Construction Review Jan/Feb 2022

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Since 1989

Jan-Feb 2022, Vol 33 No.1

Lagos Blue Line Light Rail Project 3 new trains acquired

Remodelling Trends Machinery Insurance Fancy hotel bathrooms Dogger Bank Wind Farm


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MANAGING EDITOR Robert Barnes DEPUTY MANAGING EDITOR Francis Makari EDITOR - in - CHIEF Dennis Ayemba COUNTRY EDITORS Uganda - Betty Nabakooza Nigeria - Boladale Ademiju South Africa - Jimmy Swira WRITERS, WRITERS Pascal Musungu, Anita Anyango, Patrick Mulyungi WEB & GRAPHIC DESIGN Gerald ArnoldOswald Oduor Sales and Marketing Manager Sales and Marketing Ken Okore Manager Faith Mburu ADVERTISING Kenya: William ADVERTISING Mutama, Lilian Khavosa, Kenya: William Mutama, Fred Okoth Lilian Khavosa, Joyce Ndamaiyu, Wendy Kinya South Africa: Rachel Molapo, Winnie South Sentabire, Africa: Angeline ThuliNtobeng, Nkosi, Winnie Shephard SentMthethwa, abire, Angeline Jacqui Nyangabyaki Ntobeng,

CON Since 1989

Jan-Feb 2022, Vol 33 No.1

Current Issue In this issue we look at the Lagos Rail Mass Transit Project whose Blue Line will be launched this year. It will transform Lagos's commuter experience

Remodelling Trends Macinery Insurance Fancy hotel bathroom Dogger Bank Wind Farm

Uganda: Nobert Turiyo, Selina Salumah Namuli Botswana: Dickson Manyudza, Gerald Mazikana Ethiopia: Haimanot Tesfaye, Ruth Girma

Lagos Blue Line Light Rail Project 3 new trains acquired


Tanzania: Tom Kiage Malawi: Anderson Fumulani

Editor's Comment 3

Ghana: Samuel Hinneh, Caleb Donne Hadjah Zambia: Susan Kandeke

Corporate News 4

Zimbabwe: Chiedza Chimombe Rwanda: Collison Lore Nigeria: Seni Bello

Events 5

China:Weng Jie

The editor accepts letters and manuscripts for publication from readers all over the world. Include your name and address as a sign of good faith although you may request your name to be withheld from publication. We reserve the right to edit any material submitted .

cover story: Lagos RMT project


Dogger Bank Wind Farm Project


Design Source Marks 15 Years, wins prestigious award


Choosing the best quality blinds for your home


Send your letters to:

A fancy hotel vibe bathroom 22

Construction Review is published eleven times a year and is circulated to members of relevant associations, governmental bodies and other personnel in the building and construction industry as well as suppliers of equipment, materials and services in Africa, the Middle and Far East. The editor welcomes articles and photographs for consideration. Material may not be reproduced without prior permission from the publisher. The publisher does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or authenticity of advertisements or contributions contained in the journal. Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the publisher. © All rights reserved.

Remodelling trends for 2022 27 Equipment and machinery Insurance 30 Choosing the proper crane: 7 essential factors to consider


10 proper steps to follow when wiring your home


Published by Group Africa Publishing Ltd Head Office and for all enquiries: P.O. Box 10109 Nairobi 00100 Kenya, Tel: +254 722525326 +254-208000307 Email: info@groupafricapublishing. com Uganda Agent Projects Unusual Uganda Ltd. Jemba Plaza, Luwum St. Kampala, Uganda Tel: +256 776 883181

South Africa Agent Media icon Pty ltd Max Offices Sandton, 145 Second Street, Parkmore 2196 South Africa Tel: 010 055 3356/ 27 10 055 3356 South Africa Agent Mining and Construction News Network 14 Ballyclare Drive, Bryanston, Sandton +27 (0)011 875 4328, Ethiopia Agent Haymi Advertising Services 22 Mazoria, Genet Bldg 4th Flr P.O. Box 1316 - 1110 Addis Ababa

TENT Dooger Bank Wind Farm

The Dogger Bank wind farms located in the North Sea,UK, will comprise three 1.2GW offshore wind farms

A fancy hotel vibe bathroom Even with a tight budget, it’s possible to transform your bathroom into a luxurious sanctuary

Africa is now entering into a new age of transportation in urban centers with focus on mass transit solutions to cater for a ballooning populations in the urban centres.

Metro rails projects are being constructed in Egypt and Nigeria while in Morocco and South Africa these have been running for some time.

22 Businesses today rely on expensive and heavy machinery which needs equipment and machinery insurance

In Nigeria the new Blue and Red lines that are currently under construction are part of 7 lines in a massive rail mass transport project in Lagos. In this issue we take a look at these projects that promise to be transformative in bringing sanity to the commuter industry in Lagos.

30 Tel: +251 118 955 855, Cell: +251 930 099 152 Email:

Editor's Comment

It is hoped these new initiatives will replace the often chaotic taxi services that currently ply the roads causing horrific traffic jams and great discomfort to commuters who have no other alternatives. They are often run by cartels that control routes and thuggery is rampant under the eyes of compromised traffic police officers.


Equipment and Machinery Insurance

Jan/Feb 2022 Volume 33 No.1

Robert Barnes

Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 2679808 Email:,

Ghana Agent Image Consortium 1st Floor, The Ecobank Building, Tesano. Tel: 233(0)30 223 2728 I 233(0)274807127 I +233(0)206299159 Fax: 233(0)24 882 8286 Email:,

Nigeria Agent Rahma Associates B23/24, Aishetu Emoewa Plaza, 196, Iju Water Works Road, Ifako Ijaye Lga,Agege, Lagos. Tel: 234-1-7347860 Email:

Kenya Agent Northwest Ventures Ltd P.O. Box 16414 - 00100 G.P.O

Rwanda Agent Kolline & Hemed Inc., B.P. 3328, Kigali, Rwanda E-mail:

Zambia Agent Dayflex Limited, Dedan Kimathi Road, Lusaka, Zambia. Email: Tanzania Agent: Group Africa Publishing Ltd Dar-es-salaam


FLSmidth to introduce the use of calcined clay to substitute expensive clinker in cement production The cement sector in West Africa could make exciting use of clay calcination technology to reduce carbon emissions and energy consumption in cement production, in line with the industry’s sustainability goals.

