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Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

Suresh, E.A.T. 2006


A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

Declaration I declare that this dissertation represents my own work, except where due acknowledgement is made, and that it has not been previously included in a thesis, dissertation or report submitted to this university or to another institution for a degree, diploma or other qualification.

………………………………………………. Suresh, E.A.T.

………………………………………………… Internal tutor Dr. Harsha Munasinghe, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Architecture, University of Moratuwa.


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

Acknowledgement

To understand and to compile relevant information in producing this dissertation the help and encouragement I receive from everyone, loves me indebted to them and I gratefully acknowledge their support and guidance. •

Prof. Samitha Manwadu, Head of the Department, University of Moratuwa, for the opportunities that he made for me to understand this subject area.

Dr. Harsha Munasinghe, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Architecture, for his valuable guidance on research and resources till the completion of the dissertation.

Eng. Susira Udalmatte, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Architecture, Landscape Division, University of Moratuwa, for the guidance and resources.

Eng. Rohitha Swarna, Deputy Director, RDA, for his kind corporation on resources.

Dr. Uperndra Rajapaksha, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Architecture, University of Moratuwa, for the opportunities made from the 5th year.

Arch. Damith de Silva, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Architecture, University of Moratuwa, for the opportunities made from the 5th year.

My friends who had been very influential in the development of the dissertation through helpful criticism, guidance and equipments.

My parents and my sister who encouraged me in every struggle to realize this.


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

Table of Contents I. List of figures

I

II. Introduction

X

Observations and topic explanation

X

Criticality and intension

XI

Scope and limitations

XII

Method of study

XII

Chapter 1- Understanding the Urban-Landscape 1.0 Urban Landscape and Architecture

01

1.1 Factors affecting the emergence of the cities and its structure.

02

1.1.1 Physical factors

02

1.1.2 Social factors

06

1.1.3 Economic factors

09

1.1.4 Psychological factors

11

1.2 Elements of the Urban Landscape

13

1.2.1 Channels/ access ways

15

1.2.2 Demarcations

17

1.2.3 Segments

18

1.2.4 Nodes

19

1.2.5 Landmarks

21

Chapter 2- Evolution of the Urban Landscape 2.1 Evolution of the Urban Landscape.

23

2.1.1 Society

26

2.1.2 Urban Built Mass

31

2.1.3 Urban non Built Spaces

36

2.1.4 Functions/ Activities

39

2.1.5 Expressions

45


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

Chapter 3- Responsiveness of Urban Landscape 3.0 Responsiveness

50

3.1 Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

53

3.1.1 Environmental Responsiveness

53

3.1.1.1 Permeability

54

3.1.1.2 Variety

56

3.1.1.3 Legibility

58

3.1.1.4 Robustness

61

3.1.1.5 Visual Appropriateness

63

3.1.1.6 Richness

64

3.1.1.7 Personalization

66

Chapter 4-

Case Study-Analysis of the Responsiveness of Flyover,

Demetagoda 4.1 Role Plays by the Flyover in the Urban Context

68

4.1.1 Urban location

68

4.1.2 Figure of the Flyover

75

4.1.3 How it Functions

76

4.1.4 Expressions

77

4.2 Responsiveness of the Demetagoda Flyover on its Landscape.

78

4.2.1 Analysis-

Permeability

78

4.2.2 Analysis-

Variety

80

4.2.3 Analysis-

Legibility

82

4.2.4 Analysis-

Robustness

83

4.2.5 Analysis-

Visual Appropriateness

86

4.2.6 Analysis-

Richness

89

4.2.7 Analysis-

Personalization

91

Conclusion

95

Bibliography

97


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

List of Illustrations 1.

Fig1. Grand channel Venice and the buildings as a response the channel; Sigiriya on top of the rock and Kandy protected by the forest and mountains and water.-p.3

2.

Fig2. Grande Axis, Paris-Grand Arch, the Axis and La Defence, -p.3

3.

Fig3. a. Painting of Berlin 1756, b. Painting of Vienna 1873 c. East Berlin 1952-57, shows that the people were moved gradually out of the streets as the landscape changed.-p.4

4.

Fig4. Different types of viaducts on the urban landscape.-p.5

5.

Fig5. Change of Nuremberg through time.-p.6

6.

Fig6. Extended arcades of the shop houses in Munster, Germany-p.7

7.

Fig7. Urban Landscape influenced by the Modern Movement concepts.-p.8

8.

Fig8. Modern Movement landscapes-p.8

9.

Fig9. Today’s social attitude, Togetherness, Peace and Equity-p.9

10.

Fig10. Landscape of Pettah, Fort and Demetagoda, clearly shows the economic influence on urban landscape-p.10

11.

Fig11. Landscapes of Berlin and Munster, Germany-p.10

12.

Fig12. Layout of the Polonnaruwa kingdom right to the reservoir-p.11

13.

Fig13. Picture of ancient Indian port cities, Chinese cities and European cities-p.12

14.

Fig14. Thailand, Malaysia and Colombo-p.13

15.

Fig15. Krier’s argument; Conceptual sketch-p.13

16.

Fig16. Kostof’s argument; conceptual sketch-p.14

17.

Fig17. Lynch’s argument; conceptual sketch-p.14

18.

Fig18. Connection channel to the urban neighbourhood-p.15

19.

Fig19. Channels vary with the width; some are narrower some are wider-p.16

20.

Fig20. Channels which connects two significant points with a start and an end, Seigessallee, Berlin, Grand Axis of France from Louver to the Grand Arch.-p.16

i


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

21.

Fig21. An active and a live path dedicated for pedestrians to perform as they want in east London, and the paved lines of the Place D’Yoville, France emphasise directional quality. -p.17

22.

Fig22. The edges are created by water in Boston, dominant buildings in Moscow and the buildings against water in New York. -p.17

23.

Fig23. The edge; -p.17

24.

Fig24. Demarcations exist above in the urban landscape; Britain, Frankfurt, Bangkok, Frankfurt. -p.18

25.

Fig25. Different segments in the urban landscape created by parking, buildings and the vegetation. -p.18

26. Fig26. Different characters of different segments in the urban landscape, Echelon Square; High-Rise District, Fort the Colonial expression. -p.19 27. Fig27. Node; -p.19 28. Fig28. Successful Node; -p.20 29. Fig29. Nodes with no functional significance; -p.20 30. Fig30. Landmarks as they highlight the points of references. -p.21 31. Fig31. Landmarks with a meaning; -p.21 32. Fig32. Landmarks; Personalised detail, A significant Gateway, Frankfurt Tur, Berlin, A Door hanger, Contrasting Façade, Berlin. -p.22 33. Fig33. Landmarks; -p.22 34. Fig34. Different urban landscapes and activities; -p.23 35. Fig35. Activities defined by the surrounded expression; -p.24 36. Fig36. Kandyan urban landscape derived with the procession; -p.25 37. Fig37. Evolution; -p.25 38. Fig38. The Temple of Tooth Relic is more dominant in the Kandyan landscape and it is forced to be. -p.26 39. Fig39. Urban landscape created where people wanted to treat people, early cities more with gathering spaces, then the humans were trapped in between the built masses, later the landscape was more functional oriented. -p.26 40. Fig40. Conflict of the Black and the White skins-p.27 41. Fig41. Evolution of the Galle Fort landscape; -p.28 ii


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

42.

Fig42.

Different

boundaries

on

urban

landscape,

Perceptual

boundaries of the urban edge, Breaking of the social boundaries, Merge of the ethnic boundaries. -p.28 43.

Fig43. Change of the man and the urban landscape -p.29

44.

Fig44. The corridors are widened to improve the sense of the street in “SAHASPURA� development where people ride and even play in those.p.30

45.

Fig45. Contemporary human needs efficient connectivity which dominates the landscape. -p.31

46.

Fig46. Viaducts and the urban context-p.31

47.

Fig47. Evolution of the urban landscape; Brompton road London, 1880 and 1930- change of the built mass are identical. -p.32

48.

Fig48. Picture to compare the different built masses prior to buildings in different eras. -p.32

49.

Fig49. Less expressive and too geometric dumb landscape of modern movement. -p.34

50.

Fig50.

Demolition of the buildings as society rejects them due to

less responsiveness. -p.34 51.

Fig51.The plan of the garden city concept. -p.34

52.

Fig52. Flexible built forms and built masses on contemporary urban landscape-p.35

53.

Fig53. Different viaducts create different forms in the urban landscape. Historical Britain, Thailand, Seattle. -p.35

54.

Fig54. Different types of urban non built spaces; Abandoned spaces in Huston, Recreational spaces in Netherlands, Urban sculptural landscape in Munster, Germany. -p.36

55.

Fig55. Change of the urban non built spaces with the evolution; More natural, Prominence for the vehicles more stress on spaces. -p.37

56.

Fig56. Urban non built spaces are animated by an identical built form in the context; Centre Pompidou, Paris, HSBC- Hong Kong -p.38

57.

Fig57. British museum, Grand Court, UK-p.38

iii


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

58.

Fig58. Effect of the viaducts on urban non built space; it creates an over head edge to demarcate a boundary of the space which is not necessary but make the ambience of a congested space. -p.39

59.

Fig59. Change of the man made context prior to function; The railway and other modes of transportation, Expansion of activities; exposure of the exhibition space and Seattle viaduct with and without in the landscape. p.40

60.

Fig60. Flow of the functions across the landscape from public to private; Main boulevard- Paris, St. Marks street-New York. -p.40

61.

Fig61.Negative and positive effects of activities on urban landscape, Community activities like recreation and celebrations enhance the quality of the urban landscape while vehicle movement destroys it. -p.41

62.

Fig62. Negligence of man on nature; Living in harmony with nature, Grabbing the properties of nature clearing the ground, Dominate in the context and Challenge with the technology. -p.41

63.

Fig63. Negligence of man and the urban landscape towards each other, Old ladies lost their way in the middle of the roads, Congested activities in nodes, Promote mobility abandoned with no people, New York -p.42

64.

Fig64. Stress of the people is symbolical in urban landscape by activities, sometimes it is an art; Insane on traffic lights, Unauthorised personalization of public spaces. -p.42

65.

Fig65.Activities in the manmade landscape, On road exhibition spaces, Definition to the natural context; central park, New York, Urban piazza; Del Compo, Siena, Italy. -p.43

66.

Fig66. Adaptation of the people to the stressed activities in the urban context, Way side eating spaces, Stay and chat by the side of heavy traffic, Don’t walk means walking in New York . -p.43

67.

Fig67. Activities and the efficiency through viaducts; Double viaduct accommodates the vehicles and trains, monorail in Bangkok, Freeway above many traffic layers. -p.44

iv


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

68.

Fig68. Different sections of the landscape through the flowing of activities with viaducts -p.44

69.

Fig69. Expression of safety in different historical landscapes; -p.45

70.

Fig70. Picture to show the developing connectivity in the urban landscape-p.45

71.

Fig71. Urban landscape in the industrial era; Emergence of industriesYorkshire, Turbine factory-Berlin, Poor housing in industrial era, Roads didn’t welcome people but encourage more vehicles. -p.46

72.

Fig72. Corbusier designed city, Chandigar, and building done by Kenzo Tange. -p.47

73.

Fig73. Post modern landscape was more expressive and celebrated the difference than the monotony. -p.48

74.

Fig74. Contemporary urban landscape with skyline difference, Elements and their expressions of prestige, Economical stability and power-p.48

75.

Fig75. Bangkok more towards functional efficiency and Munster with residential expressions -p.49

76.

Fig76. Different flyovers with different expression; Solid steady, More dynamic, Merging with the landscape-p.49

77.

Fig77. Political responsiveness of a community and the social responsiveness on left over spaces. -p.50

78.

Fig78. Social responsiveness; Restrictions, Rejections, Recreation51

79.

Fig79. Different environments accepted by many people say those are more responsive towards people-p.52

80.

Fig80. Different levels of permeability, less permeable and more permeable spaces-p.54

81.

Fig81. Visual and the Physical permeability-p.55

82.

Fig82. Physical permeability guaranteed of visual permeability, though when it is physically obstructed visual permeability can be gained-p. 56

83.

Fig83. Variety, Form, Functions and Expressions-p.57

v


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

84.

Fig84. Variety can be easily gained by encouraging variety of the functions so visual elements as well as physical elements will celebrate it easily.-p.57

85.

Fig85. Perceiving the structure or organization in mind 58

86.

Fig86. Legibility of the Eiffel tower as a landmark, Louvre museum located n the grand axis -p.59

87.

Fig87. Pettah streets with different functions and different identities. p.59

88.

Fig88. Path enclosure to gain legibility; path enclosure will create a direction to follow with a character in mind. -p.60

89.

Fig89. Public robust space in the urban landscape, Urban squares where people engage in many activities, The streets where people gather and enjoy. -p.61

90.

Fig90. Building morphology and robustness-p.62

91.

Fig91. Passive and Active Robustness and Hard and Soft Robustnessp.62

92.

Fig92. Subjective ness of the Visual Appropriateness; -p. 63

93.

Fig93. Visual appropriateness of the form matters with the legibility of the function housed in, high-rises legible in the context but not its function. -p.64

94.

Fig94. Richness -p.64

95.

Fig95. Different levels of richness achieved in the facades of Notraddame Church in Paris. Less Rich, Rich and More Rich-p.65

96.

Fig96. Richness; Visual riddles, visual complexities and meaning-p.66

97.

Fig97. Personalization; Creation or conversion to a own belonging space-p.66

98.

Fig98. Change of the practical facilities may sometimes negative, Remedial personalization by the streets, Parks and people-p.67

99.

