C a p p e l e n s
t i d s s k r i f t
f o r
e n g e l s k l ĂŚ r e r e
Illustrasjon: Inger Dale
Budge Wilson: Beyond the Gender Barriers av Namal Lokuge
Kjære leser, Så er høsten over oss igjen, og roen har forhåpentligvis senket seg. Utlånsordningen, og instruksene om hvordan dette skulle gjennomføres, førte til hektisk aktivitet, både i skolen, hos bokhandleren og i forlagene. Men, elevene kan nå glede seg over en og annen gratis bok, og vi har gleden av å sende ut et nytt nummer av [ mægəzi:n] til dere engelsklærere. Det er også gratis. Etter enkelte henvendelser å dømme, kom ikke dette helt klart fram etter utsendelsen av første nummer. [ mægəzi:n] kan du altså abonnere på og få direkte tilsendt i ditt navn uten at det koster noe.
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
Det har vært hyggelig å registrere den positive responsen fagbladet har fått. Vi i redaksjonen lider selvsagt av den samme svakhet som de fleste andre, vi lepjer med ukritisk glede i oss rosen som har kommet, i hvert fall for en stakket stund. Men, vi har ennå ikke blitt så forblindet av rosende ord at vi tror du allerede etter ett nummer skal ta i [ mægəzi:n] med sitrende spenning når det neste kommer. Vi forsøker etter beste evne å finne fram til temaer som vi tror du vil ha glede og nytte av. Kanskje du sitter inne med gode idéer til stoff vi kunne presentere – kanskje du til og med går og ruger på et eller annet i forbindelse med engelskfaget som du kunne tenke deg å skrive om? Ta kontakt med oss, vi er åpne for innspill! Apropos sitrende spenning, eller rettere sagt, fravær av det: du har vel også mottatt invitasjon til jubileum med tidligere medelever (eller andre sosiale tildragelser for den saks skyld) og tenkt: “uff da, jeg må vel, men jeg skal i hvert fall benytte første og beste anledning til å forsvinne uten at det virker uhøflig”? Følelsen kan holde seg ganske lenge, men så skjer det plutselig noe uventet som gjør at du etterpå er glad for at du likevel holdt ut. Dette er tema i den canadiske forfatteren Budge Wilsons novelle “Reunion” som du finner i dette nummeret, sammen med et intervju med henne.
The Reunion av Budge Wilson
Read it! av Nina Skjelbred
Differentiation Made Easy! av Marcie Madden Austad
Gimme Them Wide Open Races! av Robert Mikkelsen
Pass it on! av May Britt Kleppe Josefsen
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Vi hadde tenkt å ha mer stoff om Canada, men så er det presidentvalg i USA, og da må Canada vike for “storebror”. En skjebne som dette landet med så mye spennende kultur, både innen litteratur, film, musikk osv. ofte lider. Men, vi har tenkt å gjøre det godt igjen ved å presentere mer stoff om Canada i vårnummeret. Vi har altså prioritert det “matnyttige” denne gangen, og jeg tror du vil sette pris på Robert Mikkelsens betraktninger omkring valget og valgkampen når du nå skal formidle dette stoffet til elevene.
24 [ mægəzi:n] CAPPELEN UNDERVISNING
Word Puzzle from Down Under av Richard Burgess
Ansvarlig redaktør: Kirsten Aadahl
Postboks 350 Sentrum,
Telefon: 22 36 51 77/5195
BEYOND THE GENDER BARRIERS
REDNEG EHT DNOYEB
BY NAMAL LOKUGE
BARRIERS GENDER EGUKOL LAMAN YB
Budge Wilson (1927-), Canadian writer who has made her home in Nova Scotia, where she grew up. Wilson began writing for publication at the age of 50, after having worked as a fitness instructor, teacher, commercial artist and photographer. Her stories are often set in Nova Scotia and reflect her deep curiosity about people and
BY NAMAL LOKUGE her observations of them. The Lea-
ving (New York: Philomel Books),
a collection of short stories that
includes the story “The Leaving”, has won several awards, including Canada’s Young Adult Book Aw ard for 1991. Other works by Budg e Wilson includ e Breakdown, The Dandelion Gar den, Sharla, an d Thirteen Never Changes.
04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Namal Lokuge har hovedfag i engelsk fra Universitetet i Oslo, hvor han bl.a. tok et hovedemne i canadisk litteratur. Han underviser for tiden på Forsøksgymnaset og Bjørknes Privatskole.
19 20 21 22 23 24
The Canadian writer Budge Wilson was born in 1927. She now lives in a
patriarchal family of males who are oblivious of her existence other
fishing village about an hour’s drive from Halifax, the capital of Nova
than as a mother/domestic assistant/facilitator/child-rearer etc.
Scotia where she was raised and educated. For several years she worked as a teacher. She started her writing career in the late seven-
In many ways, Elizabeth remains a tragic heroine. Moreover, her reso-
ties, and since then she has won many awards. One of her stories, “The
lution to endure life with her hard-hearted husband and not strike out
Leaving”, can be found in Patterns (VK1). I recently had the chance to
for happiness by leaving him for good, is a character trait that is found
meet the writer and ask her about “The Leaving” and about the impor-
in many other Canadian literary characters. Solemn and resolute with
tance of gender thematically in that story and in her writing career as
self-imposed inhibitions, Elizabeth’s character is a quintessentially
A meeting with Budge Wilson
Growing up in Sri Lanka in the seventies, I was made to believe that
After attending a summer school in Ontario in 1999, I set out east-
“white countries” meant affluence, permissive society and big, clean
bound from Toronto. My mission was to seek out the environs Elizabeth
cities. Above all, their inhabitants, both men and women, were equally
had been raised in, if not to meet Budge Wilson in person. I had no idea
emancipated in the sense that they had no inhibitions. However, my
where she lived, except that she lived in the Province of Nova Scotia.
later experience as a student of English changed that preconceived pic-
To cut a long story short, I managed to locate her whereabouts and left
ture. I understood that women have been subjugated regardless of
her a message. A few hours later, I was her guest, an event which
where in the world they came from. And the truth was that some had
makes me think that truth is stranger than fiction.
entered the battle in freeing themselves early, while others are still lingering behind. Budge Wilson soon appeared to me to be a writer who
Once I had made it clear that I was no reporter, nor an envoy of any
had made important contributions to this emancipation process.
nature, but simply an avid reader of her “The Leaving”, Budge became very accommodating. She led me to her garden ensconced by the woods
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Elizabeth – a tragic heroine
on the one side and the rippleless waters of Northwest Cove on the
“The Leaving” documents the nocturnal journey Elizabeth – the mother
other. The gravel path, which brought the occasional visitor to her her-
of a twelve-year-old daughter, Sylvia, and four elder boys – embarks on
mitage-like dwelling, was indiscernibly tucked away in the wilderness.
clandestinely. While the world is fast asleep, Elizabeth summons
Budge congratulated me for getting there without going astray. Unlike
Sylvia to get dressed as they are “leaving”. “Where”, “why” and “how”
the oppressive heat of Toronto, the temperature here was cool, with
are questions that remain unanswered. Dumbstruck, Sylvia complies.
the lush foliage protecting us from the summer sun. Perched on the
As they approach Halifax, Sylvia notices the gradual change in her
edge of the waters was a small cottage which Budge called her “dolls’
mother: she loosens up; she is less tense and her eyes are more alive
house”. It was a neatly kept lounge with a rustic colouring to it. And
than Sylvia has ever seen them before. Both the mother and the daugh-
its many artefacts together with an assortment of moth-eaten books
ter are equally enchanted by the urban splendours they encounter for
gave it the intrinsic look of a writer-in-residence ambience.
the first time in their lives. They have never felt something akin to awe. The places they visit, Dartmouth harbour and Dalhousie University, turn out to be more of an inspiration for their battered souls than just a feast for the eye.
