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Shanghai - World Cities beyond the West A Node in the Global Economic System

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


A Node in the global economic system (The reading argues that for Shanghai to become a world city)

Shanghai must create greater openness for foreign investors

capitalize on FDI (foreign direct investment)

Shanghai must revamp municipal policies to enhance competitiveness & foster stronger quality of life.

Sustainable strategies (30% of waste water is treated incomparison to 7% in China

Joining WTO, Improve Telecommunications

But as of 2010...

Increase per capita living space from 11sqm to 23sqm


http://lh4.ggpht.com/_Nnk6mwGcgcc/RrV8mPUO5YI/AAAAAAAABiw/kgrNJXa-W64/DSC02584.JPG

Located in People’s Square, the museum of Urban Planning of Shanghai showcases the past and the future of urban planning in Local, Regional and Global Scales.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city

Criteria - World Cities Economic

Corporate headquarters, international financial institutions, stock exchanges Significant financial capacity/output: city/regional GDP Stock market indices/market capitalization Financial service provision; e.g., banks, accountancy Costs of living personal wealth; e.g., number of billionaires

Social/Cultural

Infrastructure

Political December 15, 2010

Renowned cultural institutions (often with high endowments), A lively cultural scene, several influential media outlets with an international reach The ability and historical experience to host international sporting events Educational institutions World Heritage sites, Tourism throughput City as an often repeated historic reference, showcase, or symbolic actions

An advanced transportation system, Extensive and popular mass transit systems, prominent rail usage, road vehicle usage, major seaports Airports with significant passenger traffic and international passengers traffic or cargo movements. An advanced communications infrastructure Prominent skylines/skyscrapers

International events and world affairs; Hosting headquarters for international organizations (World Bank), NATO headquarters A large proper, population of the municipality or agglomeration Quality of life standards or city development Expatriate communities

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Criteria - World Cities Economic

Fortune 500

As of 2000, 254/500 Fortune 500 Companies Moved Regional Headquarters to Shanghai As of 2010, the number has increased to almost 300.

Social/Cultural

Pudong

1999 it accounted for 1/5 of metropolitan GDP of Shanghai. 2008 it accounted for 1/4 of the metropolitan GDP of Shanghai With the Nanhui District merger in May 2009, Pudong’s new gross domestic product amounts to an estimated RMB370 billion (US$53.98 billion), roughly equal to that of Slovenia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pudong

Infrastructure

Numbers

The Shanghai area represents: 1% of China's population 5% of China's GDP 10% of China's contracted FDI 13% of China's Imports http://www.export.gov/china/shanghaicontacts.asp

“The strategy seeks to capitalize on Shanghai’s industrial capabilities to build a hightechnology manufacturing sector, to greatly expand the logistics infrastructure already in place, and to create a complex of finance and business services that rival those of HK.” (27)

Political December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://www.photos4travel.com/shanghai_china/Pudong_Puxi.jpg

“Several types of functions that are commonly associated with world city status include: finance, transnational corporate headquarter functions,, global services, transport, information, a site for international conferences, exhibitions, and cultural activities.� (35)

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Alpha - World Cities Alpha ++ World Cities London & New York City

Alpha + World Cities Hong Kong, Singapore, Shanghai, Beijing, Tokyo

Alpha World Cities

Seoul, Mumbai, Kuala Lumpur

Alpha - World Cities Jakarta, Bangkok, Taipei

The Globalization and World Cities Research Network

A roster of world cities was outlined in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5 and ranked cities based on their connectivity through four “advanced producer services�: accountancy, advertising, banking/ finance, and law.[5] The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Global Cities Index - World Cities 2010 Ranking

10

15 20

5

Foreign Policy noted that "the world’s biggest, most interconnected cities help set global agendas, weather transnational dangers, and serve as the hubs of global integration. They are the engines of growth for their countries and the gateways to the resources of their regions."

3

1. New York City 2. London 3. Tokyo 4. Paris 5. Hong Kong 6. Chicago 7. Los Angeles 8. Singapore 9. Sydney 10. Seoul 11. Brussels 12. San Francisco 13. Washington DC 14. Toronto 15. Beijing

16. Berlin 17. Madrid 18. Vienna 19. Boston 20. Frankfurt Am Main 21. Shanghai 22. Buenos Aires 23. Stockholm 24. Zurich 25. Moscow 26. Barcelona 27. Dubai 28. Rome 29. Amsterdam 30. Mexico City

8

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_city

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


GDP in the Region

- Top Competitors 2010 Ranking

21

38

7

25

1

16

29

40

Shanghai’ GDP is higher than most of the asian countries except for Seoul, Tokyo, Osaka and Hong Kong.

27

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_by_GDP

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Shanghaistockexchange.jpg

In order to compete with Hong Kong, Shanghai will improve its manufacturing capacity, infrastructure, financial capibilities, and business services.