Fig99. Different modes of creating personalized spaces; Ignoring the environment, Backing and avoiding each other, sharing the spaces.-p.67

100. Fig100. Layout map of the context-p.68 101. Fig101. Land use map; Demetagoda flyover and surrounding. -p.69 vi


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

102. Fig102. Two spaces connected by the flyover; -p.70 103. Fig103. Typical section across the flyover and a section across the baseline; zoning of the activities -p.70 104. Fig104. Shanty developments and the commercial activities; the density is high due to the land prices, the commercial activities are varied from small shop to the multi storied commercial functions. -p.71 105. Fig105. Dominating usage of the Railway; their Sheds, Tracks, Administration and Factory. -p.71 106. Fig106. The Luxury Apartment Building; the landmark of the context which is over governed by the flyover. -p.72 107. Fig107. Pedestrian paths; by the heavy traffic, vehicles are a threat, setbacks as design considerations-p.72 108. Fig108. Special block of land with many activities; Land use, Commercial activities, Religious and Residential -p.73 109. Fig109. The paths at the both side of the flyover at the ground level, the access path to the luxury residential apartment and the path at the opposite side of it. -p.73 110. Fig110. Layout and the connectivity of the neighbourhood context oft the flyover -p.74 111. Fig111. Sections -p.75 112. Fig112. Section a cross the luxury apartment looking Demetagoda. -p.76 113. Fig113. Different functions of the flyover; -p.76 114. Fig114. Different expressions of the flyover; -p.77 115. Fig115.Merged Land Use map, Layout and the connectivity of the neighbourhood context oft the flyover-p.78 116. Fig116. Visual and the physical barrier created by the flyover which reduces the contacts of landscape visually and physically. Therefore the permeability of the context is damaged. -p.79 117. Fig117. Solid barriers and the voids for visual contacts through the supportive structure of the flyover-p.79 118. Fig118. Physical and the visual berries created by the heavy traffic functions over the flyover and on the ground level as well. -p.80 vii


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

119. Fig119. Typical activity flow of the landscape cross the flyover, section looking towards Demetagoda -p.80 120. Fig120. The activities at the edge of the curb can be penetrated in to the space under the flyover in terms of improving variety and the interconnection, but it has been neglected because the under space is not well treated. -p.81 121. Fig121. Flyover with no variation, Set back of the building as a urban response, when there is no set back more tension and isolated. So people hardly stay in such spaces. -p.82 122. Fig122. The pedestrian, vehicle segregation; discourage legibility, The as a Landmark; improves the legibility of the landscape. -p.83 123. Fig123. Legibility is encouraged; -p.83 124. Fig124. Railway station is hiding in the landscape with no significance in its use, The vehicles damage the legibility; the street is inaccessible and hiding in the urban landscape. -p.84 125. Fig125.

Activities;

Railway

passenger,

Residential,

Religious,

Commercial and Community. -p.84 126. Fig126. Connection of the activities and the space under the flyover; small scale trading, commercial activities in the surrounding with no attachment with the flyover, leftover space under the flyover. -p. 85 127. Fig127. The edge of the payment is creating an activity barrier which reduces the flow of the activities. -p.85 128. Fig128. Directionality of the flyover reduces the robustness; the solid ramp which inclines, the overhead edge runs, the narrow paths at the both side of the flyover. -p.86 129. Fig129. Form of the flyover is easily graspable, the elements consisting in the form-p.87 130. Fig130. The built forms of the existing context and the contrasting structure of the flyover. The religious buildings have lost the hierarchy of their spaces. -p.87 131. Fig131. Inclinations, Declinations and the Intermediate columns of the flyover. -p.88 viii


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

132. Fig132. The change of the column heights, The leftover spaces created and the visual disturbances from the interiors. -p.88 133. Fig133. Distance and the angle of viewing; Distance is very less to observe the flyover as its height, and the viewing angle is very less as the mobility is very high but the pedestrians are viewing it perpendicularly. p.89 134. Fig134. The texture of the concrete; the column and the ramp ending wall with the striped carved in the vertical direction. -p.90 135. Fig135. Concrete on the ramp wall; -p.90 136. Fig136. The structure of the flyover; The space created with column structure, The solid ramping unit, the space under the flyover. -p.91 137. Fig137. Layout of the poetical spaces of human activities and the kind of personalization in those -p.92 138. Fig138. Personalization of the spaces is hard due to congestion of traffic and pedestrian movement. The space under the flyover is abandoned. p.93 139. Fig139. Personalization is disturbed; Socially important spaces of the urban landscape and the flyover are conflicting with activities and even with scale and form. -p.93 140. Fig140.Visual and noise disturbance to residential spaces discourage the personalization and improve more stress. -p.94

ix


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Introduction

Introduction Observation and topic explanation The urban population is always; in every second increasing and new problems are created accordingly as it grows. The Land use and the functionality of the space and the meanings are changed from time to time, while the space is getting limited day by day. So people tend to create different structures to improve the potentials of the built environment which suit their needs. Flyover/viaduct refers to a structure, which is man made, to overcome constrains of urban efficiency in function, or to improve it.

Urban landscape As we all know the city is for people and the cities are evolving with their needs and activities. The urban landscape is the platform on which people perform their activities, where they put up structures and added in to the built environment. Though the efficient functionality is a necessity, people will not accept more stress that is created by the built environment around them. These adverse effects are multifaceted and as a result with the evolution of the urban landscape different layers have been created. Focusing the urban landscape the most powerful is the built environment, both in shaping of it and expressions because the built environments are communicating with people. The living and the non living elements of the city is creating the essence of the urban landscape and the attraction of people to it due to the dialogue that it creates with its expressions. The flyovers are significant non living elements in the urban landscapes and having a particular function and an expression in the way it placed and function in the urban landscape.

Responsiveness The transportation of cities was earlier bound to ground and later underground layers of it were created as well as the above ground layers. This above ground layer is having less impact to the environment but more to x


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Introduction

the people because it is in the limits of their sight and obviously a part of the landscape where they live. The responsiveness is the way how people communicate and be in association with the surrounding environment according to the properties of the built environment created in the landscape. The urban environment is a social responsibility, as the people who live in it are depending on it. So the structures emerging in the urban landscape will affect the activity of the people, their attitudes and the vision as well as the feeling of belongingness, as a result of the responsiveness of them. We observe that the creation of the flyovers, which are quite prominent in any scale having a diverse impact on the responsiveness of urban landscape and this study, is put up on this observation.

Criticality and intension Considering the mobility, in and out to the urban spaces, it is essential to understand the possible impacts on transportation. The viaducts are emerging on this basis in order to improve the mobility. Today in Colombo, the commercial capital of Sri Lanka, government has been keen in building many viaducts as a solution to the traffic congestion. But these are not the first that put up in the global urban contexts. Therefore the scenarios are not new urban issues. They have been practiced and experienced in most of the developed countries for the past decades. But this strategy of improving efficiency had no great success in terms of the responsiveness of the urban landscape and It had created many problems in the urban context. Thus today people are more concerned about the quality of the spaces as their priority. There is no point of avoiding the flyovers since they are solving technical problems in the functioning of the cities. But it is necessary to look at it in a perspective to minimize the harm and exploitation of their benefits and to find proper architectural designing solutions, which will promote the best contribution to the landscape where it stands.

xi


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Introduction

Scope and limitations The study is looking towards to understand the urban landscape and the responsiveness of it. The evolution of the urban landscape is also considered to identify the facts and the issues matters. It is focused in the elements of the landscape but the evolution is not considered as an elementary evolution. The responsiveness is focusing the physical context only, though there are many others like image, ecology and environmental sustainability of the urban landscape related to it.

Method of study The study will first stare at understanding the elements of the landscape with reference to many scholar views. The elements are in evolution as people respond in the urban landscape, where they perform their urban life. The history of the urban landscape and the evolution is considered in terms of identifying the factors and the derivation of the contemporary urban landscape. The evolution here means the major event in the global context because there are different kinds of personalization and inspiration due to different lections. The different responses and the ideologies are compared by studying the evolution and the physical responsiveness of the landscape considered most important. The properties of responsiveness are studies with the different strategies of gaining them. The analysis is based on properties of physical responsiveness and the flyover as a component, which comprise with elements of the urban landscape, will be evaluated concerning context, form and function.

xii


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

Chapter 1 Understanding the Urban Landscape 1.0 Urban Landscape and Architecture

What is Urban Landscape?

“Urban landscapes are storehouses for these social memories, because natural features such as hills or harbours, as well as the streets, buildings and patterns of settlement, frame the lives of many people and often outlast many lifetimes.” (Hayden1995, p.9)

Hayden refers “these social memories”, to the memories of the histories of families, neighbourhood, fellow workers, and ethnic communities. And further he mentions the urban renewal and the redevelopment are also creating the memories with urban landscape in its evolution. Here it is evident that the perception of the people on the physical elements and the metaphysical interpretations generates the meaning. When it comes to the architecture it always contributes to the landscape whether they are rural or urban. Even the landscape also influencing architecture and in urban context it is more crucial. The generated architecture must be enhancing the lives of the people than over govern it. So the urban landscape is the overall architecture of the context and the links of the urban communities.

“There will always be landscapes which are intended as settings for architecture, where Formal, Virginian, Picturesque, Deconstructed or whatever” (Jellicoe1992, p.24)

The urban landscape makes the picture of the particular urban spatial flow and it includes each and every element which is static in the context like buildings, bridges, flyovers, trees and the elements like people vehicles and 1


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

even pets which are moving. And the classification can be done on different ways. For example live elements and the non living elements. But these classifications should be done focusing the final objective. Present landscape was not emerged suddenly, but it is with a continuous evolution of time. This evolution is about the people and the whole is about the perception of them. Different concepts, trends related to their lives change the built environment and the urban landscape always got inspired by them.

1.1 Factors affecting the emergence of the cities and its structure. With the development of the society needs of the people changed; the activities and habitation also changed accordingly. The living environment was created most of the times to suit the activities of the city, as the dweller wishes them to be than the inhabitant’s wishes. So the cities were emerged in different forms in different times as a response to such needs. The dweller refers here not only the ordinary citizen but also the key people who handle the major decision and the power. But there is no conflict with Shultz, 1985 who explains the dweller as a person who dwells and makes contacts with the space when he lives. The city is a living space for the dwellers, migrants as well as to people who just peep in. Therefore the internal spaces of the buildings, the external spaces and even the facades are influenced by them. As discussed the urban landscape is shaped by physical forms created by its elements and the life is in it because of people, their inter-relationships and intra-relationships with the spaces surrounded. The cities which create a particular urban landscape have undergone the forces of different factors.

1.1.1 Physical factors From the beginning of the civilization people were bound to the natural environment and its physical structure. Earlier nature was for their survival. They were depending on resources like rivers and water bodies and forests as a response to the nature. Later with the improvements in tools and the weapons to defend the growing boundaries against enemies, emperors 2


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

thought of the more secure places for their civilization to live in. Again they used the natural barriers and they followed the patterns of the nature. Further developments were according to these patterns. Later people tried to conquer the nature for example to overcome constrains of the connectivity the tunnel and the bridges erected. Another good example is Venice to understand the nature its patterns and the development of the societies.

Fig1. Grand channel Venice and the buildings as a response the channel; Sigiriya on top of the rock and Kandy protected by the forest and mountains and water.

The Sigiriya palace is one of the best examples where the city was formed with a rock for the protection. There are other examples as Anuradhapura and the Kandyan Kingdom where the ancient cities focussed on water and cultivation and the protection among the natural grounds. The physical factors can be the topography, special landscapes such as water bodies, the climate and the access. But it is difficult to say these are the physical factors which affects the cities in their evolution. But there are most critical factors which are unavoidable and sometimes they are conceived in the minds of the people who looked at the cities.

Fig2. Grande Axis, Paris-Grand Arch, the Axis and La Defence, France

3


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

Sometimes the man made environments are forcing the cities to behave and develop with their archaeological values or by relation to their significant dominant characters. In Paris it is a prime concern that the buildings are always responds to that as the main access from the ancient times. Le Defence is such a contextual response, which is contemporary, to the ancient urban landscape.

“the landscape which created was therefore an expression of more people owing and using more tough things, proudly displaying their use of them, and looking for places to buy and service them. It borrowed arbitrarily from older traditions and invented new solution and forms as necessity and demand� (Relph 1987, p.76)

With the development of the society, functions and the activities formed by the people changed. Then physical environment had to cater the functional efficiency of the cities. The land scarcity and the technology of mobilising affected on the city and the urban landscape enormously by giving priority to vehicles, and infrastructure needed for them. Then the pedestrians were moved to arcades and the interior of the buildings or to the pavements by the road sides.

Fig3. a. Painting of Berlin 1756, b. Painting of Vienna 1873 c. East Berlin 1952-57, shows

that

gradually

out

the of

people the

were

streets

moved as

the

landscape changed.

4


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

As Relph reveals by 1900 the city landscape changed with the physical additions like parking for vehicles, High-rises, garbage cans and waste boxes and road signs giving priority for the vehicles.

“By the late 1920’s however, cars were more than recreational toys. They were necessities of life for many people� (Relph 1987, p.84)

And even the parking of those vehicles and the services for such changed the whole layout of the conventional cities making a big effect to the urban landscape. He describes about how the spaces changed and it makes a clear picture how it affected the urban landscape. With the advancement of the technology, people added different elements to the landscape for better functionality for example the bridges and the tunnels to cross the rivers and the hills. When the context become more congested later with more and more population and the functions of the urban areas new strategies came in to practice. Unlike the traditional rural and urban settings the contemporary situation became more complex with the different physical issues. Therefore different layers have been created in the cities as it develop and evolves. Flyovers are such a common phenomenon in the urban context which is significant. At the same time it has become a part of the urban landscape.

Fig4. Different types of viaducts on the urban landscape. Sometimes they dominate the whole landscape, some are flexible in use like Sumare station in Latin America, and some destroys the existing links of the landscape.

5


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

In the contemporary urban situations the flyovers are a major thought in order to improve the mobility and the functional efficiency of the context. The flyovers can be seen in the urban landscapes of both developed and developing countries for example Bangkok, Thailand; Bangalore, India and Demetagoda in the local context.

1.1.2 Social factors To understand the urban areas and its landscape, the vision of the society and the social links are really important to study.

“The more we know about the cultures, about the structure of society in various periods of history in different parts of the world, the better we are able to read their built environment.�(Kostof 1991, p.10)

The society and their perception never stagnated within the history even there were more disastrous events. But there are also examples where if the context was totally destroyed and people have reconstructed the same as they don’t want to loose the social links and their moral links due to such disastrous events. The same architecture was repeated again as they wanted to see that their societies were not affected. E.g. - City of Munster, Nuremberg Germany.

Fig5. Change of Nuremberg through time.; The destroyed structures were re erected as the society never wants to change after the World War 2.

6


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

These cities were totally destroyed during the Second World War and then reconstructed like before the war. New buildings were built with the same materials with few alterations concerning the future demand of the spaces. Today it seems the same old city and there are no impacts to the buildings. For example people made their own houses after the tsunami and protested to move somewhere else even though the place has disastrous memories. It is because they respect their social links with the particular place than the impact of tsunami.