After the third day, with a newly acquired sense of dignity, Elizabeth declares that it is time for them to get back home. It is soon apparent to Sylvia that her mother is resuming her dishevelled look as she gets closer to her husband and her home. Sylvia feels helpless. Neither the repercussions nor the rewards of their leaving seem to have been that great.
Elizabeth, at the age of forty-five, succeeds in making a small change in her life. Perhaps owing to her newly gained wisdom in Halifax, she gets her wish, which is to be addressed by her Christian name. After years in an abusive relationship, her husband gives in to her demand to be called “Elizabeth”, discarding the degrading epithet “you woman”. She secures a place of her own, which she retires to occasionally with a book. She also manages to get the odd “thank you” from the other male denizens. Otherwise, her life continues in nursing a mercilessly
Foto: Scanpix How Norwegian students respond to Elizabeth I told Budge that my fascination with Elizabeth lay in her returning to her husband. Moreover, I mentioned to her that most of my students who had read “The Leaving” had felt disconcerted by Elizabeth’s decision to return to her callous husband, thus making her leaving pointless. Here, I noticed a lurking smile
All stories are a part of your past. But your past is very complex.
and before I could continue, she reciprocated: “Today, many people see it like that, especially young adults who have no idea what it was like to be a woman in the fifties and six-
“How come that all your men are equally evil?" “Perhaps they all were. If they were not, maybe I saw them like that!"
ties. In fact, many of my readers have told me openly that they have felt irritated with characters like Elizabeth, for their humility, for their patience and, above all, for their putting up with all kinds of nonsense from their husbands. The young reader hardly sees the sense of resilience and deep-rooted endurance of the protagonist in stories like ‘The Leaving’.”
The 50s – a different world Budge wanted to make one point very clear: Many of her readers have been under the impression that Elizabeth was Budge herself. And Budge believed that perhaps this was an innocent misconception: “All stories
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
are a part of your past. But your past is very complex. Even though I am not Elizabeth, the story is set in a time when there were many Elizabeths, particularly in this part of Canada. You ought to remember that the environment in which my characters move about is nothing like
begun to think about their role in society. For many of us living here,
what it is today. Even today, country women are somewhat different
an immediate change was not plausible. In such a social arena, I felt
from city women; back then, Halifax felt as miles apart, and it was! So,
my obligation was to expose the injustice the women around here had
places like Toronto and Montreal never existed in their psychological
been exposed to for a considerable time. And Elizabeth happened to be
realm. On the backdrop of such a threatening set-up, one should admire
one such woman whose life, as she finds out later through reading The
a woman like Elizabeth, resolving to take off even for three days.
Feminine Mystique – which I read myself – had been almost stolen by
Halifax was as distant and foreign to them as The Seychelles are to us
her all-devouring husband.” Budge’s basic argument was that the redef-
inition of sex roles in the fifties and sixties happened more as an evo-
lution than a revolution. In this context, it makes sense what Elizabeth “When I first heard of a woman leaving her husband, I was thunder-
did, returning to husband. Had she stayed in Halifax, she wouldn’t have
struck. It was unheard of. In Annapolis Valley, women accepted their
had the opportunity to raise her sons to share household chores.
role as domestic workers, passively and patiently. A woman was always referred to as “the woman” or “old woman”, in spite of her age
“I remember when I decided that I was not going to conform to the tra-
or Christian name, by her husband. And the women yielded, as this was
ditional role many women were forced into. It was not an easy choice
the norm. In the early fifties, living was not easy; there was no running
to break away from a long-established pattern. But once I started to
water, no electricity and most other amenities, which govern our lives
look around, I knew I was not alone. It was a just a matter of persis-
today. Instead, women shouldered all the laborious tasks.” Budge went
tence. Just like Elizabeth felt after reading The Feminine Mystique.”
on reminiscing how it was when Annapolis valley harboured many women like Elizabeth: “I remember doing laundry, especially the scrub
Just before I thanked her for sharing her precious time with me at such
board; it was like churning butter.”
a short notice, I mustered the courage to ask one last question: “How
come that all your men are equally evil?” I was referring to her other Exposing injustice
stories in The Leaving, for instance “The Diary”, and even “The Pen Pal”.
My focus on Elizabeth returning to her husband made Budge elaborate further on the issue of setting. “You should also remember that I started to notice all this “women stuff” at a time when women had just
“Perhaps they all were. If they were not, maybe I saw them like that!”
“The Reunion” from The Learning by Budge Wilson. Copyright© 1990 by Budge Wilson. Reprinted by permission of Stoddart Publishing Co. Limited, Toronto.
by Budge Wilson
Eva has only been here for two hours, and already she is sorry she came. The next three days stretch ahead of
underground, or languishing in brass or ceram-
cal focus – too much that was far from plea-
ic urns. Ashes. She touches her hair, her face,
surable. Perhaps she came not so much to
and runs her hand down over her hips – affirm-
remember laughter as to convince herself that
ing that she is still among the living.
it had existed. So this is what I’m going to
her like a muddy path she will have to wade through, step by laboured step. Even with her reg-
She looks around – up and down the tired line-
retrieve, she muses, her eyes bleak. Not only
up, across the familiar reception hall – and
a sparse present but a diminished past. Revi-
not one face does she recognize. Scrutinizing
sited by the fears and uncertainties of being
istration completed, all events paid for – the ferry ride along the harbour, the special president’s lun-
the grey hair, the bald heads, the stooped
young again, she feels so weak that she moves
shoulders, she feels a heavy weariness pass
closer to the piano (the same one?) and leans
over her. Not only is all of this depressing;
against it. The dread of academic failure, of
cheon, her room and meals – she is tempted to retreat to her room and
suddenly it begins to seem singularly point-
the professors in their austere black robes;
less. What had she intended to recapture any-
her shy discomfort in the presence of those
stay there, hungry but safe, for the rest of this alarming festival.
way? You cannot cling to remembered laugh-
marvellous long-legged young men; the yearn-
ter forever. Better, far better, to have stayed
ings for a different face and fuller figure; the
back in her room at Silver Towers, knitting,
adjusting, daily, of one’s mask; the bargains
be fun? Or, as she had so naively put it, “an
writing letters to her grandchildren, tidying
she made with life. How much of that happi-
enriching experience, to put me in touch with
her appalling bureau drawers against the
ness she has hoped to regain was just a stale
my past.” Had she been wholly deficient in
threat of sickness or death.