GOMACO Introduces New Savvy Concrete Paving Technology at World of Concrete 2022 The GOMACO GP3 slipform paver was featured in the GOMACO booth. It has the capability of slipforming up to 30 feet (9.14 m) wide. It’s available as a two-track or four-track paver but was on display in four-track model and featured several new savvy innovations. GOMACO’s engineers have advanced paver controls and automation and are introducing new intelligent valves on GOMACO’s line of equipment, including the GP3 paver. The new self-programming valves eliminate the need to set thresholds. The valves, working with the paver’s G+® control system, understands and can automatically react and self-adjust to the dynamics of the machine. Initially the valve reacts to the machine set-up and adjusts accordingly, but the operator can make fine-tuned sensitivity adjustments from any display at any time. GOMACO’s G+ software recognizes the change requests and immediately makes those adjustments. This allows automatic correction of the paver’s elevation, steering, pivoting, travel control, anti-slip positive traction of the tracks and more.

As a leader in clay calcination, FLSmidth offers its technology to replace a portion of clinker with environmentally friendly calcined clay, thereby cutting carbon dioxide emissions in comparison conventional cement production. This solution also brings energy savings as calcined clay activates at a much lower temperature than clinker – with required temperatures of 750 to 850˚C instead of 1400 to 1500˚C In addition to FLSmidth’s strong presence in South Africa is its Ghana office – a 13-strong team of local people which is committed to developing local expertise and capacity in the West African region. According to Joseph AppiahKubi, General Manager of FLSmidth in Ghana, the company’s corporate social responsibility programme includes a graduate scheme to empower Ghanaians, transfer skills and provide opportunities in the economy to young graduates.

G+ controls now incorporate GOMACO’s new vibrator monitoring system with the ability to monitor, control and diagnose each individual vibrator on the paver. The savvy new technology is advancing throughout GOMACO’s entire line of concrete slipform paving equipment. The new selfprogramming valves are also being integrated into GOMACO’s full line of curb and gutter machines.

Topcon announces MC-X Platform and MC-Max machine control solution Topcon Positioning Group has announced its MC-Max machine control solution. Based on its MC-X machine control platform, and backed by Sitelink3D — the company’s realtime, cloud-based data management ecosystem — MC-Max is a scalable solution for mixed-fleet heavy equipment environments. It is designed to adapt to owners’ machine control and data integration needs as their fleets and workflows expand. MC-Max increases processing power, speed, accuracy, versatility and reliability; and can be installed on a full range of dozers and excavators, using the same basic modular components. Modern, redesigned user and product interfaces were 4

developed based on real-world applications and customer feedback and provide a simplified and immersive user experience that allows operators to learn the system easily. The MC-Max solution offers flexible mounting solutions, as well as optional automatic blade and bucket control for a variety of machines. The system also provides a full battery of positioning technologies ranging from slope control to laser, multiconstellation GNSS, robotic total station and Millimeter GPS systems.

communications systems. Topcon MC-X Platform The Topcon MC-X Platform makes machine control easy to use and affordable for all contractors. The platform ties together mixed fleets by interacting with multiple versions of 3D-MC, providing connectivity to Sitelink3D and taking advantage of the multiconstellation capabilities of GNSS antennas.

MC-Max provides project managers a real-time view of machine positions, activities and onsite progress, and is compatible with a wide range of site

CR | Jan/Feb 2022


10th Edition Real Estate Development Summit – North Africa | Egypt | RED Summit Egypt The 10th Edition Real Estate Development Summit – North Africa | Egypt is set to take place on the 29th & 30th March 2022 at the Royal Maxim Palace Kempinski, Cairo, Egypt. The North Africa edition brings together a broad canvas of 40 Global Solution Providers, 25+ Speakers, 100+ VIP delegates like industry thought leaders, Hotel Owners, Hotel Operators, Developers, Architects, Designers, Consultants from across North Africa, particularly from Egypt. The key attendees for the RED Summit Egypt include executives and key decision-makers from the Residential, Hospitality, Commercial, and Mixed-use sectors. The Hospitality sector tops the list with 45% attendees.

The 12th China Prefab House, Modular Building, Mobile House & Space Fair (PMMHF 2022)

The 12th China Prefab House, Modular Building, Mobile House & Space Fair (PMMHF 2022) Date: May 10th-12th Venue: China Import & Export Fair Complex Address: No. 380, Yuejiang Zhong Road, Guangzhou, China Website:

Preview of PMMHF 2022 As one of the biggest prefabricated building fair, every year PMMHF displays a most comprehensive industry chain and the cutting-edge products. For the 2022 show, PMMHF will receive 260+ exhibitors on a 32,000 sq.m show floor. Among all concurrent events, Global Prefabricated Building Development Summit 2022 is the most attracting one for its excellent speaker lineup and wonderful speeches.

To participate in the summit, or to know more, visit https://redevelopmentsummit. com/northafrica/ or contact GBB at or call on +44 20 3868 2202. Kenya - Architectural Association of Kenya - Institute of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya - Institute of Engineers of Kenya - Association of Consulting Engineers of - Kenya - Association of Professional Societies of East Africa APSEA)

Association Partners

- Kenya Property developers Association - Institution of Surveyors of Kenya -Town and County Planners Association of Kenya (TCPAK)

- ASAQS - SAICE - South African Council for the Quantity Surveying Profession - Khuthaza ( Women for Housing)

Uganda society of Architects

- Institute of Namibian Quantity Surveyors - Association of Consulting Engineers of Namibia


- Institute of Botswana Quantity Surveyors

- Tanzania Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Ethiopia - Association of Ethiopian Architects - Ethiopian Association of Civil Engineers - Construction Contractors Association of Ethiopia

Zimbabwe - Zimbabwe Institute of Quantity Surveyors - The Construction Industry Federation of Zimbabwe (Cifoz)

Ghana - Ghana Institute of Engineers

- Concrete Manufacturers Association - Green Building council of SA

- Ghana Institute of Surveyors

- South African Property Owners Association

- Ghana Green Builders Association

- Master Builders South Africa

- Ghana Institute of Planners

- Construction Regulation Board (CRB) - Tanzania’s Registration Board of Architects and Quantity Surveyors (AQSRB)

Nigeria - Association of Consulting Engineers Nigeria - Association of Professional Women Engineers Of Nigeria - Council of Registered Builders of Nigeria - The Nigerian Institute of Architects - American Association of Petroleum Geologists Africa Region - Nigeria Society of Engineers - Nigeria Institute of Architects - Building and Construction Skilled Artisans Association of Nigeria (BACSAAN)

- Association of Building and Civil Engineering


Contractors of Ghana

- Zambia Institute of Architects (ZIA) - Association of Building and Civil Engineering

Institute of Surveyors of Uganda Uganda Institute of Professional Engineers (UIPE) &

This 11th edition brings together 10,000 trade professionals to convene virtually and physically, to facilitate exchange of insights, knowledge and solutions to help Start, Scale and Sustain their transformation journey, focusing on the following key segments: Productive Technologies, Building Materials, Construction Machineries, Architectural Finishes, and Facilities Management.