Fig6. Extended arcades of the shop houses in Munster, Germany

The facades of the shop houses in Munster were extended to the road to expand the interior space. And sometimes it contributed to the change of the urban landscape in a passive way. Especially after the Second World War the whole structure of the society changed in every aspect. The change of the society is mainly following the modernistic concepts of life. As ladies found jobs and the whole society was busy in finding money in industrial cities people found more liberal in terms of movement in space than being bound to the land. The housing was closer to the factories in those contexts and people were more concern about the financial values and functional aspect of every thing. Following of the technical advancement and efficiency people became more self-centred and introverted. The cities were designed and the landscape of it transformed to cater the functionality. They were promoting the communal activities. By this nature of people was enhanced by the modern movement or the international style of architecture with plain lines and pure geometries. 7


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

Fig7. Urban Landscape influenced by the Modern Movement concepts.

The modern movement buildings were not friendly, and were showing the capabilities of the man on rapid development and achievements more than being human scale, caring and expressive. With the formation of the social classes the city’s land use was more and more divided. The physical structure of the city was affected by this social class trend mainly with the industrial revolution and later the World War 1and 2. The locations of the residences were determined by the social classes as similar groups reside closer as a group. So everywhere in the world it is possible to observe the small plots of lands with high density in the lowerclass neighbourhoods and adequate proportion of land in the middleclass neighbourhoods while in upper-class neighbourhoods plots are much larger and exclusive in their character. Unauthorised developments in the cities show the unbalanced development even more clearly and add to the stress of the people. In local contexts it is very visible around the main towns for example Colombo, Galle and Kandy. This scenario is common in most of the developing countries.

Fig8. Modern Movement landscapes. 8


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

But today’s society is having many experiences through time and especially the urban communities are not genuine due to the effects of local and the global movements such as nationalism and globalization. The attitudes of the society are changing and always influenced by the global scenarios and most of the times they are more competitive and comparative. Therefore the built environment sometimes looks alien to the context and then the urban landscape is having the alien elements and sometimes will loose the character.

Fig09. Today’s social attitude, Togetherness, Peace and Equity

1.1.3 Economic factors This is the reality and the main factor when consider the capabilities of development of a city or a certain precise area. The constructive ability and the needs of adding or removing elements from the landscape depended on the economic conditions. This is evident throughout the history as well as today. Since citizens are considered, while building up the city it is important to identify the potentials for urban development and how it can be interpreted in a spatial manner than giving priory to the economics. But according to Kostof 1991, p11, the subject of the legal and the economic factors are a huge and it is having a greater impact on formation of the cities and its environments. The quality of the environment and the care of citizens are merely a matter of the economic factors of a city. Otherwise it gives priority to the functional aspects only. As an example the urban left over spaces are common in most of the developing countries but in the developed countries it is well managed and treated as user friendly spaces with some function most 9


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

of the times. This is not a comparison between different states but in the same country there are significant variations. Considering housing, the size of a unit and the facilities that people consumes are always determined by the income level. But this is common a phenomenon that matters with all needs. Wealth matters in the consumer societies. So it is clear that the economic condition influenced the urban landscape, the spaces and its qualities. In the local context today the Echelon Square, Colombo 07 are economical priorities but Demetagoda, Wanathamulla are not. Therefore the quality of the urban landscape has very clear variations.

Fig10. Landscape of Pettah, Fort and Demetagoda, clearly shows the economic influence on urban landscape.

And Berlin is an economical priority than Munster. So in the developed countries also this is a common practice. It can be again compare with the local context today and it is observed that the influence that has in the urban landscape; the echelon square cannot put side by side with Munster even. Fig11. Landscapes of Berlin and Munster, Germany Berlin is with more infrastructures

and

well

organized than Munster.

Looking back to the history it is evident that the trend of the modern movement architecture was backed by the economic factors as a post war scenario. Then, the professionals were seeking for better strategies to redevelop the cities after the destruction of the World War2 and the modern 10


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

movement concepts were found suitable regarding fast solutions. The construction of housing schemes and other buildings were easy and quick with the modern materials such as concrete and glass though they were not expressive. But it solves the problem of housing and other spatial needs till people realize that this environment is not the ideal. And then the society was wealthy and could seek for other methods and concepts to rebuild their environment sometimes replacing such buildings.

1.1.4 Psychological factors In ancient cities the cardinal directions and the water bodies seems important while locating the settlements. Some river banks were considered auspicious and it was selected as the city while letting the opposite bank to be the dead city. Sometimes the directions by in relation to the sun considered important when laying out the cities and the entrances faced in relation to them. E.g.:- Anuradhapuara, Sri Lanka Ancient capital of Egypt

Fig12. Layout of the Polonnaruwa kingdom right to the reservoir; the layout of the ancient temple reflecting the significance of the cardinal directions, Egypt by the side of the Nyle River and Taj Mahal by the river Ganga.

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Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

The openness and the enclosure of the spaces and their conditions are conversing different aspects of the urban life. And the built form in that regard is making an effect to the whole urban context. The roads, parks and vegetations are such, from where people get different influences and uses as they have different expressions. People sometimes can be considered as elements of the urban landscape which is changing as they move. And their behaviour is by means of communication with the forms or the elements of the cityscape. In most of the cases the psyche of different people gave the shape and the form to the cities, it is the vision of the designer who develops it. Kostof 1991, p.11 reveals that the cities are shaped by different categories of people. For example ship gunner’s (early port cities of India), military engineers, etc. So it is clear that the urban context is formed with the philosophies followed by the creator. In early cities the primary concern was the security and they were most of the times created with the natural barriers and further they had fortresses around them. So the city was a single superior entity and the structure was totally different from the outside.

Fig13. Picture of ancient Indian port cities, Chinese cities and European cities

Another example is modern movement concepts applied after the World War 2. With the perception of the people who were considered educated and professionals decided and developed thinking to suit the strategies to develop in those contexts. Even today sometimes it is a national policy and sometimes it was by the needs of the societies. The visions are derived for development in 12


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

different ways with philosophical backgrounds for example Bangalore wants to be the centre for information technology in the Asian region.

Fig14. Thailand, Malaysia and Colombo. Considering the local context Colombo has identified as the major commercial and distractive capital and the rest of the regions are depending in it. The facilities and the infrastructure is developed to cater the vision so it has a different ambience.

1.2 Elements of the Urban Landscape City can be identified as a human manifestation of the urbanity at a precise location and the elements of a city can be identified as the elements which generate the urban landscape. Therefore there are different ways of classifying the elements in the urban landscape. Several scholars have looked at the urban context; cities in different perspectives. But generally the city is with the built masses, open spaces and the links which facilitates the access. Looking deeper in to it, as Kostof, 1992 mentions there is the urban process. This is the contribution of the man and his activities responding to the environment surrounded and the factors described above. The process also contributed to the vivacity of the urban landscape. Fig15.

Krier’s

argument;

Conceptual sketch

13


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

Krier, 1975 argues that the urban space is twofold; the Squares and the Streets. It is more conceptual because the built masses are identifies as the periphery of the square which generate the ambience in the urban square and the open space are such which are enclosed by the peripheral buildings.

“I shall attempt to discern this quality whatever we are dealing with physical features and of the spatial nature two basic elements are the streets and squares” (Krier 1984, p.16) Fig16.

Kostof’s

argument;

conceptual sketch

But Kostof describes it in a different way going in to further detail of a city in City Assembled, reveals that the city Edge, Divisions, Public spaces, Streets and Urban process is vital. The importance of this classification is that it describes about the live nature of the city as the urban process. Fig17.

Lynch’s

argument;

conceptual sketch

Besides both Lynch, 1979 was thinking of an image of a city by handling five elements; Paths, Edges, Districts, Nodes and the Landmarks. This is more detailed and almost covers the whole fabric. As he reveals this is about imaging about a city and the imaging is the real time experience of the city landscape; the urban landscape. Further Bentley strengthens this idea of 14


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

these elements as it very relevant to a responsive environment and these are used to discuss the responsiveness of an environment by him. And as Lynch, 1979 identified people make images depending on them and at the same time the dialogue of the urban landscape is derived. As these elements are identified as the elements which creates the image of a city it is justified that these are the major elements which is read by people while experiencing the urban landscape. Not in the perspective of imaging an urban context but to understand and to read it is necessary to discover theses elements in relation to the urban landscape.

1.2.1 Channels/ Access ways Theses are the paths along which the observer moves in a city; experiencing the urban landscape, as Lynch reveals. They may be roads, pedestrian paths, boulevards, alley ways, canals etc which runs along the landscape while making interconnections to the surroundings. These interconnections form a matrix and enhance the stability of each and every element in the landscape. The channels are in different forms; straight, curved, ramping up, etc. and even in the today’s context the vehicular paths also more prominent in the urban landscape. They are highlighted by the trees, sometimes by the buildings, with the help of the lighting systems and even the topography of the landscape. The directional quality of these channels is the most important while experiencing since it encourages people to move.

Fig18. Connection channel to the urban neighbourhood; Karachchi, path for vehicles and a path along a water body. The water body itself is a channel. 15


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

“Subjects who knew the city better had usually mastered part of the path structure; these people thought more in terms of specific paths an their interrelationships.�(Lynch 1979, p. 49)

Concentration of the specific activity will give prominence to the mind of the observer in his journey through these channels. Spatial characteristic makes the paths prominent as such extremes of the width or the narrowness. Especially different events of channels create varies of activities with the support of the spatial qualities of them, for example the wider streets can be the market streets and the narrower streets can be for way side shopping.

Fig19. Channels vary with the width; some are narrower some are wider.

Façade characteristics also play a vital role in giving an identity to a certain street and also Lynch, 1979 reveals that the pavement texture is less important. It is important to consider path is in terms of the visual exposure to the path itself and from it to the other parts of the city. It is evident that the whole urban landscape is connected by these different qualities. Fig20. Channels which connects two significant points with a start and an end, Seigessallee, Berlin, Grand

Axis

of

France

from

Louver to the Grand Arch.

Lynch, 1979 reveals the continuity of a path is identified as also important, as well as the identity and the continuation. Even Lynch believes that the paths must have the directional quality. He says paths with specific starts and the ends are more identical than the other. 16


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

Fig21. An active and a live path dedicated

for

pedestrians

to

perform as they want in east London, and the paved lines of the

Place

D’Yoville,

France

emphasise directional quality.

1.2.2 Demarcations As Lynch refers they are the edges of a city. But it is more suitable to consider them as the demarcation as it is applies to the urban landscape because in reality they are demarcating the boundaries of the urban landscape edges even can be the demarcations.

Fig22. The edges are created by water in Boston, dominant buildings in Moscow and the buildings against water in New York.

The demarcations/edges are not considered as the paths. But they are linear elements and act as the lateral references and demarcate the boundaries between two kinds of areas by being a barrier to the continuity. They can be barriers but the penetrating ratio creates the softness and the hardness of the edge of the urban landscape. These demarcations may be created with the canals, shore, buildings and even with the paths.

Fig23. The edge; penetrating created by the vehicles, a hard one; created by the podium, demarcation by water, vehicles as well as from the fleet of trees. 17


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

Lynch reveals that the edges are often paths as well. In most cases these demarcations are identified on the ground level. But there are instances where the over head demarcations appear in the urban landscape. The demarcations overhead are created with the free ways and the rail roads. �where this is so, and where the ordinary observer was not shut of from moving on the path, then the circulation image seemed to be the dominant one.� (Lynch 1979, p.64) The edges may have the directional qualities as the paths. The contrast and the lateral breadth of the edge are very strong in demarcation of two independent boundaries. This is reinforced by the paths and the activities performing along the edges.

Fig24. Demarcations exist above in the urban landscape; Britain, Frankfurt, Bangkok, Frankfurt.

1.2.3 Segments

Fig25. Different segments in the urban landscape created by parking, buildings and the vegetation.

This can be identified as a section in the urban landscape (or the city) which is included in a two dimensional extent. A segment shows same identifiable characters within and can be identified as a group. Segments are 18


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

enriching the experience of the urban landscape with variety of experiences while moving from segment to the segment. So in another way it contributes to improve the legibility of the urban landscape.

Fig26. Different characters of different segments in the urban landscape, Echelon Square; High-Rise District, Fort the Colonial expression.

“Each part of Boston is different form the other. You can tell pretty much what area you are in� (Lynch 1979, p.66)

Lynch reveals in relation to the city that they are the elements which the observer can mentally go inside of. Occasionally these can be seen as the external references as a person moves by or towards them. Further mentions that the physical characteristics that determine districts are thematic continuities which may consist of an endless variety of components; texture, space, form detail, symbol, building type, use, activity, etc. in identifying a segment the sky line, colour, modelling, and material will be the basic clues.

1.2.4 Nodal Points

Fig27. Node; Hamina; Finland, Trafalgar; Britain, intersection in Paris.

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Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

The nodes can be interpreted as the strategic points to which the observer can enter and exit as his experience of the urban landscape. The nodes can be junctions, crossings and convergences of the paths, movement of shift from one structure to another. Even the nodes get the physical character by condensation of the use or the physical character around it. In many cases the nodes act as spaces which promote people to stay and enjoy. Though they are with much space for people to gather it is not a concluding space but an intermediate space of the journey.

“Some of these concentration nodes are the focus and epitome of a district, over which their influences radiates.�(Lynch 1979, p.48)

Further Lynch reveals that the nodes always should not have a strong character in recognising it. But if the space has some quality or an activity it will enhance the node obviously. Some nodes can survive even they do not have a functional importance. But successful nodes will be unique and at the same time intensify some surrounding characteristics.

Fig28. Successful Node; Campo in Siena; Italy, Market; Kingsland, Pompidou; Paris.

Fig29. Nodes with no functional significance; Munster; Germany, Paris, France. 20


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

The nodes can be introverted or extroverted as it behaves in the urban landscape. The directional quality

is principally towards or away from it

according to the choice of the user and it is also depend on to which it directs and from where it is. The nodes will improve the image of the context, not only the city but also the landscape, since it provides enough time to relax or to refresh the mind.

1.2.5 Landmarks

Fig30. Landmarks as they highlight the points of references.

The landmarks are point references and they are externally observed. It is not fare to say that they cannot be experience internally but the meaning lies with the external experience. They can be simply described as the physical elements which may be natural or man made such as mountains and clock towers. These can be positioned closer or at a distance as to enhance its meaning to the urban landscape. The close landmarks are making the radial references while the distance ones are demarcating a particular direction.