Shanghai Stock Exchange is the world’s sixth largest stock market by market capitalization at US$2.4 trillion as of Aug 2010. Unlike the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, the Shanghai Stock Exchange is still not entirely open to foreign investors due to tight capital account controls exercised by the Chinese mainland authorities.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Manufacturing Sector - Shanghai Automobile

Electronics & Telecommunications

Zhangjiang high-tech park has 110 research and development institutions and 327 companies. It’s role is to drive future economic growth and higher employment. http://www.cannondesign.com/FILES/original/2009/06/29/ccd23ba81d20f43a1711b8ae5073aa5a2b987f8f.jpg

Power Station Equipment

Steel

Pharmaceutical

Home Appliances December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Criteria - World Cities Economic

Aging Population The rapidly again population presents Shanghai with another difficult challenge. Those over age 65 accounted for 12.5% of the total population in 1996 and 13.3 in 1998, and on current trends are epxected to account for 26% in the year 2020.

Population of long term residents in 2008 - 18.88million

2000 census

Social/Cultural

2%

3.871mil

19%

0.38mil

25%

Shanghai Municipality

residents

4.79mil

migrants

migrants 13.71mil

16.738mil

81%

Infrastructure

Population in different age groups 15% 2.752mil

Population of foreigners in 2007 - 0.38million

9%

1.469mil

26% 0-14

etc

15-65 6512.661mil

Political

etc

73%

0.13mil

foreign expatriates

74%

76%

“Age Composition and Dependency Ratio of Population by Region (2004) in China Statistics 2005” http://www.allcountries.org/china_statistics/4_9_age_composition_and_dependency_ratio.html “Expat Evolution: Is Shanghai’s full-package expat going extinct?”. City Weekend Guide http://www.cityweekend.com.cn/shanghai/articles/blogs-shanghai/cw-radar/expat-evolution/

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


4.5M

5M

7.7M 4.5M

7.7M

4M 6M Population of BRAZIL 190,000,000 People (2010 official Census)s)

3.4M

GDP ARGENTINA: 310 Billion USD (World Bank) Shanghai-Hangzhou-Wuxi Megalopolis; “around Shanghai and extending westward along the Yangtze River Valley is one of the 2 most prosperous economic hinterlands in China with an urban population of 200 Million and a GDP of nearly $300 Billion (1995 dollars at market prices).� Page 34

December 15, 2010

19M

8M 4.3M Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Linkages - Shanghai-Wuxi-Ningbo

Wuxi

Shanghai

Hangzhou

Ningbo Railway Ship


Population - City Proper 1st

8th

2nd

10th

SHANGHAI

Seoul-Incheon-Gyeonggido

MUMBAI

JAKARTA

16,650,000

13,831,900

SHANGHAI

10th

16,650,000

SEOUL

20,550,000

10,464,051

Seoul-Incheon-Gyeonggido

2nd SEOUL

20,550,000

MUMBAI

5th

9,588,198

JAKARTA

19,200,000

6th

11th TOKYO

BEIJING 18,900,000

19,200,000

13,830,884

9th 12,500,000

10,123,000

POPULATION 1st 19thCITY METROPOLITAN POPULATION 12,500,000

Population - Metropolitan Region 13,831,900

10,464,051

13,830,884

9,588,198

8,887,608

TOKYO

BEIJING

18,900,000

32,450,000

10,123,000

32,450,000

8,887,608

CITY POPULATION METROPOLITAN POPULATION

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Places/Images/shanghai-bund-jbg-040808-0166-lw.jpg

The bund was first European community when it was established in the 1800s. A lot of foreign banks, companies and consulates are located in this area.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://de.academic.ru/pictures/dewiki/83/Shanghai_-_Nanjing_Road_.jpeg

Nanjing Lu is the main shopping street in Huangpu district. People’s square is located here. People’s square is the site of the municipal government headquarters building. It’s used as the standard reference point for measurement of distance in Shanghai municipality.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://collapsingbarrycade.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/xintiandi2.jpg

Xintiandi is an affluent car-free shopping, eating and entertainment of Shanghai.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Tongji university was established as “German School of Chinese Medicine in Shanghai�

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://www.bing.com/slideshow/search?q=Shanghai+China&FORM=DTPSLM

The Yuyuan Garden is considered one of the most lavish and finest Chinese gardens in the Shanghai region. It is a good example of preserving Shanghai’s local heritage.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


After the whole project is done, a lovely and quiet town will be a modern community of more than 50,000 people.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://farm1.static.flickr.com/109/284607887_1d19ad3a6d.jpg?v=0

Thames Town, which cost about 5 billion yuan ($635 million), is expected to house 10,000 people.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Criteria - World Cities Economic

Social/Cultural

Infrastructure

Political December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Railway Trends - Shanghai KM OF RAIL 1.3 billion

SHANGHAI

1.323 billion

HONG KONG

1.457 billion

BEIJING

2.048 billion

SEOUL

3.160 billion

TOKYO 0

100

200

300

400

500

KM OF RAIL December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://www.chinaodysseytours.com/pictures-of-china/images/shanghai/nightlife_in_shanghai/nightlife-in-shanghai08.jpg

Despite having one of the longest rail systems, sprawling Shanghai is still a cardominated city.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://www.chinaodysseytours.com/pictures-of-china/images/shanghai/nightlife_in_shanghai/nightlife-in-shanghai08.jpg

