Page 1


Appendix 1 Vascular Plants of Monteverde William A. Haber

This list includes plants of the Monteverde area occurring above 700 m elevation on both slopes. Groups are listed in the order Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons, Gymnosperms, Ferns and fern allies. Column codes are defined at the end of the list. Representative collection numbers listed in parentheses are Haber collections except where the collector's last name is noted. The designation of pollinators, seed dispersers, and sexual system is based on observations of the

author and colleagues over many years, supplemented by inferences from morphology and specific citations in the literature, including Flora of Costa Rica, (Standley 1937) Flora of Panama (Woodson and Schery 1943-1980), Croat (1978), Cronquist (1981), Dinerstein (1986), Haber and Bawa (1984), Kress and Beach (1994), and Mabberley (1987). The nomenclature follows recent treatments in the Manual of Costa Rican Plants project (see Chap. 3, p. 39).


Dicotyledons Acanthaceae Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw.) Lindl. (2737) dolichantha Bonn. Sm. (Dryer 1490) scabra (Vahl) Sm. (950) tridentata Hemsl. (662) Barleria micans Nees (Bello 4370) Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb. (9676) Bravalsia integerrima (Spreng.) Stand. (438) Dicliptera iopus Lindau (Dryer 844) unguiculata Ness (10463) Dyschoriste valeriana Leonard (9673) Habracanthus blepharorhachis (Lindau) Gomez-Laur., ined. (7610) silvaticus Nees (8382) Hansteinia sessilifolia (Oerst.) (7119) stricta (Leonard) D. N. Gibson (5996) Hypoestes *phyllostachya Baker (9607) fustic ia arborescens Durkee & McDade (893) aurea Schltdl. (875) brenesii (Leonard) D. N. Gibson (10392) costaricana Leonard (Dryer 1109) crenata (Leonard) Durkee (9195) macrantha Benth. (430) oerstedii Leonard (1366) sarapiquensis McDade (1687) valerii Leonard (9125) Louteridium costaricense Radlk. & Donn. Sm. (8681) Mendoncia brenesii Standl. & Leonard (7332) retusa Turrill (8255) tonduzii Turrill (4768) Odontonema tubiforme (Bertol.) Kuntze (8003) Poikilacanthus macranthus Lindau (707) Pseuderanthemum cuspidatum (Nees) Radlk. (2670) Razisea spicata Oerst. (785) Ruellia inundata Kunth (8962) Spathacanthus hoffmannii Lindau (Bello 2747) Tetramerium nervosum Nees (10339) Thunbergia *alata Bojer ex Sims (9917) *erecta (Benth.) T. Anderson (10698) *fragrans Roxb. (8654) *grandiflora Roxb. (5648)

458

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

MA P P M

BD Fly BD BD

EX EX EX EX

HE HE HE HE

H H S H

P

BD?

EX

HE

H

P

SB

EX

HE

H

P

LB

EX

HE

Tm

M PM

BD LB

EX EX

HE HE

H H

P

SB

EX

HE

H

M A

BD BD

EX EX

HE HE

S S

P A

BD BD

EX EX

HE HE

S S H

M

LB BD BD BD BD LB

EX EX EX EX EX EX EX EX EX

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S H H S S H-S L H

A

BD

EX

HE

H

A A A

BD BD BD

BD? BD? BD?

HE HE HE

L L L

A

BD

EX

HE

S

M

BD

EX

HE

S

M

BF

EX

HE

H

PMA

BD

EX

HE

S

P

BD

EX

HE

H

PA

HM?

EX?

HE

Ts

P

IN

EX?

HE

H

P PMA A M A PM M A M

BD BD

M M PM A

Appendix 1

V S V V


Dicotyledons Actinidiaceae Saurauia montana Seem. (9818) pittieri Bonn. Sm. (9963) rubiformis Vatke (10009) yasicae Loes. (11226) sp. A (9304) Alzateaceae Alzatea verticillata Ruiz & Pav. (7660) Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera L. (9683) Alternanthera costaricensis Kuntze (10846) laguroides (Standl.) Standl. (9768) sessilis (L.) R. Br. (9674) Amaranthus hybridus L. (10453) altissima (Jacq.) Kunth (9682) Gomphrena serrata L. (9179) Ire sine angustifolia Euphrasen (Bello 685) calea (Ibanez) Standl. (10586) diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (836) Pleuropetalum pleiogynum (Kuntze) Standl. (11332) sprucei (Hook, f.) Standl. (9397) Anacardiaceae Anacardium excelsum (Bertero & Balbis ex Kunth) Skeels (6817) Astronium graveolens Jacq. (9924) Mauria. heterophylla Kunth (269) Mosq uitoxylum jamaicense Krug & Urb. (6362) Tapirira mexicana Marchand (8726) Annonaceae Annona pruinosa G. E. Schatz (10110) Cymbopetalum costaricense (Bonn. Sm.) Saff. (6947) Desmopsis bibracteata (Rob.) Saff. (9765) microcarpa R. E. Fr. (4917) schippii Standl. (Bello 1060) Guatteria diospyroides Baill. (Bello 558) oliviformis Bonn. Sm. (Bello 4153) costaricensis R. E. Fr., cf. (5089) Rollinia membranacea Triana & Planch. (11067) Sapmnthus viridiflorus G. E. Schatz, ined. (Bello 1385) Unonopsis costaricensis R. E. Fr. (Bello 2229) Xylopia bocatorena Schery (8401)

459

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

MA M M A M

LB

BB,AM

BI

Tm

BB,AM BB,AM

BB,AM

BITs

LB LB

BI BI

Tm Ts

MA

IN

WB

HE?

E

P

WB

GR

HE

S

A P P

WB WB WB

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

H V H

P P

WB WB

GR BB

MO HE

H L

P

WB

GR

HE

H

P M MA

WB WB WB

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

S L H

A PMA

IN IN

BB BB

HE HE

S-L S

P

IN

AM

HE

Tl

P

SB

WB

BI

Tl

PM

WA

BB

BI

Tm

A

SB

BB

BI

Tl

MA

SB

BB

BI

Tl

P

CO

AM

HE

Ts

A

CO

BB

HE

Ts

M MA A

CO CO CO

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

Ts Ts Ts

A M A

CO CO CO

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

Ts Tm Tm

PA

CO

BB

HE

Tm

A

CO

AM

HE

Tm

A

CO

BB

HE

Ts

A

CO

BB

HE

Ts

Appendix 1

LB


Dicotyledons Apiaceae Centella erecta (L. f.) Fernald (Bello 4948) Ciclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague (10372) Hydrocotyle bowlezioides Mathias & Constance (Grayum 7918) leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl. (9650) mexicana Schltdl. & Cham. (10399) torresiana Rose & Standl. (5794) umbellata L. (10594) Sanicula liberta Cham. & Schltdl. (2891) Spananthe paniculata L. (10315) Apocynaceae Allom arkgrafia brenesiana Woodson (9858) plumeruflora Woodson (7061) Alstonia pittieri (Bonn. Sm.) A. H. Gentry (10006) Echites woodsoniana Monach. (Bello 5278) Forsteronia monteverdensisj. F. Morales (127) Mandevilla hirsuta (A. Rich.) K. Schum. (1779) pittieri Woodson (8334) subsagittata (Ruiz & Pav.) Woodson (6855) veraguasensis (Seem.) Hemsl. (864) Peltastes isthmicus Woodson (10755) Plumeria rubra L. (6891) Prestonia longifolia (Sesse & Moc.) J. F. Morales (10715) portobellensis (Beurling) Woodson (7513) Rauvolfia aphlebia (Standl.) A. H. Gentry (1780) Stemmadenia alfari (Bonn. Sm.) Woodson (11061) donnell-smithii (Rose) Woodson (9995) litoralis (Kunth) L. Allorge (7114) Tabernaemontana amygdalifolia Jacq. (9448) longipes Bonn. Sm. cf. (7104) Aquifoliaceae Ilex chiriquensis Standl. (3223) costaricensis Bonn. Sm. (7384) hemiepiphytica W. J. Hahn (7773) lamprophylla. Standl. (258) pallida Standl. (Bello 1125) haberi (Lundell) W. J. Hahn (9939) skutchii Edwin ex W. J. Hahn (Bello 2076) vulcanicola Standl. (4344) sp. A. (10539) Araliaceae Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Becne. & Planch. (1637) caucanus (Harms) Harms (7593) gonatopodus (Bonn. Sm.) A. C. Sm. (6785)

460

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

M

IN

GR

HE

H

PM

IN

GR

HE

H

M M A MA M

IN IN IN IN IN

GR GR GR GR GR

HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H

M

IN

TM

HE

H

PM

IN

GR

HE

H

A A

LB HM

WB WB

HE HE

L L

P

MO

WB

HE

Tm

P

IN

WB

HE

L

M

IN

WB

HE

L

PA A PMA MA

BB BB

WB WB WB WB

HE HE HE HE

L L L L

P

IN

WB

HE

L

P

HM

WB

HE

Tm

MA PA

LB LB

WB WB

HE HE

L L

PA

MO

BB

HE

Tm

A P PM

LB LB HM

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

Ts Tm Tm

A PM

MO MO

BB BB

HE HE

Tm Ts

M M M M A PM A M M

SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB

BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB

BI BI BI BI BI BI BI BI BI

Ts Tl Tm Tl Tl Tl Tl Ts Tl

MA A MA

IN IN IN

BB BB BB

BI BI BI

Tl Tm Tl

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

latilobus M. J. Cannon & Cannon (6611) querceti Bonn. Sm. (Bello 594) Oreopanax anomalus M. J. Cannon & Cannon (Bello 1341) capitatus (Jacq.) Decne. & Planch. (10040) nicaraguensis M. J. Cannon & Cannon (9839) nubigenus Standl. (6244) obtusifolius L. O. Williams (8790) oerstedianus Marchal (4944) pycnocarpus Bonn. Sm. (Bello 4576) standleyi A. C. Sm. (11078) vestitus A. C. Sm. (8366) xalapensis (Kunth) Becne. & Planch. (4288) Schefflera. brenesii A. C. Sm. (783) robusta (A. C. Sm.) A. C. Sm. (9328) rodrigueziana Frodin ex M. J. Cannon & Cannon (6707) Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia grandi flora Sw. (1823) maxima Jacq. (7849) tonduzii O. C. Schmidt (4862) Asclepiadaceae Asclepias curassavica 1. (8876) Blepharodon mucronatum (Schltdl.) Becne. (Koptur 118) Cynanchum filisepalum (Standl.) L. O. Williams (9474) glaberrimum (Woodson) L. O. Williams (11674) schlectendalii (Beche.) Standl. and Steyerm. (10771) Fischeria blepharopetala S. F. Blake (Penneys 287) panamensis Spellman (Fuentes 4) Gonolobus denticulatus (Vahl) W. B. Stevens (10830) edulis Hemsl. (10001) heterophyllus (Hemsl.) W. B. Stevens (7186) Marsdenia engleriana Rothe (10767) Matelea brasiliensis (Schltr.) Spellman (Bello 749) magnifolia (Pittier) Woodson (7457) mediocris Woodson (7041) pseudobarbata (Pittier) Woodson, cf. (650) Tassadia obovata Becne. (6648) Asteraceae Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R. K. Jansen (10038) radicans (Jacq.) R. K. Jansen (10203) Ageratina anisochroma (Klatt) R. M. King & H. Rob. (1438) pichinchensis (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Rob. 10572) Ageratum conyzoides L. (Fuente 5) microcarpum (Benth. ex Oerst.) Hemsl. (906) petiolatum (Hook. & Am.) Hemsl. (593) rugosum J. M. Coult. (10164) Archibaccharis panamensis S. F. Blake (10419) schiedeana (Benth.) J. Jacks. (10415)

M MA

IN IN

BB BB

BI BI

Tm Ts

M M A M M M M M MA MA

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB

BI BE BI BI BI BI BI BI BI BI

E E E E E E E E E Tm

A MA M

IN IN IN

BB BB BB

HE? HE? HE?

