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Le Siciliane SIMONA MAFAI UNA ADOLESCENTE CHE FACEVA ATTIVITÀ SEGRETA NEL PARTITO COMUNISTA

IL VIAGGIO

Alunna del liceo Tasso,assieme alla sorella maggiore portava clandestinamente l'Unità ai compagni. Sposa Pancrazio De Pasquale e si trasferisce in Sicilia, dove si scontra coi mafiosi e si impegna a fianco di Pio LaTorre

"A

lla biblioteca Nazionale l'atmosfera era bellissima, …le lampade sui tavoli, le luci soffuse…il travertino…un ambiente suggestivo. C'erano libri di ogni tipo, io e mia sorella cominciammo a leggere quelli che parlavano di democrazia, il nuovo socialismo; trovammo quello di Labriola che in appendice aveva il manifesto del partito comunista Marx ed Heghel. Era fantastico! Nella biblioteca incontrammo un tipo che vedeva che io e Miriam leggevamo questi libri, probbilmente ci aveva adocchiato, ci contattò e quindi entrammo nella rete clandestina del Partito Comunista. Praticamente, ci mise in contatto con una donna. Andammo al primo appuntamento. Una ragazzetta ci aspettava all'Ara Pacis, seduta su un muretto con i piedi penzoloni, era Maria Antonietta Macciocchi, iniziammo a collaborare ed entrammo in rapporto con il nucleo delle donne". Simona Mafai racconta così con molta semplicità, come se fossero cose di tutti giorni, e forse anche per questo nel racconto toglie la passione. Ma traspare. uando riapre la scuola, Simona frequentava il primo liceo al Tasso lo studio e i contatti col partito comunista sono la quotidianità. La durezza della guerra, il nemico che occupava le strade, il coprifuoco,la tessera per il cibo, si mangiava poco e male, ma l'im-

Q

pegno metteva tutto in secondo ordine. "Distribuivamo il giornale si raccoglieva soccorso rosso. Andavo a scuola e mi occupavo dei col-

rarli a memoria perché non era possibile scriverli. Una volta mentre stavo per andare a casa del Bussi, per strada una donna che io, non conoscevo mi si buttò addosso e all'orecchio mi disse non andare ci sono i tedeschi, pensavo che nessuno mi vedesse invece evidentemente i vicini sapevano". Simona Mafai oggi ottantenne, ha fama di burbera, donna severa, rigida. Inizia a parlare esitante, quasi diffidente, ma dopo un attimo inizia a rilassarsi, e dimostra di essere una persona allegra e ironica.

LE LEGGI RAZZIALI

"A

legamenti per la distribuzione dell'Unità che era clandestina, qualche pacco più o meno misterioso da consegnare qui e là… Pericolosissimo. Di quel trasporto non conoscevo il contenuto, poteva essere anche esplosivo, non sapevo. Roma era divisa in zone, c'erano i capo zona; il mio era un certo Antonio Bussi, un sarto che poi fu arrestato e ucciso, c'è la lapide in suo ricordo. Io andavo a casa sua lui aveva già l'Unità, piegavamo i giornali, ne mettevo un certo numero nella borsetta e li andavo a consegnare. Gli indirizzi bisognava impa-

vevo appena dieci anni quando, finite le elementari furono promulgate le leggi razziali, non potei entrare al ginnasio." Simona Mafai ex senatore della Repubblica per il partito comunista, ancora oggi protagonista intellettuale senza peli sulla lingua, nasce a Roma nel 1928. La mamma "figlia e nipote di un rabbino della Lituania, nella genia è una ebrea particolare, che ha sempre avuto una visione culturale dell'ebraismo nel senso della tradizione. Da questo punto di vista ha tentato di celebrarlo, per cui il venerdì sera, l'entrata della giornata del sabato, a casa Mafai si accendono le candele, si mettono i vestiti puliti, si prepara il pranzo tipico, si inizia a leggere una poesia, si fa una citazione…una specie di serata lettera-

pagina 20


Le Siciliane FIGLIA DI UNA SCULTRICE EBREA E DI UN PITTORE ANTIFASCISTA, INIZIA LA SUA MILITANZA TRASCRIVENDO I QUADERNI DI GRAMSCI

DI SIMONA ria. Ho dei ricordi bellissimi" dice Simona che ci accoglie nella sua bellissima casa. Un appartamento all'ultimo piano di un antico palazzo alle spalle della cattedrale di Palermo. Una casa luminosa, piena di luce e di suoni della città; una casa semplice, senza bardature e accessori inutili" mi dicono che sono "buttera" - dice scherzando - una che butta facilmente" dall'ingresso si accede a un terrazzino che domina sui tetti del centro storico, con lo sguardo accarezzi le cupole, ovunque piante. L'insieme nella sua semplicità è affascinante.

