Building Engineering magazine issue 14

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ZWL $50. 0 0

BUILDING EN GINE E RIN G

H OM E A N D O F FIC E I IS SU E 1 4 I 2 0 2 0

Lookout Cafe Rises from the Ashes Read about it! Page 10.

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Stencil Design.

40

Mezzanine Floor Designs

ZIMBABWE GROWING TO NEW HEIGHTS


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CONTENTS

COVER FEATURE

ON THE COVER

10

STENCIL DESIGN - LOOKOUT CAFE

18

ENGINEERING - LOOKOUT CAFE

20

MY CASH

24

ARTISAN

30

INDOOR - OUTDOOR FLOW DESIGN

34

MEZZANINE FLOORS

38

SOLAR

42

OTTOMANS

45

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Welcome all our Building and Engineering friends, to this our 14th Issue. Feel the call of the wild as we share how the WILD HORIZONS LOOKOUT CAFÉ has risen from the ashes after a devastating fire in 2018. Whilst resting 120 meters above the Zambezi river, on a cantilever deck extending into the Zambezi Gorge, enjoy incredible views of the area in all directions, including the Victoria Falls Bridge. Dining in the multi-deck restaurant, you can feast on Warthog or Crocodile kebabs, whilst watching the adrenalin junkies enjoying the flying fox and gorge swing. Don’t forget to admire their intricately designed Compass, in the foyer floor, that took weeks to design and meticulously implement. Read how the MY CASH interior was redesigned to accommodate a changed purpose, known as Adaptive Reuse. An effective strategy for optimizing the operational and commercial performance of their assets, this exemplifies a great alternative to new sustainable and economic construction. Interestingly, the My Cash staff were able to move into the completely refurbished office space in no time as the project was finished in 6 weeks and also done under budget!

OUTDOOR FLOW DESIGNS explores how to create a beautiful flow between indoors and outdoors, on a budget, to make your home feel more expansive and light by reducing perceived barriers. We also feature how a MEZZANINE FLOOR can utilize the vertical space in your home or office to create that much needed extra floor space, the advantages or disadvantages of GRID TIED VS. OFFGRID SOLAR SYSTEMS, and the history, designs and benefits of the OTTOMAN. And not least, with our emphasis on green building and eco-friendly construction we share the many significant benefits of RECYCLING BUILDING MATERIALS. Enjoy reading about these, and the many producers and suppliers, who contribute to making your Building or Engineering plans a great success. Dream Big but Go Green!!

Laurie.

MAGAZINE CONTRIBUTORS

Publisher: Address: Tel:

Afrique Infra Rapport P/L 89a Hawick road, Borrowdale, Harare 0242 886 188 0777 036 581 0772 932 805

Email: buildingengineeringmedia@gmail.com

Marketing Tendai D. Satumba Arthur Mungule Design & Layout Building Engineering Magazine Photography Building Engineering Magazine PAGE

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Brownbuilt HH Robertson Delivering the Exceptional

Global R e (Pvt) Ltd (GRS) is the proud supplier of the Bond-Lok compposite deck for the Eastgate Market project. GRS also supplied IBR roofing sheets and poly-carbonate sheets . The organiza an roofing material manufacturing opera S Brownbuilt (established in 1964) and GRS HH Robertson (established in 1958), making it one of the largest metal roofing manufacturers in South Africa with a branch in Zimbabwe. Both Brownbuilt and HH Robertson are household names for the manufacture of commercial and industrial steel roof covering and wall cladding.

The Smart Roof People

THE ROOFING SHEETS ON THE LOOKOUT CAFE WERE PROUDLY SUPPLIED BY GLOBAL ROOFING SOLUTIONS

Delivering the Exceptional For all your roofing requirements, contact: Global Roofing Solu�ons Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd 15 Bessemer Road www.globalroofs.co.zw Graniteside, Harare Phone: +263 242 774699 / 774701 Email: mudez@globalroofs.co.zw

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For all your roofing requirements, contact: Global Roofing Solu ons Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd 15 Bessemer Road Graniteside, Harare Phone: +263 4 774699 / 774701 Email:

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THE WILD HORIZONS LOOKOUT CAFÉ: RISE FROM THE ASHES!

