Page 1

C a p p e l e n Il l u str a sj o n: Ing e r D a l e

nr02-2009

D a m m s

t i d s s k r i f t

f o r

e n g e l s k l æ r e r e


innhold Where Did All the Money Go? by Robert Mikkelsen, Høgskolen i Østfold

03 I forkant av denne utgivelsen hadde vi en diskusjon i vår lille redaksjon. Var tiden nå inne til å lage et digitalt magasin for engelsklærere? Skulle vi la [ mægə'zi:n] – som har eksistert i 10 år – gå av med ' pensjon, og heller lage noe nytt og flashy? Vel, du ser resultatet. Vi valgte å holde på vårt gamle og velprøvde konsept.

08

Ikke fordi vi tror engelsklærere ikke ønsker digitalt innhold – nettsidene våre har stor trafikk, og vi deler ut hundrevis av passord til lærerstoff. Heller ikke fordi vi ikke ønsker å lage slikt innhold – det ville faktisk forenkle framstillingsprosessen vesentlig for oss. Men rett og slett fordi vi alltid har tenkt på dette bladet som et trivelig, og forhåpentlig noen ganger nyttig, avbrekk i engelsklærerens travle hverdag. Vi får ofte høre at bladet leses på pauserommet eller ligger i veska og blir lest når det måtte passe. Slik synes vi det skal være. Skulle du ønske å lese bladet på nett, finner du denne og alle tidligere utgaver på http://www.cappelendamm.no (velg “Undervisning”, deretter “Videregående skole” og “Engelsk”).

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

Read It! by Siri Hunstadbråten, Drammen videregående skole

10

Northern Ireland’s Peace Process: Prospects and Challenges by Eamonn Noonan

12

I denne 20. utgaven av bladet vil du finne variert stoff av velkjent merke – bokanmeldelse, “forbrukerveiledning” om ordbøker og en artikkel om den globale finanskrisen. Den sistnevnte har oppgaver til elevene og kan brukes på Vg2 og Vg3. Kunnskapsløftet er innført i full bredde, men alt er langt fra rosenrødt i videregående skole. “Hva skjer med felleseksamen i engelsk?” spør Silje Moen i sin artikkel. Vi tror svært mange deler hennes frustrasjon.

Hva skjer med felleseksamen i engelsk? av Silje Moen, Lillehammer videregående skole

16

Hva er en god ordbok? av Inger-Ma Gabrielsen

09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Nord-Irland har lenge vært “utenfor radaren” i norsk samfunnsdebatt og til en viss grad også i engelskundervisningen. Konflikten er løst, har vi nok tenkt. Hendelser i inneværende år har gitt grunn til bekymring for forholdet mellom katolikker og protestanter, men Eamonn Noonan er optimistisk. Du kan finne ut hvorfor i hans artikkel.

[ mæg@'zi:n] '

CAPPELEN DAMM VIDEREGÅENDE

Ansvarlig redaktør: Birger Nicolaysen

Cappelen Damm

God lesning!

Akersgata 47/49

Redaksjon:

0055 Oslo

Kirsten Aadahl

Telefon: 21 61 66 54 / 55 E-post: birger.nicolaysen@cappelendamm.no

Produksjon: PrePress as


Friday, October 25, 1929

by Robert Mikkelsen

Stock brokers at the New York Stock Exchange on October 25, 1929, one day after “Black Thursday”, the first in a series of crashes which led to the Wall Street Crash of 1929, top; and traders on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange, Tuesday Sept. 30, 2008, one day after the the Dow Jones industrial average lost 777 points, its biggest

Where Did All The Money Go? by Robert Mikkelsen

single-day fall ever (©Scanpix)

Tuesday, September 30, 2008


You are probably aware that the global, free market consumer economy has been in deep trouble recently. Many years of economic growth have been replaced by the sharpest economic downturn since the Second World War. Production has decreased. Trade has decreased. Investment has decreased. This has, in turn, increased unemployment, which means that there are fewer active workers to pay the taxes that governments need to cover increasing welfare costs. Poverty has increased. Consumers are nervous. They sit on their savings and buy fewer of the goods that business make, which leads to even less production, less trade, less investment … and so on, in a long, downward spiral. Some people speak of the beginning of a new Great Depression like the one that dominated the world between 1929 and 1940. Yet only three years ago the global, free market consumer economy was booming. Most countries in the world took active part in it. Today many are running for shelter, trying to protect their domestic economies. What went wrong?

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

The origins of the crisis With the wisdom of hindsight, many today are pointing the finger of blame back to the 1980s, to the years of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and President Ronald Reagan. They were both firm believers in the free market. In their view, many of the government regulations that had been put in place during the Great Depression and after the Second World War were standing in the way of economic growth and progress. They started an era of deregulation, removing what they viewed as bloated and expensive government programs and regulations standing in the way of private initiative. Yes, this would lead some people to become very rich and some to fail, but that was the heart of a free market. Successful and rich people invested their money (or “capital”) into new businesses that made new jobs, income and consumers. Unsuccessful people did not deserve to be kept afloat by government regulations or tax payers’ money in the form of state subsidies or welfare checks.

17 18 19 20

This “back to basics” approach worked. The ailing economies of the US and the UK took off and began a long period of

expansion that made them models in the global economy. Stock market speculation But by removing regulations on finance and business interests, Thatcher, Reagan and those who followed also opened up for the kind of speculation and unequal distribution of income that had once led to the Great Depression. Let us take speculation first. Before deregulation, banks in the US were required to have a certain percentage of what they lent out in assets. For example, if they lent out $100 they had to have about $10 (or 10%) of that in assets. The government guaranteed this. It also guaranteed customers’ savings deposits in a bank if it should go bankrupt. This was done because in 1929 some banks had speculated in the stock market, investing many times the value of their assets and then lost them all when the stock market crashed, plunging them into bankruptcy and debt. This led to a “run” on all banks, good and bad, because customers feared their money would disappear before they could withdraw it. The financial system ground to a halt. Production and sales fell. Banks would not lend to one another or to other businesses – who knew which one would be the next to fail? Leveraging Skip forward to the beginning of the 21st century. Regulation of the commercial banks has been relaxed. More importantly, a whole new set of financial institutions has entered the arena – financial investment houses on Wall Street with names like Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers. They do not make money by loaning out money and charging interest on it. Rather they make their profit by buying and selling stocks, bonds and other “investment objects”. They are not subject to the same kind of regulation as commercial banks. In practice, a financial house does not need to have a certain percentage of assets corresponding to its investments. The sky is the limit. For example, if it has $100, it can use that as a basis to loan 30 times that amount – that is, $3000 – to invest. Now, if the investment shows a 10% increase in value – that is, $300 – the house has made a $200 profit! It can now take its $300 and loan 30 times that amount again – that is, $9000 – and begin the cycle again for even greater profits.