I

l padre famoso pittore, non ha mai preso la tessera del fascismo e quindi non ha potuto insegnare all'accademia, pur essendo molto apprezzato. Alle sue figlie non faceva mettere la divisa di piccola italiana e questo creava non pochi problemi soprattutto a Simona, "… dì che siamo poveri e non la possiamo comprare - diceva mio padre - ma per una bambina è molto difficile. A scuola mi si diceva provvederemo noi col patronato scolastico. Non lo fecero mai per fortuna mia." Piano piano, mentre i ricordi affiorano, la fama della sua severità, il suo essere seriosa, scompa-

GRAZIELLA PROTO

fecero subito delle bellissime scuole ebraiche.. Mi trovai con tutti ragazzi ebrei - raccontalì cominciai a sentirmi ebrea - aggiunge - la persecuzione accentua l'identità. Cominciai a pormi alcune domande: siamo ebrei? Lo siamo troppo poco? Mamma perché festeggiamo il natale se non è il nostro?... La persecuzione porta il richiamo della propria identità conclude"

S

re, si scioglie e diventa ancora più simpatica.

IL PADRE PITTORE

P

adre pittore, madre scultrice, due artisti aperti, colti, quindi una famiglia di privilegiati? No, e allora spiega che la famiglia era abbastanza modesta, la ricchezza stava nelle opportunità perché c'era un certo giro di artisti, poeti. Quando Simona non poté andare a scuola per le leggi razziali i suoi la scrissero a scuola privata. "Gli ebrei sono dei grandi organizzatori; a Roma

pagina 21

ubito dopo si trasferirono a Genova e lì frequentò il ginnasio Doria. Di quel periodo mette in risalto l'allegria che possono avere i giovani anche nei momenti più difficili, la madre preoccupata che tentava di fare le riserve, zucchero, farina, te. Le corse al rifugio erano frequenti e caratterizzati dall' incoscienza giovanile,"… tutta la notte nascosti, poi, la mattina ci si lavava la faccia ed andavamo a scuola. Attraversavamo la città sventrata, era anche abbastanza rischioso, appena entrati a scuola ci si buttava tutto alle spalle e si parlava di Platone, Petrarca…". icino dove abitavamo noi c'erano dei soldati russi prigionieri. Noi ogni mattina li vedevamo con i tedeschi a fianco e subito scatta la solidarietà verso gli oppressi e i deboli racconta - comprammo delle sigarette e quando fummo vicino a loro gliele demmo. Una prima presa di coscien-

"V

>


Le Siciliane "NELLA VITA QUOTIDIANA IL CLIMA ERA TROPPO PESANTE, APRIVI IL GIORNALE E I LUNGHI ELENCHI DEI FUCILATI ADDOLORAVANO E SPAVENTAVANO. GLI EPISODI LEGATI A QUEL PERIODO SONO PARECCHI. C'ERA UN RAGAZZO STUDENTE DI ARCHITETTURA, FU PRESO, TORTURATO E POI UCCISO..."

>

za della guerra - aggiunge Simona che ormai va a ruota libera sull'onda dei ricordi " La guerra le sfiorava attraverso i prigionieri russi solo povera gente schiacciata dagli eventi, perché quando la Russia invade la Finlandia, Simona fa parte dei giovani che manifestano a favore della Finlandia. oi ci fu l'invasione dei tedeschi, la caduta di Mussolini e il padre pensò che fosse meglio ritornare a Roma. Nel giro di tre giorni arrivarono nella capitale, non avevano una casa furono ospitati in case diverse:dispersi. Simona e sua sorella diventano assidue della biblioteca Nazionale e da lì iniziano la loro attività clandestina.

P

"N

oi arrivammo a Roma il tre settembre del 43 poche settimane dopo ci fu una delle più grandi stragi, il ghetto di Roma fu circondato e tutti gli ebrei portati via. I giornali del tempo non lo riportarono e non si seppe nulla. Non si seppe mai dove li portarono, dove erano finiti. Anche il Vaticano si preoccupò." La famiglia Mafai stranamente non la sente, non vivevano la comunità ebraica, erano dispersi presso diverse famiglie. ull'Unità esce un annuncio che invitava chi volesse dare lavoro volontario al partito a presentarsi, Simona va subito. E' molto brava a battere a macchina,farà la dattilografa. Inizia copiando i quaderni di Gramsci poi piano, piano si avvicina "…alla commissione propaganda, dove cerano delle persone eccezionali, Carlo Salinari, Mario Spinella Valentino Giarratana, Franco Calamandrei figlio di Calamandrei, poi a quella femminile. Quindi le sezioni di Roma dove la struttura popolare è molto forte, arriva il 46, la preparazione della Costituente. Nel 46 le donne per la

S

prima volta votavano e i partiti erano preoccupati. Il PCI prende la decisione che ai comizi, prima doveva parlare una donna, non si tratta di una scelta femminista, le donne finora erano state impegnate quasi come gli uomini; la Mafai gira come una trottola con Terracini Giorgio Amendola, Giancarlo Paletta, persone che diventeranno personaggi storici. "La cosa comica fu che andavo in giro a fare i comizi e propaganda, ma non avendo compiuto ventuno anni,non potei votare per la Costituente e non potetti nemmeno nel 1948".