Fig31. Landmarks with a meaning; Grand Arch, Paris, improves the prominence of the axis, Eiffel Tower improves the prominence in the vertical direction, pride of the nation; Seigessallee, Berlin, Flying steel bridge in Amsterdam 21


Responsiveness of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapter one: Understanding Urban Landscape

Further the stars or the sun can be landmark of the landscape as it emphasise a fixed direction when there is no other references. But this situation is rare in the urban context. The closer landmarks can be the golden domes, towers, etc.

Fig32. Landmarks; Personalised detail, A significant Gateway, Frankfurt Tur, Berlin, A Door hanger, Contrasting Faรงade, Berlin.

Even urban details can be landmarks in the landscape and even they can emphasise the structure of the context as Lynch, 1979 reveals. He further explains that even a door bell or a lock can be a landmark. The identification of the landmarks in the urban landscape is backed by the clear forms that they have, the contrast with the background and positioning of it; the spatial location. And in some occasions the sighting of it, age and the scale become important than the functional and the symbolic importance. The spatial prominence can be gained in two ways; by highlighting its visibility and by making it contrast from the background, Lynch, 1979 reveals. Further mentioned, that with the active association of an element also makes landmarks. The further details of the landmarks are expressive in terms of the distance between the observer and the object which will enhance the quality of the experience of the urban landscape.

Fig33. Landmarks; experiencing of a landmark with the distance, it becomes more meaningful and expressive when the observer get closer to it; Paris.

22


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Chapter 2: Evolution of Urban Landscape

2.1 Evolution of the Urban Landscape. The evolution is a common scenario, it matters with time and there are different factors that the evolution depends on as discussed in the first chapter. The evolution of the landscape was mainly a matter of the human activities.

“The specific organization of the city, and the behaviour in it, are the result of interaction of environmental characteristics, the choice processes of individuals and groups, and various constrains.� (Rapoport 1977, p.81)

The landscape changed gradually from rural (natural) to urban, along with the people. Here people refer not to a group of a single person, but a society or a community which holds common set of values and ethics in behaviour. It is hard to define a time line when the urban landscape emerged but in all eras comparatively there were urban landscapes which were different platforms to different functions.

Fig34. Different urban landscapes and activities; Dominion Centre Chicago for people to stay , A street closed for the Bastille Day concert New York, Herald Square in New York for public gathering,

Therefore evolution of urban landscape is to consider with society because, they are the major evolving factor of a particular urban landscape. But the effect of environment on people and values should not be neglected. 23


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Activities appear as a respond to the urban form, spaces, expression and links that people are having with the built environment.

Fig35.

Activities defined by the surrounded expression; concentration of activities

towards Town Centre was defined with the radial array of paths; Finland, Water edge; Experiencing water is timeless, Dynamic nature of the water can animate people,

So the evolution of the urban landscape is not individually happened on its elements. Thus it is not an elementary evolution. These elements have a value when they are composed as forms and spaces meaningfully. The activities on the landscape also gave meanings to them. Therefore with the evolution of the urban landscape the elements had a direct impact of the built form, spaces, activities and the expressions. They are also having the impact on one another when shaping the urban landscape. For example the Kandyan procession had influence on built forms along the streets where it took place. The Kandyan procession is an ancient event though it has performed in different contexts while British power was established. Though the British’s were powerful the procession hardy influenced. The balconies were created to watch the procession on street and this character of the facades is common in such streets. The solid void ratio of the facades and the composition of elements had the same effect in order to watch the performance.

24


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Fig36. Kandyan urban landscape derived with the procession; Though Kandy had many influences while evolving; Procession, the main function of the city influenced its built mass.

Urban spaces; the interiors and the exteriors, have interpreted in different ways by time to time as the cities evolve. Earlier the classical buildings and its attributes were defining what the urban landscape is. But later it changed and today even the existing classical buildings are modified to suit the present conditions of life. Europe is the best example to observe such a conversion and it has defined new edges, districts even within the existing contexts.

Fig37. Evolution; The extension of the University for Student exhibitions, A stable has been converted to a library- Bibliothek, Munster, Germany.

The performances of the spaces and the capability of tolerating the new functions are significant throughout the evolution. Therefore each function may change or may not, but it has to accommodate new functions as well as the traditional at the same time. For example Kandy town, though it is developed with more population today it has to accommodate the traditional processions annually and it should be capable to handle the population and the newly emerging activities for its existence. Therefore with the evolution the urban landscape still holds 25


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

the qualities which are derived in the past because it is culture and heritage. Even the Temple of Tooth Relic is dominant and it holds the expression of the sacred city being top of the hierarchy in its expression among their buildings. Even to maintain the identity regulations has also been kept. Fig38. The Temple of Tooth

Relic

is

more

dominant in the Kandyan landscape

and

it

is

forced to be.

So it proves that the society, urban form, urban spaces, activities and their expressions are creating a base to explore how the evolution took place in urban landscape than going for an elementary evolusion. It is exploring the connection of elements as they are composed according to the factors discussed above.

2.1.1 Society The change of the people in different eras reveals the facts about the socio spatial connections they had. So the evolution of urban landscape is had a direct impact of communities. Generally the attitudes of people influenced the urban landscape and it was similar to human connections. Earlier man was more community oriented and their landscape was depicting the sense of community. It was evident as they settle in a particular place as well as they grow in the context.

Fig39. urban landscape created where people wanted to treat people, early cities more with gathering spaces, then the humans were trapped in between the built masses, later the landscape was more functional oriented. 26


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

But later people were more self oriented as each of them were treated individually and with the competitions for survival and status in terms of social, political and economic means. Then the “self” became prominence and the equity was neglected. With more competition and the technological advancement people tend to be “self” than “community” though they observed the cultural values. Helping each other was not determined later. The ATM and such advancements of the technology isolated the man from his sense of community in a physical manner. Race and the colour of the skin were some vital issues in the social history where the colonial ideas were more disastrous. Fig40. Conflict of the Black and the White skins

For example the historical city of Galle, within the limit of the fortress had different character of exteriors. The open spaces and the architecture were accordingly to the needs of people who live in there. Even it has been declared as a world heritage but in contemporary context with the evolution of people, as residence live in these houses found, that the historical spaces are not their needs today; even within the same house that they grown up. Therefore change in such architecture in the landscape is continuing though it is disastrous.

27


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Then

Today

Fig41. Evolution of the Galle Fort landscape; the spaces were abandoned and today the architecture is changing destroying the historical value., modification of the facades is change of the urban landscape then and today.

The paths are having direct impact of the society in its evolution because of the activities took place and the definition of the demarcation of them that depends on communities who live there. The demarcations of the paths in earlier were merging with the landscape and there were no definite edges. But with the development of the social activities on urban landscape there were demarcations for different margins for different activities in terms of separation of them in the landscape. Such are for example the pavements, fences and the elevated paths. So people moved, by the sides of the roads, giving prominence to the vehicles later on.

Fig42. Different boundaries on urban landscape, Perceptual boundaries of the urban edge, Breaking of the social boundaries, Merge of the ethnic boundaries.

28


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Again the urban contexts have looking for the advancement of the citizens and prominence than what they gained in the past. Society is changing their environment as their vision for both exteriors and interiors of the urban landscape. For example it is derived with the technological advancement they gained by time to time. As people moved to the industrial era, the cities interpreted as machines and main concern was the efficiency. People were more industrial oriented than agriculture so they even change their outer look and did the same on the urban landscape.

Fig43. Change of the man and the urban landscape

The city edges as a fortress were not in use anymore and connectivity considered attracting people towards cities. Mobility was promoted for both people and vehicles by softening the territorial edges of the urban landscape. The city planning was also considered by people while locating different activities. Later on after the World War II societies were more oriented towards better living conditions.

“The land prices are high and going up as they raise higher the buildings get taller. The poor people, of course, get pushed out either in to the far-off suburbs or to live in the crevices here and there- in illegal shanty towns, on the pavements, whatever. - Charles Correa� (Editor 1986, p.11)

The housing developed vertically and socially accepted it because society was quite proud and confident with the new hopes of modernism. But after, such was destroyed by people, as they don’t want such huge variation in their landscape prior to different social issues identified. But today housing 29


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

is seeking again for more vertical development potentials. People who belong to different social backgrounds acted on it differently. The upper income level accepts it as a prestige but in most cases the in middle income and the lower category very strongly believe their dwellings with a garden. This can be observed in many low income housing developments as the designers of those trying to create the ambience of the ground with the wide paths where people can ride their bicycles and even play as in the narrow streets. Most of the times they failed but sometimes they were successful. Fig44.

The

corridors

are

to

improve

the

widened sense

of

the

street

in

“SAHASPURA� development where people ride and even play in those.

But the relationship to the urban landscape is not just by having the same spaces separately but the continuity of it is even more important. Though such developments tried to create the paths in the upper floors, the demarcation of it or the edges are not with enough sense to keep the same penetration to the both side of the path. While cities are becoming more complex in its conditions people got lost in urban landscapes because the cities are not much responsive enough to guide them. Then people tried to find different methods of improve the sensitivity of it. So they defined and tried to arrange the paths, demarcations, segments, nodes and landmarks to make the cities more human oriented. But even with more population there were more and more activities gathered, and for the functionality of it different layers emerged. Such are to promote the connectivity of urban landscape prior to efficiency as people wanted them. Subways and the viaducts in urban context are good examples for them.

30


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Fig45. Contemporary human needs efficient connectivity which dominates the landscape.

And some times there is evidence that theses structures are defining the spaces for different user categories. Such common example can be found in New Delhi where the flyover easily forgets the community under it. Sometimes it is the social attitude. These have created a new impression in the urban context by enlarging the inhabitable spaces. These elements defined in different ways are becoming a future scenario in each developing cities. Though today it seems that it is socially accepted as a “new idea� in the future such may be critical in terms of the tranquil nature of the cities which is more closer to people.

Fig46. Viaducts and the urban context

2.1.2 Urban Built Mass Urban form must be expressive to have a better communication with the people who live there. It creates the image of the city as people experience it with the landmarks, paths, districts, edges and nodes according to Kevin Lynch. Also they are the elements which bring up the features of urban landscape in more details. 31


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

The urban form can be divided in to two, for better understanding; the urban built mass and non built spaces. So generally the built masses may affect on segmentation of the cities, its edges and landmarks. The paths and nodes deals with the non built urban spaces as they are open free spaces. Though they are not built they are defined by the urban built masses most of the times. But these are parts of a single entity as each of them having strong connections and even they are influenced by each other. The built mass is an explanation about the urban form, but exterior spaces and the interiors are equally important. Fig47. Evolution

of

the

urban landscape; Brompton road

London,

1880

and

1930- change of the built mass are identical.

During the past decades the urban form was changed rapidly comparing to the other periods of the history. Not only the urban form but also the other fields like electronics, software and etc. The electronics and the software development are important because the building or the mass is depicting the era and the concepts behind it. Today people are stepping to a new era. And the buildings are not just cubes, houses are not machines as Le Corbusier saw, but they are more challenging n its form and mass. Therefore the urban landscape is not seems like in 1920’s and 1930’s with definite shapes and formal compositions.

Fig48. Picture to compare the different built masses prior to buildings in different eras 32


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

According to the capabilities of them the challenges that they welcomed, the size of the built mass and the details of it, changed affecting the urban landscape. The architecture was not same as in the periods where the timber was mostly used. The size was different and the issues were handling in a different manner. As Relph, 1987 reveals the modern form of urban contexts had undergone many criticisms and arguments as the architecture changed the landscape. As the first step after the modernism with the post-modern concepts the landscape was much expressive than the modern urban landscape generated by the built masses. Christopher 1981 sees it is not human oriented even today.

“By comparison, the developments of today are not human in their origin. They are too often created by cooperation that manipulate stock for profit at long distance or decided by comities concerned with abstract social welfare. They are too often grey and colourless.”

(Christopher 1981, p.55)

As he reveals in “New Theory of Urban Design”, the modern developments are not according to the means of real potential, as the theory he derived that the urban growth is merely unpredictable. And further he states the plans and the drawings represent the way people expecting of the growth as they needed even if the city is not looking in to it.

But traditionally

the growths of cities were under four main rules as they identified later. With the changes by the World War II as it was the main influencing scenario for the urban landscape during 1950’s. It changed in many ways by the factors similar to physical, social, economical, political, etc. and professionals were looking to solve the problems arose. The multy storey structures were emerged to accommodate more functions within a less space where people were concentrated. Different districts emerged which were alien to the existing. Theoretically the nodes were only public spaces associated with the built fabric. It seems monotonous and landmarks were everywhere 33


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

but there were no hierarchy. So the responsiveness of the urban landscape was a main quality which lacked there.

Fig49. Less expressive and too geometric dumb landscape of modern movement.

Even during the post-modern era this was not totally ignored but came with a different expression. The skyline of the buildings was changed and it was reaching almost the sky. The gaps between the buildings were roads to provide the maximum accessibility. Therefore urban context became more functional and inhuman so the breeding of such concrete jungles were stopped and with the garden concepts and then the urban environment was getting closer to people. This was a considerate change in the urban landscape. Different segments were identified for different activities and the demarcations of the boundaries were allowing some penetration to the other segments of the urban landscape improving the modes of communication with the elements of the cities.

Fig50. Demolition of the buildings as society

Fig51.The plan of the garden city

rejects them due to less responsiveness.

concept.

34


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Today the urban landscape is theoretically concerning about the citizens. However the built mass which is much massive today is governing the urban landscape than ever before as the cities are growing especially in the developing countries. Than the solid geometric structures the built mass, today it is evident that it takes the flexible shapes, like parabolas and so on as to express the capabilities of the technology as well as to express their rapidly changing needs. These were considered to improve the dynamism of the form as well as to reduce the harsh of the concrete structures in the visual zone.

Fig52. Flexible built forms and built masses on contemporary urban landscape

The viaducts in that sense are important to consider as its built mass comprised with different interpretations in the urban landscape since they are emerging and flowing through the city making problems even with its scale. This is proved as the research done for Seattle in United States, where it reveals that the public life and the surrounded cultural masses were affected by the new viaduct.

Fig53. Different viaducts create different forms in the urban landscape. Historical Britain, Thailand, Seattle.