What do you understand when the media talk about the financial crisis? What do you think it is? Is it something particularly American? When did it start? What do you think are the causes of it and what does it mean for you personally? Discuss this before reading the article below. Jot down some key words that reflect your opinions on the financial crisis.


A man carries a box after leaving the Lehman Brothers European Headquarters building in Canary Wharf in east London on September 15, 2008. The collapse of US investment giant Lehman Brothers sent shockwaves through London’s financial

This is known as “leveraging” your assets – using them to borrow money to make a big profit. Notice, however, that it assumes two things: 1) that the investment will go on increasing in value and 2) that someone is willing to loan you the money.

district, as the firm’s staff cleared their desks while rivals voiced fears for their own jobs. (©Scanpix)

Derivatives and the subprime mortgage market At the start of the 21st century banks across the United States and throughout the global economy invested vast sums of money in financial investment houses and the money market, which continued to show amazing profits. One reason for these profits was a new kind of investment invented by the financial houses known as a “derivative”. Basically a derivative is a kind of investment object that has been “bundled” together with others of its kind to reduce the risk of losing money if one of them should fail. An investor buys some portion of this “bundled” derivative. It is a way of spreading the risk of an investment throughout the financial community. One of the most popular derivatives was made up of “bundled” sub-prime mortgages. A mortgage is a loan from a bank for the purchase of a house based on the value of the house and the income of the persons taking the loan. A “sub-prime” mortgage is a loan which is potentially greater than the value of the house and the income of the persons living there – in plain language, more than they can afford to pay back and more than the bank can get back even if it sells the house. So why in the world would a bank loan out money to someone who can’t pay it back, for a house that may not be as valuable as the loan it is offering? Simple answer – profits. The bank is betting that the incomes of the loan takers and the value of the house will increase over time as the economy grows, making up the difference. Meanwhile, thanks to derivatives, it has “sold” this subprime mortgage for a profit to one of the financial investment houses or another bank or perhaps a hedge-fund or one of many financial actors all over the world eager to make a profit from an endlessly expanding economy. The bubble bursts By 2007 financial actors all over the world had invested hundreds of billions

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


– perhaps trillions – of dollars in American mortgages, many of them subprime. Everyone was betting on better times. But it is in the nature of the free market that there comes a point when the demand for a product is completely filled. Another way of saying this is that there is “overproduction” of a product. This does not mean that people no longer want the product. It means they can no longer pay for it. In 2007 the housing market came to that point. Every possible line of credit to buy houses had been used up and abruptly there was a greater supply of houses than there was a demand for them. Then the price of houses in the United States began to fall. Suddenly the investors’ profits turned to losses – huge losses. Leverage came back to bite them with a vengeance. They were threatened with losing not only the $100 dollars they originally had. They could lose the entire $3000 they had loaned and invested in subprime derivatives. And they did not have the money! Everything but $100 was invested. So they frantically tried to sell their $3000 in sub-prime market derivatives. But nobody wanted them! Nobody knew what they were worth. They had become “toxic assets”; that is, poisonous investments dragging whoever held them into bankruptcy.

01 02 03 04 05 06

This forced investors – especially the financial houses – to try to borrow money to cover their losses. But no one would lend them money! Who knew if they could pay it back? Lehman Brothers went bankrupt. The panic spread. The financial system ground to a halt. Production and sales fell. Banks would not lend to one another or to other businesses – who knew which one would be the next to fail?

of increased government regulation of the financial community so this kind of thing will not happen again; that is, a re-regulation to correct the mistakes of de-regulation. As of writing this, the hundreds of billions of dollars in government stimulus packages appear to be having a positive effect. However, it is far too soon to say if any of these measures will be successful in the long run. Moreover, underlying all of this there is a deeper problem – what the economists would call a “structural problem”. It can be summed up in a simple question: How could it happen that a large part of the population of the United States – the richest country in the world – did not have enough income to be able to pay for a mortgage on a house? The simple answer is that there has been an increasingly unequal distribution of income in America. For more than thirty years the rich have been getting richer and the poor have been getting (relatively) poorer. Middle-class families have seen their incomes stagnate or fall. Similar developments have been detected in the United Kingdom. This is not the result of any conscious policy. It has been going on both before and after Thatcher and Reagan. Though their deregulating policies no doubt speeded up the process, it seems to be a builtin characteristic of the free market consumer economy. So here’s a question for you. How can a free market consumer economy remain stable and productive if it can’t provide enough income for its consumers to buy all the goods it produces – for example,

07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

The heart of the matter The crisis that began in the United States swept through the global free market consumer economy it had pioneered. Since 2008 governments around the world have tried to get their economies up and running again by pumping tax money into the free market system. This is known as “stimulating” the economy. One of its major aims is to give banks and other financial institutions enough cash to cover their losses and to begin loaning money to each other and other business again. At the same time, there is talk

Maureen Sanders looks for postings at the Employment Connection Wednesday, Sept. 2, 2009, in Parma, Ohio. New jobless claims in the US fell slightly in early September while the number of people receiving unemployment benefits rose, a sign the job market’s recovery will be long and bumpy. (©Scanpix)

Activities

1 DISCUSSION Now that you have read the article, go back to your key words from the pre-reading exercise. Have your opinions changed at all now that you have read more background information? Discuss the ways in which they have changed. Do you feel more confident or worried about the future? 2 UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT Form groups of four. Take turns asking your group the following questions. a) What has happened to the consumer economy in recent years? b) What is deregulation? c) Why did Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan want deregulation? d) What immediate effect did deregulation have? e) How do financial investment houses make money? f) What does it mean to “leverage” your assets? g) What is a “sub-prime mortgage”? h) Why did banks offer sub-prime mortgages? i) Why did the price of houses in the United States begin to fall? j) What effect did the fall in price have on investors?