- Architects Registration Council


BTA 2022 aims to help accelerate the adoption of digitalized solution and smart technologies as part of the industry transformation roadmap for the Built Environment sector. Riding on the success of the last 2 digital series, BTA is coming back with a hybrid format (with physical and virtual format) from 15 - 17 March 2022 at the Singapore EXPO, Hall 3.

For more information, please visit

- Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers

South Africa

BuildTech Asia (BTA) is 15-17 March 2022


Contractors (ABCEC). Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



Dogger Bank Wind Farm

the largest off shore wind farm under construction The Dogger Bank wind farms located in the North Sea,UK, will comprise three 1.2GW offshore wind farms namely, Creyke Beck A, Creyke Beck B, and Teesside A. Dogger Bank wind farms, a 50:50 joint venture (JV) between SSE Renewables and Equinor, is developing the 3.6GW project, which is set to be the world’s biggest offshore wind farm. SSE Renewables is responsible for the project development and construction, while Equinor will be in charge of operations. The total investment in the Dogger Bank wind farms project is estimated to be £9bn ($11bn). The three wind farms will be capable of generating sufficient power for approximately 4.5 million UK homes, while meeting approximately


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5% of the country’s electricity demand.


Onshore construction works on the Dogger Bank wind power project were started in January 2020, while the offshore construction works commenced in 2021, with first power from the project expected in 2023. Dogger Bank wind farms location The Dogger Bank zone extends over 8,660km², approximately 125km to 290km off the coast of Yorkshire, UK. Located roughly 131km from the shore, the Creyke Beck A and B wind project sites will occupy


515km² and 599km² of area, respectively. The Teeside A wind project site that lies 196km from the coast will cover an area of 560km². Turbines installed at Dogger Bank The offshore wind farms will be installed with Haliade-X turbines from GE. At 12MW rated capacity, Haliade-X is claimed to be the world’s most powerful wind turbine till date. Dogger Bank will be the first European wind project to use these turbines.

The annual generation capacity of each turbine will be 67GWh, which will be enough to meet the power needs of approximately 16,000 European households. Each turbine is expected to offset up to 42 million tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere, which is equivalent to the annual emissions of 9,000 vehicles.

The turbine components will be loaded on to heavy lifting vessels for transportation to the site. The prototype of GE’s Haliade-X 12 MW offshore wind turbine was inaugurated at the port of Maasvlakte-Rotterdam in the Netherlands in December 2019.

With a total height of 260m, each Haliade-X turbine will have a 220m-diameter rotor and 107m-long blades.

The Design

Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



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Power transmission Each wind farm will require approximately 300km of inter-array cables to gather and transfer the electricity generated by the turbines to an offshore platform. Electricity from Creyke Beck A and Creyke Beck B wind farms will be transmitted through subsea export cables to two new onshore converter stations that will be built on an 11ha-site to the north of A1079 road. Measuring between 172km and 191km in length, each subsea export cable will make landfall on the Holderness Coast near Ulrome. Electricity from the landfall site will be further transmitted through 30km of underground cables to the converter stations for conversion from direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). Underground cabling of 2km will be installed for power transmission to the existing Creyke Beck national grid substation. The subsea export cable from the Teesside A will take a different route to connect with another onshore converter station at Teesside, before connecting with the Lackenby national grid substation at Teesside. Contractors involved • GE Renewables Energy will supply Haliade-X wind turbines for the project, under a contract awarded in October 2019. • Offshore Heavy Transport (OHT), a heavy transport and installation contractor based in Norway, was selected preferred supplier for foundation installation for the Dogger Bank wind power project in November 2019. • OHT’s Alfa Lift heavy installation crane vessel, which is expected to be the world’s biggest custom-built offshore wind foundation vessels when launched in 2021, will be used for the transport and installation of monopile foundations and transition pieces for the Creyke Beck A and Creyke Beck B wind farms. • Jan De Nul was contracted to transport and install the Dogger Bank wind turbines using its new offshore jack-up installation vessel Voltaire in October 2019. • Aibel was contracted to deliver two HVDC offshore converter platforms, while ABB was contracted to supply its HVDC Light® converter system for the Creyke Beck A and Creyke Beck B projects in the same month. • NKT is the supplier of high-voltage DC offshore export power cables for the Creyke Beck A and B wind farms. • The scope of the contract, worth £318m (€360m), involves the supply of 320kV DC export cables for offshore as well as onshore sections, apart from the installation of cables with the use of NKT Victoria vessel. • Jones Bros Civil Engineering, a civil engineering contractor based in North Wales, is engaged for the installation of onshore cable infrastructure for the Creyke Beck A and Creyke Beck B sites. The scope of the contract also includes earthworks for onshore HVDC convertor stations in East Riding.

Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



Lagos Rail Mass Transit Project Nigeria’s largest city, Lagos, is constructing a light rail system under a public-private partnership (PPP). The Lagos Rail Mass Transit System project is sponsored by the Lagos State Government (LSG) and being developed by Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) on behalf of LSG. LAMATA has proposed seven lines in the network: Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Purple, Brown and Orange.

China Civil Engineering Construction Company (CCECC) was appointed as the contractor for the construction of the first line (Blue). The contract includes the fundamental design and development of the rail infrastructure. CCECC is constructing the Blue line in two phases. The first phase includes the National Theatre to Mile 2 section and the second involves the Mile 2 to Okokomaiko section. Construction of the Blue line was initially expected to be completed by 2011 but was delayed to 2020 due to funding issues. Alstom also partnered with LAMATA for the completion of Blue line. Redline and Bue Line The first two lines of the urban light rail project are estimated to cost $1.4bn. The Red line will be 30km long and will run between Marina and Agbado. The Blue line will be 27km long, connecting Okokomaiko to Marina.