35


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

2.1.3 Urban non Built Spaces There are mainly two types of urban spaces, interior and the exterior. The exterior influenced by the forms or the built masses surrounded by it. As the Krier 1984, classifies the urban space is streets and squares. So it said that squares are both the built mass and the space trapped. The interior spaces are defined by the buildings itself most of the times, and it is secured by the weather and the threats from outside. But as a part of the whole it may not merely defined by a single building but other buildings around as they are connected to it. “Urban space... This space is geometrically bounded by a variety of elevations. It is only the clear legibility of its geometrical characteristics and aesthetic qualities which allows us consciously to perceive external space as urban space� (Krier 1984, p.15)

The exterior spaces are defined by the edges of the buildings, natural landscapes and even by the streets and the roads adjacent to it. However these spaces are a product of the building facades, elevations and their expressions. Instead of those definitions, urban spaces can be categorised as the open spaces-enclosed spaces and public-semi public-private spaces in general terms.

Fig54. Different types of urban non built spaces; Abandoned spaces in Huston, Recreational spaces in Netherlands, Urban sculptural landscape in Munster, Germany.

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Before the industrial revolution the whole landscape was governed by people and nature. More dense cities were under the control of the scale of the human. There by the spaces were more oriented towards the people and their activities. So the elements in the urban landscape were to promote such human activities. But soon after the industrial revolution position of the human being was replaced by the machinery automatically. The urban spaces became more functional and the spaces were not greeting people and encouraging them. But it made them more depressed, functional with hunger of earning. Therefore urban spaces dedicated for human activities became limited.

Fig55. Change of the urban non

built

spaces

evolution;

More

with

the

natural,

Prominence for the vehicles more stress on spaces.

Earlier the space demarcated as roads were for human activities. There were no hard segregation between the parks and the roads but with the machines were on wheels required more prominence to them and people were pushed out by having a clear cut edges along the paths. Later in the post modern practices of architecture influenced the urban spaces with more expressions prior to its built forms. Because it is expressive, people could respond to those and converse with them. The evolution of the urban spaces, both the interior and the exterior are depends on the time and the changing need of the dwellers as they are guided by their psyche. The technical advancement was so expressive to gossip about the capabilities of man. Foster’s Renault Centre, Centre Pompidou and even the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank was smartly standing on the urban landscape and even animated the urban non built spaces.

37


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Fig56. Urban non built spaces are animated by an identical built form in the context; Centre Pompidou, Paris, HSBC- Hong Kong

The land scarcity to accommodate the interior functions affected on reduction of the open spaces in the urban landscape and the open spaces were squeezed between the buildings. So the non built spaces obviously influences by the physical form surrounded. Even later the meanings of the spaces were more considered than just being expressive.

The best example is the Grand Court, UK, where the

internal open to sky court yard of the premises was later defined as an interior space with a huge transparent roof structure.

Fig57. British museum, Grand Court, UK; conversion of the exterior open space in to an interior.

These approaches are changing the whole section of the urban landscape but accordingly people are comfortable with it as it serves their needs. Some of these have created new overhead edges as their limit of the interior space. These overhead edges are sometimes disastrously appearing on the urban landscape disturbing the non built spaces though they are functionally important.

38


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

The viaducts created another layer to the urban landscape while creating different types of urban spaces in the contemporary world. Different elements with different definitions were making the essence of the space which is positive and negative. The viaducts gave such definitions on demarcations, channels, segments, nodes and landmarks. So they seem challenging to the functionality as well as to the existing urban no built spaces. These structures most of the time making lost spaces, especially considering the third world cities. Theses are affected to the urban form as well to the urban non built spaces and the activities of their contexts.

Fig58. Effect of the viaducts on urban non built space; it creates an over head edge to demarcate a boundary of the space which is not necessary but make the ambience of a congested space.

2.1.4 Functions / Activities

“In addition to the geographical factor the individual character of the towns will also have been shaped by their activities and buildings related to them.� (Tugnett 1987, p.25)

The geographical factor is most of the times constant from time but the activities are not. So geographic character may important when the cities are emerging but after it is the activity which evolves the urban landscape. Functions are linked with each and every existing units and it is creating the matrix in the urban landscape. Further the urban functions can be named as the most evolving essence and as a fluid which interlinks urban masses, non built spaces and people. 39


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Fig59. Change of the man made context prior to function; The railway and other modes of transportation, Expansion of activities; exposure of the exhibition space and Seattle viaduct with and without in the landscape.

The activities can be public and private. The public functions hold the importance in the urban context than the private functions. The transportation, recreation and commercial activities are such which evolve rapidly in the broader sense. These different functions have affected the organization of the urban landscape. So the evolution of the urban landscape can also evaluate with the functions of the context from time to time.

Fig60. Flow of the functions across the landscape from public to private; Main boulevard- Paris, St. Marks street-New York.

The functions are making the city active and efficient. This is also a generating factor even for the build masses, open spaces and even its morphology. These again influence the urban landscape physically in a permanent manner even though it depends on time. The activities are generating different effects on urban landscape as people gather and perform their social life. Activities have positive and the negative effects on public as it dominates and ignores the social structure.

40


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Fig61. Negative and positive effects of activities on urban landscape, Community activities like recreation and celebrations enhance the quality of the urban landscape while vehicle movement destroys it.

When looking back to history it is evident that the nature was gradually compelled from the applied landscapes though they are asserts in the urban context because the activities were more prominent than the responsiveness of the context. In historical settlements it was the nature, which provides everything for man for his survival. Later especially with innovations of people nature was not their first consideration, but the technology they that they believed.

Fig62. Negligence of man on nature; Living in harmony with nature, Grabbing the properties of nature clearing the ground, Dominate in the context and Challenge with the technology.

People invent machinery and the link to the nature was neglected as they break the pattern of the natural sustainability. In each time the natural landscape was changed and the environments became more and more complex and stressed with activities generated. The priority was grabbed by the activities. In the urban contexts most of the times the sensitivity was neglected and the machinery became more prominent. According to the people urban landscape became more functional. The urban landscape

41


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

showed the same character by neglecting people and promoting more efficient mechanisms in terms of activity.

Fig63. Negligence of man and the urban landscape towards each other, Old ladies lost their way in the middle of the roads, Congested activities in nodes, Promote mobility abandoned with no people, New York

“It commonly thought that before the industrial revolution on people had a sense of equilibrium, which the pace of modern life has destroyed through dislocation, industrialization and specialization. Disequilibrium is a powerful motivating force in human society, it is what makes people drive to conquer nature in order to rationalize and control the conditions of life.- Tay Keng Soon” (Editor 1986, p.33)

Such human settlements were more stresses and people couldn’t bare it. So the social problem was occurred as social activities oriented toward making money and paid less attention on the quality of the environment that they live in. Crime rate increased, and all types of social hazards were emerging and the city itself couldn’t bare those. Today than the actions of people the mental health has affected.

Fig64. Stress of the people is symbolical in urban landscape by activities, sometimes it is an art; Insane on traffic lights, Unauthorised personalization of public spaces. 42


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

However day by day the cities are becoming more function oriented with its activities such as commerce, services and residential. The residential quality and the recreational spaces were flown outside towards suburbs with the core area development. With the growing population the personal spaces were limited and the activities were also affected on this. The vertical development of the cities and the central business districts were creating the image of cities being the magnets which holds all the services and facilities. They were creating new set of ethics and the cultures with different behaviours and activities.

Fig65.

Activities in the manmade landscape, On road exhibition spaces, Definition to the

natural context; central park, New York, Urban piazza; Del Compo, Siena, Italy.

In terms of demand for services also created new layers of activities as people used different transportation systems in air, on ground and even underground. These service activities create different ambiences of the spaces. Some interior activities were extended to outside spaces .The dining by the side of the streets, recreational activities in the tensed urban spaces became normal later on. With the adaptation of the People to them the interiors and exteriors merged.

Fig66. Adaptation of the people to the stressed activities in the urban context, Way side eating spaces, Stay and chat by the side of heavy traffic, Don’t walk means walking in New York . 43


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

At the same time the people expect the efficiency of the activities and while they are becoming busy. They expect it even from the environment that they created. The cities had the responsibility to serve them also. For activities, ground floor was not enough they went up to the sky making deferent ambiences in the landscape. Later for transportation man created the viaducts and subways considering only the functional efficiency. Such structures are enhancing the connectivity. This is common in most of the developed and the developing landscapes today.

Fig67. Activities and the efficiency through viaducts; Double viaduct accommodates the vehicles and trains, monorail in Bangkok, Freeway above many traffic layers.

Many found that they are functionally efficient and not sounds good in other terms such as environmental, quality of the spaces and it lacks the sensitivity of speaking to people. Though the landscape today is more function oriented, people are concerned about the quality of the spaces as a new dimension for their urban design and planning exercises.

Fig68. Different sections of the landscape through the flowing of activities with viaducts

44


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

2.1.5 Expressions The expressions of the cities changes as dramas or other forms of arts according to the time of performance. It is hard to find two cities with the exact same expression because it was a matter of the time in the macro level. But in micro level there are common features in cities though they are far apart.

Fig69. Expression of safety in different historical landscapes;

In history the expression of the early cities was “the protection� in terms of its form regarding the external threats. Because then the cities were the wealthiest in the context; as rulers gather all treasure what was available there from its surrounding. They were more human friendly with its proportions, scale and the materials because for the survival manpower was very important since there was no much technological development. With the beginning of the machinery era the expressions of the cities were changed from secured centres to more open commercial centres. They opened the barriers and welcome people to attain in their functions and to earn. They tried to become a part of the whole network of functions as they had the financial potential.

Fig70. Picture to show the developing connectivity in the urban landscape

45


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

So the connectivity was more encouraged and the development of the arterials and the paths was considered important. People began to respect the machines and the efficiency of them than the human feelings and well being. Therefore the connections were treated with a more prominence than the care for human. As they depend on machinery the future they hold was also depending on them. So the social interaction was lacking in those contexts and it was expressed by the landscape there. The buildings of the context most of the times were factories and they were more oriented towards functional aspect than quality of the expression. The facades were dumb and just provided an enclosure to the interior. Their laying out and the forms were too rigid and the gap in between two of them were focussed on vehicles or services but not encouraged for human activities with its linear nature.

Fig71. Urban landscape in the industrial era; Emergence of industries-Yorkshire, Turbine factory-Berlin, Poor housing in industrial era, Roads didn’t welcome people but encourage more vehicles.

Later on after the World War II the modern movement architecture came in to practice as the international style. This was a new expression of architecture and the materials which were new, such as concrete, glass and steel were creating the expressions in architecture and even in the urban landscape. Great architects like Le Corbusier tried to design buildings with such materials. Even they tried to express the details using concrete such as timber though they are not using them. The buildings stands alone and the earlier matrix of spaces and the functions were separated to different entities. They 46


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

stand like sculptures in the urban landscape because it follows the rules of separating the cosmic elements from earth as Jellicoe 1992 reveals in “Designing the New Landscape”.

“Its common knowledge that the leader and inspirer of this environmental revolution was Swiss Le Corbusier. His concepts basically were that of the separation of cosmic structures from planet earth. (Illustrated by static architecture floating on pilots above a floating natural landscape.) But he seems impervious to the real significance of the nature of human life. He dealt in universals. Nevertheless constructivism as an art form that represents a brave new world had come to stay, serving in the most adverse conditions.”(Jellicoe 1992, p.8)

Fig72. Corbusier designed city, Chandigar, and building done by Kenzo Tange.

These buildings had generated another expression of height by touching the sky. The high-rise buildings came in to practice and this changed the urban landscape in a distinctive way. The combination of those buildings to the city was not considered then. The arterials were for the functional purposes and the experience has become boring because of the monotonous created in the spaces. The artistic landscapes were also emerged with the abstraction as it was the knowledge then. The public spaces were detailed with sculpture as landmarks sometimes and it became more responsive than the modern landscapes as they address people. After the failure of the during 1980’s modern movement practice the post modern architecture and the urban landscapes were quiet unique from the earlier practices. But they hold the context which was affected by the 47


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

earlier concepts. They were not following the smooth finishes and definite lines in the modern materials but they tried to create more from those like animated facades and spaces.

Fig73. Post modern landscape was more expressive and celebrated the difference than the monotony.

“The 1980’s have witnessed a celebration of differences, of polycentralism, of variety, of style and stylishness, and post modern townscapes are a clear expression of this celebration.�(Relph, 1989)

Later on however with the population growth of the cities it was essential to build high-rises and they had different influences from the past experiences. The high rises are containers of so many activities and they are dynamic, elegant and stand by their own without having mutual connection with the context. But in districts where there no high-rises and but multi storey buildings with much expressions. People are conversing with them and found more comfortable. Sometimes high rises are expression the pride of the nations and their power in every term. It is evident with the September 11, attack to the WTC building in New York. America considered it as a national disaster at the same time as a threat, an insult to their status in the international level.

Fig74. Contemporary urban landscape with skyline difference, Elements and their expressions of prestige, Economical stability and power. 48


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Two: Evolution of Urban Landscape

Today the cities are trying to be more toward people but they cannot neglect the needs of them. So the functionality of the city is more vital. For example the city of Bangkok, is more commercial and more functional because people expect it to be efficient. The expression it holds with the via ducts as well as other technological advancement where people will nor seek for help form a human being is negative considering the social interaction. But a city like Munster, Germany is more relaxed since it is residential and community oriented.

Fig75. Bangkok more towards functional efficiency and Munster with residential expressions

The buildings, the structures developed for the functioning of the cities are quite common in present cities. The monorails and the flyovers for vehicles sometimes found with more influences to the urban landscape. These structures are rigid but tried to be more flexible in its use and form. Though they individually tried to be polite to people by its own expression, is important to consider the collective impression it holds in the context.

Fig76. Different flyovers with different expression; Solid steady, More dynamic, Merging with the landscape

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Three: Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

Chapter 3: Responsiveness of the Urban Landscape

3.0 Responsiveness The identifying of the urban landscape and the evolution of it reveals indirectly about the responsiveness as changes took place in the urban context, according to man and his desires. Responsiveness is a value which highlights the links or the bonds of people, reactions and their interactions. This is not merely a physical consideration but it is cultural, social, financial and a political concern also. But environmental responsiveness through physical manipulation of the elements is vital as man deals with the designing environments for themselves, while addressing the most critical issue in the urban context.

Fig77. Political responsiveness of a community and the social responsiveness on left over spaces.