hysterical compromise with what she longed
Whatever possessed her to think it would
for and never had. Eva closes her eyes against
mathematical skills? If you are going to a
She looks in the huge mirror across the
fifty-fifth reunion, and if you graduated at
hall. To check, she thinks wryly, on her own
the vision of such pernicious honesty. If she
twenty-two years of age, that makes you seven-
degree of deterioration. Well, on the whole,
opens them, she will see again this hall, that
ty-seven. This much she knows. What she failed
she feels reassured. She could recognize her-
furniture, those pictures, and she will be
to do was to apply this arithmetic to everyone
self. A blonde once, she is now almost white,
forced to examine things that should have
else. Until today, she hasn’t given much
but her hair is naturally curly, and the cut,
been buried years ago.
thought to the ages of the other graduates. The
the effect, are much the same as in the past.
ones in law, say, or medicine, or those erudite
Tiny then, and tiny now. Tinier, in fact.
oppressively youthful face, peers down at her
heroes who were pursuing graduate degrees
Osteoporosis will have its day. She grins at
anxiously. Eva pushes up her bifocals and
would be much older. In fact, old. Or – and here
her own joke, and the face in the mirror comes
reads: “SALLY. HOSTESS.”
she actually twitches as she stands in line
alive – wrinkled, but undeniably cute.
outside the dining hall – dead. Yes, more than
She sighs and looks away. If only she’d
“Are you all right?” A pretty face, an
“Thank you, my dear,” says Eva, ashamed to find herself sighing again. “I was just
likely eighty-five per cent of that golden group
realized then that she’d been cute. This hall,
remembering how very exhausting it was to be
with whom she associates such pleasure are
this queue, bring too many things into histori-
young. It tires me just to think about it.”
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
We’re all nobodies. Then and now.
already running down his tie, was Buck
“Yes. Entirely. All those late nights.
“Hello, Myra. Of course I remember you.”
Jamieson, football hero. Is Buck Jamieson. And
Those whispered confidences, heavy with
Indeed I do. Fat, even then. Homemade
Myra is snuggled up beside me, ready to con-
secrets. The business of being almost con-
clothes, products of your mother’s needle in
sume me with retroactive friendship. To my
stantly in love. And never knowing what to
Musquodoboit Harbour. Poor grades. Given to
right is someone who should have bought a
expect. Never. All that wanting that young
hearing aid twenty years ago. She’s from the
people do. No. I don’t wish ever again to be
“You haven’t changed a bit, Eva.”
class of ’25, and of course I didn’t know her
“Nor you, Myra.”
then and do not care to know her now.
The girl smiles. Obviously thinks I already have both feet firmly rooted in senility. Eva clears her throat and tries to look alert. Sally shakes her head in disbelief. “But it’s so exciting!”
such a bad word after all.
you’re all right . . .”
07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
shoes aren’t helping me one bit. This table full of decrepit people depresses me, but my past drags me down even further. “Did you marry?” This is Myra speaking. “I didn’t,” she adds unnecessarily, her ring
long haul, not the one I wanted. Except for
finger as bare as her thumb. “Too hard to
those few enchanted months.
please, I guess.” She giggles.
The line is moving. The doors must be
“Yes,” says Eva. “I did.” She finds herself
and embrace whatever excitement the day
walker, Eva moves slowly. She looks down at
know. He was class president in our senior
her dress. Mauve silk, with a gathered skirt.
year.” And handsome, graduating in law, flat-
Velvet choker to hide her terrible neck. Mauve
teringly attentive, and not at all the man I
leaning on her cane, her broad form encased in
shoes. Yes. She smiles. In spite of
floral polyester. Behind her, a man clutches a
her neck (like the skin of a limp raw
walker. Dear heavens, she marvels, I’m a rari-
chicken), she knows she looks much
ty. Not only alive, but upright. Free-standing.
better than either the walker or the
A face is scrutinizing her. It has skin like
I’m sad beyond expressing, and my mauve
sighing again. “I married Pete MacDougal. You
Eva looks at the woman in front of her,
“Not quite by the dozen, Myra.” And in the
“Strawberry shortcake!” Eva shrieks at her. She can’t read the dessert menu.
opening. Sandwiched between the cane and the
“I’m fine, Sally.” Eva smiles. “Run along
Beaux. What a ridiculous word. But beau
right on it.”
“Well,” she says, “if you’re quite sure
seemed to have beaux by the dozen.”
means beautiful, male gender. Perhaps not
perfection of that flawless forehead.
“I always envied you, Eva. The way you
“Exactly!” replies Eva. “You’ve put your finger
Sally’s brows draw together, marring the
Liars. Liars, all of us. Our whole life long. Especially to ourselves.
crumpled crêpe paper, white as chalk, with two
cane. But as she sits down at the
round pink spots in the absolute centre of each
table, her spirits collapse once more.
cheek. Her eyes, magnified and peering, look
That flabby person over there, gravy
out from behind a pair of smudged glasses. “Myra Hennigar,” says the face, pointing to her own chest. “Class of ’32. You won’t remember me, Eva. I was a nobody back then.”
wanted to marry. Before you could turn around
Joe. Joe – still tall, masses of silver hair,
Cynthia rises up before her, bright as life,
twice and count to twenty-five, he was
and a face like a seamed granite rock. She
tall, with clouds of jet-black hair and violet
markedly inattentive, losing his hair, and per-
cannot believe it, but the pulse in her neck is
eyes. A body like a goddess. Her friend. Filled
manently infatuated with litigation, torts,
beating so quickly, so violently, that she’s
with laughter, vitality and an iron will. And what she wanted, she got. Always. “She left me after two years,” he says. “She found it hot. Africa, I mean.” He is still looking at Eva. “She didn’t give me three wonderful children,” he adds. “Even one, she felt, would ruin her figure.” Suddenly he finds he can eat. He stabs the peas with his fork, with his one good hand. He eats hungrily, and freed of his gaze, Eva discovers she can manage a few bites herself. But she knows that the maniac flutter inhabiting her midsection will play havoc with her digestion if she eats much more. Between courses, Joe resumes his staring. By now, Eva’s eyes are fixed on him, too, absorbing his signals. Someone is shouting at
real estate. And nursing an ulcer.
sure it must be visible. Her face feels hot,
the deaf lady, and Buck Jamieson is dipping
and she thinks, Can you blush at seventy-
his napkin in his glass of water and attacking
knew you two got married. I thought you were
seven? The hand that holds her fork is shak-
the gravy on his tie. Myra is watching Eva and
going with someone else.”
ing, so she puts it down and waits.
