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Contents Chapter 1 Write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful texts

5

1

Bring your writing to life

6

2

Use vivid detail in your writing

8

3

Choose and plan the right content

10

4

Choose the best words

12

5

Grab the reader's attention

14

6

Plan a factual essay

16

Check your progress

18

Chapter 2 Produce texts that are appropriate to task, reader and purpose

19

1

Choose the right form and formality of writing for a given task

20

2

Write in the correct style for a task

24

3

Use different techniques to interest and entertain the reader

26

4

Develop a viewpoint in your writing

28

Check your progress

30

Chapter 3 Organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and structuring information, ideas and events

31

1

Organise your writing

32

2

Write a clear introduction and conclusion

34

3

Use linking words and phrases appropriately

36

4

Make sure your writing stays organised

38

5

Present your work effectively on the page

40

Check your progress

42

Chapter 4 Construct paragraphs and use cohesion within and between paragraphs

43

1

Recognise paragraphs and the topic sentence

44

2

Use supporting and closing sentences

46

3

Develop paragraphs

48

4

Arrange paragraphs logically and make links between them

50

5

Use paragraphs to organise longer texts

52

6

Summarise ideas from a paragraph

54

Check your progress

56

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Chapter 5 Vary sentences for clarity, purpose and effect

57

1

Check that simple sentences are correct

58

2

Use different tenses

60

3

Use simple sentences for effect

62

4

Use compound sentences with conjunctions

64

5

Try out complex sentences

66

6

Start sentences in different ways

68

Check your progress

70

Chapter 6 Write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in phrases, clauses and sentences

71

1

Use commas in lists

72

2

Punctuate and set out written speech

76

3

Use bracketing commas

78

4

Use apostrophes

80

Check your progress

82

Chapter 7 Select appropriate and effective vocabulary

83

1

Use determiners to make your meaning clear

84

2

Develop your descriptions by using adjectives and adverbs

86

3

Use more imaginative vocabulary to make your ideas clearer

88

4

Choose vocabulary that suits your topic

90

Check your progress

92

Chapter 8 Use correct spelling

93

1

Secure your basic spellings

94

2

Spell -ly words correctly

96

Check your progress

98

Teacher Guide

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7 Chapter 7 Select appropriate and effective vocabulary

What’s it all about? Choosing the best words and knowing when to use them. This chapter will show you how to • use determiners to make your meaning clear • develop your descriptions by using adjectives and adverbs • use more imaginative vocabulary to make your ideas clearer • choose vocabulary that suits your topic.

Select appropriate and effective vocabulary

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Chapter 7 . Topic 1

Use determiners to make your meaning clear Determiners are little words that can help you point out a noun. They can also tell your reader who something belongs to or how many of something there are. Getting you thinking

Learning objective • use determiners to make the context of your words clear.

Glossary determiners: small words like ‘the’, ‘this’, ‘my’ or ‘all’ that come before a noun and tell you something about it

Look at this extract from The Natural History Museum’s Dino Directory.

The ultimate carnivore Tyrannosaurus lives up to its reputation as one of the most fearsome animals of all time. Its powerful jaw had 60 teeth, each one up to 20cm (8 inches) long and its bite was around 3 times as powerful as that of a lion. Bite marks found on Triceratops and Edmontosaurus fossil bones show that Tyrannosaurus could crunch through bone. Analysis of fossilised Tyrannosaurus dung shows that it contained the bones of its prey. 1

The determiners have been highlighted in the first sentence. What other determiners can you see in the extract?

How does it work? Determiners are used to point out a noun: a tree

the tree

these trees

They can be used to show quantity: some cake

one cake

five cakes

They are also used to show possession: my team 84

your team Jack’s team

Select appropriate and effective vocabulary

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7 .1

Now you try it 2

Complete this paragraph using the determiners from the box below. You won’t need to use them all.

My Uncle Harry is a really kind man. He is coming to dinner ______ Sunday at _____ house. He always brings ______ different desserts. ______ all look delicious and I can never decide ______ one to eat. If I’m lucky, _____ mum lets me have a bit of each. four

his

it

my

one

our

she

that

they

this

which

your

Apply your skills When you use determiners, you also need to take care that your verb form matches your subject. For example, you would write ‘There were three birds sitting on the fence’ not ‘There was three birds’. This is because the determiner ‘three’ makes the subject (birds) plural. 3

Rewrite the paragraph below, changing the highlighted words so that the subjects and verbs agree. Start by finding the subject. Is it singular or plural?