“The relationship in the physical environment is spatial. Basically objects and people are related through representation in and by space.” “Space is experienced as three dimensional extension of the world which is around us. - the intervals, relationships and distance between people and people, people and thing, things and things and space is at the heart of the built environment.” (Rapoport 1977, p.9)

According to the previous chapters urban landscape can be identified as an outcome of the architecture and architectural concepts which creates the urban spaces, forms, functions and expressions. But it is not said that it is 50


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Three: Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

always derived by architects but they responds to the same issues that architects does. Architecture is a human process which responds to the user, context, function and the higher purpose when generating spaces for habitation. Therefore the social, cultural, physical, political and financial issues which inhabit in the context became different phases of environmental responsiveness, with the architecture interpreted. When designing of such environment is merely an architectural approach, though it was included in the fields of urban design and planning later on.

As Rapoport 1970 reveals in “Human Aspects of Urban Form� it is important to consider about the social values, other such attributes; human aspects, and the quality of the physical erection of the environment in urban contexts; the urban form. This is quite compatible with the urban landscape also, as it is a facilitator for human performances in public and private life.

Social and Cultural Responsiveness..?

Fig78. Social responsiveness; Restrictions, Rejections, Recreation

Social or cultural responsiveness is how societies and cultures respond to issues, backed by their values. So this is a matter of communities or the societies facing those issues and these responses vary and there may be acceptance, rejection and even adaptations due to the changes in the core of thinking. These issues may be about the environment they live, cost of living, and almost everything which comes their way. Especially responsiveness is

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observed through the eyes of the society and decisions depend on societies/communities as each holds a set of unique qualities.

“In any ideal situation each group of people would more to match their preferences and the city would consist of a set of areas expressing the social identity, status and preferences of various groups.� (Rapoport 1977, p.12)

Financial and the political responsiveness is always depends on society, cultures and different ideologies of them. Therefore than the political and financial responsiveness of the urban landscape, social/cultural responsiveness and environmental responsiveness is much important because it breeds the others.

Environmental Responsiveness..?

Fig79. Different environments accepted by many people say those are more responsive towards people

The environmental responsiveness refers how and to what extend it communicates and allows people to perform their activities as they prefer in a particular defined environment. This is more important to consider in the urban contexts because the complexity of issues and it is suppose to minimize the diverse effect on citizens. Since the urban landscape is the platform where people celebrate the urbanity, it is important that the physical context being responsive

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“The spatial characteristics of built environment also greatly influence and reflect the organization of communication. Thus who communicates with whom, under what condition, how, then, where and which context in one important way in which the built environment and social organization are linked and related.” (Rapoport 1977, p.12)

3.1 Responsiveness of Urban Landscape Prior to Its Physical Environment. The

landscape

is

derived

by

the

physical

elements.

The

responsiveness is important to the urban landscape as people affected by their surrounding than in the other environments. Even looking at the history such impact can be easily identified. For example in modern movement landscape, geometric building forms were encouraged for many reasons, but later on they failed proving they are not sensible enough to cater human beings. Further responsiveness means creating dialogues between people and their surrounding. So positive responsiveness creates more connection with the landscape and stresses and joys will be a part of the environment as they share them.

“This means, of course, that physical elements in the environment take on varying meaning and their influence and importance, and their effect on behaviour, changes accordingly.” (Rapoport 1977, p.12)

3.1.1 Environmental Responsiveness The responsiveness is vital considering the living environment; the urban landscapes, on which the people live, experience and enjoy their day to day life. The responsiveness of the urban landscape will enhance the communication with the citizens. Lack of environmental responsiveness is a threat that leads towards deserting of the public spaces and public life, which

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is vital in the urban contexts. Here the environmental responsiveness is evaluated with different physical factors found in the urban landscape. Since the urban spaces are for human and a product of architecture it is important that the architecture created is being responsive to the people. As architects are creating the physical form of the urban landscape in relation to each building they create, it is vital to consider about the environment qualities which are affecting the urban public life. Today the urban landscape has many concerns than the buildings in it as the evolution is taking place. So not only the buildings but the other elements of the urban landscape also to be handled carefully in terms of preserving the appropriate responsiveness. Bentley 1975 describes seven factors of environmental responsiveness as permeability, variety, legibility, robustness, visual appropriateness, richness, and personalization concerning about the communication of man with the surrounding environment in relation to its physical attribute. These factors are also described with the Lynch’s categorization of the urban elements.

3.1.1.1 Permeability Permeability is the quality which enhances the choice of fenestration or accessibility in the urban landscape. When the permeability is more it means that the context is more porous and less cohesive. The permeability is to be promoted with control to generate private and public activities separately in the same landscape. So there should be an interface since those are contrary and the permeability level must keep appropriate.

Fig80. Different levels of permeability, less permeable and more permeable spaces

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Permeability matters to the urban landscape in two ways; visually and physically. They are the level of visual permeability and the physical permeability. When locating of the public and the private activities, it is important to maintain the required level of visual and the physical permeability, not to segregate them totally but to maintain different level of privacy required in those spaces to make everybody comfortable in such environments. The connectivity to the surrounding will make people know where they are and in which direction they are moving. Even this improves exposure to the activities in the context and enforces the attachment of people to those activities.

Fig81. Visual and the physical permeability

Segregation of the built masses will improve the permeability within a limited amount of space available. When creating new spaces in the urban landscape different strategies are to improve the permeability. This quality may decrease by increasing the scale of the development of the built masses, hierarchical layouts, and pedestrian-vehicular segregation in a particular area of an urban landscape. This is because when the big land divisions took place and when a single solid building is erected on urban landscape there is no connectivity through the space to the other spaces. When the physical permeability of the space is reduced, permeability can be achieved to some extend in visual means.

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Three: Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

Fig82. Physical permeability guaranteed of visual permeability, though when it is physically obstructed visual permeability can be gained

The interface of such public and the private in the same landscape may be a garden or an entrance in between to maintain the permeability as well as to gain privacy at as distance. If the permeability is ever misused, it will reduce the legibility of the space to some extent consequently. Then it will leads to diverse effects depending on less legibility. The proper level of permeability will enhance both public and private activities in the urban landscape, because they are handled separately by the same user. The loss of permeability creates more social stress in the urban landscape. With less visual and physical contacts the lost spaces of the landscape may increase which won’t be physiologically safe and sound.

3.1.1.2 Variety Different uses, forms, meaning and the expressions which creates a variety in the urban landscape is considered here. Different variety levels of above mentioned forms, meanings and expressions is automatically enhanced by the variety of uses prior to the functions. The different approaches of accommodating uses will create different forms, meanings and expressions in the urban landscape automatically. During the industrial era the functions of the landscape was concentrated to the industries. So the different attraction to different functions was discouraged. Even the modern movement landscape, it is evidence that the same expressions of the forms made people felt monotony and later was hard to bare the rigid geometry in it so they abandoned it. 56


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Fig83. Variety, Form, Functions and Expressions

The mobility can be considered as a main factor for experiencing variety by people. That is because physically with the distance there are many opportunities for handling the variety by the designer and even to experience by the user. If people are mobilized they can experience the spread variety. But it is not same always. If the distance is too much the variety of the urban landscape neither will nor be experienced by the user successfully. The quality of the variety is also disturbed when the amalgamation of the land extents are increased. Like permeability, with fewer chances to be different, by amalgamation, the variety is always reduced because it discourages the potentials. For example in the modern movement landscape, variety is reduced with the decisions taken for ease of management in buildings and for the cooperate image. So in such environments the people are isolated by discouragements of the spaces and the rate of the crime increased prior such locations. So such activities again deserted the landscape since it is not socially accepted.

Fig84. Variety can be easily gained by encouraging variety of the functions so visual elements as well as physical elements

will

celebrate

it

easily.

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The optimal degree of variety depends on the demand for activities, affordability of landscape and by positive interactions as Bentley reveals. Hence the variety of activities/uses will not always be positive if the social interaction to those cannot be gained. But it cannot be merely achieved by mixing activities arbitrary. There must be a mutual support for each activity to develop the responsiveness further. Variety is to be considered thoroughly when mixing of the activities and each activity should care about the disturbing the other, though their functions will not relate to each other.

3.1.1.3 Legibility

Fig85. Perceiving the structure or organization in mind

Legibility is the ability of understanding or reading a structure or perceiving it in mind. In general terms, this is reading a layout of the landscape elements in mind, as the memories gained through experience directly and indirectly. If the landscape is legible, people may tend to flow freely enjoying without any conflict because they know where are leading to as they have references from the context. When the elements are supporting to evoke memories through experience the landscape is more legible. Legibility is improved by physical form of the elements and the function happening according to Bentley 1975. The Eiffel tower is legible because of its form. It is the most identifiable in Paris as it locates in a huge open space.

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Fig86. Legibility of the Eiffel tower as a landmark, Louvre museum located n the grand axis

Pettah is legible in its context because of the functions which are unique in each street. Different functions are happening in different places as it varies from wholesale shops to the pavement trading so Pettah holds its legibility through the context by uses though it is complex. The legibility of the hierarchy of form and the functions is also to be concerned as it enhances the legibility.

Fig87. Pettah streets with different functions and different identities.

Separations of the activities which are going together or interrelated reduce the legibility of the urban landscape. Even the repetition also reduces the legibility in certain terms. It is evident in the cities created with the modern movement concepts where people lost and abandoned the public life due to the monotony. But when the repetition is in contrast with the surrounding it improves the legibility in its form. Bentley describes improving of legibility by supporting the theory of the urban elements as Lynch, 1979 declared in “The Image of the Cities�. Considering channels or access ways, according to Bentley 1975, legibility can be achieved by having a strong character which is easily 59


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Three: Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

graspable to the observer and by improving the comparative importance of each path. For example market streets or special streets such in Pettah are supporting the legibility there. The legibility is crucially affected by the path enclosure. Less enclosure creates more permeability to the surrounding environment. So the confusion of different elements, activities will dilute the focus, attention and it reduces the legibility of the context. At the nodes by improving the visual contact with the other connecting routes in the surrounding, it improves the legibility as it broadens the view of the landscape.

Fig88. Path enclosure to gain legibility; path enclosure will create a direction to follow with a character in mind.

Further with reference to nodes the relevance of the access and the activities in the adjacent buildings are the two main factors to be considered in terms of legibility. Even the districts and the edges in the way they are handled by creating distinguishing qualities, which form the surrounding, the legibility is improved.

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3.1.1.4 Robustness Robustness provides the association of more functions at a single space at the same time. In simple terms it supports multifunctional requirements in a single space for a larger user category. Robustness will promote and enhance the mix of uses in the urban landscape. Participation of different social categories there will animate the urban landscape and it is always gained the attention of the people.

Fig89. Public robust space in the urban landscape, Urban squares where people engage in many activities, The streets where people gather and enjoy.

This quality is twofold; the robustness inside the building and public outdoor spaces. But hear the prime concern is about the public outdoor spaces as it directly linked with the urban landscape visually and physically. But the indoor spaces are not neglected. In the public spaces which are contained in the urban landscape, the separation of the activities is to be considered only if the privacy is needed. Otherwise the functions itself happening in the public spaces which are supportive to each other will enhance the quality of robustness. Bentley describes the robustness in two categories, in large scale and small scale. Large-scale robustness is as a whole, and the small-scale for people’s day to day activities and choices. Further the building height, accessibility and the depth are supporting robustness. When the building height is more, it facilitates more functions so it is robust to some extend. The outer expression should also manifest the robustness as an exterior component in the urban landscape which associates more people. 61


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Three: Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

The robustness in the interiors matters with the depth of the building considering light and ventilation for the well being of the people. So if the depth is more and no such basics are happening, people will not select such spaces to perform their activities. In the same way the access is more important as many people are welcomed there and even many activities to be performed in the urban landscape.

Fig90. Building morphology and Robustness

` When improving the robustness two sorts of areas need special attention; Hard and soft spaces and the active and the passive spaces. Hard areas refer to the fixed functional areas which will not be changed during a lifetime of the landscape. But the soft areas are the flexible parts which are having an opposite quality. The passive areas for robustness will make the functions automatically outward from interior spaces and contribute the responsiveness of the urban landscape, while the active areas will just giving a contribution to the outside by making the activities outside forcefully. As activities are giving life to the urban landscape it is necessary to promote robustness both in active ways and in passive ways.

Fig91. Passive and Active Robustness and Hard and Soft Robustness 62


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Three: Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

3.1.1.5 Visual Appropriateness Visual appropriateness is the determinant factor of the responsiveness in more detailed version. This strongly affects the interpretations of a particular place through the visual media; on the urban landscape obviously. The meanings of the places and the elements are by these visual interpretations, so meanings helps people to make the choices. The interpretations of the places are made by the different environmental experiences and their objective of interpreting such. Both of the factors vary with the user groups the community’s or the society’s habit in the context.

Fig92. Subjective ness of the visual appropriateness; Different communities as they behave according to their status, Colours use for their environments make visually contrasting to maintain the hierarchy.

Visual appropriateness is vital in the places with a great public participation, where many people are from many different backgrounds. As people are the living part of the urban landscape, this quality is important in terms of animating the urban landscape by looking in to the eyes of the people. Visual appropriateness supports legibility with form and function, variety and robustness in both large and in the small scale. Legibly of the form can be designed to suit the surrounding so that it will not conflict visually. But this matters with the perspective of the person who experiences it. However it is the designer’s responsibility of designing to suit almost the whole profile the community. Legible form means that it should also tally with the function. So it

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improves connectivity between the form and the function which reduce the stress in the viewer.

Fig93. Visual appropriateness of the form matters with the legibility of the function housed in, high-rises legible in the context but not its function.

The variety is also to be handled with care to gain the proper level of visual appropriateness. Handling of the contextual cues may improve the legibility and the use cues will improve variety and robustness.

3.1.1.6 Richness Richness will contribute to the sense-experience that user can enjoy. Bentley 1975 mentions,

“For most people, sight is the dominant sense. Most of the information

we

handle

is

channelled

through

our

eyes……

visual

richness.”(Bentley 1975, p.89)

Fig94. Richness; Different types of details depicts about the grandness of the dome, The façade is with many details for visual stimuli but doesn’t hurt the form or the function.

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But the visual experience is not the mere experience, but there are other experiences as well; sense of motion, smell, hearing and touch as Bentley describes. Visual experiences created by the environments are twofold; firstly by focussing the attention on different sources, and secondly by moving away from a source towards another. Bentley, 1975 mention two factors as the basis of the richness. The orientation of the surfaces concerned and the likely position from it will be viewed. The richness is by choice. So if the choice is not allowed there the richness is lacking. By contrast, if the elements are not enough to view, the richness is not there.