L E E

A A A

FLY FLY FLY

WB WB WB

HE HE HE

L L L

PMA

BF

WB

HE

H

M

IN

WB

HE

V

M A P

IN IN IN

WB WN WB

HE HE HE

V V V

M PM

IN IN

WB WB

HE HE

V V

A PM MA

IN IN IN

WB WB WB

HE HE HE

V V V

P

IN

WB

HE

L

A A A M

IN IN IN IN

WB WB WB WB

HE HE HE HE

V V V V

A

IN

WB

HE

V

M M

SB SB

WB WB

HE HE

H H

M M

IN IN

WB WB

HE HE

S S

PMA P M PM

BF BF BF BF

WB WB WB WB

HE HE HE HE

H H H H

M M

IN IN

WB WB

BI BI

L L

461

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Baccharis pedunculate. (Miller) Cabrera (2518) trinervis (Lam.) Pers. (9977) Bidens pilosa L. (601) reptans (L.) G. Don (843) squarrosa Kunth (10458) sp. A (3555) Calea prunifolia Kunth (10951) term/olio. Kunth (10167) Calyptocarpus wendlandii Sch. Bip. (10366) Chaptalia nutans (L.) Pol. (10522) Chromalaena collina (DC.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (10369) Cirsium mexicanum DC. (10371) Clibadium anceps Greenm. (5362) asperum (Aubl.) DC., cf. (Kotur 177) erosum DC., cf. (7394) glomeratum Greenm., cf. (Dryer 521) leiocarpum Steetz (Dryer 1227) microcephalum, aff. (5479) surinamense L. (10247) Conyza apurensis Kunth (10436) bonariensis (L.) Cronquist (10221) canadensis (L.) Cronquist (10307) chilensis Spreng. (10429) Critonia billbergiana (Beurl.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (9196) daleoides DC. (10973) hebebotrya DC. (Burger 9617) morifolia (Mill.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (10589) sexangularis (Klatt) R. M. King & H. Rob (Hammel 15101) Decachaeta thieleana (Klatt) R. M. King & H. Rob. (10480) Delilia biflora (L.) Kuntze (10344) Dyssodea montana (Benth.) A. Gray (10354) Elephantopus mollis Kunth (10191) Emilia fosbergii Nicolson (10363) Erato vulcanica (Klatt) H. Rob. (586) Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. (3488) valerianifolia (Wolf) DC. (2754) Erigeron karvinskianus DC. (10881) Fleischmannia capillipes (Benth. ex Oerst.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (8856) gentryi R. M. King & H. Rob (Burger 8637) hymenophylla (Klatt) R. King & H. Rob. (4078) plectranthifolia (Benth.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (10568) pratensis (Klatt) R. M. King & H. Rob. (3731) pycnocephala (Less.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (10447)

462

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

M PM

IN IN

WD WD

DI DI

S L

M PMA P P

LB LB LB LB

TM TM

HE HE HE HE

H L L H

P P

SB SB

WD WD

HE HE

S S

PM

IN

WD,GR

HE

H

MA

IN

WD

HE

H

PM

IN

WD

HE

S

M

BF

WD

HE

H

M M? A M M A M

BF,SB BF,SB BF,SB BF,SB BF,SB BF,SB BF,SB

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S S S S

PM M M M

IN IN IN IN

WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE

H H H H

M P M PA PA

IN IN IN IN IN

WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE

L T T T S

P

IN

WD

HE

S

PM

SB

WD

HE

H

P

BE

WD

HE

H

PM

IN

WD

HE

H

PM

LB

WD

HE

H

M

LB

WD

HE

S

P M

IN IN

WD WD

HE HE

H H

P

LB

WD

HE

H

P M M PM P M

BF BF BF BF BF BF

WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S S S

Appendix 1

BD,AM BD,AM


Dicotyledons sideritides (Benth. ex Oerst.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (8247) sinclairii (Benth. ex Oerst.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (8963) Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (10277) quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. (10217) Gamochaeta americana (Mill.) Wedd. (10249) Gnaphalium roseum Kunth (10386) sp. A (10387) Gongrostylus costaricensis (Kuntze) R. M. King & H. Rob. (6847) Heterocon dylus vitalbae (DC.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (1227) Hidalgoa ternata La Llave Lex. (714) Jaeger ia hirta (Lag.) Less. (3774) Koanophyllon hylonomum (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (10997) pittieri (Klatt) R. M. King & H. Rob. (698) solidaginoides (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Bello 574) Lasianthaea fruiticosa (L.) K. M. Becker (2497) Liabum bourgeaui Hieron. (1504) Melampodium divarication (Rich.) DC. (10431) Melanthera aspera (Jacq.) Small (9167) nivea (L.) Small (10207) Mikania banisteria DC. (1230) castroi R. M. King & H. Rob. (2637) cristata B. L. Rob. (3071) hookeriana DC. (Bello 739) miconioides B. L. Rob. (2346) micrantha Kunth (3720) tonduziiE. L. Rob. (4374) Milleria quinqueflora L. (10763) Montanoa guatemalensis B. L. Rob. & Greenm. (425) hibiscifolia Benth. (Bello 673) tomentosa Cerv. (10288) Munnozia wilburii H. Rob. (10420) Neomirandea angularis (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (9325) araliifolia (Less.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (9758) arthodes (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (10015) biflora R. M. King & H. Rob. (Koptur 175) carnosa (Kuntze) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Bello 269) eximia (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Gentry 48746) guevarae R. M. King & H. Rob. (Zuchowski 231 A) parasitica (Klatt) R. M. King & H. Rob. (720) psoralea (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (694) standleyi (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (10569) Neurolaena cobanensis Greenm. (4273) lobata (L.) R. Br. (796)

463

Zone3

Pollb

Seed0

Sexd

Habit6

A P

BF BF

WD WD

HE HE

S S

MA PM

SB SB

WD,GR WD,GR

HE HE

H H

M

IN

WD

HE

H

PM M

IN IN

WD WD

HE HE

H H

A

IN

WD

HE

V

A

IN

WD

HE

V

MA

BF

GR,WD?

HE

L

P

SB

GR

HE

H

M M PM

BF MO IN

WD WD WD

HE HE HE

Ts Ts S

M

LB

WD

HE

Ts

M

LB,BF

WD

HE

H

M

IN

GR

HE

H

M MA

BF BF

GR GR

HE HE

S S

A M M A M P MA

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

V V V V V V L

P

SB

GR

HE

H

PM A P

BE BE BE

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

Tm S Ts

M

BEJ3F

WD

HE

H

MA M MA M? A M M M M A

BF BF BF BF BF BF BF BF BF BF

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Ts E E E E E E E E E

M MA

LB LB

WD WD

HE HE

S Ts

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Onoseris onoseroides (Kunth) B. L. Rob. (10493) Otopappus verbesinoides Benth. (10200) Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don (11016) Podachaenium eminens (Lag.) Sch. Bip. (10527) Polyanthina nemorosa (Klatt) R. M. King & H. Rob. (2744) Pseudelephantopus spicatus (juss.) C. F. Baker (10192) Pseudogynoxys cummingii (Benth.) H. Rob. & Cuatrec. Schistocarpha eupatorioides (Fenzl) Kuntze (10794) Senecio arborescens Steetz (Dryer 1371) calyculatus Greenm. cf. (10384) candelariae Benth. (11029) chenopodioides Kunth (10494) copeyensis Greenm. (Obando 18) co open Greenm. (10578) multivenius Benth. (10853) parasiticus Sch. Bip. ex Hemsl. (10517) streptothamnus Greenm. (3047) Sinclairia polyantha (Klatt) Rydb. (587) Smallanthus maculatus (Cav.) H. Rob. (10414) uvedalius (L.) Mack. Ex Small (10417) Sonchus asper (L.) Hill (2688) oleraceus L. (10208) Spiracantha corni folia Kunth (10303) Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. (10335) Tagetes erecta L. (10345) filifolia Lag. (8878) Taraxicum * officinale L. (10424) Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.) S. F. Blake (8837) Tridax procumbens L. (10331) Trixis inula Crantz (10495) Verbesina oerstediana Benth. (10248) ovatifolia A. Gray (10443) punctata Robinson & Greenm. (3740) ricacosta B. L. Turner ined. (10336) turbacensis Kunth (603) sp. A (11374) sp. B (10410) Vernonia arborescens (L.) Sw. (10411) brachiata Benth. (10536) patens Kunth (9787) salzmannii DC. (10564)

464

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

P

BD,BF?

WD

DI

S

M

LB

WD

HE

L

MA

IN

WD

HE

S

M

BE

WD,GR

HE

Ts

A

IN

WD

HE

H

PM

IN

GR

HE

H

P

BE

WD

HE

V

M

LB

WD

HE

S

M M M P M M M M M

LB LB LB BF LB BF LB LB

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Ts L L L Ts Ts Ts L L

PMA

LB,BF

WD

HE

E

M M

BE BE

GR GR

HE HE

H H

M M

BE BE

WD WD

HE HE

H H

P

SB

GR

HE

H

PM

SB

TM

HE

H

P PM

SB SB

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

LB,BF

M

H

P

LB

GR

HE

S

P

LB

WD

HE

S

P

LB

WD

HE

S

M P P P PM MA P

IN IN IN BE SB BE BE

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Ts V S S S H H

PMA PA PMA M

IN IN IN IN

WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE

L S Ts S

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

scorpioides PERS. (11005) triflosculosa Kunth (Bella 824) Viguiera cordata (Hook & Am.) D'Arcy (Bello 571) strigosa Klatt (10476) sylvatica Klatt (10434) Wamalchitamia aumntiaca (Klatt) Strother (8836) We deli a acapulcensis Kunth (10350) fruticosa Jacq. (8854) iners (S. F. Blake) Strother (10747) Youngia japonica (L.) DC. (10516) Zexmenia virgulta Klatt (10472) Balanophoraceae Helosis cayennensis (Sw.) Spreng. (10079) Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (7984) Balsaminaceae Impatiens *walleriana Hook. F. (10043) Begoniaceae Begonia broussonetiifolia A. DC. (1268) conchifolia A. Dietr. (9008) cooperiC. DC. (1288) estrellensis C. DC. (Zuchowski 22) glabra Aubl. (3902) heydei C. DC. (7645) hirsuta Aubl. (8860) involucrata Liebm. (Zuchowski 167) oaxacana A. DC. (10259) plebeja Liebm. (8859) strigillosa A. Dietr. (6030) ureophylla Hook. (9773) Betulaceae Alnus acuminata Kunth (9848) Bignoniaceae Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) Kunth (630) Amphitecna haberi A. H. Gentry, ined. (492) donnell-smithii (Spr.) L. O. Williams, aff. (5841) gentry! W. C. Berger ined. (9272) Arrabidaea patellifera (Schltdl.) Sandwith (7211) verrucosa (Standl.) A. H. Gentry (5649) Callichlamys latifolia (Rich.) K. Schum. (7410) Crescentia *cujete L. (1008) Godmania aesculifolia (Kunth) Standl. (10649) Mansoa hymenaea (DC.) A. H. Gentry (Bello 680) Martinella obovata (Kunth) Bureau & K. Schum. (2211) Melloa quadrivalvis (Jacq.) A. H. Gentry (Bello 206)

M PM

IN IN

WD WD

HE HE

V S

PM P P

LB LB LB

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

S H H

P

BE

WD,GR

HE

H

P P P

BE BE BE

WD,GR WD,GR WD,GR

HE HE HE

H H H

M

SB

WD

HE

H

PA

BE

WD,GR

HE

L

P

IN

Ants?

MO

H-Sap

M

IN

Ants?