Joe. The orchestra is playing songs that were
“How romantic!” breathes Myra. “I never
Eva lets that pass. I’m not up to discus-
He sits directly across from her. He does
popular a thousand years ago.
sing that, she thinks. She rains salt on her
not look at her name tag. “Hello, Eva,” he
food, and now the meat no longer tastes like
says in his so familiar voice. His speech,
thing, and says, “Are you enjoying this awful
pressed sawdust. To hell with my veins and
thank God, thank God, is not impaired.
arteries. Too late anyway. Suddenly she thinks
“Where’s Pete?” he asks.
of her blood vessels as sewage pipes, clogged
“He died twenty years ago,” she answers.
with sludge. She swallows quickly. “No, thank
“I’m so sorry.” He’s lying, I can tell. I hope
you,” she says to Buck Jamieson, who is passing yet another salt cellar. “No more.”
No more. No more of anything. I shall skip
I can tell.
Finally, Joe ignores everybody and every-
“No,” she replies. “Good,” he says, already folding his napkin, ignoring his lemon meringue pie, which he always loved. “Let’s take off. Let’s go to
From Myra: “What did he die of?”
Peggy’s Cove and watch the surf. Or down to
“Work,” she replies with a bitterness that
Point Pleasant Park and sit on a bench in the
the boat ride, and surely I can’t be expected
encases the word. But I shouldn’t have married
sun. Maybe have a double-decker ice-cream
to tour that huge athletic complex. Jazz danc-
him anyway. No one should marry a person she
cone. Could you handle that?”
ing and basketball are not exactly my prime
doesn’t love, just because her heart is broken.
“I can handle that,” says Eva, rising. She
“He did give me three wonderful children,”
walks over to the other side of the table and
interests in life. I’ll go and finish my novel in my room; maybe I’ll sleep. She sees a figure approaching from across the dining room. He walks with a cane, and he’s dragging one foot.
she adds defensively. Defending whom, she
takes his arm. His bad foot has very little
movement, and it is slow in catching up to the
He says nothing. Nor is he eating his
other. His left arm, the one she is holding, is
lunch. He is just looking, looking at her, and
not doing much of anything. Eva thinks that
his expression is such that she cannot meet
she has never seen anyone quite as beautiful
ability I haven’t met today. And I’ll bet you
his eyes for very long. With her trembling
as this man. Beau. She is glad she wore her
anything we’ll get him at this table. Impaired
fork, she pushes the peas around the plate and
speech and all.
makes little patting motions on top of the
Stroke victim, she notes. It’s the one dis-
It’s a long journey, and his passage is
slow. She feels a fleeting irritation that any-
Finally she’s able to speak again. “You
one in his condition would let himself be late.
were in Africa, weren’t you, Joe?” Then, “How’s
Making a spectacle of himself. But when he is
Cynthia?” Even now, fifty-five years later, it
perhaps fifty feet away, she knows who he is.
is hard for Eva to say that name aloud.
As she passes Sally at the door of the dining room, they smile knowingly at one another. “Are you having an exciting time, Mrs. MacDougal?” asks Sally. “Exciting,” repeats Eva. “Exactly. You’ve put your finger right on it.”
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
With obvious moral undertones, the book Angela’s Ashes
Reviewed by Nina Skjelbred Sandefjord videregående skole
Read It! Angela holds the family together the best she can. The most obvious
offers a paradoxically vivid
burden on the family is
account of a Catholic child-
hood in Limerick, Ireland. The
which is the root of his work problems and also
person behind these memoirs
of the hunger that fol-
is Frank McCourt. Young Frank
lows in the footsteps of
is born to Irish parents in
unemployment. Malachy is a hopeless family
Brooklyn during the Depression
father, who spends a lot
years. After his family’s return
of time masking his dis-
from America when he is still
appointments over a pint in the pub. He has one
very young, he grows up in
true talent – telling sto-
Limerick with his parents
ries. Malachy survives by
Angela and Malachy, as well
telling his children about Cuchulain.
as his brothers and sisters. 01
Cuchulain – in Celtic Cú
02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Chulainn – is a figure based on the son of the solar god in Celtic mythology. He singlehandedly defended the entire kingdom of Ulster against the rest of
The stench of the outhouses adds to the setting. In addition to all the
Ireland, and defeated all his enemies by killing them. These tales are
misery there is the powerful presence of Catholicism. Little Frank
a recurrent theme throughout the book and seem very likely to have
believes that an angel that lands on the seventh step presents babies.
inspired Frank to pursue this deep-rooted Irish tradition of story-
The steps are the transit between the two rooms of the house – one
telling. The tales are interwoven with skill – and should your stu-
downstairs and the
dents fail to be overinterested in the cultural relevance of the legend
other upstairs – that
Cú, there is always the occasional witty anecdote which adds spice
the family have sym-
to the reading experience:
bolically named Ireland and Italy.
“The King decided there would have to be a contest to see who
This contrasting of
would marry Cuchulain and it would be a pissing contest. All
images and the
the women of Ireland assembled on the plains of Muirthemne
power of the descrip-
to see who could piss the longest and it was Emer. She was the
tive passages are
champion woman pisser of Ireland and married Cuchulain and
among the author’s
that’s why to this day she is called Great Bladdered Emer.”
finest achievements. Another example of
There are few limits to what the McCourt children have to endure as
this is the descrip-
they plod along the path of existence. Frank’s shoes are mended with
tion of Malachy’s
tires, and at one time they are given a pig’s head for Christmas dinner.
R ea d It! d ae R Angela’s Ashes – A Memoir of a Childhood ISBN 0-00-649840-X, 426 pages paperback. The sequel, ‘Tis, has been out for some time, and includes chapters that depict the author’s work as a teacher at an American vocational school.
from the alehouse, which are vigorously painted with detail and colour. On more than one occasion Frank has to collect his drunk father himself.
McCourt has had to endure harsh criticism for his negative portrayal of life in Limerick. It was hard for some of his fellow citizens to witness the success of his memoirs – particularly because they describe a miserable childhood that in fact some of the children never survived. The grimmest and most brutal picture is painted of the author’s most immediate surroundings – his family. It takes both courage and insight to portray family members in such a manner, and this also adds to the credibility of the book. When McCourt was at New York University he wrote a story about the flea-ridden bed with no sheets that he shared with his brothers. He didn’t have the courage to read it in class.
The characteristics of McCourt’s style are just as much about what is absent as what is present. There is no anger, hate or sorrow, a more appropriate word to sum up the dominant emotion is “bittersweet”. There is wit and humour as well as warmth and compassion. The painful passages that refer to Angela in bed with Laman Griffin to prevent the family from becoming homeless add powerfully to our impression of a woman of backbone, who fought for her family.
This passage describes paydays as they were for some women. They were typically not like this for Angela.
“The men who work in factories and shops in the city are coming into the lanes to have their supper, wash themselves and go to the pub. The women go to the films at the Coliseum or the Lyric Cinema. They buy sweets and Wild Woodbine cigarettes and if their husbands are working a long time they treat themselves to boxes of Black Magic chocolates. They love the romance films and they have a great time crying their eyes out when there’s an unhappy ending or a handsome lover goes away to be shot by Hindus and other non-Catholics.” There are downsides to reviewing books that have already been read by large numbers of people in the English-speaking world. Indeed, this Pulitzer Prize-winning book is already represented in at least two new school textbooks in Norway. Is has also been filmed, with Emily Watson (Breaking the Waves) and Robert Carlyle (The Full Monty) as two of the main characters. This combination of book and film often proves a success when choosing reading material for (or with – whichever the case may be) school classes. For those of you who have already read the book, these paragraphs will refresh your memories. For those of you who haven’t, a review may have one important consequence – tempting you into reading it.