One of my friends collect spiders. These hairy monsters crawls around his bedroom. His mum hate cleaning his room because she are terrified of spiders. One day, his three biggest spiders was hanging from the ceiling and they got in her hair. His mum were screaming so loudly, and a man walking by in the street were so worried that he called the police. Several police cars was sent to the house to check that everything was okay. Although we think this story are really funny, it’s a memory that aren’t popular with his mum.

Check your progress Some progress

I can spot the determiners in the paragraph. Good progress

��

I can generally make the determiners, nouns and verbs agree. Excellent progress

���

I can identify all the determiners and make all the subjects and verbs agree.

Use determiners to make your meaning clear

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Chapter 7 . Topic 2

Develop your descriptions by using adjectives and adverbs Using adjectives and adverbs can make your descriptions exciting. This will make your work more detailed and enjoyable to read. Getting you thinking Look at these two versions of a piece of writing by a student:

I walked down the street. I was late and I knew my mum would be waiting. A boy was standing by my neighbour’s car. As I opened the gate, I saw my mum looking at me through the window.

Learning objective • build up your descriptions.

Glossary adjectives: words used to describe nouns (things, people, places) – ‘the cold wind’ adverbs: words that describe verbs (doing or being words) – ‘the cold wind blew sharply’

I walked quickly down the silent street. I was two hours late and I knew my mum would be waiting furiously. A dirty, grinning boy was standing by my neighbour’s car. As I hurriedly opened the creaking garden gate, I saw my mum looking angrily at me through the window. 1

Which one do you think is better? Why?

2

What else could the writer have done to improve it?

How does it work? The second version uses adjectives and adverbs to give more detail. These describing words • tell us more about how the boy and his mother are feeling • help you picture what is happening in your head. 86

Select appropriate and effective vocabulary

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7 .2

Now you try it 3

Write out the following description of a student feeling bored. Every time you find a blank, add an adjective or adverb to help the reader imagine the scene more clearly. The first blank is filled in for you. If you get stuck, use some of the words listed below. The scruffy, _________ girl was snoring _________. She woke up and there were still twenty _________ minutes to go. The _________ classroom was _________ silent. Her _________ teacher looked _________ asleep. The _________ weather made her feel worse. She looked around _________ at the _________ ticking clock.

loudly softly peacefully gloomy red almost mind-numbing scruffy dull hot English desperately longingly patiently young summer stifling long big miserably totally half

\Apply your skills 4

5

With a partner, use a thesaurus to make two lists of words. One should list adjectives and adverbs that can describe excitement. The other list should focus on sadness. For example Excitement

Sadness

energetic

miserable

suddenly

tearfully

Using your lists, one of you should write about somebody who is sad, and the other about somebody who is excited. Time yourselves to write for 15 minutes, using your vocabulary bank to build up lots of imaginative descriptions. Then share your work with each other.

Check your progress Some progress

I can use some words about sadness and excitement. Good progress

��

I can use adjectives and adverbs that clearly describe sadness or excitement. Excellent progress

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I can use a variety of words to help the reader imagine someone sad or excited.

Develop your descriptions by using adjectives and adverbs

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Chapter 7 . Topic 3

Use more imaginative vocabulary to make your ideas clearer

Learning objective • describe things clearly and imaginatively.

When you are describing, try to avoid using the same words all the time. You can use adjectives and adverbs to help the reader picture what you are describing. You can also use vivid verbs and descriptive nouns. Getting you thinking This extract from a Doctor Who novel describes an alien emerging from its human disguise. The warder was just standing there. Then her hand moved to her forehead and tugged on the zipper. Blue and yellow light started to crackle and icker from the split in her head. Her smooth complexion slid away like a rubber mask as something big and glistening and alien started to hoick itself free from its human disguise. Its head was long and broad, with wet black eyes the size of bowling balls. Its hide was knobbled and greeny-grey. The long arms ended in three enormous, twitching claws. The Monsters Inside by Stephen Cole

88

1

What verbs and adjectives are used to help you picture the monster?

2

How is the monster made to sound alien and aggressive?