MO

H-Sap

465

H

PMA A PM MA M M MA P M M P M P

BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

H E S V E E H H V H E H

MA

WD

WD

MO

Tm

P

LB

WD

HE

L

P

A PMA

BT BT BT

TM TM TM

HE' HE HE

Tm Ts Tm

P A

LB LB

WD WD

HE HE

L L

A

LB

WD

HE

L

P

Ts

P

LB

WD

HE

Ts

P

LB

WD

HE

L

PM

LB

WD

HE

L

P

LB

WD

HE

L

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A. H. Gentry (555) Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. (9996) Tecoma stans (L.) C. Juss. ex Kunth (423) Tourrettia lappacea (L'Her.) Willd. (1034) Bombacaceae Bombacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand (9991) Ceiba aesculifolia (Kunth) Britt. & Baker (9582) pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Bello 2886) O chroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urb. (Bello 650) Pachira aquatica Aubl. (1891) Quararibea costaricensis W. S. Alverson (251) funebris (La Llave) Vischer (558) pterocalyx Hemsl. (6596) Spirotheca rosea (Seem.) P. E. Gibbs (1933) Boraginaceae Bourreria costaricensis (Standl.) A. H. Gentry (759) Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken (10004) croatii James S. Mill. (7138) cymosa (Bonn. Sm.) Standl. (460) eriostigma Pittier (2610) lucidula I. M. Johnst. (Bello 321) megalantha S. F. Blake (Bello 787) panamensis Riley (10709) spinescens L. (2809) Ehretia latifolia DC. (6907) Heliotropium indicum L. (9997) transalpinum Veil. (9688) Tournefortia angustiflora Ruiz & Pav. (9954) brenesii Standl. (Zuchowski 458) glabra L. (7112) hirsutissima L. (6632) maculata Jacq. (10048) poasana Cufod. (4524) ramonensis Standl. (Dryer 518) Brassicaceae Brassica juncea (L.) Czerniak. (685) Cardamine africana L. (9142) bonariensis Pers. (Mill's) flexuosa With. (9026) fulcrata Greene (3658) Lepidium virginicum L. (Bello 1135) Rorippa * nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek (12530)

466

Zone3

Pollb

Seed0

Sexd

Habit6

P

LB

WD

HE

L

P

LB

WD

HE

Tl

P

LB

WD

HE

Tm

MA

IN

WD

HE

V

P

HM,BT

WD

HE

Tl

P A

BT BT

WD WD

HE HE

Tl Tl

PA

BT

WD

HE

Tl

A

BT

TM

HE

Tl

MA P A

HM HM HM

AM AM AM

HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tm

A

BT

WD

HE

E

MA

HM

AM

HE

Tl

P M M PA PA A P MA

MO SB SB SB SB LB SB SB

WD BD BD BD BD WD BD BD

HE DI? DI DI? HE HE DI HE

Tm Tm Tl Tl Ts Tl Tm L

PM

SB

BD

HE

Tm

P P

BF BF

GR GR

HE HE

H H

M M PMA PMA M M M

IN IN BF IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

L Ts L L S S S

M

LB

GR

HE

H

M M M M

IN IN IN IN

GR GR GR GR

HE HE HE HE

H H H H

PM

IN

GR

HE

H

MA

Appendix 1

H


Dicotyledons Brunelliaceae Brunellia costaricensis Standl. (532) darienensis Cuatrec. & D. Porter (8050) standleana Cuatrec. (Bello 1527) Burseraceae Burs era gmndifolia (Schlec.) Engl. (11322) simaruba (L.) Sarg. (9988) Protium costaricense (Rose) Engl. (Bello 473) schippii Lundell (6979) sp. A (7508) Cactaceae Disocactus himantocladus (Rol.-Goss.) Kimnach, cf. (8467) ramulosus (Salm-Dyck) Kimnach, cf. (Bello 11) Epiphyllum lepidocarpum (F.A.C. Weber) Britton & Rose, cf. (9842) phyllanthus (L.) Haw. (8512) thomasiana (K. Schum.) Kimnach (Hammel 14214) Hylocereus costaricensis (F. A. C. Weber) Britton & Rose (9893) Rhipsalis baccifera (Mill.) Steam, cf. (7840) Selenicereus wercklei (F. A. C. Weber) Britton & Rose (507) Stenocereus aragonii (F. A. C. Weber) F. Buxb. Weberocereus biolleyi (F. A. C. Weber) Britton & Rose (147) tonduzii (F. A. C. Weber) G. D. Rowley (10088) Campanulaceae Burmeistera chiriquiensis Wilbur (Bello 1827) cycle-stigmata Bonn. Sm. (1684) microphylla Bonn. Sm. (722) parviflora E. Wimm. ex Standl. (1669) tenuiflora Bonn. Sm. (9124) vulgaris E. Wimm. (2426) Calcaratolobelia cordifolia (Hook & Am.) Wilbur (10330) Centropogon costaricae (Vatke) McVaugh (1991) granulosus C. Presl (734) solanifolius Benth (3302) Diastatea micrantha (Kunth) McVaugh (10293) Hippobroma longiflora (L.) G. Bon (1483) Lobelia laxiflora Kunth (3122) xalapensis Kunth (8326) Capparidaceae Capparis amplissima Lam. (Bello 399) cynophallophora L. (9248) discolor Bonn. Sm. (543) frondosa Jacq. (475) mollicella Standl. (478) pringlei Briq. (6806)

467

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

M A A

IN IN IN

GR GR GR

BI BI BI

Tm Tm Tm

P P

SB SB

BB BB

BI BI

Tm Tl

A A A

IN IN IN

BB BB BB

BI? BI? BI?

Tm Tm Tm

A A

BE? BE?

BB BB

HE HE

E E

M PM A

HM HM HM

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

E E E

P

HM

BB

HE

E

PMA

BE

BB

HE

E

PM

HM

BB

HE

E

P

BT

BB

HE

Ts

MA M

BT? BT

BB AM

HE HE

E E

A MA MA M M M

BB? BT BB BB BB BB

BB BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E E

P

IN

GR,WB

HE

H

M A M

BB BB BB

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

H S H

P

IN

GR,WB

HE

H

A

HM

GR,WB

HE

H

PM M

BB IN

GR,WB GR,WB

HE HE

S H

P P PMA P P P

HM HM HM HM HM HM

BB BB AM BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE HE

Ts Tm Tm S Tm Tm

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Cleome *hassleriana Chodat (9696) pilosa Benth. (8863) Forchh amm eria trifoliata Radlk. (9774) Po dan drogyn e decipiens (Triana & Planch.) Woodson (8677) Caprifoliaceae Sambucus *mexicana K. Presl ex DC. (Penneys 953) Viburnum costaricanum (Oerst.) Hemsl. (302) stellatotomentosum (Oerst.) Hemsl. (10510) vernustum C. V. Morton (9797) Caricaceae Carica cauHflora Jacq. (9245) * papaya L. (Herrera 937) Jacaratia dolichaula (Bonn. Sm.) Woodson (7589) spinosa (Aubl.; DC. (7589) Caryophyllaceae Arenaria lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb. (10271) Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. (10273) guatemalense Standl. (10133) Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. (10134) villosa Cham. & Schltdl. (10296) Stellaria ovata Willd. ex Schltdl. (Zuchowski 134B) Cecropiaceae Cecropia insignis Liebm. obtusifolia Bertol. (6117) peltata L. (9970) polyphlebia Donn. Sm. (455) Coussapoa contorta Cuatrec. (Bello 4018) nymphaeifolia Standl. (Bello 890) parviceps Standl. (11174) villosa Poepp. & Endl. (4826) Celastraceae Celastrus liebmannii Standl. (Bello 2778) vulcanicola Donn. Sm. (11121) Crossopetalum enervium Hammel. (Obando 15) tonduzii (Loes.) Lundell (9788) Euonymus costaricensis Standl. (10811) Gymnosporia haberiana Hammel. (6728) Maytenus reconditus Hammel. (446) segoviarum Standl. & Steyerm. (9882) Perrottetia longistylis Rose (9509) multiflora Lundell (6675) sessiliflora Lundell (Bello 1561) Quetzalia occidentalis (Loes.) Lundell (11003)

468

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

M P

MO

GR

HE

H H

P

SB

BD

HE

Tm

MA

BD

BD

HE

Ts

M

Ts

M M PM

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

HE HE? DI

Tm Tm Tm

P PM

HM Ts

AM

DI

S

A A

HM MO?

Am AM

DI DI

Tm Tl

M

IN

GR

HE

H

M

IN

GR

HE

H

M

IN

GR

HE

H

M

IN

GR

HE

H

A PMA P M

WD WD WD WD

BD,AM BDJBT BD,BT BD,BT

DI DI DI DI

Tm Tl Tl Tl

A A A A

WD WD WD WD

BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI

E E E E

M MA

IN IN

BD BD

HE? HE?

L L

MA M

IN IN

BD BD

DI DI

S Tm

PM

IN

BD

DI

Ts

M

IN

BD

DI

Tl

MA P

IN IN

BD BD

DI DI

Tm Tl

PMA A A

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

DI DI DI

Tm Tm Tm

M

IN

BD

DI

Tm

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Zinowiewia costaricensis Lundell (495) Chenopodiaceae Ch en op odium ambrosioides L. (11373) Chloranthaceae Hedyosmum bonplandianum Kunth (5111) brenesii Standl. (1699) costaricense C. E. Wood (Bello 1486) goudotianum Solms-Laub. (7651) Chrysobalanaceae Hirtella racemosa Lam. (10756) triandra Sw. (6497) Licania belloi Prance (Bello 783) jefensis Prance (Bello 1081) kallunkii Prance (Bello 1629) platypus (Hemsl.) Fritsch (Bello 1321) Clethraceae Clethra lanata M. Martens & Galeotti (Bello 514) mexicana A. DC. (9853) pyrogena Sleumer (10929) Clusiaceae Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Bello 517) Chrysochlamys allenii (Maguire) Hammel (10031) glauca (Oerst., Planch. & Triana) Hemsl. (11363) psychotriifolia (Oerst., Planch. & Triana) Hemsl. (11626) Clusia cylindrica Hammel (1743) gracilis Standl. (8051) minor L. (9229) modesta Standl. & L. O. Williams ex Hammel, ined. (9068) multiflom Kunth (11409) palmana Standl. (7128) stenophylla Standl. (9445) torresii Standl. (9220) uvitana Pittier (7994) valerii Standl. (7149) Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel (9744) Hypericum pratense Cham. & Schldtl. (10276) Mania laxiflora Rusby (8466) Symphonia globulifera L. f. (4442) Vismia baccifera (L.) Triana & Planch. (11201) billbergiana Beurl. (8405) sp. A. (9828) Cochlospermaceae Cochlosperm urn vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng. Combretaceae Combretum laxum Jacq. (3905)

469

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

M

IN

WD

DI

Tl

PM

WD?

GR

HE?

S

A A MA M

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI

Ts S Ts Ts

P A

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

Ts Tm

A A A A

SB SB SB SB

AM AM AM AM

HE? HE? HE? HE?

Tl Tl Tl Tl

PM M M

SB SB SB

WD WD WD

HE HE HE

Tm Tm Tm

A

IN

BD

DE

Tl

M MA MA

SB SB SB

BD BD BD

DI DI DI

Tm Ts Tm

A A M P M M MA M A A

CO CO BE BE MO BE MO CO BE BE

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI

E E E E Ts E E E E E

PA

SB

AM

DI

Tm

M

BE

WD,GR

HE

H

A

BE

WD

HE

Tm

PMA

BD

AM

HE

Tm

P A M

SB SB SB

BD,BT BDJBT BDJBT

HE HE HE

Ts Tm Tm

P

LB

WD

HE

Tm

MA

SB

WD

HE

L

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Terminalia bucidoides Standl. & L. O. Williams (8345) oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Steud. (Bello 688) Connaraceae Connarus costaricensis Schellenb., cf. (9065) Rourea schippii Standl. (Bello 1458) suerrensis Bonn. Sm. (7989) Convolvulaceae Convolvulus nodiflorus Desv. (410) Dickon dra sericea Sw. (10376) Ipomoea alba L. (3629) aurantiaca L. O. Williams (7965) batatas (L.) Lam (1188) batatoides Choisy (6823) *indica (Burm. f.) Merr. (684) leucotricha Donn. Sm. (9712) lindenii M. Martens & Galeotti (8861) nil (L.) Roth (8875) parasitica (Kunth) G. Don (8889) reticulata O'Donell (2937) santillanii O'Donell (2937) setosa Ker Gawl. (8862) trifida (Kunth) G. Don (8894) umbraticola House (8874) Maripa nicaraguensis Hemsl. (1741) Merremia discoidesperma (Donn. Sm.) O'Donell (7718) tuberosa (L.) Rendle (9153) Operculina pteripes (Don) O'Donell (8891) Cornaceae Cornus disciflora DC. (8027) Crassulaceae Echeveria australis Rose (9714) Cucurbitaceae Cayaponia buraeavii Cogn. (10817) glandulosa (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn. (1522) macrocalyx Harms (Bello 719) racemosa (Mill.) Cogn. (6112) Cyclanthera explodens Naudin (8660) langaei Cogn. (Bello 658) Elateriopsis oerstedii (Cogn.) Pittier (Dryer 461) Fevillea cordifolia L. (Bello 442) Gurania coccinea Cogn. (6914) costaricensis Cogn. (9476) eriantha (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn. (9183) makoyana (Lem.) Cogn. (11295) megistantha Donn. Sm. (1551)

470

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

A PA

IN IN

WD WD

HE HE

Tl Tl

A

LB

BD

HE

L

A MA

LB LB

BD BD

HE HE

L L

P

SB

GR

HE

L

M

IN

GR

HE

V

P P PMA PA M PM P P P P P P P P

HM LB

GR GR

HE HE

LB

GR

HE

LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

V L V L V L L L L L V V L L

A

LB

AM

HE

L

A A

LB LB

GR GR

HE HE

L V

P

LB

GR

HE

L

M

IN

BD

HE

Tl

P

BD?

WD,GR

HE

H

M MA A PM

IN IN IN IN

AM? BD AM BD

MO MO MO MO

V V V V

P A

IN IN

EX EX

MO MO

V V

M

BT?