houses? If you can solve this problem, let the governments of the world know. They would love to have the answer.


k) What have governments done to get their economies up and running again? l) What underlying structural problem has contributed to this economic crisis? 3 DISCUSSION Discuss in small groups: a) Do you know of ways that Norway has been affected by the economic crisis? Has it had an impact on industries in your region? Do you think this will be a long downturn or do you expect the world economy to improve within in a short time? b) One of the theories of the free market economy is that it allows consumers and investors to make clear, reasoned decisions about how to use their money. Looking around you, do you think this is the case? What do you think makes people spend money in today’s world? What do you spend your money on? Why? c) Is there anything wrong with being rich? Why shouldn’t people who are successful in business have the right to keep all profits of their labor? Why tax the rich more? d) Silver lining? Some people think the financial crisis might be a blessing in disguise. Perhaps people will consume less. Perhaps they will drive less and industry will pollute less. What other possible

advantages might come from this crisis? How might the world be improved by it? 4 STYLE AND TONE Re-read the last two paragraphs from the text and answer the questions. a) Find an example where the author uses an ironic tone in the last two paragraphs. Explain why you think it is ironic. b) Find an alternative word for unequal (“unequal distribution”) that you think gives a better description, and explain why you think it is better. c) What is the effect of the author adding the descriptive phrase “the richest country in the world” to his sentence on paying mortgages? e) Read the last 3–4 sentences of the paragraphs Stock market speculation and The bubble bursts. What phrases does the author repeat in these two paragraphs? What are the effects of this repetition? 5 WRITING a) You are the head of a small charity called “Feed the Folks.” You write an appeal in the local newspaper asking people for donations. You are aware that the economic crisis has made people reluctant to give money, but try to convince them that

this is the very time such donations are needed. What is the tone of your letter? What kind of language will you use? How will you frame your arguments? What will you appeal to in people? b) Write a letter to the editor where you argue why banks are important institutions in a well-functioning society. c) Write a newspaper editorial about the possibility of positive changes in society due to the financial crisis. Give your editorial the title: Brave New World. 6 LANGUAGE – IDIOMS Here are some common idioms based on money. Can you understand them all? Write a definition of each idiom as if you were a teacher trying to teach new language learners what they mean. Then use the expressions in a sentence to show their usage. • Put your money where your mouth is • Money is the root of all evil • Money burns a hole in his pocket • Not for love or money • Throw good money after bad • Get your money’s worth • Money talks • Not worth a plugged nickel • Let’s see the color of your money • You pay your money and take your choice • Pay the piper

A banker is a fellow who lends you his umbrella when the sun is shining and wants it back the minute it begins to rain. - Mark Twain

Quotes about finance and the banking world:

” “ ” “

Finance is the art of passing currency from hand to hand until it finally disappears. - Robert W. Sarnoff

I hate banks. They do nothing positive for anybody except take care of themselves. They’re first in with their fees and first out There is no conspiracy of when there’s trouble. - Earl Warren bankers in America; they don’t need to conspire, they all think alike. - Gore Vidal

“ ”

If you put the federal government in charge of the Sahara Desert, in five years there’d be a shortage of sand. - Milton Friedman

02 03 04 05 06 07

The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition is so powerful that it is alone, and without any assistance, not only capable of carrying on the society to wealth and prosperity, but of surmounting a hundred impertinent obstructions with which the folly of human laws too often encumbers its operations. - Adam Smith

“ ”

01

Don’t knock the rich. When did a poor person ever give you a job? - Dr. Laurence J. Peter

08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17


Hva skjer med

felleseksamen i engelsk? av Silje Moen, Lillehammer vgs

Silje Moen er lektor ved Lillehammer videregående skole. Hun er leder for Norsk Lektorlags fagutvalg for engelsk og er en av forfatterne bak læreverket TRACKS – engelsk for yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogram. Teksten nedenfor er en bearbeidet versjon av en artikkel publisert i Lektorbladet 03/09.

blant annet at de kompetansemålene i læreplanene som oppfattes som favoriserende for elevene på SSP, blir gjennomgått på nytt. Utfordringen for alle parter er selvfølgelig hvordan man best skal legge til rette for de svakeste elevene nå som hele årskullet er inne i den videregående skolen. Men fremdeles råder usikkerheten rundt spørsmålet om hva som bør rettes på i klasserommet, og hva som læreplanen kan rette på. Direktoratets Solveig Brustad har forsikret at “prosessen er i gang”, men så vidt vi vet har de ikke mottatt noe nytt oppdrag fra departementet, til tross for at det fra begge hold påstås at problemet blir tatt på alvor.

Før sommerferien var det et kraftig fokus på felles eksamen i engelsk for VG1 studieforberedende utdanningsprogrammer og VG2 yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogrammer. “Bilen trenger ikke diktanalyse!” sier elev Sigrid Rime ved Valdres VGS til Aftenposten 2. mars, 2009. “Ting er på gang,” melder Professor Per Lysvåg, som også er medlem av eksamensnemnda i engelsk. Men akkurat hva er det som er på gang, og hva er det egentlig som skjer med denne omstridte felleseksamenen?

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Hva var bakgrunnen? Etter at resultatet med 13 % stryk for yrkesfagelevene ved fjorårets eksamen forelå, ble det sendt et oppdragsbrev fra Kunnskapsdepartementet til Utdanningsdirektoratet, der Direktoratet ble bedt om å oppsummere erfaringer gjort ved eksamensavviklingen våren 2008. Direktoratet fikk så gjennomført en ekstern evaluering av både eksamen i norsk i grunnskolen og også eksamen i engelsk for VG1 SSP og VG2 YF. Evalueringsrapporten fra Rambøll Management1 ble overlevert Kunnskapsdepartementet sammen med et brev fra Utdanningsdirektoratet med en kort oppsummering fra evalueringen samt vurdering og tilråding om videre håndtering av de to nevnte eksamensordningene.2

1) vurderer nøye hvorvidt felles læreplan og eksamen i engelsk for de to utdanningsprogrammene bør videreføres 2) vurderer endringer i organiseringen av engelskundervisning for yrkesfag idet det fremkommer at det å dele opp undervisningen over to år slår uheldig ut for yrkesfagelevene 3) oppfordrer til større fokus på å undervise elevene i bruk av hjelpemidler og hvordan disse skal refereres til 4) vurderer innholdet i læreplanen med tanke på at yrkesfagelever også skal oppleve at engelskundervisningen er relevant for dem