LA SVOLTA DI SALERNO

M

onarchia o Repubblica dirà pressappoco Togliatti, si vedrà dopo il referendum, per adesso fino a quando ci sono i tedeschi rimane la Monarchia, il Governo provvisorio. "Se da un lato è un bene perchè consente che la guerra del nord sia fatta in nome di tutta l'Italia, questa decisione del leader fu vista da parecchi come un cedimento. Esce l'Unità con in prima pagina la dichiarazione di Palmiro Togliatti "… quando andai a consegnare il giornale qualcuno molto arrabbiato in romanesco mi disse con questo ci facciamo il falò, lo bruciamo" e mentre lo racconta Simona si diverte.

L

'incontro con Pancrazio Di Pasquale avviene come la stessa dice divertita, "alla sovietica." Ero già funzionaria di partito e quindi andai alla scuola di partito alle Frattocchie. Più di

pagina 22

un compagno mi aveva parlato tanto di lui; quello Siciliano era il segretario regionale più giovane di Italia. Lui era molto indipendente nel giudizio, era molto pacato, intelligente, costruttivo, per un cambiamento profondo. Era una persona di compagnia. Ci incontrammo davanti al campo bocce del partito. Ti vuoi sposare con me ? guarda che io sono stata già con un altro uomo " Si sposarono e si sistemarono in Sicilia

LA LOTTA ALLA MAFIA

N

el 1952 quando arrivò in Sicilia, la questione mafia, della quale aveva sentito parlare tanto nel partito, la trovava barbosa, pensava " …sempre che si lagnano! mi sembrava molto noiosa, la vedevo da non siciliana. Vogliono giustificare la loro incapacità pensavo. Sbagliando…" el millenovecentocinquantotto suo marito Pancrazio, viene eletto deputato e se ne ritornano a Roma per tre quattro anni; poi, Pio La torre diventa segretario regionale della Sicilia, ci sono problemi, il federale non andava molto bene, e "… ci dicono di rientrare. Io piangevo …dovevo distaccarmi nuovamente dai miei, le mie bambine allontanarsi dai cuginetti …ti abbiamo già eletta nel federale mi dice Pio - e Simona ride - democraticamente mi avevano eletta e rientriamo". a Torre faceva parte della commissione Nazionale Antimafia, tutte le volte che viene giù vuole gli si organiz-

N

L


Le Siciliane

"ALL'INIZIO DEL MIO ARRIVO A PALERMO NEL MARZO DEL '53 FACEMMO UNA BELLISSIMA COSA: IL CONGRESSO DELLE DONNE SICILIANE. UN TEATRO STRAPIENO. POI C'ERA LA COSA DELLA LEGGE TRUFFA IO ANDAI A MESSINA..."

zi incontri e seminari sull'argomento. Prende la questione della mafia di petto, diventa la sua battaglia, coinvolgeva tutti, tutti lo seguono. er il Partito Comunista, in Sicilia, in quel periodo, la lotta alla mafia è un impegno prioritario. Inoltre, ci fu il problema del comune di Palermo, l'elezione a sindaco di Vito Ciancimino e i mafiosi che prendevano a quattro mani. Anni di grande travaglio palermitano, di grande impegno per Simona che nel frattempo viene eletta al Senato dove resta fino al 79. Roma il clima era molto pesante. Erano gli anni di piombo, il terrorismo, l'assassinio di Moro, ma Palermo non era da meno. L'impegno contro la mafia continuava, gli avveni-

P

A

menti siciliani erano in crescendo: la strage di Via Lazio, Ciancimino, i compagni morti, qualche loro parente che entrava all'assemblea regionale, il clima dell’esistenza della mafia si respirava. Bisognava essere determinati, manifestare la presenza". ome quando durante la resistenza si riuscì a cacciare via i tedeschi e, dopo si fece il resto, oggi in Sicilia bisogna combattere la mafia e, in seconda battuta fare le lotte sociali, morali e politiche. Altrimenti è come se i tedeschi fossero rimasti. - disse Simona in suo intervento". Oggi lo si pensa e lo si dice in tanti allora no. nche il discorso di insediamento come capogruppo al comune di Palermo nel millenovecentoottanta è

C

A

pagina 23

molto caratterizzato in tal senso. Non era tutto facile c'erano contrasti di ogni tipo. Da parecchi anni assieme ad altre donne ha fondato la rivista "Mezzocielo", una rivista scritta esclusivamente e rigorosamente da donne. "Io sono ritornata con piacere quasi esclusivo con le donne. Nella marginalità femminile si è identificato la marginalità degli individui che non si lasciano irreggimentare. Mi sento più tranquilla, più rilassata; di una solidarietà reale, disinteressata, senza ambizioni nè rivalità, perché nel partito, ce n'era... le battaglie al comune di Palermo, il peso della nostra presenza… ho fatto tutto da me, non ho avuto alcuno aiuto, perché come mi disse Galante dell'Ora "vantaggio manco agli sciancati".


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Casablanca n.13  

Rieccoci! Il numero di Maggio 2010

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