EX

MO

V

A

IN

AM

DI

L

MA A A MA A

BF,BD BF,BD

AM AM BD AM Am

DI DI AM DI DI

V L OIL V V

Appendix 1

BF

BF,BD BFJ3D


Dicotyledons Melothria dulcis Wunderlin (Bello 484) pendula L. (11173) scabra Naudin (3700) Momordica chamntia L. (Bello 2303) Polyclathra cucumerina Bertol. (4303) Psiguria bignoniacea (Poepp. & Endl.) Wunderlin (Dryer 597) warscewiczii (Hook, f.) Wunderlin (11151) Rytidostylis carthaginensis (Jacq.) Kuntze (10761) gracilis Hooker & Arnott (Bello 33) Sechium pittieri (Cogn.) C. Jeffrey (11825) *edule (Jacq.) Sw. ("Chayote") Selysia prunifera (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn. Sicydium tamnifolium (Kunth) Cogn. (429) Tecunumania quetzalteca Standl. & Steyerm. (6145) Cunoniaceae Weinmannia pinnata L. (190) wercklei Standl. (6610) sp. A (Bello 1338) Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum axillare Woods on (72277) brenesii Standl. (11461) donneU-smithii Engl. (5920) pedunculatum (DC.) Baill. (4558) Dilleniaceae Doliocarpus dentatus (Aubl.) Standl. (10750) Ebenaceae Diospyros blancoi A. DC. digyna Jacq. (Bello 116) hartmanniana S. Knapp & Whitef. (Gentry 71605) salicifolia (Willd.) (11326) sp. C (6087) Elaeocarpaceae Sloanea ampla I. M. Johnst. (9308) brenesii Standl. (549) faginea Standl. (7091) ligulata D. A. Sm., ined. (Bello 873) Eremolepidaceae Antidaphne viscoidea Poepp. & Endl. (Grayum 5409) Ericaceae Cavendishia axillaris A. C. Sm. (9382) bmcteata (Ruiz & Pav. ex J. St.-Hil.) Hoerold (7571) callista Donn. Sm. (7437) capitulata Donn. Sm. (1099) chiriquensis A. C. Sm. (7376) complectens Hemsl. (986) endresii Hemsl. (Dryer 259) lactiviscida Luteyn (7016)

471

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

A MA M

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

MO MO MO

V V V

A

BE

BD

MO

V

P

IN,BT?

GR

MO

V

M A

BE BF

AM AM

DI DI

L V

P P

MO MO

EX EX

MO MO

V V

M M

IN

AM

MO

V V

A

BT?

AM

MO

V

M

IN

BD

DI

V

A

IN?

BD?

MO?

V

MA M A

SB SB SB

WD WD WD

HE HE HE

Tl Tm Tl

MA M A M

SB IN SB IN

AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD

HE HE HE HE

Ts Ts Ts Ts

P

IN

BD

HE

L

P P M P A

MO? MO? MO MO MO?

AM AM BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI

Tl Tm Tm Ts Tl

MA MA MA A

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

Tl Tm Tl Tl

M

IN

BD

DI

E-P

A M A MA M MA M M

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E E E E

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

melastomoides (Klotzsch) Hemsl. (2010) quercina A. C. Sm. (8024) quereme (Kunth) Benth. & Hook. (1284) Disterigma humboldtii (Klotzsch) Nied. (3174) Gaultheria erecta Vent. (Bello 225) gracilis Small (10251) Gonocalyx costaricensis Luteyn (6638) pterocarpus (Donn. Sm.) Luteyn (Bello 1764) Marcleania insignis M. Martens & Galeotti (1541) Monotropa uniflora L. (10135) Psammisia ramiflora Klotzsch (848) Satyria meiantha Donn. Sm. (Penneys 23) panurensis (Benth.) Benth. & Hook. (9462) Sphyrosperm um buxifolium Poepp. & Endl. (2898) cordifolium Benth. (706) Themistoclesia costaricensis Luteyn & Wilbur (Bello 898) pentandra Sleumer (Bello 983) smithiana (Standl.) Sleumer (7810) Thibaudia costaricensis Hoerold (6876) Vaccinium monteverdense Wilbur, ined. (6639) poasanum Donn. Sm. (2814) Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum macrophyllum Cav. (1067) Euphorbiaceae Acalypha apodanthes Standl. & L. O. Williams (8310) diversifolia Jacq. (4756) leptopoda Mull. Arg. (10497) macrostachya Jacq. (4837) mortoniana Lundell (Bello 317) schiedeana Schltdl. (9912) Adelia triloba (Mull. Arg.) Hemsl. (6581) Alchornea costaricensis Pax & K. Hoffm. (1762) glandulosa Poepp. (7654) guatemalensis Lundell (551) latifolia Sw. (453) Bernardia nicaraguensis Standl. (10483) Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp. (8868) hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. (11244) hyssopifolia (L.) Small (11204) Croton billbergianus Mull Arg. (1688) draco Cham. & Schltdl. (Bello 1113) megistocarpus Poveda & Gonz. Ram. (11172) mexicanus Muell. Arg. (10724) *niveus Jacq. (9918) pachypodus G. L. Webster (Bello 293)

M M A

BD BD BD

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

E E E

M

IN

BD

HE

E

MA MA

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

E E

M M

BD BD

BD BD

HE HE

E E

M

BD

BD

HE

E

M

IN

GR,WD

HE

H-Sap

A

BD

BD

HE

E

A A

BD BD

BD BD

HE HE

E E

M M

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

E E

A A M

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

E E E

MA

IN

BD

HE

E

M M

BD SB

BD BD

HE HE

E E

M

BE

BD

HE

Ts

AM A P PMA A P

WD? WD? WD? WD? WD? WD?

GR GR GR GR GR GR

MO MO MO MO MO MO

Ts Ts Ts Ts H Ts

A

IN

EX

DI

Tm

A A M MA

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI

Tm Tm Tm Tl

P

SB

GR

DI

S

P PM M

IN IN IN

GR GR GR

MO MO MO

H H H

A PM A M M A

SB SB SB SB

EX EX EX EX

MO MO MO DI

IN

EX

DI

Ts Tl Tl Tm Ts Tm

472

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons schiedeanus Schltdl. (11239) watsonii Standl. (9944) xalapensis Kunth (9993) Dalechampia cissifolia Poepp. (Bello 4902) Dry petes brownei Standl. (5730) lateriflora (Sw.) Krug & Urb. (9856) standleyi G. L. Webster (11431) sp. A (Bello 35) Euphorbia elata Brandegee (1122) graminea Jacq. (10535) heterophylla L. (9721) hoffmanniana (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss. (10501) schlechtendalii Boiss. (10500) Gymnanthes riparia (Schltdl.) Klotzsch (6788)

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

A P PM

IN SB IN

EX EX EX

DI DI MO

Tm Tm Ts

A

BE

GR

MO

V

A PM A P

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI

Tm Tm Tm Tm

M P P P P

IN IN IN IN IN

EX EX EX EX EX

MO MO MO MO MO

Ts H H Ts Ts

PMA

IN

EX

DI?

Ts

P

BT

EX

MO

Tl

A MA

IN IN

BD BD

DI DI

Tm Tl

PA

SB

BD

DI

Tm

MA M P MA M

IN IN IN IN IN

EX EX EX EX EX

MO MO MO MO MO

S S Ts S Ts

A

IN

EX

MO

L

Hum

crepitansL. (1617) Hyeronima alchornioides Allemao (5579) oblonga (Tul.) Mull. Arg. (9330) Margaritaria nobilis L. F. (5656) Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl (7460) amarus Schumach. & Thonn. (6209) anisolobus Mull. Arg. (6015) niruri L. (10838) valerii Standl. (Bello 789) Plukenetia stipellata L. J. Gillespie (11543) Ricinus *communis L. Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong (449) laurifolium (Rich.) Griseb. (Bello 1205) macrocarpum Mull. Arg. (9366) pachystachys K. Schum. & Pittier (9332) rigidifolium Huft (7225) Tetrorchidium costaricense Huft (7607) euryphyllum Standl. (7874) Tragia bailloniana Muell. Arg. (8072) Fabaceae (Caesalpiniodeae) Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench (10320) Senna cobanensis (Britton & Rose) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (11709) hayesiana (Britton & Rose) H. S. Irwin & Barneby nicaraguensis (Benth.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (916) obtusifolia (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (934) pallida (Vahl) Irwin & Barneby (10534) papillosa (Britton & Rose) H. S. Irwin & Barneby skinneri (Benth.) H. S. Irwin & Barnaby (12436) spectabilis (DC.) H. S. Irwin & Barnaby (7963) (Mimosoideae) Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze (7966) centralis (Britton & Rose) Lundell (1628)

473

Ts

M M PMA PM A MA

IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD

MO MO MO MO MO

Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl

M A

IN IN

BD BD

DI DI

Tm Tm

A

IN

EX

MO

V

PM

LB

GR

HE

S

P A P P P P P P

LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S S S Ts Tm

P P

SB SB

WD WD

HE HE

Ts Tm

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

ruddiae D. H. Janzen (Bello 5099) tenuifolia (L.) Willd. (Bello 90) Albizia adinocephala (Bonn. Sm.) Britton & Rose (10198) carbonaria Britton ex Britton & P. Wilson (4838) Calliandra bijuga Rose (8430) brenesii Standl. (11550) calothyrsus Meissn. (Bello 1387) Cojoba catenata (Bonn. Sm.) Britton & Rose (5069) costaricensis Britton & Rose (454) valerioi (Britton & Rose) Standl. (9450) Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. (9582 A) Hymen a ea courbarilL. (11328) Inga barbourii Standl. (Bello 2585) brenesii Standl. (641) (= sierrae Britton & Killip) exalata T. S. Elias (11528) herrerae N. Zamora hintonii Sandwith (3871) (= micheliana Harms) latipes Pittier (Bello 1128) leonis N. Zamora (6097) longispica Standl. (Koptur 217) marginata Willd. (408) mortoniana Jorge Leon (3022) oerstediana Benth. ex Seem. (9914) punctata Willd. (1115) quaternata Poepp. (181) (= nobilis Harms) sapindoides Willd. (7621) stenophylla Standl. (Bello 2585) tonduzii Bonn. Sm. (Bello 132) venusta Standl. (5577) Ly silo ma divarication (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. (Bello 678) Mimosa albida Humb. & Bompl. ex Willd. (617) pudica L. (598) Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill (9927) Zapoteca costaricensis (Britton & Rose) H. M. Hern. (7217) formosa (Kimth) H. M. Hern. (Bello 1112) tetragona (Willd.) H. M. Hern. (11055) Zygia latifolia (L.) Benth. (Bello 2178) longifolia (L.) (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Britton & Rose (Bello 2178) palmana (Standl.) L. Rico (7450) (Papilionoideae) Aeschynomene fascicularis Cham. & Schltdl. compacta Rose (8886) Cajanus *cajan (L.) Millsp. (1153) Calopogonium caeruleum (Benth.) Sauv. (9595) galactioides (Kunth) Benth. ex Hemsl. (Bello 4205) mucunoides Besv. (11386) Canavalia oxyphylla Standl. & L. O. Williams (Bello 747) villosa Benth. (10311)

A PA

SB SB

BB WB

HE HE

Tl L

P A

MO MO

WB WB

HE HE

Tl Tm

P A A

HM BB BB

EX EX EX4

HE HE HE

Ts Ts Tm

PMA MA A

MO MO MO

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

Ts Tm Ts

P

MO

TM

HE

Tl

P

BT

GR

HE

Tl

A M A A M P A M P MA PMA PMA M A A MA A

MO HM HM HM MO MO HM MO MO MO HM MO HM HM MO HM MO

TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tm Tm Tl Tm Tl Tl

PA

MO

WB

HE

Tl

P PMA

SB SB

TM? TM?

HE HE

L S

P

HM

TM

HE

Tl

P P P

HM HM HM

EX EX EX

HE HE HE

Ts Ts Ts

A A

MO MO

TM TM

HE HE

Ts Tm

MA

MO

TM

HE

Ts

PM P

SB SB

TM? TM?