I sin evalueringsrapport kommer Rambøll med fire klare anbefalinger. Disse går ut på at Utdanningsdirektoratet:

I svarbrevet til Kunnskapsdepartementet understreker Utdanningsdirektoratet Rambølls fire punkter. I tillegg anbefaler de

Silje Moen

18 19

1 http://udir.no/upload/Eksamen/Grunnskolen/2008/Rapport_Evaluering_av_eksamen.pdf

20

2 http://www.udir.no/upload/Eksamen/Grunnskolen/2008/Svarbrev_til_kd_eksamen.pdf

Lektorlaget i Hordaland og språklærerne i Oppland krever gjennom oppslag i lokal og nasjonal presse egen læreplan for yrkesfag. Det samme gjør Unge Høyre, Venstre og FrP. Bård Vegar Solhjell rakk, før han avgikk som Kunnskapsminister til fordel for Kristin Halvorsen, å varsle at læreplanene skal gjennomgås på nytt, tre år etter at de ble tatt i bruk. “Vi må være åpne for at læreplanene for yrkesfag og studieforberedende fag kan ha noe ulike mål,” uttalte han til Aftenposten. Han var imidlertid klar på én ting: “Vi vil ikke åpne for to separate læreplaner, én for yrkesfag og én for studiespesialisering. Partene i yrkeslivet har sagt at de ønsker at alle elever skal ha så bred kunnskap som mulig.” Dette er i samsvar med det Rambøll skriver i sin rapport, der det heter at det fra politisk hold har vært et sterkt ønske om at også elevene på yrkesfag må få bedre kompetanse i engelsk, noe som ikke minst skyldes de økte kravene til arbeidsmessig mobilitet i dagens samfunn. Vi står med andre ord overfor en faglig problematikk på den ene siden – det vil si behovet for økt språkkompetanse – og en politisk problematikk på den andre siden, i


denne sammenheng spesielt knyttet til frafallet i den videregående skolen. Samtidig er det hevet over enhver tvil at den yrkesfagorienterte delen av engelskfaget må styrkes. Men hvis ikke departementet vil ha to separate læreplaner, hvilke muligheter kan man da se for seg? Hva skjer i det offentlige rom? Professor Per Lysvåg er kjent med at Utdanningsdirektoratet diskuterer enkelte endringer, etter mange forskjellige innspill til dagens ordning. “Det betyr ikke nødvendigvis at de to kursene VG1 og VG2 får forskjelllige læreplaner og ulik eksamen dersom det gjøres forandringer,” sier han i e-post til undertegnede. “Det kan også gjøres endringer i strukturen på kursene,

for eksempel at VG2 yrkesfag får et 5-timerskurs over ett år i stedet for et 5-timerskurs som strekker seg over to år.” Man kan selvfølgelig diskutere mange forskjellige strukturelle endringer i engelskfaget, men det virker merkelig at elevene på yrkesfag – som allerede melder at eksamen er vanskelig og altfor teoretisk, og som i tillegg opplever det som urettferdig at de skal prøves på samme måte som elever fra VG1 SSP – skal kunne gå et helt år uten engelsk i VG1 før de kanskje får hele 5-timerskurset og eksamen på VG2. I påvente av nytt oppdrag fra departementet har direktoratet gjort enkelte grep for å forbedre situasjonen

for eksaminandene. De har blant annet sørget for at lesemengden til skriftlig eksamen er redusert, at langsvarsoppgavene er tydeligere strukturert, og at det i oppgave 2 er kommet inn et tydelig yrkesfaglig element. Solveig Brustad forteller at mange har meldt om at fjorårets høsteksamen var bedre enn våreksamen, som igjen var betydelig bedre enn eksamenssettet i 2007. Hva mener så øverste politiske ledelse om den vanskelige situasjonen engelsklærerne er havnet i? “Filologene må få på seg verneskoa og komme seg ut i skolens verkstedhaller,” sa Solhjell til Aftenposten tidligere i år, for anledningen i tospann med tidligere statsråd Gudmund Hernes.

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ©Scanpix

20


Selvfølgelig kan verkstedet være en god læringsarena, men denne type uttalelse vitner først og fremst om mangel på kunnskap om all den moderne fremmedspråkdidaktikk som i dag bedrives innenfor filologiske fag, en kunnskapsløshet en statsråd burde føle seg for god til å demonstrere på en slik måte. Samtidig kan det være interessant å merke seg at det var Solhjells partifelle, Øystein Djupedal, som satt i ministerstolen da den nåværende læreplanen – som ikke inneholder ett ord om fagorientering – ble undertegnet. Under arbeidet med Cappelens engelskverk for de yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogrammene tok forlagsredaktøren kontakt med Utdanningsdirektoratet for å høre om det virkelig var meningen at yrkesfagelevene ikke lenger skulle lære engelsk tilpasset sin studieretning. Jo da, det var det så absolutt, var beskjeden til forlaget, men direktoratet mente at dette nå burde være så innarbeidet at det ikke lenger skulle være nødvendig at det sto noe eksplisitt om dette i læreplanen. Men når verken læreplanen eller eksamen tar opp yrkesfaglige

problemstillinger, er det ikke rart at engelsklærere under tidspress velger bort denne siden ved faget. Hvilke andre alternativer finnes? Hvis det virkelig er slik at politisk ledelse ikke vil åpne for to separate læreplaner, vil Norsk Lektorlags Fagutvalg for engelsk nok en gang få foreslå muligheten av å gi hver enkelt elev på yrkesfaglige studieprogram muligheten til selv å velge om han eller hun vil gå for studiekompetanse i engelsk. De elevene som velger å gå for “S-engelsken”, vil da kunne trekkes ut til sentralgitt skriftlig eller lokalgitt muntlig eksamen, mens de som velger “Y-engelsken”, vil kunne trekkes ut til en enklere og mer yrkesfaglig eksamen som ikke vil være studiekompetansegivende. Alternativet er en eksamen som i langt større grad enn i dag er differensiert på en slik måte at yrkesfagelevene møter oppgaver de har en reell mulighet til å besvare med høy måloppnåelse, uten at nivået senkes i forhold til dagens elever på studiespesialiserende.