D

ecember 2019 saw the reopening of the Wild Horizons Lookout Café in Victoria Falls following a devastating fire in 2018. The owners of the establishment (Wild Horizons) took the unfortunate incident as an opportunity to refurbish the famous restaurant, located in a National Park and

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nestled at about 120 meters above the Zambezi river on the edge of the Batoka Gorge with breath taking views of the Victoria Falls Bridge which connects Zimbabwe and Zambia. Working in close collaboration with client Wild Horizons, the Structural Engineers BCHOD, Architectural and Planning Studio (APS) came up with a design that’s not only more spacious but also at the earliest possible time, for obvious commercial reasons the renovation of the project had to be completed within the shortest possible timeframe.


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As a team - APS and BCHOD were up to the challenge as they had to take into consideration the location of the building as it sits on the edge of the Batoka Gorge as well as to blend in traits of the original restaurant whilst increasing the restaurant’s seating capacity and yet creating a simplistic design with excellent indoor and outdoor dining space which compliments the extreme nature of the site and the need to create obstructed and wide views of the area in all directions. All this was done in collaboration with Wild Horizons and the interior designers as a new design layout was developed with a larger catering kitchen, deck space available, with the inclusion of a bar, coffee station and food severy. The result was a spacious and semi-open multideck restaurant with spectacular views of the gorges – undoubtedly the best view in Victoria Falls! Diners can also watch adrenalin junkies taking part in activities such as the flying fox and gorge swing whilst enjoying Lookout Café’s renowned menu, which includes dishes such as the Warthog kebab and the crocodile kebab. Everything about the building and site is to ensure that the guests get the best experience on the Zambezi river gorge!

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3D View 9


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Contractor: Kiggen Construction Architect: Graham Cochrane (Lead) Caspar Kumire and Tapiwa Mativenga - Architectural and Planning Studio Engineers: Eng. John Ridgewell (Lead) and Vusa Moyo, BCHOD Structural and Civil (multidisciplinary) Engineers Interiors: Kerry Bradford – Wild Horizons 3D Rendering & Visualization Gift Mutotera - The Loft.

Photography: Lesanne Photography

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Stone Finish

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Viewing Deck Level 886800

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Stone Finish

Signage to Architect's detail

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Wall Plate 600

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LOOKOUT CAFE: STENCIL DESIGN

T

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he Lookout cafĂŠ based in Victoria Falls, recently asked Artisan to plan and execute almost the impossible. Being Artisan, we were of course up for the challenge. The request was to stencil a compass 4.5m x 4.5m across their front foyer.

The planning of the compass took weeks to perfect with the dedicated assistance of Rudi Cook from new design up and coming company, Xsightium. The lengthy process of perfecting each detail to the customer’s exact specifications was a painstaking one and finally the entire design cut out in one roll and ready to transport to Victoria Falls by Laura Tofts. Once in Victoria Falls, The Showroom technical team had the task of preparing the floors surface. They then laid out the compass onto a flat surface, allowing them to cut and trim the required pieces from the printed compass, making it easier to work with.


The cardinal points were marked out onto the floor surface and measurements of where the compass would lay were marked out so the rest of the floor first applied with a sealer using Cemcrete’s Concrete Sealer Matt as a base then Colour Hardener Sealer. This left the unsealed floor area where the team would apply the vinyl and peel out the compass.

To apply the vinyl stencil, they used a plastic squeegee to remove any creases or bubbles and minimum of three people needed at a time in order to obtain a perfect, smooth placement. The actual stain used Cemcrete Cretestain Black then applied into the peeled out areas of the vinyl, thus staining the exposed area, then further peeling of vinyl leaving the Cretestain compass on the floor matching all cardinal points. The entire process took about a week from start to finish. If you have a bespoke floor / wall that you would like us to design and execute, please contact Shareen (0782919191 / 0242-480807) or Laura (0772755786)

We offer Specialist Unique Services for the Professional Contractor, Architect & Interior Designer; Corporate Clients; and the Hospitality Industry.

WITH ARTISAN, YOU CAN BE SURE OF QUALITY

These Services encompass training applicators on the specialised floor, pool & wall coatings; colour consulting and matching for Architects, Designers & Corporates; solutions to varied Waterproofing & Building problems; paint quantifications & specifications off-plan and on-site; painting and specialist application contracting.