HE HE

S V

474

P

S

M P P

LB BE LB

EX EX EX

HE HE HE

V H V

A P

LB LB

EX EX

HE HE

L L

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Coursetia caribaea (Jacq.) Lavin (6122) Crotalaria maypurensis Kunth (9667) pilosa Mill. (10319) retusa L. (Fuentes 550) sagittalis L. (Bello 4013) vitellina Ker Gawl. (2534) Dalbergia melanocardium Pittier (8410) tilarana N. Zamora, ined. (11050) Desm odium adscendens (Sw.) DC. (8678) angustifolium (Kunth) DC. (9947) axillare (Sw.) DC. (9947) barbatum (L.) Benth. & Oerst. (8849) distortum (Aubl.) J. F. Macbr. (10976) incanum DC. (Bello 4206) intorium (Mill.) Urb. (10374) purpusii Brandegee (Bello 1219) sericophyllum Schltdl. (10427) triflorum (L.) DC. (10340) Dioclea. malacocarpa Ducke (1769) reflexa Hook. f. (7649) Diphysa americana (Mill.) M. Sousa (6818) humilis Oerst. (9767) Dussia macroprophyllata (Donn. Sm.) Harms, cf. (3813) sp. A Eriosema. crinitum (Kunth) G. Don (Bello 2910) diffusum (Kunth) G. Don (9946) Erythrina berteroana Urb. (10636) gibbosa Cufod. (802) lanceolata Standl. (Bello 311) Indigo f era suffruticosa Mill. (Fuentes 548) thibaudiana DC. (10905) trita L. F. (Fuentes 105) Lonchocarpus acuminatus (Schltdl.) M. Sousa (10655) calcaratus F. }. Herm. (6873) guatemalensis Benth. (Bello 205) haberi N. Zamor, ined. (9581) macrophyllus Kunth (8229) minimiflorus Donn. Sm., aff. (Bello 98) oliganthus F. J. Herm. (8519) sericeus (Poir.) DC. (6575) sp. A (11102) sp. B (9987) Machaerium biovulatum Micheli (7198) cobanense Donn. Sm. (5247) floribundum Benth. (Bello 893) seemannii Benth. (7669) Macro ptilium atropurpureum (DC.) Urb. (11667) Mucuna mutisiana (Kunth) DC. (Bello 2015) urens (L.) DC. (9231)

475

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

PM

BE

EX?

HE

S

PM P P PM P

LB LB LB LB LB

EX? EX? EX? EX? EX?

HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H

PA M

LB LB

WD WD

HE HE

L Tl

MA P P PA P P P A M P

SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB

TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S S S S V S S

A A

LB LB

TM TM

HE HE

L L

P P

LB LB

WD WD

HE HE

Tm S

A M

LB LB

BD BD

HE HE

Tl Tl

P P

BE BE

EX? EX?

HE HE

H S

P A PMA

BD BD BD

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

Tm Tm Tm

P PM P

SB SB SB

EX? EX? EX?

HE' HE HE

S S S

P A P M A P PMA A M P

LB LB LB LB LB LB SB LB LB LB

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Tm Tl Tl Tl Tm Tm Tm Tm Tl Tl

P A A A

LB LB LB LB

WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE

Tm L L L

M

LB

GR

HE

V

A M

BT BT

TM TM

HE HE

L L

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Msso7ia fruticosa Jacq. (8881) Ormosia cruenta Rudd (471) Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) URB. (11553) Phaseolus *vulgarisL. (3046) Platymiscium sp. A (8302) Pterocarpus rohriiVahl., cf. (8515) Pueraria * phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. (4882) (Kudzu) Rhynchosia edulis Griseb. (8724) erythrinoides Schltdl. & Cham. (10604) longeracemosa M. Martens & Galeotti (Bello 4226) quercetorum Standl. (3674) reticulata (Sw.) DC. (16353) Styphnolobium monteviridis M. Sousa & Rudd (9118) Stylo santhes guyanensis (Aubl.) Sw. (10352) Swartzia simplex (Sw.) Spreng. (5887) Teramnus uncinatus (L.) Sw. (8883) Tri folium *repens L. Vigna adenantha (G. Mey.) Merechal, Mascherpa & Stainer (8842) caracalla (L.) Verde. (4055) speciosa (Kunth) Verd. (9874) Zornia reticulata Sm. (8884) Fagaceae Quercus brenesii Trel. (= cortesii] (7274) corrugata Hook. (= lancifolia] (Dryer 1173) insignis M. Martens & Galeotti (9264) seemannii Liebm. (= solicifolia) (Dryer 593) Flacourtiaceae Casearia aculeata Jacq. (9979) arguta Kunth (7046) coronata Standl. & L. O. Williams (6598) corymbosa Kunth (10639) sylvestris Sw. (285) tacanensis Lundell (1611) Hasseltia floribunda Kunth (6992 Hasseltiopsis dioica (Benth.) Sleumer (6509) Lacistema aggregatum (Bergius) Rusby (Bello 1410) Lozania mutisiana Roem. & Schult. (316) pittieri (S. F. Blake) L. B. Sm. (Bello 1079) Lunania mexicana Brandegee (778)

476

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

P

LB

GR

HE

L

M

LB

BD

HE

L

P

LB

EX

HE

V

M

V

A

LB

WD

HE

L

PMA

LB

WD

HE

Tl

A

L

M PM P M P

SB SB SB SB SB

BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE

L L L L L

PM

LB

AM

HE

Tl

P

SB

GR,TM?

HE

H

A

LB

BD

HE

Ts

PM

SB

GR

HE

S

M

BE

GR

HE

H

P

SB

GR

HE

V

P P

SB LB

GR EX

HE HE

V L

PM

SB

GR

HE

S

M MA M M

WD WD WD WD

AM,TM AM,TM AM,TM AM,TM

MO MO MO MO

Tm Tl Tl Tm

P A A PA PM M

IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD AM

HE HE HE HE HE HE

Tm Tm Tm Ts Tm Tm

MA

BE

BD

HE

Tm

M

BE

BD

DI

Ts

M

IN

BD

HE

Tm

MA A

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

Tm Tm

MA

SB

BD

DI

Tm

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Macrohasseltia macrotemntha (Standl. & L. O. Williams) L. O. Williams (305) Pleuranthodendron lindenii (Turcz.) Sleumer (Bello 1168) Prockia crucis P. Browne ex L. (1619) Xylosma chlorantha Bonn. Sm. (10598) flexuosa (Kunth) Hemsl. (11755) hispidula Standl. (10021) intermedia (Seem.) Triana & Planch. (7959) oligandra Bonn. Sm. (9779) quichensis Bonn. Sm. (9283) Gentianaceae Centaurium quitense (Kunth) B. L. Rob. (Fuentes 540) Lisianthius seemannii (Griseb.) Kuntze (8656) skinneri (Hemsl.) Kuntze (Bello 940) Macrocarpaea valerii Standl. (336) Schultesia lisianthoides (Griseb.) Benth. & Hook, ex Hemsl. (10294) Symbolanthus calygonus (Ruiz & Pav.) Griseb. (7389) Voyria flavescens Griseb. (858) Gesneriaceae Achimenes longiflora BC. (8627) pedunculata Benth (10083) Alloplectus panamensis C. V. Morton (10554) tetragonus (Oerst.) Hanst. (3050) trichocalyx Wiehler (9403) Besleria formosa C. V. Morton (1565) laxiflora Benth. (1465) macropoda Bonn. Sm. (7672) notabilis C. V. Morton (972) princeps Hanst. (2643) solanoides Kunth (1026) triflora (Oerst.) Hanst. (Koptur 116) Capanea grandiflora (Kunth) Becne. ex Planch. (3167) Columned angustata (Wiehler) L. E. Skog (Bello 248) anisophylla BC. (6248) consanguinea Hanst. (9131) glabra Oerst. (6718) gloriosa Sprague (Bello 475) hirta Klotzsch & Hanst. (Bello 418) kalbreyeria.no. Mast. (9189) lepidocaulis Hanst. (8567) linearis Oerst. (7998) magnifica Klotzsch ex Oerst. (4002) microcalyx Hanst. (7548) microphylla Klotzsch & Hanst. ex Oerst. (7055) oerstediana Klotzsch ex Oerst. (1403) purpurata Hanst. (1247) querceti Oerst. (9016) sanguinolenta (Klotzsch ex Oerst.) Hanst. (8320) verecunda C. V. Morton (1401)

477

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

MA

SB

WB

HE

Tl

A

SB

BB

HE

Tl

P

IN

BB

HE

S

M P MA M M M

SB SB SB SB SB SB

BB BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE BI HE HE

Ts Ts Ts Tm Tm S

A

SB

WB,GR

HE

H

P A

BB BB

WB/GR WB/GR

HE HE

S S

M

BT

WB/GR

HE

S

P

IN?

WB/GR

HE

H

M

BB

WB/GR

HE

H

M

IN

GR

HE

H-Sap

P P

BB BB

WB WB

HE HE

H H

A M A

BB BB BB

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

H S V

M A A MA M MA MA

BB BB BE? BB BB BB BB

BB BB BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE BI HE HE HE

S S H S H S S

M

BT

BB

HE

E

A M MA M MA A A M A M M A PA A MA A PMA

IN BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB

BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

V E E E E E E E E E E E E E E V E

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Cremosperma maculatum L. E. Skog, cf. (10866) Diastema a/fine Fritsch (10400) racemiferum Benth. (10782) Drymonia alloplectoides Hanst. (1706) conchocalyx Hanst. (727) coriacea (Oerst. ex Hanst.) Weihler (9381) lanceolata (Hanst.) C. V. Morton (9826) macrophylla (Oerst.) H. E. Moore (7603) multiflora (Oerst. ex Hanst.) Wiehler (8422) rubra C. V. Morton (2802) serrulata (Jacq.) Mart. (7860) stenophylla (Bonn. Sm.) H. E. Moore (10837) turrialvae Hanst. (788) warscewicziana Hanst. (6750) Gasteranthus wendlandianus (Hanst.) Wiehler (4562) Koellikeria erinoides (DC.) Mansf. (2576) Kohleria spicata (Kunth) Oerst. (740) tubiflom (Cav.) Hanst. (8628) Monopyle macrocarpa Benth. (9414) maxonii C. V. Morton (9869) Mo ussonia strigosa (C. V. Morton) Wiehler (3660) Napeanthus apodemus Bonn. Sm. (9394) Neomortonia rosea Wiehler (6105) Oerstedina. cerricola Wiehler (7554) Para drym onia lineata (C. V. Morton) Wiehler (8692) metamorphophylla (Bonn. Sm.) Wiehler (4679) Rhyn ch o gloss um azureum (Schltdl.) Burtt (7357) Rufodorsia congestiflora (Bonn. Sm.) Wiehler (Bello 546 major Wiehler (Bello 299) minor Wiehler (Bello 465) Solenophora calycosa Bonn. Sm. (730) Grossulariaceae Phyllonoma ruscifolia Willd. ex Schult. (4540) tenuidens Pittier (3159) Gunneraceae Gunnera insignis (Oerst.) A. BC. (6870) Hernandiaceae Gyrocarpus jatrophifolius Bomin (9992) Hernandia stenura Standl. (1567) Hippocastanaceae Billia colombiana Planch. & Lindl. (451) hippocastanum Peyr. (367)

478

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

A

BE

BB

HE

H

A P

IN IN

WB,GR WB,GR

HE HE

H H

A MA A MA A A MA A A A A

BB? BB BB IN IN? IN BB BB? IN? BB BB?

BB BB BB BB BB BB

BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E H E E E E E H E

MA

BB

BB?

HE

H

P

IN

WB,GR

HE

H

PMA P

BB BB

WB,GR WB,GR

HE HE

H H

A MA

LB LB

GR GR

HE HE

H H

M

BB

WB,GR

HE

H

A

IN

GR

HE

H

A

IN

BB

HE

E

M

IN

BB

HE

E

MA MA

IN? IN?

WB WB

HE HE

E E

MA

LB

BB?

HE

H

A A A

IN IN IN

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

E E E

MA

BB

WB?

HE

H

MA M

IN IN

BB BB

HE HE

E S

M

WB

BB?

MO

H

P

IN?

WB

MO

Tl

A

IN

BB?