“Dad stands for a minute, swaying, and puts the penny back in his pocket. He turns toward Mam and she says, You’re not sleeping in this bed tonight. He makes his way downstairs with the candle, sleeps on a chair, misses work in the morning, loses the job at the cement factory, and we’re back on the dole again.” I would like to encourage Erling Gilje at Godalen videregående to write about a favourite novel in the next issue of this magazine.
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Cappelen + engelsk =
La a! st o
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 200 VĂ…R
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1 200 VĂ…R
00 T 20 HØS
00 T 20 HØS
1 200 VÅR
1 200 VÅR
1 200 VÅR
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
1 200 VÅR
1 200 VÅR
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Differentiation Made Made Easy
Differentiation Made Easy
Marcie Madden Austad er med-
forfatter på Cappelens lærebøker i engelsk for den videregående skolen, GK, VK1 og VK2. Hun har undervist i videregående skole i 14 år, og har for tiden permisjon for å utvikle lærebøker i engelsk. Marcie kommer fra Canada og har bodd i Norge i snart 25 år.
by Marcie Madden Austad
01 02 03
Use the curriculum as a basis
Differentiation – it’s a buzz-
But differentiation doesn’t have
word. We all talk about it, but
to be difficult and expensive.
few of us manage to do much
In this article I outline a sim-
with it. This is probably
ple and flexible model for dif-
because the task seems so
ferentiation in the English
daunting, involving so much
foundation course. The individ-
ment of aims and goals, and defines the skills
planning and organisation. It
ual teacher can apply it within
and knowledge that our pupils are required to
requires extra resources
the classroom, hopefully with-
– teachers, classroom space,
out having to turn the whole
time – all of which are usually
school on its head.
in short supply.
for differentiation Set clear goals. Start with the curriculum (læreplan i engelsk).
The curriculum not only allows for differentiation, but also encourages it. It is a state-
use and work towards. It does not tell us what material (e.g. texts) we have to use, or how our pupils are supposed to reach these goals (read 500 pages, do certain types of activities etc.). It is up to the pupil and teacher to specify these.
We can thus use the curriculum to set up a
plan for our pupils which can form the basis
for differentiation. How do we do this and
where do we start?
plan, which limits the amount of material
Let’s take for example Target 5a, which
they have to get through, will give them the
requires that our pupils should • Have an overall picture of the Englishspeaking world
back on an individual basis. The minimum
Differentiation Made EasyysaE
Start with the background or content
• Know about the history and geography of the USA
• Know about social conditions, customs and values in the USA
• Know about education, working life, industry and the environment of the USA
• Be able to describe the contents of at least two short stories, or excerpts from a play, either read or seen.
Topics and goals are defined, but there is
room for a lot of variation. How much or how
little should pupils know within each of these
areas to meet the requirements of the curriculum? Can we define a minimal or core set of
requirements that could be common for all pupils?
It is not necessary for all pupils to cover
everything to the same extent and depth. We
can, for example, distinguish between a mini-
mum and maximum plan for covering the back-
extra time they need to work on their language skills. And if these plans are used properly in the classroom (see section on “Using differentiated plans in the classroom”), the teacher will get the opportunity to spend more time with these pupils.
Example of a differentiated work plan The following plan is based on a chapter in the textbook American Ways. The same idea could equally be used to present a chapter from Imagine or another textbook, or to present a particular theme using material from different chapters or sources. In this plan we distinguish between core and
optional text material. Core material comprises texts that everyone is going to work with. Criteria include being central to the curriculum, not too difficult and of a length that can be covered by everyone in a designated period.
Optional material comprises texts that are usually longer, more difficult, or just extra. We also distinguish between minimum and
maximum activities. Minimum activities
include only those exercises which concen-
But what about the skills?
trate on simple comprehension and basic
The curriculum for foundation English requires
skills. Maximum activities include a wider
The minimum plan:
that our pupils exhibit competence in the
range of exercises, plus those that emphasis
Pupils cover all the required topics, but in
basic skills: reading, writing, speaking and
intermediate and advanced skills.
The minimum and maximum plan
This means fewer and/or simpler texts. For
08 For those who are not familiar with American
example, one core background text + one or
Working towards improvement in the four
Ways, the activities are organised according
more other texts related to the theme. Pupils
basic skills is of course an interrelated task.
to the following categories.
spend more time on each text.
All pupils benefit from working specifically
Only 2 short stories
with language skills, but students with fair to
good skills often get most of the practice they
No. 2 /3 more in-depth questions and
The maximum plan:
need within the context of general English
Pupils cover all topics but in greater depth.
teaching – reading and working with texts etc.
More texts, longer texts, more difficult
12 simple comprehension activities
13 14 15
No. 3 /4 language activities
No. 4 /5 lengthier writing and Internet
texts – or a range of texts from simple to
The problem is the pupil with very poor skills.
These pupils cannot work with the same
Core background texts + larger number of
material or at the same pace as students with
others from the chapter in question.
more advanced skills. They need to spend
More than 2 short stories
more time on their basic skills. In addition,
they often require a lot of practice and feed-
Differentiated workplan for American Ways
It will also help determine flexible grouping patterns - which pupils
Chapter: Up North
should work together etc. For this purpose you can use:
Time period: 4 weeks
• Diagnostic tests in language, (such as test is provided in the Teacher’s Book for Imagine and American Ways).
• Writing samples (pupils write short pieces, letters to the
All pupils must read core texts. Pupils who wish to follow the maximum plan can also choose one or more of the optional texts.
teacher telling about themselves etc. during the first week) • Individual interviews with the pupils • Self-evaluation – pupils’ own evaluation/log
Core Texts (minimum plan)
1 An American School Quiz
Education / Work in the US
2 Susan at Anoka High
• Teacher observation (pupils’ talking to each other in small groups)
“ All these activities should be organised during the first few weeks of the school year, but on-going assessment of the pupils’ status
Optional Texts (maximum plan)
and progress is important.
4 Three Shots
5 Scandinavian Immigration
2 Whole class instruction
6 Native Americans
Whole class instruction is still very important in the differentiated
7 Is Prom Worth it?
classroom, particularly in the following situations:
and way of life
a) Introducing a new core text or topic Activity plan
This would include logging-in or warm-up activities to establish
Pupils who wish to spend more time on basic reading and language
the starting point for learning.
work should choose the minimum plan for a text. Pupils who wish to work with more intermediate and advanced skills (discussion, extra
b) First reading of text
writing, Internet searches etc.) should choose the maximum plan.
All core texts should be either read aloud or listened to on CD.
Pupils do not have to follow one sort of plan for all texts, you can in
Longer texts should be broken up to control understanding. In
other words follow the minimum plan for one text and the maximum for
American Ways and Imagine, most longer texts contain “Stop to
another, depending on need and interest.
Consider” exercises for this purpose.