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Etter at denne artikkelen ble skrevet ferdig, har den nye Kunnskapsministeren kommet med følgende uttalelse: ”Vi er opptatt av at fellesfagene skal oppleves som relevante og meningsfulle for alle elever, men vi har hørt på råd om ikke å lage egne læreplaner for de yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogrammene. Derimot er vi opptatt av at kompetansemålene skal egne seg for yrkesretting. Vi har derfor allerede gitt Utdanningsdirektoratet i oppdrag å gjennomgå læreplanene i fellesfagene i videregående opplæring for at kompetansemålene best mulig kan tilpasses opplæringen innen ulike utdanningsprogram.” (Kunnskapsminister Kristin Halvorsen i talen til Utdanningsforbundets landsmøte 3. november.)

Reviewed by Siri Hunstadbråten, Drammen vgs

A Concise Chinese-English Dictionary for Lovers by Xiaolu Guo The title of Xiaolu Guo’s novel A Concise Chinese-English Dictionary for Lovers is intriguing. Is it a dictionary, or is it perhaps some kind of guide to lovemaking? I hasten to say – it is neither. It is simply a love-story about a Chinese woman and a British man, two lovers from different cultures, brought together in our globalised 21st century. And then they live happily ever after, or do they? Read on, and you will find out. I can only say that the plot does thicken, and tragic love stories, after all, are the most interesting ones. The Chinese woman is the I persona of Guo’s novel. Her name is Zhuang and she is a 23-year-old Chinese girl who has come to London to attend a language school. The reason, she says, “is parents’ command on me studying English, then coming back China, leaving job in government work unit and making lots money for their shoes factory by big international business relations. Parents belief their life is dog’s life, but with money they save from last several years, I make better life through Western education”. On her arrival in London, nothing is the way she has expected. She is utterly confused and her comments are typical of the tragi-comic mood of the novel: “How I finding important places including Buckingham Palace, or Big Stupid Clock? I looking everywhere but not seeing big posters of David Beckham, Spicy Girls and President Margaret Thatcher. In China we hanging them everywhere. English person not respect their heroes or what?”


Read It! It is pretty obvious that Zhuang’s English, at this stage, is pretty basic. As her narrative develops, however, her English improves. We witness how she develops her skills in English – she stumbles, and falls, but she never gives up. Her persistence is admirable, as is her never-ending curiosity when faced with the seemingly illogical and incomprehensible quirks of English language and culture. (For an English teacher it is fascinating to read about such a model learner. Zhuang is almost too good to be a believable character …) An essential element of Zhuang’s learning process is her little red notebook. In it she writes the most important words and expressions that she comes across, creating her own private dictionary. (This is of course The Concise Chinese-English Dictionary for Lovers referred to in the title.) She records not only useful words and expressions but equally much her experiences and her reflections on life in Britain. Her entries – words such as alien, homesick, progressive tenses, full English breakfast, privacy, self, abortion, and expel – speak for themselves. Together they constitute the essence of her stay in England. In England Zhuang calls herself Z because Westerners are not able to pronounce her name. It feels as if her entire identity has been reduced to just one letter, which accentuates her feelings of loneliness and failure. Z does not know anyone – apart of course from her teacher and her fellow students at the language school. Her sense of duty and loyalty to her parents makes her increasingly desperate. There is no way she can learn English, as they have told her to do, if she does not have anybody to talk to. Her reflections are heart-breaking:

“And how to learn be polite if I not getting chance talk people? I am always alone, talking in my notebook, or wandering here and there like invisible ghost. Nobody speak to me and I not dare open my mouth first because when I start talking, I asking the rude questions.” To fill her empty evenings she often goes to the cinema. Still, she cannot decide whether going to the cinema makes her feel less lonely or even lonelier. One night at the cinema, however, something important happens. She meets an Englishman twenty years her senior. They start talking, fall in love, and soon she moves in with him. All of a sudden, her life is total bliss. And not surprisingly, her English improves in leaps and bounds. He is her first love, and she is absolutely thrilled by their twosomeness. Then she starts having doubts – she cannot make sense of him or their relationship. In the process she learns a lot about herself. In this respect A Concise Chinese-English Dictionary for Lovers is also an initiation story. At the end of the novel, after she has returned to China, Zhuang sums up her experiences like this: “I think maybe I will never go back to England, the country where I became an adult, where I grew into a woman, the country where I also got injured, the country where I had my brief happiness and my quiet sadness. Perhaps I am scared to think that I am still in love with you.” There are so many things about her lover’s life – past and present – that she simply cannot understand: why he sometimes prefers solitude to company, why he prefers to spend time with his friends instead of with her, and why he does not get a proper job

instead of doing odd jobs and trying to be an artist. He is going through a mid-life crisis of sorts, whereas she is as innocent and enthusiastic as only somebody experiencing love for the first time can be. Still, their incompatibility is not just a question of age; it is of course also a question of two different sets of values. A typical conversation goes like this: [He] You’ve invaded my privacy! You can’t do that. [She] What privacy? But we living together! No privacy if we living together. [He] Of course there is! Everybody has privacy! [She] But why people need privacy? Why privacy is important? In China, every family live together, grandparents, parents, daughter, son, and their relatives too. Eat together and share everything, talk about everything. Privacy make people lonely. Privacy make family fallen apart. So the novel is not just a story about girl meeting boy, or man to be more precise, but about East meeting West, and the inevitable difficulties that arise from this. It made me think of the first line of Rudyard Kipling’s poem “The Ballad of East and West”: Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet. We have come a long way since Kipling, but bridging the gap between east and west still requires patience and a long time. Zhuang has learnt a lesson: learning English can be done in a year; learning to know British culture and values is an entirely different matter.

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


Northern Ireland’s Peace Process:

Prospects and Challenges by Eamonn Noonan

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

For almost four decades, starting in 1969, Northern Ireland regularly featured in international headlines for all the wrong reasons. It was a place of violent conflict and sectarian hatred, and the scene of a low-level civil war that left thousands dead. This was even more incomprehensible to the outside observer for taking place in Western Europe, within the borders of the United Kingdom. The core problem was hostility between a minority that sought unification with Ireland, and a majority that wanted to maintain Northern Ireland’s status as part of the UK. There was no shortage of interpretations for the violence, ranging from a continuing struggle for independence to an atavistic expression of sectarian hatred. At length, and after many failed efforts, a peace deal was worked out in the course of the 1990s. Extremists on both sides agreed to put aside their weapons and to engage in political negotiations. A new governance structure was drawn up, based on an innovative political principle: parity of esteem between the majority and minority communities. The Good Friday Agreement was signed in 1998. The violence stopped, and with isolated exceptions peace has been maintained to the present day. John Hume, the moderate nationalist leader, and David Trimble, his unionist counterpart, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.