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Bay 1 & 2 St. James Building 3 Borgward Road, Msasa Harare, Zimbabwe

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ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ON THE LOOKOUT CAFE

T

he client requested the Structural Engineer to create a 5m span cantilever deck extending into the Zambezi Gorge from the decomposed basaltic rock surface in the location of the original building. Due to the uncertainty of the stability of the rock material, emphasis was placed on tying the foundation structure

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back from the gorge face into the restraining rock surface bed at the rear of the building. This was the achieved by installing a series of concrete ground beams on a 5m grid spanning at right angle to the gorge face and restrained by counter balance concrete bases at the rear of the building. Structural steel universal beams were bolted and strapped to the concrete beams as extensions to the concrete cantilever in order to reduce weight.


A slender steel portal frame was attached to the beams on the 5m grid to form the basic superstructure of the building with cold rolled section floor beams placed at 400mm centres between the ground beams to support the timber floor decking. The concrete ground beams were the only wet trade element in the structure, whilst the super structure frame and ground floor deck were formed inprefabricatedsteelsectionswelded and erected on site. The concrete and substructure and structural steel work components were installed under difficult site conditions particularly bearing in mind the erection of steel work on the 5m cantilever into the gorge. SHE (Safety, Health, and Environment) regulations were strictly adhered to during construction. BCHOD Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd were pleased to be associated with prestigious project in the tourism industry. John Ridgewell For and on Behalfof: BCHOD (Zimbabwe) Pvt Ltd

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MYCASH INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE

T

he nature of this project was a classic example of interior architecture, where the interior of a building is redesigned to accommodate a changed purpose also known as adaptive reuse. Adaptive reuse is an effective strategy for optimizing the operational and commercial performance of built assets. This can be a great alternative to new construction in terms of sustainability and circular economy. Such was the case for the My Cash head office in Mt. Pleasant where Angus Wakeling was required to come up with an office space design that is fit for the company headquarters for My Cash and also is in keeping with leading trends in office design for a Fintech company. The interior design of the offices was done making use of the only the space that was needed by the Mycash team and the rest of the building retained by the owners of the building. Some of the carpeting, ceiling and partitioning was upcycled from the other parts of the building and creatively used to develop the Mycash office space. Specific finishes were chosen and used to compliment and create a balance with the already existing materials resulting in a cohesive workspace.

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The Mycash staff was able to move into the completely furnished 1100m2 office space in no time as the project was finished in 6 weeks and also done under budget. MyCash is a registered Payment Service Provider that offers customers the best of digital and mobile banking. MyCash seeks to empower all Zimbabweans to build a better future. They are available in close to 50 TM/Pick n Pay stores across the country. You can register a MyCash wallet by dialing *212# on any mobile network and start transacting at competitive rates.

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Internal Architectural design & Project Management: Angus Wakeling Interior Design: Dido De Swardt Site management: Justin Becker Photography: Gavin Wyatt Office furniture: Only Italian Carpets: Beneath your feet Boardroom: Adam Seager Paint: Artisan Partitions: Pesid Designs Electricals: Wireman

www.anguswakeling.com

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We offer Specialist Unique Services for the Professional Contractor, Architect & Interior Designer; Corporate Clients; and the Hospitality Industry.

WITH ARTISAN, YOU CAN BE SURE OF QUALITY

These Services encompass training applicators on the specialised floor, pool & wall coatings; colour consulting and matching for Architects, Designers & Corporates; solutions to varied Waterproofing & Building problems; paint quantifications & specifications off-plan and on-site; painting and specialist application contracting.

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CREATING INDOOR & OUTDOOR CONNECTIONS

F

orging a strong connection between indoors and outdoors can make your home feel more expansive, light filled and can encourage flow between indoor and outdoor rooms. Having a well-designed outdoor area adjacent to your main entertaining room is a great way to create more space when needed and to add value to your home. This is definitely a great design change that will have an impact on the way you experience everyday life at home. There are plenty of opportunities to create better indoor-outdoor flow on a budget. By removing a window or wall and replacing it with a sliding or bifold door you can open up a space to allow in more natural light and create easy access to the outside. Let it slide Part of creating flow is reducing perceived barriers. A sliding glass door or concerto glass doors that connect your indoor entertaining area to a patio or verandah will definitely allow more light in and will reduce the feeling of separation between your indoor and outdoor spaces. Another option is adding an ample-size pivoting glass door which makes an impressive entry on its own – but pair it with a back wall of glass doors and the light really flows. Using the same flooring material indoors and out also creates an uninterrupted flow from the entertaining room to your patio or verandah just remember to choose wisely the flooring as the patio or verandah maybe exposed to inclement weather which can become a hazard particularly when wet.