1. An American School Quiz
No. 1, 2
No. 1, 2
2. Susan at Anoka High
No. 1, 4
No. 1, 2, 3 (4 optional)
No. 1, 3b, 4, 5
No. 1, 2, 3, 5 (4 optional)
4. Three Shots
No. 1 + (either 2, 3, 4)
5. Scandinavian Immigration
No. 1 (2 optional)
6. Native Americans
7. Is Prom Worth It?
No. 1 + (either 2, 3)
c) Class review One or more classroom periods should be used for review of chapter or theme, which could include one of more of the following activities: • Summary of main points • Feedback on homework assignments, writing assignments etc. • Pupils’ evaluation • Writing assignment or chapter test
Writing assignment (Text 3, No. 5)
3 Differentiated instruction/learning Differentiation does not mean individualised instruction. It involves a combination of group and individual work as required. After the topic or text has been introduced, pupils can start working on their own. These
Using differentiated plans in the classroom
It is not enough to hand out a differentiated workplan to your pupils and
leave the rest up to them. Equally important is the nature and organisa-
a) Second reading of text
tion of classroom instruction. Here are some things to keep in mind:
It is always an advantage for pupils to read a text a second (or
activities can include the following:
third time) on their own. Sometime this can be done in the class-
room. Stronger pupils can read aloud to each other. Weaker pupils
Before you can differentiate, you and your pupils must know where they
can work individually, concentrating on vocabulary, comprehension,
stand with regard to the topic to be taught. This information will allow
and pronunciation at their own pace. If there is not enough time in
you to make instructional decisions about pupils’ strengths and needs.
class, then assign this task as homework.
b) Text activities
Pupils can follow their plans either individually or in assigned
The model we have outlined above does not attempt to cover all
pairs or groups.
aspects of differentiation in the classroom. There are many roads to
They can work at their own pace, and will often be able to decide
the same end and this is just one. But it does provide us with a start-
themselves where or when they want to do the activity. They may
ing point and its modest proportions don’t require extensive organisa-
need to work in the library or IKT room, in which case they must
indicate this in their plan and make arrangements. This information can be initialled on their worksheet (C – classroom, H – home-
Moreover, experience has shown that the model does work and that
work, IKT, L – library etc). The main point is that they come
pupils enjoy the autonomy the plans afford. In particular, weaker
through their plan in the time proscribed. Your job is to guide and
pupils get the opportunity to spend more time on comprehension,
facilitate this process. Experience has shown that the stronger
vocabulary and writing skills. Stronger pupils get more time to move
pupils often prefer to work on their own, thus giving you more time
beyond the text, to relate the material to their own personal experi-
to spend with the weaker pupils.
ence and to find out more from other sources, such as the Internet. Overall, the teaching and learning experience becomes both more enjoyable and productive for both pupil and teacher.
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14
WIDE OPEN RACES!
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
A M E R I C A N
E L E C T I O N S
2 0 0 0
Robert Mikkelsen er medforfatter på Cappelens lærebøker
i engelsk for den videregående skolen, VK1 og VK2. Han underviste i videregående skole i 12 år før han i 1991 ble ansatt på Høgskolen i Østfold der han underviser grunnfag- og mellomfagkurs om USA. Til tross for at han har bodd i Norge i snart 30 år, har han beholdt sin amerikanske stemmerett og sin interesse for amerikansk politikk. I denne artikkelen tar han for seg årets presidentvalg i USA. Gå det mot en utskifting av partier i Det hvite hus?
They are upon us once more, the seemingly endless American elections - presidential, congressional, state and local. Why should we or our pupils be interested in this silly season once again? Well, quite apart from the fact
Democrats stand a good chance of winning
that the USA is the only superpower around
back control. In the Senate the Republican
these days and needs to be kept an eye on, this
majority is also 6 seats, but the Democrats
year's elections actually promise to be rather
have a tougher fight there. Only one third of
exciting for two reasons. First, whoever wins
the Senate is up for re-election every two
may be in a position to set the course of
years; i.e. 33 seats. Still, if the Democrats
American politics for the next decade and
can win the presidential election, they only
beyond. Second, the elections are very close
need to gain 5 seats to control the Senate
and will be hotly contested. With no clear win-
tails” on which weaker candidates can ride
because the Vice President presides over the
ners in sight, these are wide open races.
into office behind the presidential candidate.
Senate and can vote to break a 50 to 50 dead-
Coattails will be exceedingly short this year.
lock. It's possible, but not likely.
This article will outline the most important
The race is very close. For the first time since
campaigns, explain the rush to the center in
1988, an incumbent President is not running
Finally, the state elections are also quite
American politics in 2000, give a thumbnail
for re-election. That gives the Republicans a
close this year. Democrats control 25 state
sketch of the presidential candidates and re-
clear shot at the office. As I write this,
governments and Republicans 23 (the other
view likely political strategies and issues.
Democrat Al Gore and Republican George Bush
Finally it will point you at some Internet sites.
are running the statistical equivalent of neckand-neck in popularity polls.
12 two are neutral or evenly divided). Why is this 13 important? Because whichever party controls 14 the state government after this election will
re-draw the lines of the congressional dis-
A presidential election dominates all other
Added to this dead-heat are equally close con-
tricts of their state according to the new
campaigns because it is the only nationwide
gressional elections. Since 1994 both the
Census of 2000. Both parties have been known
office people get to vote for in the United
House of Representatives with its 435 mem-
to make some pretty funny looking districts
States. A popular presidential candidate can
bers, and the Senate with its 100, have been
which just happen to hold a majority of their
influence citizens to vote for weaker candi-
controlled by the Republicans. In the House
respective voters. This is known as “gerry-
dates from the same party at the state and
they have a majority of only 6 seats. With all
mandering” and will affect the political map
local level. This is known as having “coat-
seats up for re-election this year, the
of America until 2010.
To put it pointedly, if either party wins at all
troversial policies that might alienate some
and Senate back for the Republicans, convinc-
levels it would gain great advantages. It would
portion of the party's broad coalition. Further,
ing him that he could lead a radical right wing
be able to set the political agenda from the
to gain the swing voters outside the party, the
reform of the federal government. Instead the
White House, run an incumbent presidential
leadership avoids both clearly left or right
Republicans suffered losses under him in 1996
candidate next time around, nominate and prob-
wing policies and aims for the center.
and 1998 and he was driven out of politics.
ably confirm new Supreme Court Justices (two
This has taught the party leadership of both
of whom may be stepping down within 4 years),
This is particularly true of this year's presi-
the Democrats and Republicans a lesson –
stand a good chance of passing its legislative
dential election. During the 1990s, both the
shun extremes and hug the center. That's why
programs through both chambers of Congress,
Democrats under Clinton and the Republicans
we now have candidates who claim to be New
and re-write the political map for state and
under House Representative Newt Gingrich
Democrats (read “a somewhat more conserva-
local elections for 10 years. That's a lot to win
tried swinging away from the center, and both
tive liberal”) or Compassionate Conservatives
or lose. The central question now facing each
were punished. Clinton fielded a broad and
(read “a somewhat more liberal conserva-
party is how to gain the votes it needs to win.