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The Blue line will cost $1.2bn and is being funded entirely by the Lagos State Government (LSG). In May 2012, the Lagos government commenced negotiations with potential investors for the operation and maintenance of the line. The 30km-long Red line will use the existing Nigeria Railway Corporation corridor, constructed through a concession arrangement. The construction of the line will commenced in 2021. Concession contract The concession contract will be for the operation and maintenance of the lines for 25 years. The scope of work for the concessionaire will also include design and construction of the infrastructure associated with the performance and support of the lines. The transaction adviser for the Red line is Dar Al-Handasah. CPCS Transcom is the transaction adviser for the Blue line. The two transaction advisers conducted feasibility studies and conceptual design work for their respective lines. Line routes of Lagos rail mass transit system The Blue line starts at Marina station and runs along Ebute Ero and Iddo stations, same as the Red line. From Iddo, the Blue line running on an elevated platform moves along the National Theatre station. It makes a descent at Iganmu to join the expanded Lagos-Badagry Expressway. finally reaches the Okokomaiko station where it ends. One of the two bridges being built for the

Blue line is at Mile 2. The Red line begins as a double line at Marina and runs through Ebute Ero ending at Iddo. It then runs northwards via a reverse curve to reach Ebute Metta. The line goes straight to Yaba, Mushin and Oshodi before reaching Ikeja. At the Ikeja station, the Red line is linked to the line from the international and domestic airport terminal. From Ikeja, a single line will run to the airport terminals. The Red line moves as a double line further northwards from Ikeja to pass through Agege, Iju and finally reaches Agbado. The passenger railway service run by Nigerian Railway Corporation (NRC) from the north will terminate at the Agbado interchange. Passengers travelling to Marina using NRC services will change train at Agbado and continue their journey on the Red line. Some of the Red line section from Agbado will run on NRC corridor tracks. Island-style platforms The Red and Blue lines will have 13 stations each. Three stations in the south end of the Red line will be shared with the Blue line. The two railway lines will, therefore, comprise 23 stations in total. The stations will have island-style platforms and commuter payment systems. Public address and electronic information screens will be installed in each station. The Ebute Ero station will also have an escalator.

Jan/Feb 2022 | CR


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Several rail crossings with elevated road structures will be built along the lines. A total of 35 pedestrian bridges will be constructed over the Nigerian Railway Corridor. Cable ducts and walkways, in addition to drainage system with two walls, will be built along different sections of the lines. Between Marina and Iddo stations, a combined 5km viaduct rail over the road and a cable-stay bridge will be built, linking the Red and Blue lines. Other infrastructures being built as part of the project include stations; signalling, control and communications (SC&C) systems; supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems; depot and workshop facilities; an operations control centre and a training facility for train drivers.

Rolling stock The urban rail network is anticipated to operate with 12-car trains, with more cars added according to demand. The maximum number of cars will, however, be limited to 16 a train. The 16-car trains will be 352m long and12-car trains 264m long. The cars will accommodate 300 passengers each. Signalling and communications The light rail system will employ the latest train authorisation systems, automatic train protection (ATP) and in-cab signalling in all of its lines. The wayside equipment will be minimised so that the drivers will not exceed the authorised movement limits. The ATP will help to maintain the speed restrictions set on the lines. To ensure that the signalling is available during power cuts, a backup power system will be fitted.

Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



Design Source Marks 15 Years, Wins Prestigious Award


esign Source, a built environment consultant in Kenya was the recipient of Best Multidisciplinary Building Consultancy Firm in East Africa in the MEA Awards 2021. The achievement comes as the firm marks 15 years since it was established. In an increasingly dynamic built environment marked by competition and evolving architecture, firms offering services in the sector have to continuously adapt, upscale their innovative capacities and above

all keep focused on the needs of their clients. This is something that Design Source understands very well and has internalized in its daily operations. As a multidisciplinary firm of Built Environment Consultants undertaking Architecture, Master Planning, Interior Design, Project Management and Construction Supervision in Kenya and beyond, Design Source has adopted the approach of dynamically engaging with its clients, communities and the environment in order to remain ahead. “Design Source is committed to a process-driven, client-empowered approach where each project is a unique reflection of our clients’ objectives and Gulf Energy Service Station


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priorities,” says the firm. It is therefore no surprise that the firm has been declared Best Multidisciplinary Building Consultancy Firm in East Africa in the 2021 edition of the prestigious Middle East and Africa Markets (MEA) Awards. The award, under MEA’s African Business Excellence, is testimony to Design Source’s determination to be the best in what it does; in this case, serving the built environment in the best way possible. The accolades could not have come at a more significant time. This year, the firm is marking its 15th anniversary and is looking back with pride at its achievements since inception. But it has not reached here by accident.

Sunrise Resort Mombasa

“Listening forms the foundation of our work”, states the firm. “Review sessions, workshops and design critiques are an integral part of our design process. We empower our clients to make informed decisions with confidence." Over the years, Design Source has provided cutting-edge services to a host of clients. Its multidisciplinary nature enables it to provide a full range of services to corporates, government and non-profit organizations as well as individual clients. By offering several services under one roof, it offers clients the convenience of being served at one point, eliminating the client’s need to move from one consultancy to another in search of different services. Tubei Townwhouses

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Moi Educational Centre High School

The firm is driven by the need to give end users the most effective solutions. In order to provide the best services possible, Design Source has tapped great talent to constitute a formidable team of in-house consultants whose synergy produces outstanding results for the firm’s clients. In addition, the firm partners with top minds and external consultants in joint ventures. Projects Design Source is well positioned to execute projects in practically any genre. The firm undertakes projects ranging from Recreation, Culture and Community, Healthcare, Education, Residential, Office and Commercial to Retail, Aviation and Transport. Other areas include Industrial, Hospitality and Energy. The firm has worked for large corporates, government, non-profit organization and individuals. Energy Design Corporate has completed numerous service stations for Gulf Energy and National Oil Corporation. It has also worked for Rubis.