MO

Tl

PMA M

LB LB

TM TM

HE HE

Tl Tl

Appendix 1

BB,BT


Dicotyledons Hippocrateaceae Pristimera austin-smithii (Lundell) A. C. Sm. (9687) celastroides (Kunth) A. C. Sm. (8262) Salacia petenensis Lundell (319) sp. A (8297) Hydrangeaceae Hydrangea asterolasia Diels (7725) peruviana Moric. (6654) preslii Briq. (Bello 632) steyermarkii Standl. (Bello 4286) Hydrophyllaceae Wigandia urens (Ruiz & Pav.) Kunth (Bello 207) Icacinaceae Calatola costaricensis Standl. (528) Citronella costaricensis (Bonn. Sm.) R. A. Howard (6964) Juglandaceae Alfaroa costaricensis Standl. (528) guanacastensis B. Stone (7092) williamsii A. Molina (Bello 1358) Juglans *olanchana Standl. & L. O. Williams (11044) Oreomunnea pterocarpa Oerst. (8351) Lamiaceae Hyptis brachiata Briq. (10168A) capitata Jacq. (10349) mutabilis (L. Rich.) Briq. (10368) obtusiflora C. Presl ex Benth. (11284) pectinata Poit. (10196) suaveolens (L.) Poit. (10162) urticoides Kunth (10409) vilis Kunth & Bouche (11303) Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl) Kuntze (2592) Salvia comayaguana Standl. (10408) costaricensis Oerst. (10095) lasiocephala Hook. & Am. (10326) longimarginata Briq. (Feinsinger 620) occidentalis Sw. (10194) pteroura Briq. (10508) Scutellaria costaricana H. Wendl. (9859) isocheila Bonn. Sm. (7015) purpurascens Sw. (8317) Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd (2286) Stachys costaricensis Briq. (Bryer 1485) guatemalensis Epling (7623) Lauraceae Beilschmiedia brenesii C. K. Allen (266) costaricensis Mez & Pittier (9838) immersinervis Sa. Nashida, ined. (6967)

479

Zonea

Pollb

Seed0

Sexd

Habit6

P P

IN IN

WB WB

HE HE

L L

MA M

IN IN

AM AM

HE HE

Tm L

M MA A MA

SB SB SB SB

WB WB WB WB

HE HE HE HE

L L L L

PM

LB

WB

HE

Ts

MA

WB

AM

BI

Tm

M

IN

BB

BI?

Tl

MA A M

IN IN IN

TM TM TM

MO MO MO

Tl Tl Tl

M

Tl

A

IN

WB

MO?

Tl

P P PM A PM PM M MA

SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H H H H

P

SB

GR

HE

H

PM PM PM M P P

LB LB LB LB LB LB

GR GR GR GR GR GR

HE HE HE HE HE HE

S H S S H S

M M A

BB BE BE

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

H H H

A

BE

GR

HE

H

A A

BE BE

GR GR

HE HE

H H

PM MA M

IN IN IN

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

Tm Tl Tl

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons ovalis (S. F. Blake) C. K. Allen (8502) tilaranensis Sa. Nashida, ined. (Bello 4017) sp. A. Lindora near brenesii (10749) Cin nam om u m brenesii (Standl.) Kosterm. (9945) cinnamomifolium (Kunth) Kosterm. (9309) neurophyllum (Mez & Pittier) Kosterm. (10367) paratriplinerve Lorea-Hern., ined. (Bello 589) Licaria brenesii W. C. Burger (11265) excelsa Kosterm. (3032) misantlae (Brandegee) Kosterm. (4396) triandra (Sw.) Kosterm. (7199) Nectandra cissiflora Nees, cf. (Bello 505) cuspidata Nees (Bello 1126) lineata (HBK) Rohwer (262) martinicensis Mez (Bello 119) membranacea (Sw.) Griseb. (10583) purpurea (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez (Bello 1002) reticulata (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez (7838) salicina C. K. Allen (385) smithii Allen (9831) umbrosa (Kunth) Mez (6831) Ocotea atirrensis Mez & Bonn. Sm. (5917) austinii C. K. Allen (1115) brenesii Standl. (6988) cernua (Nees) Mez (Bello 2047) dentata van der Werf (5557) dendrodaphne Mez (11145) endresiana Mez (Dryer 862) floribunda (Sw.) Mez (198) gomezii W. C. Burger (10633) holdridgeiana W. Burger, Aff. (11093) insularis (Meisn.) Mez, aff. (11515) laetevirens Standl. & Steyerm., aff. (Bello 746) leucoxylon (Sw.) Laness. (9539) meziana C. K. Allen (238) mollifolia Mez & Pittier (Bello 2213) monteverdensis W. C. Burger (7136) nicaraguensis Mez (8239) paulii C. K. Allen (9004) pittieri (Mez) van der Werff (346) praetermissa van der Werff (10668) sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (7201) stenoneura Mez & Pittier (11456) tenera Mez. & Donn. Sm. ex Mez (160) tonduzii Standl. (10041) valeriana (Standl.) W. Burger (6643) veraguensis (Meissn.) Mez (10647) viridiflora Lundell, aff. (9791) whitei Woodson (525) sp. A (8388) sp. B (10808) sp. C (11063) Persea americana Mill. (9850) caerulea (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez (9783) povedae W. C. Burger (Bello 121) rigens C. K. Allen (S. Berrios, s.n.)

480

Zonea

Pollb

Seed0

Sexd

Habit6

MA A P

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tl

P M M M

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tl Tl

A MA A PM

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

Ts Tl Tl Tl

A PM P P MA A A M M P

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tm Tl Tl Tl Tl

A M A A A A MA M MA MA M A PM MA A M MA MA M M PM A MA M MA P M PM A M PM

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE DI HE HE HE DI HE DI? HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE DI HE HE HE DI HE HE HE HE

Ts Tm Tm Tl Tl Ts Tl Tl Tm Tm Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Ts Ts Tm Ts Tm Tl Ts Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tm Tl

PM PM A A

IN IN IN IN

AM BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tl Tl

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

schiedeana Nees (8185) silvatica van der Weff veraguasensis Seem. (8282) sp. A (8499) Pleurothyrium palmanum (Mez & Bonn. Sm.) Rohwer (9526) guindonii van der Werff (11089) Rh o dost em on odaphn e kunthiana (Nees) Rohwer (6791) Lentibulariaceae Utricularia jamesoniana Oliv. (7486) praetermissa P. Taylor (3266) Loasaceae Klaprothia fasciculata (C. Presl) Poston (10212) Loasa grandis Standl. (Bello 646) triphyllajuss. (3091) (Bello 1230) Loganiaceae Buddie] a americana L. (6514) Mitreola petiolata (J. F. Gmel.) Ton. & A. Gray (8844) Spigelia palmeri Rose (10682) Strychnos chlorantha Progel (7065) Loranthaceae Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. Don (10256) Oryctanthus occidentalis (L.) Eichler (Bellow 532) spicatus (Jacq.) Eichler (634) Phthirusa stelis (L.) Kuijt. (9972) Psittacanthus krameri Kuijt (9431) ramiflorus (DC.) G. Don (8019) rhynchanthus (Benth.) Kuijt (10082) sp. A Struthanthus consjerifolius (Oliv.) Eichler (5219) costaricensis Standl. (Sargent 15) oerstedii (Oliv.) Standl. (2256) quercicola (Schltdl. & Cham.) Blume (3114) subtilis Kuijt (Bello 197) Lythraceae Cuphea appendiculata Benth. (1330) carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. (Zuchowski 10) epilobiifolia Koehne (9865) Magnoliaceae Magnolia poasana (Pittier) Dandy (9808) Talauma gloriensis Pittier (574) Malpighiaceae Banisteriopsis muricata (Cav.) Cuatrec. (10165) Bunchosia costaricensis Rose (10074) ocellata Lundell (7210)

MA A PM MA

IN IN IN IN

AM BD BD AM

HE HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tl Tl

M M

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

Tl Tl

A

IN

BD

HE

Tl

MA M

LB LB

WD WD

HE HE

E E

M

IN

GR,WD

HE

S

A M

IN LB

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

S H

P

IN

WD

HE

S

P

IN

GR,WD

HE

S

MA

SB

GR

HE

H

A

IN

TM

HE

L

M

BD

BD

HE

E-P

A M

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

E-P E-P

P

IN

BD

DI

E-P

A PM P P

BD BD BD BD

BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

E-P E-P E-P E-P

M M M PM M

IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI

E-P E-P E-P E-P E-P

PM MA A

BD SB SB

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

S S S

M

CO

BD

HE

Tl

M

CO

BD

HE

Tl

P

LB

WD

HE

L

M P

LB LB

BD BD

HE HE

Ts Tm

481

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

ternata Dobson (4152) veluticarpa W. R. Anderson (303) Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth (9942) Gaudichaudia hexandra Nied. (8853) Heteropterys brachiata (L.) DC. (Bello 2926) macrostachya A. Juss. (8406) panamensis Cuatrec. & Croat (Bello 1307) Hiraea haberi W. R. Anderson (7247) smilacina Standl. (9898) Malpighia albiflom (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (1648) glabra L. (7263) Mascagnia divaricata (Kunth) Nied. (6828) Stigmaphyllon ellipticum (Kunth) A. Juss. (3722) lindenianum A. Juss. (Bello 467) Tetrapteris discolor G. Mey. (Bello 1210) donneH-smithii Small (Bello 308) monteverdensis W. R. Anderson (5217) schiedeana Schltdl. & Cham. (2036) Malvaceae Abutilon divarication Turcz. (10533) Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm.) Standl. (350) Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern, cf. (621) Malachra fasciata Jacq. (Bello 520) Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. (9771) concinnus Kunth (9373) palmanus Pittier & Donn. Sm. (Feinsinger 413) Pavonia penduliflora (Standl.) Standl. (Dryer 968) rosea Schltdl. (680) schiedeana Steud. (10151) Sida collina Schlect. (10338) rhombifolia L. (10333) urens L. (10505) Urena lobata L. (10910) Wercklea cocleana (Robyns) Fryx. (877) insignis Pittier & Standl. ex Standl. (733) Marcgraviaceae Marcgravia brownei (Triana & Planch.) Krug & Urb. (Dryer 594) caudata Triana & Planch. (7048) mexicana Gilg (6931) nepenthoides Seem. (6765) pittieri Gilg (6534) serrae de Roon (8080) Nor ant ia brenesii Standl. (7453) costaricensis Gilg (10071) jimenezii (Standl.) de Roon (Bello 2777)

M MA

LB LB

BD BD

HE HE

S Tl

P

LB

BD

HE

Tm

P

LB

WD

HE

V

P A A

LB LB LB

WD WD WD

HE HE HE

L L L

A PMA

LB LB

WD WD

HE HE

L L

MA PM

SB SB

BD BD

HE HE

Ts Ts

PA

LB

WD

HE

L

PM A

LB LB

WD WD

HE HE

V L

A MA M MA

LB LB LB LB

WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE

L L L L

P

IN

GR,WD

HE

S

PMA

IN

BD

DI

Tl

P

LB

GR?

HE

S

A

IN

GR

HE

S

PMA A MA

BD BD BD

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

L L Ts

M M A

SB SB

TM TM TM

HE HE HE

H S S

P PM P

SB SB SB

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

S S S

MA

LB

GR

HE

S

P PMA

BD BD

WD WD

HE HE

S Tm

MA A A A A A

BT BT BT BT BT BT

BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

L L L L L L

PMA PM MA

BT BT BT

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

E E E

482

Appendix 1

SB,BD


Dicotyledons Ruyschia phylladenia Sand with (2921) valerii Standl. (Bello 4020) Sarcopera sessiliflora (Triana & Planch.) Bedell (Bello 2879) Souroubea loczyi (V. A. Richt.) de Roon (Fuentes 303) Melastomataceae Adelobotrys adscendens (Sw.) Triana (6424) Arthrostemma ciliatum Pav. ex D. Don (10125) Blakea anomala Bonn. Sm. (725) chlorantha Almeda (1197) gracilis Hemsl. (3236) grandiflora Hemsl. (5356) litoralis L. O. Williams (Bello 2443) scarlatina Almeda (1873) tuberculata Bonn. Sm. (723) Centradenia inaequilateralis (Schltdl. & Cham.) G. Bon (672) Clidemia biolleyana Cogn. (10395) costaricensis Cogn. & Gleason (1010) dentata B. Bon (9418) epiphytica (Triana) Cogn. (7717) evanescens Almeda (Bello 1540 fraterna Gleason (4808) globuliflora (Cogn.) L. O. Williams (10688) mortoniana Standl. (10925) ombrophila Gleason (Bello 1084) radicans Cogn. (6077) reitziana Cogn. & Gleason ex Gleason (4787) sericea B. Bon (9925) sessiliflora (Naudin) Cogn. (Bello 1633) setosa (Triana) Gleason (10394) spectabilis Gleason (4468) Conostegia brenesii Standl. (179) lasiopoda Benth. (11225) micrantha Standl. (11507) montana (Sw.) B. Bon ex BC. (Bello 981) monteleagreana Cogn. (7590) oerstediana O. Berg ex Triana (9967) pittieri Cogn. (9817) rhodopetala Bonn. Sm. (Bryer 1076) rufescens Naudin (178) setifera Standl. (6745) subcrustulata (Beurl.) Triana (7647) tenuifolia Bonn. Sm. (4458) vulcanicola Bonn. Sm. (Bryer 532) xalapensis (Bonpl.) B. Bon (512) Graffenrieda micrantha (Gleason) L. O. Williams (358) Henriettea tuberculosa (Bonn. Sm.) L. O. Williams (Bello 250) Leandra grandifolia Cogn. (5507) subseriata (Naudin) Cogn. (10282) subulata Gleason (3168) Meriania phlomoides (Triana) Almeda (10019)

483

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

PMA A

IN IN

BB BB

HE HE

L L

A

BT

BB

HE

E

A

IN

BB

HE

E

A

LB

WB

HE

V

PM

LB

GR,WB

HE

H

M M M M A A A

LB AM LB LB LB LB LB

BB BB BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E E E

M

SB

GR,WB

HE

S

A A A A A A M M A A A P A A M

SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB

BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S E S S S S S S S S S S H

M A A MA A MA M M MA A PA A M PM

LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB

BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Ts Ts S Ts Ts Tm Ts Ts Tm Ts S S S Tm

M

SB

WB

HE

Ts

A

SB

BB

HE

S

A M M

SB SB SB

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

S S S

M

IN?

