respected man in Mombasa and among Built Environment professionalsin the national community.

The amiable architect, who made it to the list of Top 40 Women under 40 during a survey conducted by the Business Daily newspaper in


CR | September 2018

UNHCR Offices in Juba

Bandari Villas in Bombolulu Mombasa

2014, also graduated with a master’s degree in Architecture in Suburb

Some of the projects the company has been involved in include; the

and Town Planning. Naturally, it meant that the rebranded firm would

Muranga County Government offices, Bandari Villas in Mombasa,

now have expanded capacity to undertake urban and master planning

Consolidated Bank in Mombasa, Mtwapa Heights, the Kenyatta

in addition to regular architectural work. The Firm has expanded to

University postmodern library, The Administration Building for

undertaking work not just nationally, but in the East African Region.

University of Embu, interior renovations design for The Bedelle in Runda and The Hive at Westcom Point Building. In the East African

The company not only judge their achievements by the number and

Region, their portfolio also boasts the UNHCR Offices in Juba as well as

scale of projects done, but also by the attention and commitment the

the upcoming One Stop Border Post Project in South Sudan funded by

company gives to clients regardless of the scale of the Project, resulting

Trademark East Africa.

in increased demand from clients.

Anthopi Mechanical Engineering Services Ltd Specialist in:- All Mechanical Building Services Installations

We are proud to be associated with Gitutho Architects & Partners on their 35th Anniversary. Murang’a/ North View Road, 1st Floor - Pangani Yes Building | P.O Box 31687 - 00600, NGARA, NAIROBI, KENYA | Telefax 0572513369, Mobile 0733-913840, 0724154916 | Email:

September 2018 | CR


Being a believer in giving back to the community, Arch. Kamau Njendu has served in the board of directors at Star of the Sea Primary School, Holy Ghost Cathedral Mombasa and Ndutumi Secondary School among others and has been involved in various community projects. Arch Kamau Njendu is a fellow member of the Kenya Institute of Management and a life member of Child Welfare Society. He is a husband, a father and grandfather and carries the same consistency and commitment in his personal life, as he does in his professional life. Gitutho Architects and Planners (formerly Gitutho Associates) boasts 35 years in the construction industry since establishment and only looks forward to more growth and diversity and growth of their portfolio. University of Embu Administration Building Gitutho Architects and Planners have a staff of over 20 permanent and short-term employees in both its Mombasa and Nairobi offices. This team of dedicated and focused staff ensures that the organization runs smoothly. Gitutho Architects and Planners also takes part in mentorship programmes through recruiting architects at a graduate level then nurturing their skills till they acquire their registrations. The firm has proudly mentored, in recent years, the highest scoring examinees in the regulatory examinations set by the Board of Registration of Architects and Quantity Surveyors.

Address: P.O Box1667-01000 Thika , Kenya


CR | September 2018

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September 2018 | CR


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