University of Embu library

Hospitality The firm has gained extensive experience in


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hospitality. Some of the country’s well known hotels, resorts and restaurants are the work of Design Source. These include The Sunrise Resort in Mombasa, Abba Hotel in Meru as well Taidy’s Hotels and Restaurants in Nairobi and Nakuru among many others. Across the border in Tanzania, Design Source has done Arusha’s Usa Resorts and Hotels and is working on Kisongo Tourist Lodge and Resort in the same city. Residential Design Corporate has completed several housing projects and boasts a growing portfolio that includes executive townhouses, apartments and other residential developments. Among them are Egoli Residences and Tubei Townhouses in Nairobi. Currently, the firm is working on a 23-storey apartment project in the Upperhill area of Nairobi.

KRA offices Institutional The firm’s portfolio of institutional projects consists of education, religious and non-commercial buildings for local and international organisations. The iconic

University of Embu library and Moi Educational Centre High School are some of Design Corporate’s signature projects. Interiors Design Corporate has completed numerous interior design projects that have enhanced the image of brands in their respective spheres. Clients here include major banks such as Kenya Commercial Bank as well as large government parastatals such as the Kenya Revenue Authority and Higher Education Loans Board. Going into the future, Design Corporate intends to continue reinventing itself to respond to changing client needs and other market dynamics in order to remain a natural choice for customers looking for personalized professional services.


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East End Plaza, Bukani Road, Nairobi West, P.O. Box 4546-00506 Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254-20-6008584, 0705-167161 Email: Website:

We congratulate DESIGN SOURCE LTD on their 15th anniversary and for winning Best Multidisciplinary Building Consultancy Firm in East Africa 2021 Award. We are proud to be associated with you.


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Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



Choosing the best quality blinds for your home So, what are blinds actually? Blinds are "hard" window coverings with slats or vanes that tumble down when the blind is lowered or maybe drawn across a window to stack lengthwise and to the side. Individual louvers or slats are put together to make the full blind, often operated by a manual pull string. These slats are designed to be closed snugly for privacy and light control in rooms. You should know that the most common "blinds" are wood, faux wood, woven wood, mini blinds, and vertical blinds, often constructed of wood, metal, a composite, or woven grass or bamboo. These materials have a rough or bumpy feel to them, thus the moniker "hard window coverings." all of these blinds have a conventional and classic aesthetic that goes with any décor style, giving your windows an attractive, architectural, and clean appearance. How To Choose Correct Blinds For Your Home Getting the correct one for your requirements isn't always easy, with so many different types of blinds and shades to select from. Read on further to go through some of the finest tips in choosing the best blinds. Different types of blinds are available in the market, such as metal blinds, wooden blinds, and fabric-based blinds. If you want to keep your rooms airy and bright,, you can choose fabric blinds. These blinds are easy to adjust, and you can control the light of your rooms by adjusting these blinds. You can also get a sound sleep in your room by installing these blinds as these blinds can prevent noises coming in from outside. You have to choose such blinds within your budget. It depends on the size of your windows because if you want to cover a large window, you need to spend significantly more on that. In this case, you have to customize your blinds according to your window size. You can simply search for such blinds online and check their prices for an overall better idea. You can also ask for a manufacturer or retailer to measure your windows and give a complete price quote. Based on that, you can compare their prices and choose an affordable one for your home.


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Blinds require less maintenance cost than curtains because you can easily clean your blinds with a vacuum cleaner. Guess more, you can even clean the metal blinds by water. Blinds and their seal holders can get affected by dust and soil, and you should clean your blinds every month to keep your home hygienic. Keeping such factors in mind, it is advised to choose the best quality blinds which are easy to clean and maintain. As stated above that blinds are available in different colors and designs. As per your choice and needs, you can choose to pick the best colors according to your wall color. You need to make a contrast by choosing some bold colored blinds for your light shade rooms. You can also choose such dark coloured blinds for your bedroom where you need the minimum amount of natural light. These blinds can block the heat and keep your rooms cool in summer.


You should choose some quality blinds which are durable and long-lasting. Blinds are expensive than curtains, and you cannot get affordable to replace your blinds every year. So you should check their quality and choose some durable blinds for your rooms. Most manufacturers offer a limited period warranty on their blinds, and it will save your maintenance cost. Apart from that the points mentioned above, you need to choose the design of your blinds according to the size of your windows. For example, blinds designed with vertical slates are perfect for wider windows. You need to choose some horizontal slats for your large windows.

Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



A fancy hotel vibe bathroom


ven with a tight budget, it’s possible to transform your bathroom into a luxurious sanctuary. With the right mix of colors, furniture and accessories, you can achieve an atmosphere of extravagant leisure. Remember, simple touches can do so much to make your space look brand new. Take a look at these six tips and tricks that’ll make your next makeover a breeze. 1. Pick Neutral Tones An easy way to upgrade your bathroom is to give it a fresh coat of paint. Choose a creamy white or beige for the walls. Then, pick cabinets and countertops in those same shades. Hotels typically don’t go overboard in terms of appearance, so you’ll want to stick to these classic finishes for a room that exudes elegance. If you want to add a pop of color, try vibrant tiles in the shower or expressive wallpaper behind the vanity. 2. Emphasize Plush Aspects Large, soft towels are the perfect indicator of relaxation. You can find matching sets in a fluffy


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cotton material from many retailers. To display your towels, roll them up and arrange them on an open shelf. A heated towel rack can add a whole new sense of elegance. Place thick bath mats on the floor and hang up a big robe. The softer, the better. To take it a step further, include an ottoman where you can sit and dry off after a bath. If you have enough space, put an area rug in the center of the room to create appeal and dimension. These elements combined will create a cozy atmosphere. 3. Update the Shower shower Fancy hotel bathrooms rarely feature built-in tubs and bulky curtains. Instead, showers have pristine glass doors and stylish finishes. These features create a more open and contemporary feel. You can also add a rainfall showerhead for added luxury. Any way that you can make this part of the bathroom more modern is essential. For example, carved out enclaves in the walls of the shower provide a clean space for toiletries.



aving the option of not touching certain objects has always been important, especially when we talk about public spaces. As we live, the existence of this option has gained new relevance. When exists the necessity to use a public bathroom, it is normal that we want to avoid touching when unloading the toilet. With this need in mind, OLI develops toilets that allow the discharge to be carried out only with the approach of the hand, avoiding contact and transmission of bacteria. We talk about Hydroboost, a sustainable technology that allows you to generate energy through the entry of water into the flush. Electronic flush plates, such as the Electra III model, also have the advantage of having a system that makes it resistant to eventual acts of vandalism, which is also ideal for bathrooms in public spaces such as shopping centres or airports.