3

What senses does the writer use to help you imagine the scene? Select appropriate and effective vocabulary

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7 .3

Now you try it 4

5

Come up with as many alternatives as you can for these verbs. Some examples have been given. To go

To look

To say

sprint

peep

yell

wander

stare

whisper

Share your words with your partner and discuss when it would be best to use each of your words. For example:

Top tip Choose imaginative words that give the reader extra information. But make sure that your alternative words still match your meaning.

I would use ‘peep’ to suggest someone looking at something secretly but not wanting to be seen.

Apply your skills 6

Using nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs imaginatively, describe a car speeding down a street. Choose your words carefully so that the reader can imagine a) what the car looks like b) how fast it is going c) how people react.

7

When you have finished, swap with your partner. a) What did you like about each other’s work? b) Which words particularly helped you to imagine what was happening?

8

Look back at the adjectives that you have used. Can you turn any into adverbs by adding ‘-ly’ to the end (for example, ‘quick’ becomes ‘quickly’)? Where could you add these to your writing to give greater variety?

Check your progress Some progress

I can think of a few good words to describe a car. Good progress

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I can use verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs to describe a car. Excellent progress

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I can choose words precisely to help the reader picture the scene.

Use more imaginative vocabulary to make your ideas clearer

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Chapter 7 . Topic 4

Choose vocabulary that suits your topic

Learning objective • choose descriptive words that match your topic.

You need to choose words that fit what you are writing about. You don’t want to be putting creepy descriptions into a piece of work about a happy summer’s day! Getting you thinking Look at this extract from a love story: Laura drifted gracefully into the room. She was beautiful. Her eyes were as green as mould and her lipstick was like a smear of blood. Her delicate, pale skin made her look like a zombie and her face was framed by greasy, golden hair. Laura’s silk dress, embroidered with pretty red roses like gunshot wounds, showed off her stunning figure. Smiling at her father, her teeth shining like knives, she stamped across to meet him.

1

What is wrong with this description? Which words or images would you change?

Now you try it Read this extract from a science-fiction story. The spaceship was in orbit around Mars. Captain Matthews sat at the steering wheel and checked the map: nothing but the vastness of space. The egg timer went off, showing that his shift was over. He got up from the sofa and made his way out of the flight deck. Turning the handle, the door hissed open and Matthews walked along the carpet to his bedroom. The pretty tune of machinery echoed off the pink, metallic walls.

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Select appropriate and effective vocabulary

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2

Using a dictionary, a thesaurus and your imagination, find an alternative for each of the red words. Try to choose vocabulary that suits a futuristic spacecraft. Remember that a thesaurus will often give you both synonyms and antonyms.

Glossary synonyms: words with similar meanings antonyms: words with opposite meanings

Apply your skills 3

7 .4

With a partner, decide what type (or genre) of story each of the words in the table below would suit: a) horror b) romance c) science-fiction d) western e) detective story.

love

spaceship

cowboy

blood

chainsaw

crime

flowers

fingerprints

graveyard

black hole

planet

evidence

chocolates

zombie

sergeant

horse

sheriff

alien

marriage slaughter

4

Choose one of the story types listed in Activity 3 and write a story opening with your partner. Try to think of lots of words and descriptions that would suit the genre of your story.

Top tip Always consider whether the words that you are choosing match what you are writing about and who you are writing for.

Check your progress Some progress

I can write a short story opening. Good progress

��

I can pick a genre and write a story opening with some suitable descriptions. Excellent progress

���

I can write a story opening with a variety of descriptions that match a genre.

Choose vocabulary that suits your topic

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Chapter 7

Check your progress

Some progress

■■I can use some determiners accurately. ■■I can use simple words correctly. ■■I can try to use some describing words to make my work more detailed.

■■I can try to use words that fit my topic and make my meaning clear.

��

Good progress

■■I can generally make my determiners, nouns and verbs agree.

■■I can use more difficult words correctly, making some imaginative vocabulary choices.

■■I can use some describing words to make

my work more detailed and enjoyable for the reader.

■■I can choose words that fit my topic and help to make my meaning clear.

���

Excellent progress

■■I can use a variety of determiners and all my words agree.

■■I can use a range of more difficult words correctly.

■■I can use a range of describing words to

make my work interesting and to develop specific ideas.

■■I can use a range of suitable words to

achieve my purpose and increase the clarity of my writing.

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Select appropriate and effective vocabulary

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Aiming for Progress in Writing and Grammar: Book 2