Fig95. Different levels of richness achieved in the facades of Notroddame Church in Paris. Less Rich, Rich and More Rich

But at the same time if too many objects are making the impression of a single object there the richness is again low, because people respond to that visually single object. At the same time it is important to consider the viewing distance and the viewing time of an object. The distance matters with the long range and the short range of viewing. To achieve the richness from long range to the short range the detailing of the object is vital. If an element is viewed for a long time it is important to concern about a surface continued to seem as rich for a long period of time. This can be gained through visual complexity of the object, visual riddles and interpretations.

65


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Three: Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

Fig96. Richness; Visual riddles, visual complexities and meaning

3.1.1.7 Personalization

Fig97. Personalization; Creation or conversion to a own belonging space

Personalization is how someone makes his own space distinguishing from the others which is enriched with own values. The other importance is personalization makes clearer pattern of activities in a place. This will enhance the robustness of the environment while accommodating different personalized activities within a single entity of space in the urban landscape. Personalization and the process of it matters with the values of people, as they gained them by the cultural belongingness, social status, and the communities with them. As a whole personalization affects with the local and the global scenarios like global village concepts where people will loose their identity and follow a universal theme as a diverse effect. The personalization can be done in two ways; by changing practical facilities and by the image of the place. Personalization of the spaces are

66


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Three: Responsiveness of Urban Landscape

according to their own tastes and values (affirmation personalization), and also because it is necessary for them to do so (remedial personalization).

Fig98. Change of the practical facilities may sometimes negative, Remedial personalization by the streets, Parks and people

In the urban landscape, personalization considered vital because people are having the intension of keeping a stamp on places where they behaves. Therefore this is having a direct impact on the responsiveness of the urban landscape. So in each place it is necessary to let personalization to some extent regarding making the places functional. Sometimes it is automatically personalized by selecting the most suitable place for the each one, but this is not a passive personalization on urban landscape.

Fig99. Different modes of creating personalized spaces; Ignoring the environment, Backing and avoiding each other, sharing the spaces.

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

Chapter 4 Case Study: Analysis of the Responsiveness of Flyover, Demetagoda.

4.1 Role Plays by the Flyover in the Urban Context 4.1.1 Urban Location To Kelani Bridge 1-storey-mosques and the burial grounds.

Main Junction 1- petrol shed

Community.

r pe h up ig 2 d- d h s. to eye an use or dle ho t s id e m com in

m co in dle . id ts m en d m an rt e apa m co nd in a w es lo us ho

e

Community. 1

2-cinema 5-storey commercial

temple

Mixed used land cluster. 1- islamic 4- spareparts private dealer. school

Luxury Apartment Block

4 storeyed-lower and middle housing scheme

Railway Station railway land

guard room

Railway yards Community.

Railway Utility Community.

Railway Admin. Fig100. Layout map of the context

To Demetagoda

Flyover, which is 82 feet wide and 1635 feet long, locates with the Base Line road at the crossing of Demetagoda railway lines and by the side of the railway yards. Demetagoda can be identified as an area which is most of the times residential. But there the other activities such as commercial and industrial can also be seen. Major land use is by the railway as a sole authority and the residences most of the times are low income.

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

The commercial activities are having their prominence along the Base Line road while the residential and industries are further detached from the Base Line.

Fig101: Land use map; Demetagoda flyover and surrounding. 69


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

The starting and the end of the flyover connect different characters of the landscape and even different functions. One end of it is a junction which connects one of the main transport lines from Fort, towards the suburbs and major towns like Kandy, Kurunegala and Gampaha. The other end is the town centre of Demetagoda but few hundred metres away.

Fig102. Two spaces connected by the flyover; The main transport node toward Kelani bridge which is more traffic centred and the Demetagoda junction a distance of few hundred metres which is more community oriented.

The flyover is not letting any road to cross, but a railway line as its intension to minimize the traffic at the railway intersection. So besides all activities this vehicular circulation and the traffic is being the most dynamic and dominating in the landscape. So

this

dynamism

segregates

the

landscape in to two as it holds them in both side of the Baseline road.

24985.1

12785.8 4200.0

10381.6

1800.0

Fig103. Typical section across the flyover and a section across the baseline; zoning of the activities 70


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

Considering about Demetagoda it is sort of under developed poorly utilized landscape. This can be observed by the land use and the quality of the built and non built environments. The density is much higher in the area because it holds many no of shanties, squatters and sheds, in the residential districts. There the commercial activities focusing on the land price.

Fig104. Shanty developments and the commercial activities; the density is high due to the land prices, the commercial activities are varied from small shop to the multi storied commercial functions.

The next important feature is the dominance of the railway with its character in the context. As it accommodates the highest portion of land as the sole owner which is private; the railway sheds, administration, factory and tracks. The station has not get any significance there since it is not well treated and defined in the existing landscape though it is an important transport terminal.

Fig105. Dominating usage of the Railway; their Sheds, Tracks, Administration and Factory.

The luxury residential apartment is the tallest built structure in the neighbouring landscape but Jaic Hilton tower and the HNB Tower can be 71


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

seen from a distance of few kilometres. So the residential apartment behaves as the landmark of the context. Being a residential building it is not getting any favour of the context because the paths are not promoting the pedestrian movement but the vehicular primarily.

Fig106.

The

Luxury

Apartment Building; the landmark of the context which is over governed by the flyover.

The next biggest sole ownership of open land extent in the landscape is for the manufacturing. Every other land is also protected individually and there is no connection with the overall landscape but there are paths even for the human use than the vehicles. Such uses are access ways by foot for public and for the individual use.

Fig107. Pedestrian paths; by the heavy traffic, vehicles are a threat, setbacks as design considerations

. There locates cluster of land which is identical with its mixed use locates in between the Base Line and the railway sheds. It cannot be identified as a district but it contains almost all the functions there; the residential apartments for low, middle and high income people, religious, small industrial activities, commercial activities, utilities and even the administration. 72


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

Fig108. Special block of land with many activities; Land use, Commercial activities, Religious and Residential

Since it is hard to identify where what happens, the land utilization and the legibility of the landscape are not appropriate. The division of the lands and the layout of the buildings are haphazardly built and arranged. The flyover creates an opportunity overcome the traffic delays and it can be identified as an element which is used for the efficiency of traffic. Than the path created above, there are two paths laid in both side of the flyover at the ground level. The widths of these paths are 15’ feet each and used by the public transportation buses and also by pedestrians, especially who are accessing the railway station at the ground level by crossing those roads.

Fig109. The paths at the both side of the flyover at the ground level, the access path to the luxury residential apartment and the path at the opposite side of it.

The flyover is allowing people to cross it, by crossing the side roads, through its lifted and supported column structure which creates physical and visual links to certain extend.

73


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover 1 sto rey m osques and the burial grounds.

Main nodal junction r pe h u p ig . 2 e d- d h es to y a n u s 1 o re le h o s t id d e m co m in

1 - petrol shed

m co in s e l us ho

2 -cinem a

ow

5-sto rey com m ercial

tem ple

Connection roads from mixed use zone 1 - islam ic 4 - spareparts private dealer. school

Railway tracks 4 storeyed-low er and m iddle ho using schem e

railw ay land

gu ard room

Visual and physical links

Two paths laying at the ground level

Fig110. Layout and the connectivity of the neighborhood context oft the flyover 74


23470.00

7041.27

6436.13 7449.71

23470.00

8157.63

23470.00

2102.90

scale-1:1000

plan of the flyover

scale-1:1000

6656.48

8418.00

23470.00

23470.00

8952.06

23470.00

8420.57

23470.00

7883.73

23470.00

elevation of the flyover

5892.76

5227.93

23470.00

23470.00

8578.28

8957.21

23470.00

23470.00

8199.30

8451.54

23470.00

12492.57

23470.00

7514.83

7935.72

23470.00

13141.05

24985.13

23470.00

5133.41

6291.69

2102.96

2102.90

23470.00

6824.54

7116.71

23470.00

4570.97

Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers

Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

4.1.2 Figure of the Flyover Fig111. section

75


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

luxury appartment

Apartment Resid.

Flyover

void

45312.4

6000.0

4200.0

24985.1

Resid.

12785.8 4200.0

10381.6

1800.0

Fig112. Section a cross the luxury apartment looking Demetagoda.

Considering about the section of the landscape it is evident that the flyover is more prominent than the luxury residential building. In the dominance of the height (vertical direction) is by the luxury apartment and the horizontal dominance by the scale of the flyover. Therefore the pedestrian activities are not getting any prominence.

4.1.3 How it Functions

Fig113. Different functions of the flyover; Bypass the traffic, Vehicle Park, Payment hawkers, beggars and community.

The functioning of the flyover is not determined merely by the means of traffic controlling. But it has other responsibilities and a role to play as it stands in the urban landscape. Flyover is a contrasting element in the Demetagoda landscape. For the vehicles it is an option of crossing the railway lines without any delay and it is a dynamic experience to cross it above the ground. But for the pedestrians who put the life to the urban landscape have no care instead of its nude concrete structure. 76


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

4.1.4 Expressions Instead of the railway, the functions that neighboured the flyover are the pedestrian activities, residential access and the small scale commercial activities as discussed earlier. They are not sophisticated but more expressive by its nature than the flyover. But the flyover is more dominant and a clear definite edge with concrete which makes the directional quality. But the access and the other activities are happening in a perpendicular direction. Even it has created lost spaces in the context used by those who live in street.

Fig114. Different expressions of the flyover; A dominant path, Definition of edges which is on ground as well as above ground, The landmark and a district in the middle of the road, expressive buildings in the near context.

Considering the role play by the flyover in the Demetagoda landscape, it is evident that it is created and acts as a path. It has a clearly defined edge in two different dimensions; at the below level, on the ground and the above head which is inclining. It has an identity as a landmark though it is not dominant by the height but because of its function, scale and the structure. Even though the functions like railway and the other means of transportation got together, there is no significant experience like gathering or breathing created by the landscape for people. Such spaces and the nodal character are not encouraged.

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4.2 Responsiveness of the Demetagoda Flyover to its Landscape. Responsiveness of the urban flyover is analysed by identifying the composition of the urban landscape elements as well as with their response to the permeability, legibility, and so on. Because the flyover acts as a composition of the elements it can be analysed in order to identify the responsiveness.

4.2.1 Permeability The Baseline road distinguishes the landscape in to two as mentioned above by its layout and function. Considering layout it has a clear definition of the edges created along as a demarcation for vehicular movements. The flyover also behaves in the same way. But it is having a three dimensional edge which inclines and declines along the base line road. This edge defines the path of the flyover. i m co m in

2-cinem a

lo

5-sto rey com m ercial

w

m co in s e us

ho

tem ple

Paths connecting baseline

1- islam ic 4- sp areparts private dealer. school

Residential Railway tracks

4 storey ed-low er and m iddle ho usin g schem e

nd station

railw ay land

gua rd room

Visual and physical links

Edges and path created

Fig115.Merged Land Use map, Layout and the connectivity of the neighborhood context oft the flyover

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

This edge or the path created is not promoting the connectivity physically in both sides. The station is just hiding in the landscape without nay significance and it is more encouraged by the less permeability of the flyover and the activities around it. The paths which connect to the Baseline road are disturbed by the mass of the flyover as a barrier. Therefore the permeability has been discouraged in the landscape as they are not functionally, visually and physically connected.

“The second common cause of misalignment to the rest of the city was the sharp separation of a path from surrounding elements.�(Lynch, p.56)

Fig116. Visual and the physical barrier created by the flyover which reduces the contacts of landscape visually and physically. Therefore the permeability of the context is damaged.

Flyover also encourages the directional movement and there is no response to the other directions. But it is necessary for the responsiveness of the landscape where there are many other streets. So the other directions will not get any clue or an influence to enhance the experience through the landscape. The flyover structure lies along the road for many hundred feet and because of its three dimensional character; the edge which is elevated gradually from the ground disturbs the physical links with the surrounding, but to some extend the visual links are promoted with the voids underneath. Fig117. Solid barriers and the voids for visual contacts through the supportive structure of the flyover. 79


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

This visual barrier has already affected the residential buildings in the surrounding as the flyover get focus on their windows. So this visual barrier obstructs the view of the urban landscape as well as created arid view of the vehicles speeding and sound.

Fig118. Physical and the visual berries created by the heavy traffic functions over the flyover and on the ground level as well.

Because of the intensity of the dynamism of the activity; transportation, also enhances this separation and reduces the permeability on landscape. Even the space created below it is not allowing people to be associated as it is a naked structural supports. That space can be an intermediate space for better connection with the both sides of the landscape.

4.2.2 Variety Unlike the buildings, flyover is a special kind of a contrasting element. Within the whole landscape and enhances the variety by its form being contrasting. But it is hard to identify a functional variety which welcomes people to get involved. The form is derived considering the engineering of construction it is just a concrete mass with no variety in its form.

Fig119. Typical activity flow of the landscape cross the flyover, section looking towards Demetagoda. 80


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

The using of the flyover by vehicles will make a different experience through the landscape because it facilitates the vehicles to pass above the railway and the neighbouring context at a higher elevation. The flyover can contribute to variety than the mere Baseline road laid along, because it keeps a structure in-between the two separated landscapes by the road at the ground level. But it is not giving a glance to promote variety of activities connecting the both landscapes, though it is having the potential. It is possible to cross the ground laying roads as there is no much vehicular traffic and get involved with the activities happening there. The design of the flyover is not sensitive enough to do so. But such spaces are left for nothing. Therefore the spaces are not used by the people as it belongs to them. So it has created more leftover spaces in the context which is not acceptable in the urban context. There is no contribution to the public activities because the dynamism of the context it over governing the people, all the priorities are set for traffic concerns and it is not penetrating though the spaces created under it.

Fig120. The activities at the edge of the curb can be penetrated in to the space under the flyover in terms of improving variety and the interconnection, but it has been neglected because the under space is not well treated.

Because of the heavy structure and the separation of the paths at the both sides of the flyover the space has been isolated. So people are not moving in to it gradually and therefore the activities are not taking place. But there is a potential promote in terms of railway activities. Even because of the length of the flyover (1635 feet), which is having the same character dissolved the variety of form and even the function. 81


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

Because of the directional quality of the flyover, and the traffic it is hard to see people are waiting and participating way side activities. But in front of the luxury apartment there is a 20 feet setback which creates a breathing space of the landscape. But it hardly contributes to the landscape because there are no other activities nearby to get the benefit of it.

Fig121. Flyover with no variation, Set back of the building as a urban response, when there is no set back more tension and isolated. So people hardly stay in such spaces.