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However, taking indoor qualities of your home and implementing them outdoors can harmonize the two areas this can be even done better by placing a covering or shelter above the outdoor entertaining area, this increases the sense of togetherness with the outdoors and makes it possible to entertain people outdoors in any season. Just add comfy seating on your outdoor area and you will be good to go. Add an around the corner window Break away from the traditional four walls and windows pattern by placing a corner window. Placing a window in a particular corner of your home makes it feel like you are part of the view. This spot will definitely become the highlight of your home. If you have a particular corner in your home that has a spectacular view then that is probably the best place for you to place that corner view even if it will be just a view of your backyard garden.

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Direct entrance to your garden Whilst it is natural to think of a home and a garden as two separate entities with a strict boundary between them, linking indoor and outdoor spaces even if it is only a small garden or terrace it can help an interior feel larger. With the exterior connected to the house your eye sees further and a garden facing rooms feels larger. When you get it right, you are more likely to spend your days with the doors open, enjoying lots of daylight and fresh air. A small garden off the master bedroom can be a lovely place to relax in. Sliding glass doors allow you to enjoy the view while inside and lets in extra light. Consider sectioning off a small part of yard with shrubs, trees or a fence for privacy. Give a desk a view If you like to daydream or write at your desk, then by all means consider opening it to a panoramic view. Positioning your desk in an upstairs room will offer the best views no matter where you live. Just make sure that you bring the windows from the desk level right up to the ceiling for maximum views and light.

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MEZZANINE FLOOR DESIGNS

A

mezzanine is an intermediate floor or floors in a building which is open to the floor below. It is usually pl aced half way up the wall on a floor which has a ceiling that is at least twice as high as a floor with minimum height. The mezzanine floor does not count as one of the floors in a building as they are smaller. The International Building Code permits a mezzanine to as much as one-third of the floor space of the floor below.

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The term mezzanine from the Italian word ‘mezzano’ which literally translates to middle is used loosely for the floor above the ground floor. Mezzanines serve a variety of functions, industrial mezzanines such as those in warehouses can be temporary or semi permanent structures which can actually be installed. These semi permanent structures can be dismantled and relocated. Mezzanines are commonly used in modern architecture where there is a heavy emphasis on light and space. In a high-ceilinged space mezzanines help to make the space more personal, less vast and can be used to create more floor space.

Nowadays mezzanine floors are fast becoming an incredibly popular addition in modern homes. A great mezzanine allows the owners of a space to increase square footage without having to expand outwards. Often the foremost feature in residence with a high ceiling the mezzanine can now be seen even in compact studio apartments. Usually seen in historic apartments that are big on height but small on floor space, mezzanines create a whole extra room while maintaining the flow of space by giving more definition to interiors with soaring ceilings. They allow you to utilize the vertical space in your home to the hilt. Whatever the purpose you have for your mezzanine be it extra storage space, extra bedroom, office or that much needed home library know the addition of a mezzanine floor is a great addition to your home. This can be added to even an already built home so long it has the required height (please consult your architect/engineer on this one) not only as a way to create more floor space but to also add more value to your home and not to mention that excellent vantage to view the ground floor below!

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SOLAR FARMING

A solar farm, also sometimes referred to as a photovoltaic power station, are typically largescale solar installations where photovoltaic (PV) panels referred to as solar panels are used to harvest the sun’s power. These are different from your home or business’s rooftop solar system. They are designed for the supply of merchant power to the electricity grid, different from most building-mounted and other decentralized solar power applications because these supply power at the utility level rather than to a local user or users. These solar farms or solar parks operate as power plants, just like any other power generating plant that generates electricity for consumers. Another difference from residential and commercial systems is that these solar farms are decentralized and usually consist of ground-mounted solar panels installed across large areas. Why Solar Farms? Solar farms are a simple way of producing clean, safe and renewable energy for several years after construction. They are the most direct way to reduce carbon emissions that contribute to global warming. Apart from producing renewable energy, solar farms feed surplus power to the mains grid thereby distributing clean energy. With hardly any noise generated from solar farms, they can actually can constructed very close to load centers as they minimally disruptive to the local environment. This in-turn reduces transmission difficulty.