ambitious federal health care program to
cover all Americans at the start of his first Swing voters and center hugging
term. This classic liberal program was shot
The candidates and dynastic democracy
When asked this spring which party they
down from the political center which, after 12
There is a long tradition in the United States
would vote for in congressional elections, 41%
years of Reagan/Bush, no longer believed in
for the election of persons related to someone
of Americans replied the Republican Party,
massive government programs. Then in 1994,
who has been elected earlier. Think of it as
41% replied the Democratic Party and 18%
Newt Gingrich's conservative “Contract with
brand-name appeal. On the presidential level
replied they were undecided. This not only
America” was credited with winning the House
we have the Adams (John and John Quincy),
It also reflects a long term trend in American politics. The number of undecided voters is growing. Some estimate that as much as a third of the electorate has no party preference. These are known as the “swing voters” because, depending on which way they swing – right or left – the Republicans or the 01
Democrats win the election. The swing voters
may be found in the center of American poli-
tics somewhere between the conservative
Republican Party on the right and the liberal
Democratic Party on the left. If you want to
win a nationwide or statewide election in the
USA, these are the voters you must attract.
The sheer size of this group has intensified
this year's fight for the center in American
politics – a contest which is already institu-
tionalized by the country's two-party political
structure. Unlike most European political par-
ties which represent one interest group (such
as Center Party or Labor in Norway) and which
enter political coalitions with other parties
in parliament after a general election,
American political parties are broad coali-
tions of many interest groups which must try
to find a common political platform to field
one candidate before a general election. That
means that these political platforms are pur-
posely vague. The party leadership avoids con-
shows how close the elections are this year.
01 the Roosevelts (Theodore and Franklin), and most recently the Kennedys (John and â€“ almost â€“ Robert). Rarely, however, have two better connected men ever fought it out for the presidency than this year. Both of them were born not with silver, but with
golden spoons in their mouths.
03 04 05 06 07
Vice President Al Gore is the son Al Gore Sr., long serving Senator from Tennessee. Born in 1948, Al Gore was brought up in Washington, D.C. After a lackluster college performance, he worked briefly as a reporter before spending 8 years as
Truth is, Americans are pretty content these days.
Congressman from Tennessee and then another 8 as Senator from that same state, just like his father before him. He made an unsuccessful
bid for the presidential nomination in 1988 and in 1992 was selected as Clinton's running mate. He has been waiting in the wings ever since. A southerner, like his mentor Clinton and his challenger Bush, Gore is a New Democrat seeking to maintain Democratic control of the center of American politics. As a campaigner Gore is rather wooden, lacking Clinton's common touch, though he has recently worked at becoming more folksy and familiar. He is, however, without a doubt honest, sincere, capable and looks like Superman.
08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Texas Governor George W. Bush is even better
has been poaching in Republican fields by
Government to heel” – subtext: “We will get
connected. Talk about dynasties! Born in 1946,
pushing the issue of support for the families
rid of the sleazy Clinton-Gore administration
he is the son of former President George Bush
of the “working poor” – his version of “family
that has disgraced the office with sex and
(that's what the “W” is about), the grandson of
values,” a stock Republican issue.
financial scandals and wasted tax payer’s on
way or another, to 15 former presidents. In
Does this mean that the choice will simply be
The Democrats, for their part, will try to por-
addition, his brother, Jeb Bush, is presently
between tweedledum and tweedledee? Not at
tray George W. as an inexperienced light-
Governor of Florida. This means his family can
all. There are clear and significant differences
weight, and the patsy of Big Oil, Big Business
probably deliver both Texas and Florida to the
between the two parties and candidates. For
and conservative fundamentalists. Expect
Republicans in the upcoming election – a major
example, Gore supports gun control, Bush
something like this: “Stick with experience
plus. After a lackluster college performance,
backs away from it. Bush supports and, as
and proven success from the people's represen-
George W. entered the Texas “energy industry”
Texas Governor, enforces the death penalty
tatives” – subtext: “Why risk the best times
(read “oil industry” - the Bushs' power base)
frequently. Gore supports, but is skeptical of
in 30 years by bringing in a novice supported
and owned a baseball team in Texas. On the
it. Gore is pro-choice (allowing abortions)
by the fat cats and fanatics?” And regarding
basis of these achievements he was elected
while Bush is pro-life (opposing abortions).
the “sleaze” factor – well, George W. has a bit
Governor of that state in 1994 and re-elected
Gore wants to invest the estimated 1.7-4.1 tril-
of checkered past himself. This guy did inhale.
money big tax-and-spend liberal programs.”
Senator Prescott Bush and is related, in one
with a substantial majority in 1998. Although
lion dollars federal budget surplus forecast
he has not held public office nearly as long as
for the next 10 years into social security and
Who will win?
his Democratic opponent, he is a good cam-
health care. Bush wants to give a lot of it back
Despite the fact that Bush has led in populari-
paigner and has shown a remarkable ability to
to the taxpayers through tax cuts. Bush is pro-
ty polls all year, there is no clear favorite.
“raid” normally Democratic voter groups like
business. Gore is pro-labor. Broadly, Bush
Gore will become a believable candidate when
Hispanics and women, racking up majorities in
wants reduced government activity and pro-
he steps out from under Clinton's shadow. Then
these groups of 53.5% and 68.6% respectively
motes deregulation, while Gore believes in
he will have formidable advantages including
in his last Texas election. In this year of swing
active efficient government which finds new
the office of Vice President (a bully pulpit),
voters, that makes him a formidable challenger.
ways to meet the people's needs.
the support of a popular President, a united Democratic Party behind him, secure support
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Issues and strategies
Yes, there are real differences, but don't
from core voters and, above all, shared credit
Expect a campaign focused on candidates
expect to hear much substantive about them
for the longest economic expansion in
rather than issues. Even on those rare occa-
in the campaign this autumn. Issues like gun
American history. Bush, for his part, has the
sions when the two major American parties
control, abortion or the death penalty are so
advantage of being a new face and, paradoxi-
sharply differ in their public policy state-
explosive that neither candidate wants to
cally, an outsider in Washington. He can
ments, it has never been possible to separate
touch them. Whoever you gain is balanced by
promise to return the country to the “honor-
their presidential candidates’ personal quali-
someone you lose. Nor are lengthy policies
able” condition it enjoyed before Bill and his
ties from the public issues being debated dur-
papers on social security reform, housing for
friends took over (note: George W.'s father did
ing the campaign. That's in the nature of the
the poor or education vouchers likely to fire
not disgrace the office). Americans love to
beast. A president is elected to a four-year
up public opinion. Truth is, Americans are
“turn the rascals out.” In addition, Bush is
term independent of Congress. Who this per-
pretty content these days. The economy is in
charming, whereas Gore is stiff as a post. In
son is counts and warrants close inspection.
the longest expansion ever recorded.
the end it will all depend on how successfully
Moreover, this year's drive toward the fuzzy
Unemployment is the lowest since the late
Bush and Gore can appeal to the uncommitted
center of American politics leaves much of the
1960s (and at an all time low for blacks and
swing voters of the center. As the barker at
debate between the two candidates on mushy
Hispanics.) Inflation is non-existent. The
the carnival put it, “Ya pays your money and
ground. Sharp differences in public pronounce-
Soviet Union evaporated a decade ago and
ya takes ya choice!”
ments are few and far between. For example,
there are no serious threats on the horizon.