GR,WB

HE

Ts

Appendix 1

BT.BD


Dicotyledons Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana (10770) amplinodis Umana & Almeda (10014) argentea (Sw.) DC. (10540) astroplocama Bonn. Sm. (6526) brenesii Standl. (4371) carnea Cogn. (9123) confertiflora Almeda (10674) costaricensis Cogn. (10685) cuspidatissima Pittier (5338) desmantha Benth. (6977) dodecandra (Desr.) Cogn. (Bello 5366) dolichopoda Naudin (Haber 11107) doniana Naudin (288) friedmaniorum Almeda & Umana (3242) globuliflora (Rich.) Cogn. (7379) gracilis Triana (774) grandidentata Almeda (10379) incurva Gleason (828) ligulata Almeda (9374) livida Triana (Bello 1661) lonchophylla Naudin (10571) longibracteata Almeda (6620) loreyoides Triana (5463) melanotricha (Triana) Gleason (7305) oraria. Wurdock (Bello 957) smaragdina Naudin (971) theizans (Bonpl.) Cogn. (812) tonduzii Cogn. (Bello 713) valeriana (Standl.) Wurd. (9376) sp. A (10283) Monochaetum floribundum (Schltdl.) Naudin (1169) linearifolium Almeda (Zuchowski 53) Mouriri exilis Gleason (11009) Ossaea brenesii Standl. (1013) laxivenula. Wurdack (Bello 253) macrophylla (Benth.) Cogn. (5900) micmntha (Sw.) Macfad. (7620) quinquenervia (Mill.) Cogn. (4835) robusta (Triana) Cogn. (Bello 2892) Pilocosta erythrophylla (Gleason) Almeda & Whiffin (1787A) nubicola Almeda (6757) Pterolepis trichotoma (Rottb.) Cogn. (10290) Schwackaea cupheoides (Benth.) Cogn. ex Durand (10153) Tibouchina longifolia (Vahl) Baill. ex Cogn. (842) Tococa platyphylla Benth. (7285) Topobea brenesii Standl. (7737) dimorphophylla Almeda (8469) maurofernandeziana Cogn. (966 Triolena hirsuta (Benth.) Triana (4788)

484

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

P M P A MA M MA M M M A M MA M M MA M A A M M M A A A A MA M A M

SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB LB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S Ts Tm S S S E S Ts S Ts Ts Tm S Ts Ts E Ts Ts S Ts E S H Ts Ts Ts Ts S S

MA M

SB SB

GR,WD Gr,WD

HE HE

S S

MA

LB

BD

HE

Tl

A A A MA A A

SB SB SB SB SB SB

BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S Ts S S

M A

IN IN

GR? GR?

HE HE

H H

P

SB

GR,WD

HE

H

PMA

SB

GR,WD

HE

H

A

SB

GR,WD

HE

S

A

IN

BD

HE

H

M A MA

LB LB LB

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

E V E

A

SB

GR,WD

HE

H

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Meliaceae Cedrela odorata L. (10645) salvadorensis Standl. (Bello 702) tonduzii C. DC. (465) Guarea glabra Vahl (10670) grandifolia DC. (4825) kunthiana A. Juss. (3799) pterorhachis Harms (Bello 1631) rhopalocarpa Radlk. (908) tonduzii C. DC. (10791) sp. A (7102) sp. B (Mariano) Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (6769) Trichilia adolfi Harms (6987) glabra L. (9928) havanensis Jacq. (286) martiana C. DC. (1623) Menispermaceae Abuta panamensis (Standl.) Krukoff & Barneby (10620) Anomospermum reticulatum (Mart.) Eichler (8407) Cissampelos andromorpha DC. (7902) grandifolia Triana & Planch. (5223) pareira L. (5983) tropaeolifolia DC. (4869) Disciphania calocarpa Standl. (4453) Monimiaceae Mollinedia costaricensis Donn. Sm. (7220) pinchotiana Perkins (7126) sp. A (10573) Siparuna gesnerioides (Kunth) A. DC. (9511) grandiflora (Kunth) Perkins (11213) guianensis Aub. (Dryer 600) macra Standl. (Zuchowski 240) pauciflora (Beurl.) A. DC. (11148) tonduziana Janet Perkins (4800) Moraceae Brosimum alicastrum Sw. (Bello 18)

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit

PA P MA

MO MO MO

WD WD WD

MOJDI He? HE?

Tl Tl Tl

MA A MA A PMA M A PM

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI

Tm Ts Tl Tl Tl Tm Ts Ts

MA

SB

BD

DI

Tl

A P PMA PA

SB SB SB SB

BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI

Tl Tl Tl Tl

PMA

IN

BD

DI

L

A

IN

BD

DI

L

A M PMA A

IN IN IN IN

BD? BD? BD? BD?

DI DI DI DI

L L L L

A

IN

BD

DI

L

A M M

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

DI DI DI

Ts Ts S

A M M M A MA

IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI DI

S S S S Ts S

P

WD,IN?

BD,AM,

DI

Tl

TM

Clarisia biflora Ruiz & Pav. (Bello 435) mexicana (Liebm.) Lanj. (7429) Dorstenia choconiana S. Watson (9236) contrajerva L. (9941) Ficus americana Aubl. (Bello 1915) aurea Nutt. (8228) brevibracteata W. C. Burger (7187) cervantesiana Standl. & L. O. Williams (8316) citrifolia Mill. (7982) colubrinae Standl. (7495)

485

P A

WD WD

AM BD

DI DI

Tl Tl

PMA PA

WD WD

EX EX

MO MO

H H

A A A A PA A

IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

MO MO MO MO MO MO

Tm Tl Tl Tl Tl E

Appendix 1

AM,BD BD


Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

costaricana (Liebm.) Miq. (9910) cotinifolia Kunth (9981) crassiuscula Warb. ex Standl. (530) crassivenosa W. C. Burger (1737) cuatrecasana Dugand (7945) davidsoniae Standl. (Bello 1315) glaucescens (Liebm.) Miq. (Bello 2217) goldmanii Standl. hartwegii (Miq.) Miq. (8565) jimenezii Standl. (8228) laterisyce W. C. Burger (5267) macbridei Standl. (8665) maxima Mill. (810) obtusifolia Kunth (1624) schippii Standl. (8316) pertusa L. f. (771) tonduzii Standl. (7850) trachelosyce Dugand (Bello 686) tuerckheimii Standl. (643)

PA P MA A A A A P MA A PA? MA A P A MA A P M

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

Tl Tl Tl Tl Tm Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Ts Tl Tl Tl Tm Tl Tl T

velutina Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (9902) yoponensis Desv. (9911)

MA PM

IN IN

MO MO

Tl Tl

Dicotyledons

AM,BT AM,BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD AM

AM,BD AM,BD BD BD AM BD

BD,AM, BT

AM,BT BT,AM, BD

Helicostylis tovarensis (Klotzsch & H. Karst.) C. C. Berg (Bello 1229) Madura tinctoria (L.) G. Don (Bello 412) Maquira costaricana (Standl.) C. C. Berg (11231) Naucleopsis capirensis C. C. Berg. (7507) Poulsenia armata (Miq.) Standl. (Bello 875) Pse u dolm e dia mollis Standl. (Bello 4540) oxyphyllaria Donn. Sm. (11065) Sorocea pubivena Hemsl. (11511 cf) trophoides W. C. Burger (773) Trophis mexicana (Liebm.) Bureau (364) racemosa (L.) Urb. (Bello 400) Myricaceae Morella cerifera (L.) Small (7813) phanerodonta (Standl.) Wilbur (Bello 846) Myristicaceae Otoba novogranatensis Moldenke (7723) Virola guatemalensis (Hemsl.) Warb. (Bello 470) koschnyi Warb. (Bello 553) sebifera Aubl. (Bello 1402) Myrsinaceae Ardisia auriculata Donn. Sm. (7655) brenesii Standl. (6997) calycosa Hemsl. (4431) compressa Kunth (Haber 7373) costaricensis Lundell (Pipoly 7101) crassiramea Standl. (Pipoly 7094) nigropunctata Oerst. (1671) opegrapha Oerst. (2276)

486

A

WD

BD

DI

Tm

P

WD

BT,AM

DI

Tl

A

WD

BD

DI

Ts

A

WD

AM

DI

Tm

A

WD

AM

MO

Tl

MA P

WD WD

AM BD

DI DI

Tm Tm

A MA

WD WD

BD BD

DI DI

Ts Tm

MA PA

WD WD

BD BD

DI DI

Tm Tl

PM M

WD WD

BD BD

DI DI

S S

A

IN

BD

DI

Tl

A A A

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

DI DI DI

Tl Tl Tl

A A A PMA M M A MA

SB BE BE BE BE BE SB BE

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S Ts S Ts S Ts Ts S

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

palmana Bonn. Sm. (712) paschalis Bonn. Sm. (3626) revoluta Kunth (3530) solomonii (Lundell) Pipoly (2428) tilaranensis Standl. (Haber 9358) Cybianthus costaricanus Hemsl. (3171) Gentlea costariceusis Lundell (11111) My r sine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (312) pellucido-punctata Oerst. (112 12 A) Parathesis crassiramea Lundell (Bello 1757) glabra Bonn. Sm. (10860) obovalifolia Lundell, ined. (2444) Myrtaceae Calyptranthes chytraculia (L.) Sw. (10869) monteverdensis P. E. Sanchez, ined. (10665) pallens Griseb. (11321) pittieri Standl. (513) Eugenia acapulcensis Steud. (Bello 61) austin-smithii Standl. (11651) cartagenensis O. Berg (Bello 4110) costaricensis O. Berg (Bello 821) glandulosopunctata P. E. Sanchez & Poveda, ined. (Bello 4028) guatemalensis Bonn. Sm. (224) haberiiP. E. Sanchez, ined. (Bello 2120) matagalpensis P. E. Sanchez (9613) monticola (Sw.) BC. (10175) octopleura Krug & Urb. ex Urb. (10036) oerstediana O. Berg (499) salamensis Bonn. Sm. (7268) *unifloraL. (10072) valerii Standl. (2434) Marlierea mesoamericana P. E. Sanchez (Bello 4265) Myrcia. fallax (Rich.) BC. (207) splendens (Sw.) BC. (2240) sp. A. (9897) Myrcianthes fragrans (Sw.) McVaugh (9276) sp. A. (297) Pimenta *dioica (L.) Men. (6861) guatemalensis (Lundell) Lundell (11222) Plinia. salticola McVaugh (7047) Psidium guaiava L. (10046) guineense Sw. (Bello 2904) salutare (Kunth) O. Berg (Bello 2927) sartorianum (O. Berg) Nied. (9922) Nyctaginaceae Guapira costaricana (Standl.) Woodson (6822) Mirabel's *jalapa L. (Fuentes 455) violacea (L.) Heimerl. (10475)

MA P P M A

BE BE BE BE BE

BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE

Tm S Ts Tm S

M

IN

BB

HE

E

M

SB

BB

HE

Ts

M MA

IN IN

BB BB

BI BI

Tm Tm

M M M

BE BE BE

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

Tm Ts Tm

A M PA M

SB SB SB SB

BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE

Tm Tm Tm Tl

P M M M A

SB SB SB SB SB

BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE

Tm Tm Tm Tm Tm

M M M PM M M P M MA

SB SB SB SB SB SB SB

BTJBB BB BB BB BB BB BB

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

SB

AM

HE

Tl Tl Tm Tm Tl Tm Tl Tm Tm

A

BE

BB

HE

Tl

M PM M

SB SB SB

BB BB BB

HE HE HE

Tl Tm Tm

M PM

SB SB

BB BB

HE HE

Tl Tl

A A

SB

BB

HE

Tm Tm

A

SB

AM

HE

Tm

PMA M P P

BE

TM,BT

HE

BE BE

TM TM

HE HE

Ts S S Tm

P

IN

BB

He

Tm

PM P

BE

TM?

HE?