Despite having one of the longest rail systems, sprawling Shanghai is still a cardominated city.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://injapan.gaijinpot.com/2010/04/30/visiting-the-shanghai-expo/

Chongming high speed rail station connects by rail to Nanjing.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Yangshan-Port-Containers.jpg

Yangshan port is annexed to the existing port of Shanghai to be able to host the world’s largest cargo ships. Shanghai plays a significant role among all the ports in around Asia.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Ports in China - Top Competitors 2008 Figures by Cargo Tonnage (thou) Qinhuangdao Dalian

Tianjin

Qingdao

Shanghai Ningbo-Zhoushan

Guangzhou

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Singapore Shanghai Rotterdam Tianjin Ningbo-Zhoushan Guangzhou Qingdao Hong Kong Qinhuangdao Dalian Busan Korea Nagoya Japan Shenzhen

515,415 508,000 421,136 365,163 361,850 347,000 278,271 259,402 252,000 246,000 241,683 218,130 211,000

Shenzhen Hong Kong

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pudong_Airport_Terminal_2_Outside.jpg

Pudong International Airport is a major hub in the east asia region.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World’s_busiest_airports_by_cargo_traffic http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World’s_busiest_airports_by_passenger_traffic

Airports - Top Competitors

2009 Statistics by Passenger Volume

41 40 34 33 23 22 21 16 13 5 3

Seoul Incheon International Airport

28,677,161

Kuala Lumpur International Airport

29,682,093

Shanghai Pudong International Airport

32,102,549

Narita International Airport

32,135,191

Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport

37,048,712

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

37,143,719

Singapore Changi Airport

37,203,978

Suvarnabhumi Airport

40,500,224

Hong Kong International Airport

45,558,807

Tokyo International Airport

61,903,656

Beijing Capital International Airport

65,372,012 0

20,000,000

40,000,000

60,000,000

2009 Statistics by Tonnes of Cargo Kuala Lumpur International Airport 28 Tokyo International Airport 24 21 Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport Suvarnabhumi Airport 20 Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport 15 Beijing Capital International Airport 14 Singapore Changi Airport 11 Narita International Airport 10 Seoul Incheon International Airport 4 Shanghai Pudong International Airport 3 Hong Kong International Airport 2

601,620 779,118 955,270 1,045,194 1,358,304 1,475,649 1,660,724 1,851,972 2,313,001 2,543,394 3,385,313 0

December 15, 2010

1,000,000

2,000,000

3,000,000

4,000,000

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Criteria - World Cities Shanghai was one of the earliest trading ports, surpassed Guangzhou in 1853

Economic

“During its golden age in the 1920’s, with a population of over 2 million, Shanghai was ‘a meeting ground for people from all countries, a great and unique city, one of the most remarkable in the world’ (Pott 1928, p 1)” (28)

Social/Cultural

1950’s-1980’s - 30 years of neglect and disinvestment, no infrastructural improvements (however, largest contributor of the country’s revenue, pillar of planned economy) 1980’s - rapid path of modernization Between 1991-1998, about 12,000 work units as well as 400000 houseeholds were moved from downtown to the city’s suburbs.

Infrastructure

1997-1998 - Crisis in Asia By the end of 2001, 21 foreign banks had established their main offices in Shanghai; Over 1160 enterprises were listed on the Shanghai or the Shenzhen stock exchanges by the end of 2001 and market capitalization was close to 4.4 trillion yuan (530 billion) (40)

Political December 15, 2010

1992 - The Shanghai Urban Construction Investment and Development Company was formed to mobilize, allocate and manage funds for urban construction.

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_administrative_divisions_of_Shanghai

Administrative Divisions - Shanghai Shanghai Proper - Puxi Huangpu District Luwan District Xuhui District Changning District Jing’an District Putuo District Zhabei District Hongkou District Yangpu District Shanghai proper

574,500 328,900 1,064,600 702,200 305,400 1,051,700 798,600 860,700 1,243,800 6,930,400

Shanghai Suburbs Pudong New Area Baoshan District Minhang District Jiading District Inner Suburbs

3,187,400 1,228,000 1,217,300 753,100 6,385,800

Outlying Districts Jinshan District Songjiang District Qingpu District Fengxian District Outer suburbs

December 15, 2010

580,400 641,100 595,900 624,300 2,441,700

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://de.academic.ru/pictures/dewiki/83/Shanghai_-_Nanjing_Road_.jpeg

This building at the World Expo stands for Chinese Wisdom in urban development. It is highlighted by traditional Dougong style, and will be one of 5 permanent buildings of Expo 2010.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shanghai_Expo_Cultural_Center.jpg

The Shanghai Expo Cultural Center will be one of 5 permanent buildings of Expo 2010.

December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China


Thank You! - Questions? Economic

Social/Cultural

Infrastructure

Political December 15, 2010

Christian Wagner & Kyu Suk Byun

Urbanism in China

Global Cities Shanghai  

Small presentation about Shanghai's growth

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