Those wishing to follow the campaign more
according to recent polls, Americans are most concerned this election with issues like edu-
So, instead of policy, personality will be at
closely can visit the American Embassy
cation, health care and social security reform.
the heart of the campaign – sad to say. The
Website at – www.usa.no. Scroll down to
This is good news for Al Gore and the
Republicans will try to tie Gore to Clinton and
“Elections 2000” and click. There you can sub-
Democrats. These are classic Democratic
paint them with the same brush – this might
scribe to a weekly newsletter and find links
issues. But, sure enough, Bush has declared
be called the “Monica Lewinsky” factor. Expect
to many other useful sites.
education and reform of social security to be
something like this: “We will restore honor
at the center of his campaign. Similarly, Gore
and integrity to the White House and bring Big
The ’60s av May Britt Kleppe Josefsen Åssiden videregående skole USA er et hovedtema for grunnkurselever. Elevene skal “ha kunnskap om historiske og geografiske forhold i USA”. De skal også “ha kunnskap om
Har du et tips å gi til kolleger? Et undervisningsopplegg du var fornøyd med, et vellykket prosjekt, et
samfunnsforhold og sosiale forhold, skikker og verdisyn i USA” (jf. fagplanen for engelsk, felles allment fag for alle studieretninger, mål 5a). Med fare for å få videoimportørene på nakken vil jeg gi dere et tips: Se filmen The ’60s! Den kom ut i 1998, med Mark Piznarski som regissør, og den er fengende og motiverende for elevene.
dikt som elevene likte godt, en interessant webside … mulighetene
Filmen tar for seg sekstitallet fra begynnelse til slutt. The ’60s er en blanding av historie, fantasi og tidsriktig musikk. Filmen er bygget opp
er mange! I denne faste spalten ønsker vi å lage et forum for engelsklærere i videregående skole.
som en vanlig spillefilm hvor vi følger livene til to amerikanske familier som begge splittes, og som til slutt bringes sammen igjen. Autentiske filmklipp er brukt gjennom hele filmen.
Kommunikasjon er som kjent sterkt
Noen temaer / historiske personer / begivenheter / filmklipp
vektlagt i læreplanene, og forhåp-
som vises i filmen: Borgerrettighetsbevegelsen, segregering i sørstatene, demonstrasjoner,
entligvis kan Pass it on! bidra til en levende menings- og erfarings-
vold, stemmeregistrering i Mississippi, Vietnamkrigen, hippie-bevegelsen, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Nixon, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, George Wallace, James Meredith,
utveksling om engelskfaget. Publiserte bidrag til spalten vil honoreres med boksjekker til en verdi av 300 kr.
Neil Armstrong, Abbie Hoffman, amerikansk fotball, “the prom”, twistdansing og holdinger til den, militæret, virkeligheten i Vietnam og bevegelsen mot krigen, p-pillen, graviditet og foreldres reaksjon, “fraternity /sorority parties”, mordet på Malcolm X, “Black Panthers”, opprør, Martin Luther King’s tale, landsmøte for demokratene /republikanerne, militærnektere, Armstrong går på månen, Woodstock-festivalen, krigsveteraner og musikk som: The Doors, The Beatles, Bob Dylan, Manfred Mann, The Beach Boys, The Temptations, James Brown etc.
01 02 03 04 05 06
Filmen tar 2 klokketimer, og jeg har brukt 6–8 skoletimer på hele opplegget.
2 timer: Presentasjon av filmen /historiske begivenheter, utlevering av
et mini-kompendium med informasjon om historiske begivenheter de skal
legge merke til, navn på personene i filmen, stikkord om handlingsgang,
litt om filmteknikk etc., visning av ca. 45 min. film.
2 timer: Læreren holder miniforedrag om enkelte tema, for eksempel
Vietnamkrigen, eventuell tekstgjennomgang om enkelte temaer, for
eksempel tekst om borgerrettigheter, visning av ca. 45 min. film.
2 timer: Visning av resten av filmen, diskusjon, eventuelt historie- eller språkoppgaver knyttet til filmen.
2 timer: Prøve, elevene får i oppgave å drøfte filmen. De får stikkord som
15 16 17
utgangspunkt for drøfting.
Elevene blir fenget av filmen og sekstitallet. På yrkesfaglig skole er det
ofte rene jente- og gutteklasser, og filmen blir like godt mottatt av begge
kjønn. Filmen er typisk amerikansk og elevene har reagert på at historien
om de to familiene ender med en tradisjonell amerikansk “happy end”,
men uansett er det en film verdt å vurdere for engelsklærere.
WORD PUZZLE FROM DOWN UNDER
1. Nair dent shoe warry. 2. Garment seamy anile seward icon do. 3. Hair bat a beer?
Let Stalk Strine! (transl. Let’s Talk Australian!)
4. Sleece tiger do! 5. Yell jess tefter get chews twit.
av Richard Burgess
6. Where cheque etcher londger ray? 7. Bloody stewnce! When English author Monica Dickens was autographing copies of her lat-
8. An egg nishna.
est in a Sydney bookshop, a woman approached her with a copy, handed it
9. Sag rapes.
to her and said “Emma Chisit”. Ms Dickens nodded and wrote “To Emma
10. Jeggoda Sinny?
Chisit” on the title page and then signed the book. “No”, said the woman,
11. Tiger look!
realizing the mistake, “Emma Chisit?” (i.e. “How much is it?”)
12. God a slit nair dyke.
With the Sydney Olympics just behind us, perhaps it wouldn’t come amiss
13. Nearly gay me a nerve sprike tan.
to brush up on our Australian English – or “Strine”, as the Aussies them-
14. Emeny times die affter tellyer?
selves fondly call the broader variety of their mother tongue. Below are
15. He saw way sonn the grog – annie carn work wily strinken.
some essential phrases in Strine. Can you guess what they would be in
16. He’s the spin-ear mitch of his old man.
17. Zarf trawl wee rony flesh and blood wennit saul boiled down.
Når du har klart å oversette dette til Standard English, send løsningen til oss (adressen finner du foran i tidsskriftet), og kanskje er du en av de tre heldige vinnerne som mottar en boksjekk til en verdi av 300 kroner. Vinnerne av forrige nummers kryssordkonkurranse er: David John Lloyd, Kragerø vgs. • Catherine Churchill, Gerhard Schnønings skole • Margaret Kaarbø, Heggen vgs.
01 02 03
Jeg vil gjerne stå som mottaker av den nye fagavisen for engelsklærere.
Skolens navn: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Skolens adresse: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 11 12 13 14
03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
Faglærerens navn: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 12 13 14 15
CAPPELEN UNDERVISNING, Videregående skole, Postboks 350 Sentrum, 0101 Oslo. Faksnummer: 22 36 50 46