A hard-headed peace deal Many critical factors came together to allow Northern Ireland turn the page on decades of turmoil: active diplomacy by the governments in London and Dublin; the Clinton administration’s strong support for these efforts; John Hume’s skill in persuading extremist leaders to embark on a political strategy; and the acceptance by extremists that it was time for change. In the run up to the Agreement, the IRA declared and implemented a ceasefire, and loyalist paramilitaries did likewise. A changed political and economic context also played a part. The strong growth of Irish economy brought the standard of living to a level equal to

or higher than that of Britain’s. Both countries were in the European Union, and had many common interests in European fora. The EU itself provided funding for many local initiatives that helped build bridges between divided communities. Norway too played a minor part, in the person of the late Tørkel Opsahl. Following broad consultations within Northern Ireland, the Opsahl Commission tabled in 1993 a report which helped formulate the concept of parity of esteem, which was central to the governance structure built into the Good Friday Agreement. The 1990s was a hopeful decade; following the end of the Cold War many expected a peace dividend. The Middle

East and Sri Lanka, among others, saw important efforts towards peace. A decade on, the Middle East process is in ruins; war came again to Sri Lanka. By contrast, peace has held in Northern Ireland. There have been tests, and there have been tensions. But the framework established by the Good Friday Agreement has proved to be robust. The image of Ian Paisley and Martin McGuinness standing side by side as colleagues in government was a powerful expression of a great paradigm shift. First Minister Paisley – who has since retired – was long known as Dr. No for his uncompromising defence of unionist interests, and campaigned

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 Northern Ireland police officers carry the coffin of Constable Stephen Paul Carroll from St. Therese’s Catholic Church in Banbridge,

16 17

Northern Ireland , March 13, 2009. Carroll, 48,

18

was the first policeman killed by terrorists in

19

Northern Ireland since 1998. (©Scanpix)

20


01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Hillary Clinton with Martin McGuinness (right)

20

and Ian Paisley in 2007. (ŠScanpix)


decommissioned their weapons, in a process subject to careful international supervision. The continuing support of the governments in London and Dublin, and of international actors from Washington to Brussels, is also important. New challenges Is the peace process in danger of unravelling in the near future? The greatest risk is that a small number of extremists will embark on a renewed campaign of violence. That there still are extremists is well known. In March this year, an attack on an army barracks killed two British soldiers, the first to be killed in Northern Ireland since 1997. Two days later, a policeman was shot dead. The response was universal condemnation, and Martin McGuinness labelled the perpetrators as traitors to Ireland.

against the Agreement; Deputy First Minister McGuinness is still subject of much speculation about his specific role in the IRA’s campaign of violence. This peace process has its enemies. In August 1998, Republican extremists tried to sabotage it by exploding a huge bomb in the centre of Omagh. The attack was the deadliest single atrocity of the entire conflict – but if anything it strengthened the bipartisan determination to make peace work. Why has this peace process proved so durable? In a nutshell, a deal was worked out which offered something for everybody. Nationalists appreciated new governing structures, which safeguarded their interests as the minority. Unionists were heartened by a clear reaffirmation of Northern Ireland’s status as part of the UK. A thorough reform of policing was initiated, aiming to win acceptance by the minority of a force that had long been perceived as partisan. The IRA and its counterparts on the loyalist side

Despite this setback, the momentum of the peace process has been maintained. Smaller paramilitary groups continue to renounce violence as a strategy; a recent example is the Irish National Liberation Army, which affirmed in October that it is committed to a purely peaceful political struggle. Vigilance remains essential, and it may be impossible to completely prevent extremist attacks in the future. Yet the likelihood of a return to extremist titfor-tat violence remains low. A second risk is that of political stalemate, and a breakdown of trust between those now engaged in the complex political project of building a new society based on equal respect for all citizens. The focus at present is the completion of the reform of policing and justice. One of the merits of the Good Friday Agreement was that it accepted that time was needed to work through the many complex issues that lay at the heart of political conflict. It avoided unrealistic expectations of an instant transformation into a society devoid of conflict or hostility. Northern Ireland’s elected politicians must continue to work together, so that the foundations for lasting stability can be built step by step. This is not a foregone conclusion, and encouragement from outside is sometimes needed. The new US administration has again shown its readiness to promote partnership, most recently through an address by

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to the Northern Ireland Assembly. A third problem is the economic downturn. The establishment of a power-sharing executive in Northern Ireland took place against a background of economic growth and increased public expenditure. In the downturn, the regional economy has contracted by 3%, although this compares favourably both with the Republic of Ireland and with most parts of Great Britain. Unemployment has risen, but it remains below the UK average of 6.3%. As a result of the downturn, it will be harder to fund initiatives such as the Reconciliation Forum proposed earlier this year by a high powered group advised by Martti Ahtisaari. This report of the Consultative Group on the Past was heavily criticised for recommending a one-off cash payment to the closest relatives of anyone who died as a result of the conflict, on the grounds that this would also have included relatives of extremists. But this controversy should not obscure the continuing need for a process to promote reconciliation across community divisions, and to prevent sectarianism not least among young people. The downturn inevitably means greater constraints on public expenditure, and this may hit cross-community and cross-border initiatives. These have been valuable both in creating employment and in building confidence across communities, and to lose them would not help the peace process. An early end to recession would be good news for all concerned. As Hillary Clinton said in Belfast, Northern Ireland has travelled a long way on the road to peace. Divisions remain, and much is still to be done; but the realisation of how much the two sides have in common has strengthened. As long as representatives of both communities continue to have a voice and an influence in a functioning regional administration, there are grounds for confidence that peace will continue. One astute observer put it like this: “This is our home. We all love it, each in our own way. We need to make peace work – if not for ourselves, then for our children.”