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From an investor’s point of view, solar farms offer a great return on investment considering the minimal maintenance costs and guaranteed income. In most countries solar feed-in-tariffs are applicable. (A Solar feed in tariff is a solar incentive that pays owners of distributed energy systems a certain amount per unit of electricity sent to the grid).


Solar farms also take advantage of economies of scale as it is comparatively cheaper to generate power at large scale as compared to generating for a single home or business and ideal siting to reduce the cost of generating power. Solar power stations can be located in a more ideal location that’s free from issues like shading from trees. All of which means they produce electricity at a lower cost than people can produce on their roofs.

Whilst solar farm power generation is definitely a great option for clean, safe and renewable energy it does come with a fairly high cost of installing and setting up the panels as well as the large land area required to set up a solar farm.

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SOLAR ENERGY: GRID TIED VS. OFF-GRID SYSTEMS

A

solar system that is used to power a home or a business that does not have access to utility provided electricity is known as an “off-grid” system. In this case solar panels provide power to a battery bank that stores power for use when solar energy is not

available or less mostly during the night or when it is unpleasantly cold or wet. The battery bank is controlled by a charge controller that prevents over-charging of batteries and low voltage cutoff when batteries are trying to operate at too low of a charge which then shortens battery life. Most photovoltaic systems make use of lead-acid batteries that are designed to handle frequent charging and discharging. Your car battery would not be able to handle this “deep-cycling” demanded of household electrical appliances, as they are made for large loads for short periods of time, with recharging happening quickly from the vehicle’s alternator.

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Solar systems that are connected to an existing electrical utility are called “grid-tied” systems. Grid-tied systems do not have batteries for storing energy. Instead, during periods of excess solar electricity generation, excess goes to the national grid. When electrical demands are greater than electricity by the solar system, the power grid supplies this demand. The customer only pays for electricity used that is (net metering = total power used – solar power generated). The grid serves as the energy storage for the PV system. One disadvantage of this type of system is that electricity will not be available if the grid power is interrupted. These types of net meters have to be installed by the electrical utility provider.

However, grid-tied systems can incorporate a battery-backup system for critical electrical loads. This battery backup systems will provide power for backed-up electrical loads, but not for the general hose in the event of a power failure. This type of systems can use a battery charger that can recharge the batteries from the power grid once the grid power is restored. This system is best suited in areas where grid power failure is frequent or reliable power is critically needed.


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THE OTTOMAN

O Why it is called an ottoman?

ttoman couches earned their name due to their extensive use in residential seating within the Ottoman Empire (circa 1299 – 1922). The Ottoman was originally designed as a large seating platform piled with cushions and eventually redesigned to a much smaller form that we know today. Ottomans, also called footstools, are upholstered independent seating elements without back support. These are typically found in a living room as an integral furniture piece which is essential in the conversation zone of the shared seating area. Nowadays, ottomans are designed with a range of styles and sizes that often coordinates with related furniture elements. The function and importance of the ottoman within the domestic space has transformed over the years, with the ottoman that we know today being understood as a multifunctional stool, pouf or storage unit. Ottomans are most often shaped as being square or circular with square ottomans being easily combined as an extension of sofa elements.

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As multifunctional furniture pieces, ottomans can serve a variety of seating styles and may also include integrated storage. Ottomans come in a large variety of shapes and sizes that range in height from 30cm to 50cm. Most ottomans are sized to pair with their coordinated furniture sets and are designed with matching heights.


Below we profile 2 classic Ottoman designs: The Burrow Ottoman The Burrow Ottoman along with and as part of the Nomad collection was originally designed (by the Burrow furniture company) with adaptability and durability in mind, featuring a modular design for expansion. It features a three-layer foam, fabric upholstery that is scratch and strain resistant and a birchwood frame. The Wing Oculus Ottoman Another classic ottoman design is the Wing Oculus Ottoman which was designed by the world renowned iconic Danish furniture designer, Hans J. Wegner. This consists of a beech frame and stainless-steel legs with the option for either fabric or leather upholstery. It one example of the 500+ chair designs that Hans came up with.