Mobility of the pedestrian is lacking in the neighbouring context though there is a major railway station locates there as the flyover has diluted the variety of activities and the permeability of the urban landscape. The flyover seems to have no mutual compatibility with the context itself as it doesn’t promote people to be close and to promote activities around it. There is no potential created for the neighbouring small scale commercial activities by the flyover. So they are isolated and they are struggling to survive and even the separations to the both sides of the road have adverse effects on these mutual interrelated functions.

4.2.3 Legibility

“The desire to separate the vehicles and the pedestrian routes makes both central and the suburban areas far less legible.� (Bentley 1975, p.43)

The legibility of the landscape is having the negative and the positive effects from the flyover. According to Bentley as mentioned above with the separation of the different uses and the users the legibility has been damaged 82


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

even considering the width of the Baseline road. The whole Demetagoda context, flyover as a landmark, is making landscape is more legible. But it is different considering the neighbourhood context since it disturbs, cut off the visual links and the physical access to the neighbouring landscape with the edge that it creates. Fig122. The pedestrian, vehicle segregation;

discourage

legibility, The as a Landmark; improves the legibility of the landscape.

While travelling with a vehicle which ever the route takes; on the flyover or on the ground routes, when the flyover passes it evoke images about the different links and the places associates with the place. So it makes a legible image to some extend with the distance landmarks and the view of the connecting routes which can be perceived.

Fig123. Legibility is encouraged; distance landmarks and the connecting routs, Legibility is discouraged; the visual barriers created by the structure.

But the people who are on the ground are disturbed visually for having neighbouring links by the built masses. The landscape seems like it is squeezed by the issues of the traffic and the human congestion. So the public relevance is not considered in the landscape. Even there is no legibility of the activities as it is not visually and physically well connected through the space under the flyover. The railway 83


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

station seems a hide out which is not legible at all as it is neglected by the flyover. So it is evident that it even didn’t give clues about the activities surrounded or about the experience of the landscape.

Fig124. Railway station is hiding in the landscape with no significance in its use, The vehicles damage the legibility; the street is inaccessible and hiding in the urban landscape.

4.2.4 Robustness

Fig125. Activities; Railway passenger, Residential, Religious, Commercial and Community.

There are activities around the flyover with different scales; residential, commercial and religious which are more relate with pedestrian. This diversity of the activity can be even seen from the land use map of the context. The flyover as it creates a visual and a functional barrier for those activities and because they are separated without any physical access. Therefore the basics of robustness are ignored. But there is a potential for improving robustness by connecting all the activities around through the leftover space with the column structure and it was not considered. But now the space under the flyover is a vacuum which is not promoting any positive activity in terms or responsiveness of the environment.

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

Fig126. Connection of the activities and the space under the flyover; small scale trading, commercial activities in the surrounding with no attachment with the flyover, leftover space under the flyover.

The definite edge of it is not creating a potential for the activities to link with each other or to make relationships with the structure itself. The structure is having texture created purposely to drop the weight in visual means but the expressionless nature of the front is avoiding people as barrier. The streets which connect the baseline are not connected through the space under even with visual links which enhance the functional nature of the space. So the flyover is over governing and the robustness is lacking there.

Activity barrier/ edge

Leftover spaces

Activity

Fig127. The edge of the payment is creating an activity barrier which reduces the flow of the activities.

Along the foot walk by the sides of the flyover at the ground level, the activities are having a communal nature. They are small scale commercial activities and the residential spaces. The activities are not limited to the 85


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

interiors but they are happening in the outside of the built environment too. This is positive in terms of robustness. But the flyover is a separate element by its expression and it is not supporting such activities.

Fig128. Directionality of the flyover reduces the robustness; the solid ramp which inclines, the overhead edge runs, the narrow paths at the both side of the flyover.

Even because there is no much space between the pedestrian path and the edge of the flyover there promotes only the movement in one direction and this is negative in terms of robustness. The layout of the flyover seems that it can be developed to gain the large scale robustness as Bentley reveals. The space under the flyover can be detailed with different links to it and make the public activities happening there. But the designing of the flyover have no options for such which enhance the responsiveness of its structure. Therefore it is clear that the flyover merely thinks of the functionality of the traffic flow because there is no potential that it created on the urban landscape to be meaningful or responsive in terms of people.

4.2.5 Visual Appropriateness At the first sight the flyover takes a much important position in Demetagoda landscape being a landmark as well as a contrasting structure because of its scale and the function. Visually it is a single object, a dynamic structure which runs through the landscape. The visual appropriateness can be analysed in different ways as Bentley mentions; by its form in terms of legibility, supporting variety, and robustness. 86


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

The form of the flyover is not complex and it is easily graspable. But it is monotonous along the full length of the structure as it repeats the same elements again and again.

Fig129. Form of the flyover is easily graspable, the elements consisting in the form

The colour of the structure is grey, which is fare faced, and there is no special variation in its colour. The textures and colours make the structure more solid, heavy and less contrasting. But because it depicts its functionality or the use, with its form it is quite legible. The appearance of the flyover seems like an elevated road and even the colour of it is matching with the function of it but in his context it relates with a community living under it. The use of the spaces below is also to be considered. Therefore the visual appropriateness is a vital concern. Considering about the neighbouring context it is low scale built structures and more community oriented and some are religious. The flyover is being the focus from such spaces. But the structure hasn’t paid any concern on it. The rigid, formal dull, impression of the elevation of flyover is conflicting the context by contrast and in its scale even.

Fig130. The built forms of the existing context and the contrasting structure

of

the

flyover.

The

religious buildings have lost the hierarchy of their spaces. 87


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

As analysed earlier it is evident that the flyover is not promoting variety by its form. It is just a concrete structure which stands on the pillars which are repeating at 24.7m. But with the form the activity is not conflicting which is positive in terms of visual appropriateness. Though there is a potential to develop robustness in the context the flyover and the spaces it created haven’t looked in to it. So the robustness of the landscape is discouraged and the activities are happening individually though they are supportive to each other.

Fig131. Inclinations, Declinations and the Intermediate columns of the flyover.

Considering about the public sight, the façade of the flyover is not identical, as it runs along the direction of the movement. But for the pedestrians it is much important as the flyover starts people have to walk along a narrow path which is demarcated by the façade of the flyover and the boundary of the lands of the context. The façade of the flyover transforms to void which is with columns inbetween, from the solid wall of the ramp. Repeating column structure as the flyover flies at a higher elevation creates a leftover space with no function identified. This space is presently used by the beggars and for informal activities and it would be negative in terms of visual appropriateness.

Fig132. The change of the column heights, The leftover spaces created and the visual disturbances from the interiors.

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The columns can be identified with different heights but the similar in all the other measures. So it creates a faรงade with different relationships even here the elements are same. Even as it disturbs the view of the bedroom in flats as discussed earlier, the visual appropriateness of the total landscape has an impact.

4.2.6 Richness The richness has two main factors; the orientation of the surface and the position of viewing.

Fig133. Distance and the angle of viewing; Distance is very less to observe the flyover as its height, and the viewing angle is very less as the mobility is very high but the pedestrians are viewing it perpendicularly.

. Flyover at Demetagoda has its surface oriented along the moving direction, and has no much contribution to the landscape because there are no prominent (obviously seeing) visual angles towards, because the viewing distance is the width of the side roads and the pavement which is almost 20 feet. Even the pavement, where the people are behaving and seeing, is nearly 6 feet. So there is no much space to stay an experience the faรงade of the flyover. But the treatment of the surface of the bare skeleton in the middle of the road is not considered. The repetition of the same column with different heights is the only objects which catches the eye.

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The detailing of the columns expresses the huge strength that it has but the masculine appearance of it is by pure geometric forms and they have no expression of the location where it stands, activities happening around and the people who live there. To reduce the weight of the columns, strips are carved on it in the vertical direction. This can also be seen on the ramp ending wall. Fig134. The texture of the concrete; the column and the ramp ending wall with the striped carved in the vertical direction.

Rhythms of changing height of the columns are not much significant. The whole structure seems one thing altogether and there is no much to be experienced by the people who bound with the landscape because they experience the whole one instead of each element. The material of it is expressed by exposure in fare face. Fare faced concrete and the rough, rustic look of it is not contributing to the richness of the environment as it is not detailed well but expresses it as a stubborn concrete giant.

Fig135. Concrete on the ramp wall; The vertical pattern of the concrete panels, The texture of a single concrete panel, Breaking of the pattern with a exposed concrete panel, the illustration of the visual properties of the panel.

Even the flyover is not creating any positive sensory experience so the spaces are dull and abandoned. But in the side walls on ramp are treated with 90


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

different patterns to dilute the visual impact. The concrete panels are used on wall to create a vertical pattern with two different textures. One panel is pain with no texture and the other is with trips carved on it in the vertical direction. But the expression of the ramp will b experienced as a single solid where the texture of the panels are not making such an contrast on surface. Considering about the distant experience it is much interesting in its form. But when it is closer the flyover is dumb. There is no play with the visual elements which makes visual complexities, visual riddles, and interpretations which enhances the rich ness.

4.2.7 Personalization The analysis is based on the contribution of the flyover on landscape regarding the personalising of the spaces in it. The structure of the flyover has two main figures; the solid ramp and the see through column array. Therefore the more potential is in the space with the columns as it can contain people and activity. The width of the space under is 82 feet, and the height varies between 12 feet to 29 feet approximately and columns are at 27.4m c/c in a single row.

Fig136. The structure of the flyover; The space created with column structure, The solid ramping unit, the space under the flyover.

It is not possible to consider about the personalization of the flyover by the community as it is separated with the edge, which is not penetrating and discourage people from accessing, created by the paths at the ground level. The space is not used by the people effectively in a meaningful way the space has became a lost space in the landscape. 91


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

Considering about the elements that are under the flyover it is too rigid and solid with no variation. The less public access is vital but even the similar elements with no variation and visually not aesthetical has also deserted the space with no personalization. It seems nobody’s space and socially not related.

nd eme

A

C

B

C A, B

` railway la

guard room

C

Fig137. Layout of the poetical

C

spaces

of

human activities and the

kind

personalization

of in

those

Considering about personalization it is vital to cater a considerable variation where different people from different backgrounds will feel to be involved. But the regular location of the elements with the same character will dilute this special quality. Because it is equal every where but the people are not. This sort of issues are evident in the in the history where the modern landscape was deserted because it was inhuman and so contribution to be personalized with its clear edges and dominating quality.

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

Abandoned space- no people- no activity- no personalized spaces.

Fig138. Personalization of the spaces is hard due to congestion of traffic and pedestrian movement. The space under the flyover is abandoned.

Even considering about the immediate context it is contrasting being regular and definite in its form so people will not feel belongingness, therefore they avoid such spaces. Even considering about the immediate context it is developed with human activities but no pre-consideration or a plan. So it is more informal and the materials also not very hard. Therefore such spaces encourage people to keep their stamp on such.

Visual and noise disturbing the temple and even the scale of it is too dominant.

Fig139. Personalization is disturbed; Socially important spaces of the urban landscape and the flyover are conflicting with activities and even with scale and form.

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

The spaces in the urban landscape around the flyover are become hard to personalise since the flyover is overlooking to those. The temples are the most damaged since the flyover damaged its spatial properties with religious consideration. It also disturbed the views through bedroom windows of residential apartments.

Visual and noise disturbance to residential spaces.

Fig140.Visual and noise disturbance to residential spaces discourage the personalization and improve more stress.

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Bibliography

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Relph, Edward

-Modern Urban Landscape, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, UK, 1987.

Grove, A.B.

-City Landscape, University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1987.

Kostof, Spiro

-The City Assembled, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1992.

Kostof, Spiro

-The City Shaped, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1991.

Lynch, Kevin

-Image of the City, MIT Press, 1979

Evensen, T.T

-Archetypes of Urbanism, Scandinavian University Press, Norway, 1999.

Krier, Rob

-Urban Space, Academy Editions, London, 1984.

Alexander, Christopher

-A New Theory of Urban Design, Oxford University Press, London, 1987.

Tugnett, Anthony

-Making Townscapes, Bath Press, Bath, 1987.

Jellicoe, Geoffrey

-Designing the New Landscape, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1992.

Hayward, Richard.

-Making Better Places, Urban Design Now, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, Oxford, 1993. 97


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Bibliography

Carver, Norman F.

-Iberian Villages, Portugal and Spain, Documan Press Ltd, Michigan, 49005.

Editor

-Design for High Intensity Development, Cambridge Press, Massachusetts, 1986.

Hayden, Dolores.

-The Power of the Place, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusettes, London, England, 1994.

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Peel, Lucy

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Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

Conclusion The flyovers are vital in the contemporary urban contexts as another stage of the evolution. With the growing population and the activities the mobility considered important. Flyovers as a solution to the less efficiency of functions prove that it enhance mobility and reduce congestion. It is true that it enhances the accessibility of two points and it has neglected the environments of the urban landscape in-between. Though it is the responsibility of the engineers, it is crucial when it is erected on the landscape, since conflicting with the responsiveness. According to the analysis the flyover is enhancing the legibility of the context as it is contrasting in the urban landscape as a landmark which will be experienced at the ground level as well when it is using. It is positive to some extent but the adverse effects are more because it the lack of the sensitivity in it. The urban landscape is a social responsibility where people celebrate the urbanity. So the flyovers must be responsible and sensitive enough to be responsive towards them being meaningful. Though legibility is improved by its form, physical and visual permeability, and the nodal activities are discouraged. Therefore the considered legibility is very less and inappropriate. Considering about the elements of it and the space that it creates, there is much more potential for those being deserted if the flyovers are not thought in terms of environment responsiveness. The lessons of such urban issues can be identified form the history where people abandoned spaces in such landscapes. Though the structure is primarily derived based on the Imagineering of the engineers, the spaces created and the form must be with a sensitive architectural thought and the positioning of should be evaluated by the planners as well as the urban designers. Even the form of the flyover as well as the elements of it is to be detailed and designed in a way to achieve environment responsiveness. But in the present context considering the responsiveness is more critical having many diverse effects on the responsiveness. People are 95


Responsiveness Of Urban Landscape and Flyovers Chapters Four: Case Study: Analysis; Responsiveness of Demetagoda Flyover

discouraged to perform their public life and it has added more tension to the landscape because there is less responsiveness. At the same time the activities around also was disturbed and the created barriers to the potential of robustness and the legibility. As the urban context is getting more tensed day by day it is important to have more responsive spaces and the structures which are coming to the urban landscape must be well thought and designed according to enhance the quality of the landscape.

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