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


Hva er en god

ordbok?

av Inger-Ma Gabrielsen, ordbokredaktør, Cappelen Damm http://ordbok.cappelendamm.no

Det første svaret man kommer på, er at det som står i den, må være riktig, og det er selvfølgelig det viktigste kriteriet for om ordboka er god eller ikke. Men en god og gjennomarbeidet ordbok kan likevel fungere dårlig. Kvaliteten på ordboka er nemlig avhengig av brukeren og brukssituasjonen. Svaret på spørsmålet i overskriften kan derfor være:

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

En god ordbok er en ordbok der du finner det du leter etter, uten unødvendig store anstrengelser. Straks melder spørsmålene seg: Hvem er du? Hva leter du etter? Hva er anstrengende for deg? En profesjonell oversetter som sitter og oversetter en novelle om livet i en amerikansk undervannsbåt og lurer på hva ordet head betyr i den

sammenhengen, kommer ingen vei med en liten lommeordbok, selv om lommeordboka er utmerket til sitt bruk. Oversetteren må gå til en virkelig stor engelsk-norsk ordbok der han etter å ha lest utallige betydninger av ordet head, får vite at head er et slangord for toalettet i en undervannsbåt. Den store ordboka er til gjengjeld svært anstrengende å drasse med seg på en helgetur til London.


Hvem skal bruke ordboka, og til hva? En forutsetning for å lage en god ordbok er altså at man vet mest mulig om de som skal bruke ordboka, og hva de skal bruke den til. Det får konsekvenser for hvor mange ord som skal være med, hvilke ord, hvor mye man tar med under hvert oppslagsord, hvordan man setter opp artiklene, hvor stor skrift man kan bruke, innbindingen og mye annet. I vårt tilfelle vet vi hvem vi lager ordboka for – elever i ungdomsskolen og videregående skole. Vi vet mye om dem: • De bor over hele landet og er fortrolige med hele landets kultur. • De har mange interesser. • De driver med alle mulige typer sport. • De følger med i den tekniske utviklingen. • Noen er ikke helt stø i alfabetet. • Noen finner ordet, men har problemer med å finne fram riktig betydning. • De vil ikke bære tunge bøker. • De vil at boka skal være billigst mulig, i den grad de kjøper den selv. • De fleste synes det er kjedelig å slå opp i ordbøker. De fire første punktene forteller oss at elevene har et stort ordforråd. Det vil si at vi bør ha med mange oppslagsord på et stort antall områder, noe som øker omfanget. De to neste punktene tilsier at strukturen i ordboka må være oversiktlig – og det kan ofte bli plasskrevende. Det neste punktet peker klart i motsatt retning – boka må være lettest mulig. Vi får altså en avveiing mellom ordtilfang, brukervennlighet og størrelsen på boka. Valg av oppslagsord Vi vet at elevene har et stort ordforråd, samtidig som de ikke vil bære på tunge bøker. Å få med de ordene elevene har bruk for, er utfordringen, og det er ikke opplagt hvilke ord dette er. Elevene skal ikke behøve å bokstavlig talt slepe med seg en masse ord som de aldri kommer til å få bruk for. Til gjengjeld må de ikke oppleve for mange ganger at ordet de slår opp, ikke står der. Det er ingenting

01 02

som er så demotiverende som å slå opp og ikke finne det man leter etter. Det er derfor lurt å se igjennom ordboka før man kjøper den, og slå opp noen av de ordene som er kommet inn i språket de siste tjue årene. Hvis den inneholder ordet bandasjistforretning, og ikke tekstmelding, er det tegn på at den ikke er helt god for dagens skoleelever. Poenget med å trekke fram dette med valg av ord er også å vise at det ikke er likegyldig hvor gammel ordboka som elevene bruker, er. Den ordboka som mor eller mormor brukte i sin gymnastid, er ganske enkelt ikke god nok i dag. En annen konklusjon er at antall ord ikke nødvendigvis sier noe om

kvaliteten. Det er ikke vanskelig å få et høyt antall oppslagsord, kunsten er å velge de ordene elevene kommer til å slå opp, og utelate de andre.

03 04 05 06 07

Strukturen i en ordbok Jo mindre erfaring eleven har med å bruke ordbok, jo tydeligere må innholdet presenteres.

08

En ordbokforfatter kan velge å legge alle opplysningene om et ord i en og samme ordbokartikkel. Hvis vi tar ordet rekke, betyr det at både substantivet og verbet kommer i en sammenhengende tekst. Dette krever en del av eleven, som må lete seg igjennom artikkelen og jobbe med å skille ordklasser og betydninger fra hverandre. Fordelen er at man sparer plass.

12

09 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


I Cappelen Damms ordbøker har vi forsøkt å være tydeligere i inndelingen. Dette eksempelet er fra Engelsk ordbok:

rekke1 sb m 1 (rad) row 2 (antall) number 3 (sammenhørende rekke, serie) series 4 (mat) progression 5 (reling) rail aritmetisk rekke arithmetical progression; geometrisk rekke geometrical progression; i første rekke in the first row; (først og fremst) above all; first and foremost; first of all; (blant de beste) in the front rank; på rekke og rad lined up; one after the other.

01 02 03 04 05 06

rekke2 vb 1 (levere) hand, pass; han rakte meg kniven he handed me the knife; hun rakte meg saltet she passed me the salt 2 (nå) reach; jeg rekker ikke opp til den øverste hyllen I cannot reach up to the top shelf 3 (komme tidsnok til) catch; rakk de toget? did they catch the train? 4 (ha tid til) find time to, have time to rekke noen hånden offer someone one’s hand; rekke opp hånden put up one’s hand; raise one’s hand; rekke tunge til stick out one’s tongue to. rekke3 vb rekke opp (strikketøy) unravel.

Her kommer verb og substantiv for seg. I tillegg har betydningen å rekke opp et strikketøy – som ikke er innenfor samme betydningsområde – fått sin egen artikkel. Innenfor artikkelen er underbetydningene nummerert og skilt med veivisere som står i parentes før den engelske oversettelsen. Fordelen med denne måten å gjøre det på, er at eleven blir gjort tydeligere oppmerksom på at det er flere betydninger å velge mellom. Ulempen er at det tar mer plass. Kvalitet på innholdet Alle ordbøker må ha • korrekte og presise definisjoner eller oversettelser • informative opplysninger: fagkoder, veivisere, stilistisk nivå • sentrale eksempler og uttrykk med gode oversettelser • gode forklaringer Men de faglige kravene er litt ulike etter som hvilken type ordbok det er snakk om, og igjen er det brukssituasjonen som avgjør.