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RECYCLED BUILDING MATERIAL

A

ll over the world, the construction industry is now looking for ways to mitigate its environmental impact as governments and corporates are now giving more importance to sustainability. Modern architecture requires a house to be designed not only just aesthetically pleasing but also environmentally aware. Nowadays, sustainable is among the top features that put a premium on real estate. Construction waste causes significant damage as it accounts for about one-third of all refuse nationwide.

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Recycling construction material has two main environmental benefits: Energy savings: Recycling saves large amounts of energy and it also reduces the consumption of natural resources to produce new materials. Landfill waste reduction: Landfills continue to fill up which means that alternative ways to manage waste have to be redeveloped. Recycled construction waste can be reused as it is, or turned into something new. Economic benefits of recycling construction materials: Recycling and reusing construction materials reduces the cost of disposing and transporting the material. Recycling also reduces the demand for new resources, which also cuts down o transportation and production costs. Construction companies that recycle materials now have a competitive edge, due to the increasing emphasis on green building and environmental conservation. Materials There are many construction materials that can be recycled. The following are some examples: Concrete

Traditionally, construction and demolition waste has been disposed of in landfills. This however, has a negative environmental impact by contaminating underground water as well as surrounding habitats. Recycling building material is undoubtedly the number one option when it comes to eco-friendly construction. This option not only keeps our footprint to a minimum but it is much cheaper. All materials that come from a construction site for reuse are recycled building materials. This includes wood, brick, insulation, plastics, glass, building blocks, wall coverings and so on. Simply put, anything that can be reused is recycled.

The initial phases of many construction projects involve the demolition of concrete foundations, sidewalks, driveways and other concrete structures which can leave the contractor with a sizeable volume of rubble to deal with. When these structures that are made of concrete are demolished or renovated, concrete recycling becomes a common method of utilizing the rubble. This obviously has huge saving benefit as this eliminates the costs of transporting concrete to a landfill and also the actual cost of disposing the concrete. Fortunately, concrete can be recycled and reused in many ways. Recycled concrete not only stays out of landfills, but it also replaces other materials such as gravel that must otherwise be mined and then transported for use.

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Recycled concrete can be used in many ways as you would use new materials, such as gravel, paving materials and aggregates. Permeable paving for walkways, driveways and other outdoor hard surfaces; broken concrete that is carefully laid out creates a stable, porous traffic surface that rainwater can filter through. This technique reduces the amount of runoff water that must be managed by storm water systems and actually helps to replenish groundwater. Aggregate for mixing new concrete, crushed concrete can be a good replacement for some of the virgin aggregate used in ready-mix concrete. Another great use for recycled concrete is landscaping mulch, when properly crushed and well sorted, ground concrete can replace river rock or other gravels used as mulch. Wood Wood waste is the second largest component of construction and demolition debris after concrete. Recycled wood is now becoming increasingly coveted by architects and home owners. Unlike other recycled materials, recovered lumber often sells at a premium as compared to new material due to the labor involved and processing to remove material such as old nails.

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ABOUT US

Steeltech (Pvt) Ltd are specialists in steel fabrication and structural steel erection. We manufacture low-cost, high quality steel structures of various designs and speciďŹ cations. We do standard steel structures, design and construction of virtually anything in structural steel.

Holding your future in steel fabrication technology

80m Wide x 60m

Email: steelttech@gmail.com

0m Wide 4 Spans x 120m Long Steel Manufacturing Plan

t

8

114 Seke Road, Graniteside, Harare, Zimbabwe

Long x 6.5m Eaves HeightSteel Structure Under Const ruction (Factory)

Cell: +263 774 160 560, +263 712 581 467, +263 737 183 122/14

40m Span x 80m Long Church Structure

30m Span x 35m Long x 6.5m Eaves Height, Steel Structure With Side Cladding (Factory)


100 95 75

25 5 0

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We offer more than bituminous products, hot asphalt mix and road rehabilita�on. We are in the business of

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ROAD SAFETY

CREATING A CONVENIENT COMMUTE and ensuring an enjoyable journey for all road users

Bitumen World (PVT) Ltd Civil Engineering Contractors

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30 George Avenue, Msasa, Harare | Tel: +263 24 2447 231-3 Email: enquiries@bitumenworld.net | Website: www.bitumenworld.net