TOUCH? NOT ANYMORE Ultra-thin thick glass flush plates are another of the options available in various colours and follow the latest trend because they have LED light to activate the discharge. The first porcelain flush plate winning 4 world prizes, Moon, completes the wide range of OLI products where unloading into the toilet can also be activated without resorting to touch. Thinking about who wants to renovate the bathroom without having to resort to deeper works, maintaining the No-Touch feature to activate the unloading, OLI has developed a solution with the most demanding quality standards on the market - QR-INOX. The best option for rapid remodelling of the bathroom. It doesn't require intervention on the walls and you can use the existing water inlet and outlet connections.

About OLI OLI is the largest cistern manufacturer in Southern Europe. Its brand is present in 80 countries on five continents. Over the years, OLI has created products that have, on a global scale changed the daily experience in the bathroom. Their “Inspired by water” signature concept embodies the company’s mission to place innovation at the service of water conservation, aiming to make the world a better place, thus protecting the planet and all life. OLI is recognized for constantly studying new and better solutions that increase water efficiency and accessibility for people with reduced mobility. Committed to sustainable development, the brand develops versatile solutions with a contemporary design for application in new construction, rehabilitation and renovation projects. OLI believes in a water-efficient bathroom that is comfortable, accessible and safe for all to use. OLI will continue to be defined by innovation. OLI is looking for business partners and projects to join their portfolio in Africa.


Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



4. Install Soft Lighting Skip the harsh bulbs this time around. Instead, choose LEDs with a softer glow, as doing so will save you money and create a calming atmosphere. Place fixtures on both sides of the mirrors so that you can see yourself clearly. Install a dimmer, which will let you control the amount of light in the room. Include a few candles as both an accessory and a way to unwind after a long day. You never want your bathroom to be too bright or dark – this is where you get ready, after all. 5. Add Plants and Flowers plants Many high-end hotels place vases of cut flowers in their bathrooms to bring in a touch of nature, and you can easily do this at home for a similar vibe. Tropical vegetation like orchids, Chinese evergreens and aloe vera plants all thrive in these environments. You can also pick up a few fake ones if you prefer. 24

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Either way, several benefits come with this decor – from better air quality to increased mental clarity. 6. Choose the Right Scents To create the ultimate spa experience, focus on the scents you bring into your bathroom. Essential oil and reed diffusers emit the fragrance of your choice. Layer these with scented shower products for a heavenly smell. Certain aromas evoke emotions, so be sure to pick products with notes of lavender, jasmine or vanilla. Remember, candles and flowers can help with this as well. Turn Your Space Into a Spa Retreat With these simple upgrades, you can design the perfect bathroom. Elegance is all about simplicity, so go with calm shades of paint, thick towels, soft lights and delicious scents. This way, the hotel experience is brought to you.

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Remodeling trends for 2022

2022 is another year that has ensured everyone stays at home due to the pandemic. This has given the homeowners enough time to find out how to go about making changes in their homes so it is more comfortable and also convenient. They have planned the upgrades according to their budget and this has worked well so far. The trend is to ensure that personal space can be converted into a virtual class or probably, a work place or even a safe place to entertain guests. Safety Inside Out Staying at home for 24 hours a day has led many homeowners the importance of the safety factor. There are chances of the anti-microbial tile or the HVAC units that provide air filtration of the total house to get common. There are a number of families that have two to three generations staying under one roof. This means, they need to ensure that the elderly live a comfortable life with changes made. You can expect certain changes like grab bars, roll in showers and nonslip flooring in different houses now.

bathroom, you need to ensure you make a choice of only well reputed and qualified professional. Sustainability As known, the weather is getting more unpredictable with each passing day and there are more people getting conscious of the environment. They are now looking for sustainable techniques and products that are friendly to the environment. You can expect to see repurposed flooring in the interiors. Landscapes will now, not only beautify the exteriors but also protect from floods and wildfire. There is a demand for sustainable options like cork or bamboo. Rooms Multi-functional With children attending school virtually and adults working from home, you find many people struggling for study space or work at home. This ‘multi-functional’ room is one trend you can look forward to in 2022. There are rooms that are study rooms as well as work places. These rooms have central charging systems along with seating and Zoom setups.

If you are looking to add these accessories in the

Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



Kitchen islands are not only breakfast places but also classrooms. This works well as you find an increase of value in your property.

to ensure social distancing for all your get-togethers. Homeowners are planning on outdoor kitchens, decks or patios.

Bathroom Spa

Besides which there is an increase in gardening as most are staying at home and have ample amount of time.

With the ongoing circumstances, it does get frustrating to spend all your time with family, without any ‘private’ time. Those looking for that extra space can plan on adding some additional space to your bathroom. Ensure that the changes are not only practical but also luxurious. This can include bathroom cabinets, in-built storage systems, bathroom lighting, deep vessel sinks and more. You can take help from a reputed auckland plumbing company for all your requirements. Spaces Outdoors The demand for outdoor space has increased during this pandemic as you have

Go Retro Many industries faced a shortage of supplies in 2021. This included home improvement as well. There was a shortage of specific pieces of furniture or even paint colors. This has led many homeowners opting for the ‘retro’ style. For that vintage feel you need to visit yard sales, local flea markets and also antique stores. You have a choice of pieces that have been upholstered or one-of-a-kind pieces available here. These work out cost effective as these costs only a small fraction of what you will pay for something new.

Transitional Rooms With a lot of space in the outdoors, you can plan on transitioning a small part back into the house. This is where this can work out to be a handy space. You can use these ‘mud rooms’ with storage for coats or shoes, washing stations for pets, or probably showers. You can plan on shade structures. Awnings can make an outdoor space feel more connected. This can also be a landing spot for any deliveries. This totally depends on the location of this room. Kitchen Configurations A kitchen turned into a multi-purpose room is the ongoing trend presently. Many homeowners opt for two kitchen islands, one is for work, school and everything else and the second one is for preparing food and entertaining. As known, kitchen renovations are a definite ROI (Return on Invest-

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CR | Jan/Feb 2022


ment), but kitchen to

a kitchen with two islands upgrades the high-end territory from mid-range kitchen.