Ettspråklig definisjonsordbok En ettspråklig definisjonsordbok er en bok der du i tillegg til oppslagsordet med bøyning får en kort definisjon på betydningen eller betydningene til ordet, eventuelt et synonym og i de fleste tilfellene eksempler på bruk av ordene. Bokmålsordboka er et typisk eksempel. Her har vi et eksempel fra Cappelen Damms Norsk ordbok:

røyke1 -a/-te -a/t, røke -te -t suge inn tobakksrøyk; r- sigaretter og sigarer. røyke2 -a/-te -a/t, røke -et/-te -et/-t påvirke med røyk; r- fisk og kjøtt; r- reven ut av hiet.

Tospråklig ordbok I en tospråklig ordbok er definisjonen og synonymet som oftest erstattet av det vi kaller ekvivalenter på det andre språket. Vi kaller det språket oppslagsordene står i for kildespråket og det oppslagsordene blir oversatt til, for målspråket. Prinsippet er at ekvivalentene på målspråket skal kunne defineres på samme måte som oppslagsordet.

røyke 1 (om tobakk) rauchen; jeg har sluttet å ~ ich habe aufgehört zu rauchen 2 (om mat) räuchern; ~ laks/skinke Lachs/Schinken räuchern.

07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Her er et eksempel fra Tysk skoleordbok. Oppslagsordet røyke har samme definisjon som de tyske ekvivalentene rauchen og räuchen. Vi møter igjen de to betydningene av å røyke fra Norsk ordbok i betydningsinndelingen. Dere ser at veiviserne i den norsktyske ordboka forutsetter at brukeren kan norsk og kjenner igjen de to betydningene av ordet røyke. Hvis vi ikke hadde hatt veiviserne her, ville


en norsk elev lett kunne valgt feil betydning. Eleven går fra det kjente til det ukjente. De tyske ordene alene gir ikke noen hjelp. For en nordmann er en norsk-tysk ordbok det vi kaller en aktiv ordbok eller en produksjonsordbok – den brukes når vi aktivt skal produsere en tekst på fremmedspråket – enten skriftlig eller muntlig.

rauchen verb 1 ryke; dampe, ose 2 (sigaretter) røyke rauchende Trümmer rykende ruiner Rauchen verboten! røyking forbudt! sich (D) das Rauchen abgewöhnen venne seg av med å røyke.

Hvis vi ser på oppslagsordet rauchen i den tysk-norske delen, ser vi at også det ordet har to betydninger, nemlig 1 ryke, dampe, ose eller 2 røyke. Her er det ikke nødvendig med veivisere for en nordmann. Vi kan norsk, og vet hvilken betydning vi er ute etter. I dette tilfellet har vi en veiviser til betydning 2 som antyder at oppslagsordet bare kan brukes om det å røyke tobakk, ikke mat. For en nordmann er en tysk-norsk ordbok en såkalt passiv ordbok eller resepsjonsordbok. Man slår opp for å kunne forstå et ord i en kontekst. Dette får konsekvenser for tilgangsstrukturen og også for ordforrådet. Det er grunnen til at en ordbok laget for norske brukere, ikke fungerer like godt for tyskere som lærer norsk.

Presisjon Men uansett ordboktype må opplysningene være riktige. Skal vi få presise ekvivalenter på målspråket, må ordbokforfatteren kjenne nyansene på begge språkene. Den presise ekvivalenten på fremmedspråket er den som samsvarer både når det gjelder betydning, aktualitet og stilistisk nivå. Man bør for eksempel ikke gi en amerikaner inntrykk av at et ord som kanalje (som ifølge Bokmålsordboka betyr skurk eller skøyer) er gangbart i moderne norsk.

arse [å:s] sb (vulg) ræv.

Her blir det feil å oversette med stump og bakende! Eksempler og uttrykk Vi så nå på valg av riktige ekvivalenter. Eksempler og uttrykk skal velges ut etter de samme prinsippene og få en god oversettelse. Problemstillingen er den samme: Det skal være representativt, ikke for mye og ikke for lite, og både eksempler og uttrykk skal ha presise oversettelser.

Hvilken ordbok skal man velge? En rask repetisjon: Skal man vurdere kvaliteten på en ordbok, må man undersøke fire ting: • Ordutvalget må være tilpasset brukernes behov. • Det må være enkelt å finne fram til riktig oppslagsord og betydning. • Man må få et presist svar på det man spør om. • Boka må ikke være større enn at den kan bæres fram og tilbake til skolen. Tips: • Ta noen stikkprøver på forskjellige oppslagsord. • Sammenlign noen utvalgte ordbokartikler og se om det er lett å finne fram til riktig betydning og ordklasse. Cappelen Damm lager ordbøker for skoleelever. Forfatterens og forlagets oppgave er å analysere deres behov og gi ordboka en form som tilfredsstiller både de kravene elevene stiller til omfang og brukervennlighet og kravene en leksikograf må stille til presisjon og systematikk. Vi lever forskjellige liv i forskjellige omgivelser. Det som er sentrale ord for noen, er helt perifert for andre. For oss i ordbokredaksjonen er det derfor veldig verdifullt å få tilbakemelding fra lærere og elever om hva de synes, enten det er feil som må rettes, upresise oversettelser eller forslag til forbedringer. inger-ma.gabrielsen@cappelendamm.no

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


ISBN: 978-82-02-32386-8

Her kan elevene trene på å bli gode ordbokbrukere! Velkommen til GRATIS nettsider for våre ordbøker!

http://ordbok.cappelendamm.no

Målet med nettsidene er å hjelpe elever til å få mer ut av et av de viktigste hjelpemidlene i språklæring: ordboka. FOR ELEVEN • Oppgavehefter i pdf-format • Interaktive oppgaver • Minikurs og andre øvelser

FOR LÆREREN • PowerPoint-presentasjoner – disse kan for eksempel brukes til gjennomgang i samlet klasse • Artikler som gir gode råd om valg og bruk av ordbok • Informasjon om Cappelen Damms ordbøker • Videopresentasjon av ordbøkene

Magazine_2009-2  

C a p p e l e n D a m m s t i d s s k r i f t f o r e n g e l s k l æ r e r e Il l u str a sj o n: Ing e r D a l e

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you