Storage The many benefits of de-cluttering a home are now a well known fact. Most people believe in minimalism and have been following this since a long time. A good storage works well for all that you do not use on a daily basis but want to keep it due to, probably, sentimental reasons. Appliances garages, kitchen cabinets with shelves that can be pulled out, or cabinets in the bathroom to manage the hair care tools can work wonders for a home. You can also plan on drawers for storage under the bed.


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Home Office Home offices have been popular since a long time, but have gained importance during this pandemic. An ideal scenario for working from home is to have space that can be locked and a dedicated phone line. This trend will, for sure, will lead to empty spaces or spare bedrooms being transferred into a home office. Converting a room into a home office is important as most people are not able to work in a casual atmosphere. The aesthetics and layout of a room does affect the productivity and energy of an individual. A working space is designed specifically to maximize the motivation and concentration along with productivity. Finally, it is goodbye to the flat finish of dry wall. There has been an explosion of faux finish as this is not only beautiful to the feel but also comfortable to the pocket. Warm tones are here and this stays for a long time. Homeowners are, now, more savvy with the interiors and are in no mood for any compromises.

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Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



Equipment and Machinery Insurance

Many operations of businesses today rely on expensive and heavy machinery which needs equipment and machinery insurance. This is because these pieces of equipment do the bulk of a manufacturing company’s work, and you will find that your reputation and profits depend on them. Business owners realize that the entire manufacturing operations rely on the equipment they are using, which is the backbone of the whole company. This means that there should be no room for mistakes. However, as with any other things in a business, it is possible to run into various issues during installation, production, and the overall functionality of the finished product. When this happens, you may want to get the equipment insured, and you can visit the company site on the link provided for more coverage information. With this said, here are some things that you need to know about equipment and machinery insurance. The Kinds of Coverage that are Must-Haves The job involving heavy machinery is difficult. If you are going to include multi-step processes, the need for precise tools, and crucial vendor relationships, everything could go downhill in one simple mistake. Below is a compilation of the policies that address specific concerns, possible issues, and demands that many owners meet along the way. 30

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Errors and Omissions If you encounter an error or omit something during production, the good news is that you can cover your tracks. Understandably, everybody makes mistakes occasionally. If the equipment is responsible for supplying defective rigs, drills, and gears, then it is the responsibility of the manufacturers to cover the loss. Get more information about errors and omissions insurance when you click here: https://www.investopedia. com/terms/e/errors-omissions-insurance.asp. Even if you did not cause the property damage on the rigs, they will be useless until the gears are replaced or repaired. This will put a dent in your finances, and all the potential revenues are going to be put on hold. With the coverage involving omissions & errors, the insurers will take care of the costs that many defective products may bring. Others are extended into the liabilities and losses of third parties when they deem your product unsafe or unusable. There is also the possibility of requesting a higher limit depending on if you qualify. Insulation Floaters You might be working with the installation of the


equipment that you are manufacturing the parts yourself. If so, then there are many more risks you are facing in your daily operations. Some of the trouble starts on the loading stage, when the products are in transit, on the installation site, and many more. With an installation floater, you will have an extension aside from your commercial general liability insurance to cover those who work offsite. This provides coverage for theft, fire, installation hazards, and others that may happen when the goods are on their way to the place where you are going to install them. The goods or the things you are responsible for will also be included, and other packages will cover you while the products are stored temporarily in another area. Product Recalls It is possible to retrieve faulty products easily and quickly. Know that the defects will show up at the time when you least expected them to. It might be after you have already distributed the parts to the retailers, and the customer may report a lot of malfunctions and issues after buying your products. If the retailers tell you that the products are unsafe or full of defects, you may be forced to recall everything, which can mean a loss of income.

is not an easy feat. It will be costly when there are recalls but not much if you have product recall expense insurance. This involved covering the manufacturer with costs often associated with defective products. The reimbursement can be up to $50,000 depending on the situation, and this should come from the recall process alone. Management of Risks Various risks come with operating equipment and machinery and hence the need for equipment and machinery insurance. It is therefore essential to be prepared when emergencies happen. You need to be prepared and defend yourself against dangerous circumstances. With competent guidance and the correct information from insurance companies, you will be better equipped to handle these situations and avoid risks. With the value-added services that some companies offer, you will be better when it comes to risk mitigation. Assessments are involved in checking how well you are prepared for burglaries, fire, and many more. Consultation from risk service professionals will leave you more knowledgeable and confident that every aspect of your business is well-protected.

Supplying various products on a massive scale

Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



Choosing the Proper Crane: 7 Essential Factors


hanks to various technological advancements, cranes are now a lot more useful and efficient, and almost every demolition and construction project uses cranes of different sizes and capacities. They are also used for the shipping and transport of various materials, and if you are involved in a project with a crane requirement, your project's success will undoubtedly have a lot to do with the crane you select. Choosing the ideal one from a reliable company like PM Cranes will help you avoid any potential damage and accidents, and it can also help save you money and time as it enhances the efficiency of your site or project. But how can you then choose the right one? Here are the most essential factors you should consider when selecting the proper crane. Assess the load The very first thing you should do is assess the load. What is the load’s weight, and what is its size? It would follow that your crane should have an ideal lifting capacity to move or lift the load. If the crane you choose has too high a capacity, you are simply wasting money, labour, and time. But if you were to select a crane with a capacity that's too low, it could result in accidents and load damage.

If you can gain access to a load chart, much better. This will give you various crane features like boom length and the crane's rated capacity. The rated capacity is the actual gross weight a crane can lift at a specific distance or radius. Also, when you are choosing the proper crane, you have to deduct the ball or hook block and cable plus rigging from the crane's gross weight capacity. With this, you can be more confident in your choice of crane for your project – and you will also ensure its enhanced safety. If you consult with a manufacturer and supplier, they can provide you with a chart that will give you details 32

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on their cranes' precise dimensions and specifications. It then allows you to compute the optimum lift at any radius. Additionally, assess the kind of load you would like to lift or move. For instance, carrying or lifting a tank filled with liquid requires unique conditions, especially when you compare it to simply moving heavy machinery or concrete blocks. In other words, the load is crucial as it defines the lifting you require, which will decide the kind of crane you need. Figure out the length of the job or project and its limits There are various specifications for cranes, as you will already know, and they all come with varying functionalities and capabilities. Therefore, you need to have a good and proper understanding of your project's requirements so you can choose the equipment that meets your needs, including the demands of your project and its limitations, such as schedules and time frames. Determine the transport of the equipment Another major point to consider is how the equipment will be brought to the site or transported. It is a consideration that is often neglected or overlooked, but we can't stress enough how crucial it is. For example, cranes are usually categorised as mobile, tower, rough terrain or crawler, and so on. But all of these will require different modes of transport. You may also need permission from the local councils when it comes to the transportation of heavy equipment and cranes. The transport routing may require that you take an indirect or meandering route. Still, sometimes this is necessary to avoid a bridge with low clearance or capacity, such as roadways that cannot handle larger trailers or loads. In addition, it ensures that you can prevent issues (like road construction projects) or even potential accidents.


Determine the height As will be explained by crane manufacturers and providers, another consideration is the lifting height. The load's lifting height is equally critical to the crane's loading capacity, and the boom's length will depend on your requirements regarding how high you would need the load to go. For example, if you require vertical construction, you will require a boom with a longer length. You also have to evaluate the conditions of the weather, particularly the wind conditions. If the height of the lift is higher, the wind is more likely to sway the lift's load, which can result in accidents. You would also have to adjust the counterweight amount according to the height of the lift. Figure out the horizontal moving distance The crane also has to travel horizontally to pick up the required load, and if you require equipment transport from one place to another, you need a mobile crane. If you have a fixed pathway, you can use cranes equipped with rails. Check the terrain on-site All kinds of cranes will require a support structure holding them as firmly and with as much stability as possible. It is a critical element, as it can stabilise the load (and the crane). It follows, then, that your selected crane has to be suitable for the terrain on your site.

of mobility you would need on your site. For example, if you need to have exact delivery and flexibility in tighter spaces, you may do well with a mini-crane. Get to know the kinds of cranes Tower cranes These kinds of cranes are often used in constructing tall structures, and since they are fixed, they offer stability with the way they are bolted or fixed to slabs of concrete. Their lifting capacity can extend from 8 tonnes to up to 35 tonnes, and they're often ideal for long-term use. But since they are huge and have a tremendous reach, you need to be extra careful and take extra safety measures with their use. In addition, only a skilled and trained operator can operate them, and extreme weather can also hamper your project's schedule. Truck cranes Truck-mounted cranes are usually ideal for short-term projects or jobs. These types of cranes are popular, and we can see them almost anywhere along motorways and roadways since they can easily move from one location to another. These are most suitable for commercial projects and industrial sites and the construction of bridges, and so on. Truck cranes are not just a familiar sight – they are also easy to acquire and can have a capacity of 30 tonnes to more than 1000 tonnes. Crawler cranes

If the terrain is uneven, you have to select the support width carefully. If you deal with rough terrains, such as many off-road sites, it's best to use cranes suitable for moving across rough terrain. On the other hand, if the landscape is firm and flat, truck-mounted cranes are ideal as they offer more stability and mobility. You should also gain a good understanding of the level

A crawler crane is mounted on a track, and this track is mobile. The tracks are designed for various types of terrain or ground, including softer ground. Crawler cranes can lift heavy weights and loads, but they are also quite bulky and a hassle to transport from one place to another. They also cost a lot to assemble, and dismantling is expensive.

Jan/Feb 2022 | CR



10 proper steps to follow when wiring your house


our home’s electrical system is a complex system and knowing how it works will help you be a more “empowered homeowner”. Some areas do not allow an unlicensed home owner to wire his own house because of the risk of an electrical fire from faulty wiring. However, one can still do so under the direction of a licensed electrician. In other areas, especially in rural locations, you are free to wire your house.

foot of extra wire at each end just in case you need to move things around later. 4. Get familiar with the different wires.

Make sure you understand which colored wire should go and its purpose to avoid electrical shock and ensure wiring your house is safe. When installing wires, you need to recognize the parts of the cables for wiring, the non-metallic electrical cable: the outThe following are the proper steps er sheathing (the jacket) and the inner ones. to follow when wiring your house. 5. Know outlet count 1. Disconnect power Determine how many outlets and switches will Power disconnection is the first step to do run on one circuit. Normally, six outlets per a before trying any electric wiring in your 110-voltage circuit is advisable in a living area, home. Ask the power company put off the while as few as two per circuit are the standard in service to your house or disconnect just from a kitchen, where appliances use more wattage. the meter on the wall or side of your house. Ensure it is off before starting any work. 6. Drill wire holes 2. Design a writing diagram

Before drilling any holes, make sure you know what is on the other side of the wall/ Design a wiring diagram which shows floor to avoid drilling through any electrical the location of the breaker box and wires, ductwork, or water pipes. Proceed by the path of the wires to each outlet. drilling holes with a 1-inch bit in the middle of the studs where your wires will travel. The 3. Install conduits more outlets you have, the safer your home. Start by running the longest wires first to avoid wastage conduits in walls even if you don’t anticipate using them right away. Start each wire upstairs and pull it through to the basement. This way, you do not use a ladder to push the wire up between floors. You should also leave at least one 34

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7. Set a breaker Set your breaker box where you can easily access it in the future. A location in a basement or a utility room is desirable. 8. Pull the wires to the outlets


When wiring your house place the roll of wire next to the breaker box and pull the wire according to your diagram to the closest outlet or switch for each circuit. You can also run the wires straight through the box. Any wires sticking out of the box may just get dry walled over or could get cut from the electrical box. Use wire strippers to remove the outer plastic coating from the ends of the wires and attach them, according to the instructions on the box, at each outlet, fixture or switch. 9. Install the circuits Install individual circuits for each wiring set. The circuits must match the amperage of the wire and the intended purpose of the outlet. 10. Check Your Work Before closing up and calling it done, check your work! Pull on the connections to ensure they are safe. Switch on the power and make sure everything is correctly

done and starts up without incident. Also, inspect the casings with a voltage tester to ensure they are not electrified. Deploy the right insulators also for longer life.

Wiring your house is not an impossible task but you need to consult a professional to ensure that all regulations are met and to ensure that your safety which is ensured as well!

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Jan/Feb 2022 | CR


Advertisers Index


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Ryce East Africa Ltd....................................................... 29

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Ryce East Africa Ltd ...................................................... 19 Acrovent Limited............................................................ 19

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