H H

487

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Neea amplifolia Donn. Sm. (7498) psychotrioides Donn. Sm. (468) sp. A (1008) sp. B (Bello 37) Pisonia aculeata L. (9786) sylvatica Standl. (7705) Ochnaceae Cespedesia macrophylla Seem. (Bello 775) Ouratea lucens (Kunth) Engl. (5544) prominens Dwyer (7667) Sauvagesia erecta L. (9406) Olacaceae Heisteria acuminata (Humb. & Bonpl.) Engl. (1077) Oleaceae Chionanthus oblanceolatus (B. L. Rob.) P. S. Green (6746) panamensis (Standl.) Steam (7272) Forestiera cartaginense Donn. Sm. (Bello 2097) Fraxinus *uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh. (11181) Opiliaceae Agonandra macrocarpa L. O. Williams Onagraceae Fuchsia jimenezii Breedlove, P. E. Berry & P. H. Raven (434) Hauya lucida Donn. Sm. & Rose (588) Ludwigia foliobracteolata (Munz) H. Kara (9420) octovalvis (Jacq.) P. H. Raven (1170) peruviana (L.) H. Kara (2988) Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L. (10270) debilis Kunth (Dryer 1448) frutescens L. (Bello 99) latifolia Kunth (10728) spiralis (Ruiz & Pav.) G. Don (Bello 5247) Papaveraceae Bocconia frutescens L. (819) Passifloraceae Passiflora adenopoda DC. (1061) ambigua Hemsl. (11052) apetala Killip (4930) biflora Lam. (4783) brevifila Killip (2075) capsularis L. (3884) coriacea Juss. costaricensis Killip (8224) dioscoreifolia Killip (2227) *edulis Sims (4601) guatemalensis S. Watson (Bello 721) helleri Peyr. (9165)

488

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit

MA PM MA P

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI

S Ts Ts Tm

PM M

MO MO

BD,AM BD,AM

DI DI

L Ts

A

BE

WD

HE

Tl

PA A

BE BE

BD BD

HE HE

Ts Ts

A

IN

GR

HE

H

M

BE

BD

HE

S

A M

IN MO?

BD BD

HE HE

Tm Tl

M

WD

BD

DI

Ts

M

Tm

P

IN

BD

DI

Tl

M

BD

BD

HE

S

P

HM

WD

HE

Tm

A M M

BE BE BE

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

H H H

M M P M M

BE BE BE BE BE

EX EX EX EX EX

HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H

MA

WD

BD

MO

Ts

M A PM PMA M M PM A M M A M

BE BE BE BE BE BE LB BE BE

AM AM? BD BD AM BD AM AM? BD?

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

BE BE

AM? BD

HE HE

L L V L L L L L L V L L

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

lancearia Mast. (3396) ligularis Juss. (3201) lobata (Killip) Hutch, ex J. M. MacDougal (5083) membranacea Benth. (7077) nubicola J. M. MacDougal (MacDougal 220) obovata Killip (640: trunk climber) oerstedii Mast. (5644) sexflom Juss. (9536) tica Gomez-Laur. & L. D. Gomez (Bello 1531) vitifolia Kunth (6590) Phytolaccaceae Petiveria alliacea L. (7971) Phytolacca icosandra L. (10440) rivinoides Kunth & Bouche (1820) rugosa A. Braun & Bouche (Dryer 583) Rivina humilis L. (962) Tricho stigma octandrum (L.) H. Walter (8002) polyandrum (Loes.) H. Walter (7484) Piperaceae Peperomia alata Ruiz & Pav. (Bello 859) alpina (Sw.) A. Dietr. (Haber 6624) angularis C. DC. (8801) carlosiana C. DC. (5977) claytonioides Kunth (8537) deppeana Schltdl. & Cham. (8288) distachya (L.) A. Dietr. (9193) dotana Trel. (Dryer 57) flexinervia Yunck. (8091) glabella (Sw.) A. Dietr. (9162) hernandiifolia (Vahl) A. Dietr. (8335) hoffmannii C. DC. (Dryer 1183) hylophila. C. DC. (8571) land folia Hook. (Zuchowski 388) lignescens C. DC. (5981) maculosa (L.) Hook. (7120) magnoliifolia A. Dietr. (6338) martiana Miq. (8623) matlalucaensis C. DC. (9208) montium C. DC. (9161) obtusifolia (L.) A. Dietr. (7857) olivacea C. DC. (7343) omnicola C. DC. (Zuchowski 465) palmana C. DC. (Dryer 54) panamensis C. DC. (7876) peltilimba C. DC. ex Trel. (Dryer 58) pernambucensis Miq. (8426) pittieri C. DC. (9081) poasana C. DC. (Dryer 249) pseudoalpina Trel. (8800) pseudopererkiifolia C. DC. pseudorhynchophora C. DC. (8091) quadrifolia (L.) Kunth (8919) rotundifolia (L.) Kunth (9208) seemanniana Miq. (6697) serpens (Sw.) Loudon (Bello 129) syringifolia C. DC. (7943)

M M A M M M A M A A

BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BD

BD AM BD AM BD AM AM BD AM? AM

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

L L L L V L L V Ts L

P

IN

TM

HE

H

PM MA M

BE BE BE

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

S S S

M

BE

BD

HE

S

PA A

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

L L

A M M P M M A M A PM MA M M M P M A M A M A MA M M MA M A M M M P A M A M A A

IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN?

BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

E E E E E E E E E E H E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

489

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

tenella (Sw.) A. Dietr. (7236 tenelliformis Trel. (Dryer 471 ternata C. DC. (7928) tetraphylla (G. Forst.) Hook. & Am. (9160) urocarpoides C. DC. (1422) vulcanicola C. DC., cf. (8747) Piper aequaleVahl (1126) amalago L. (1381) arboreum Aubl. (4907) artanthopse C. DC. (9633) augustum Rudge (11547) auritum Kunth (Dryer 87) biauritum C. DC. (9127) biseriatum C. DC. (4401) bredemeyeri Jacq. (9845) carpinteranum C. DC. (Dryer 767 chrysostachyum C. DC. (1487) concepcionis Trel. (Bello 4541) crassinervium Kunth (6130) cuspidispicum Trel. (Dryer 1199) decurrens C. DC. (4402) dotanum Trel. (4042) epigynium C. DC. (Koptur 128) friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Fuentes 495) garagaranum C. DC. (Bello 601) gibbosum C. DC. (4956) glabrescens (Miq.) DC. (4237) hispidum Sw. (1718) imperiale (Miq.) C. DC. (8330) jacquemontianum Kunth (Grayum 5387) lanceifolium Kunth (833) marginatum Jacq. (Bello 5277) nemorense C. DC. (Zuchowski 207) nudifolium C. DC. (4799) oblanceolatum Trel. (12308) obliquum Ruiz & Pav. (Bello 623) phytolaccifolium Opiz (Dryer 1030) polytrichum C. DC. (1690) pseudofuligineum C. DC. (5618) pseudolindenii C. DC. (1621) sanctum (Miq.) Schltdl. (5253) schiedeanum Steud. (4793) subsessilifolium C. DC. (Zuchowski 160) trigonum C. DC. (2294) umbellatum L. (Penneys 32) wagneri C. DC., (Pennys 172) yucatanense C. DC. (7204) yzabalanum C. DC. (1057) Sarcorhachjs naranjoana (C. DC.) Trel. (3910) Plantaginaceae P/antago australis Lam. (Zuchowski 457) major L. (10037) Podostemaceae Tristicha trifaria (Bory ex Willd.) Spreng. (9675) Polemoniaceae Cobaea gracilis (Oerst.) Hemsl. (8252) panamensis Standl. (Bello 2152) Loeselia ciliata L. (10343) glandulosa (Cav.) G. Don (10295)

M M A M P M

IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN?

BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM

MO MO MO MO MO MO

E E E E E E

M M A P A M M A M M A A A M MA P M P A M M A MA M A P MA PA M MA MA A M P A A MA A PMA PM P P

IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN? IN?

BT BT BT? BT? BT? BT BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT BT BT? BT? BT BT BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT BT BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BD? BT?

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

S S S S S Ts S Ts S S S S S S S S S S S S S S Ts S S S S S S S S S S S S S V S S S S S

M

IN

BT

MO

L

M M

WD WD

GR,BD? GR,BD?

HE HE

H H

P

IN?

WD

HE

H

A A

BT BT

BD BD

HE HE

V V

P PM

IN IN

WD WD

HE HE

S S

490

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Polygalaceae Monnina saprogena Bonn. Sm. (Dryer 582 sylvatica Schltdl. & Cham. (Dryer 1033B) Polygala fendleri Chodat (10185) paniculata L. (8867) Securidaca diversifolia Pol. (9852) micheliana Chodat (8453) Polygonaceae Coccoloba liportizii Gomez-Laur. & N. Zamora (9504) obovata Kunth (11604) porphyrostachys Gomez-Laur. (7489) tuerckheimii Donn. Sm. (Bello 1301) Muehlenbeckia. tamnifolia (Kunth) Meisn. (7567) Rumex nepalensis Spreng. (3531) obtusifolius L. (Bello 4434) Triplaris melaenodendron (Bertol.) Standl. & Steyerm. (Bello 675) Proteaceae Panopsis suaveolens (Klotzsch & H. Karst.) Pittier (6705) Roupala glaberrima Pittier (472) montana Aubl. (10738) sp. A (Bello 1075) Ranunculaceae Clematis dioica L. (1349) guadelupae Pers (5582) haenkeana Presl (Bello 1928 polygama Jacq. (6562) Rhamnaceae Colubrina spinosa Donn. Sm. (7999) Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urb. (11382) Rhamnus sphaerosperma SW. (8721) Rhizophoraceae Cassipourea elliptica (Sw.) Poit. (583) Rosaceae Alchemilla aphanoides L. f. (10285) Prunus brachybotrys Zucc. (10971) cornifolia Koehne (Bello 4440) skutchii I. M. Johnst. (10971) fortunensis McPherson (10623) sp. A (2687) Rubus costaricensis Liebm. (Bello 5079) glaucus Benth. (10284) *nivenus Thunb. (10267) pittieri Rydb. (10269) *roseifolius Sm. (Zuchowski 222) urticifolius Poir. (10268)

491

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habil

M M

BE BE

BD BD

HE HE

S S

P PM

BE BE

GR GR

HE HE

H H

PMA M

BE BE

WD WD

HE HE

L L

MA A A A

BE BE BE BE

BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI

Ts Ts Ts Tm

M

IN

GR

MO

L

PM M

WD? WD?

GR? GR?

HE? HE?

H H

P

BE

WD

DI

Tm

M

MO

AM,TM

HE

Tl

M P A

MO MO MO

WD WD WD

HE HE HE

Tl Tm Tl

PMA MA M A

IN? IN? IN? IN?

WD WD WD WD

DI DI DI DI

L L L L

A

SB, IN

BD

HE

Tm

PA

IN

WD

HE

L

M

IN

BD

HE

Tm

MA

SB

BD

HE

Tm

M

IN?

GR?

HE?

H

M MA MA A A

BE BE BE BE BE

BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE

Tm Tm Tl Tm Tm

M A M M M M

LB BE

BD,AM BD

HE HE

LB

BD,AM

HE

BE

BD

HE

L L L L S L

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

A

HM

AM,BD

DI

Tm

A

IN

WD

HE

Tl

PM P MA

MO MO MO

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

Ts L L

A

IN

WD

HE

Tl

A MA

MO MO

BD BD

HE HE

Ts Tm

A

MO

WD

HE

Tm

M A PMA

BE BE BE

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

H H H

P A M

HM HM HM

WD WD WD

HE HE HE

Tm Ts Tm

M PA M A

MO MO MO MO

BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

Ts Ts Ts Ts

M

IN

BD

HE

H

MA A

BE BE

WD WD

HE HE

Tm Tl

P

HM

WD

HE

Tm

M MA MA M A

IN BF MO MO BF

BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE

Ts S Tm Tm Ts

A A P PMA A

BE IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S S

A A PA MA M A

MO MO MO HM MO HM

BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

Tm Tm Tm Tm Tm Tl

PA PM

BD BD

BD BD

HE HE

S Ts

PM PA

HM HM

WD WD

HE HE

E E

Rubiaceae

Borojoa panamensis Dwyer (10630) Chimarrhis parviflora Standl. (6837) Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc. (10753) pachyphylla Wernham (10754) phaenostemon Schltdl. (10609) Chione sylvicola Standl. (6837) Chomelia recordii (Standl.) W. C. Burger (330) venulosa W. C. Burger & C. M. Taylor (7631) Cinchona pubescens Vahl (Bello 315) Coccocypselum cordifolium Nees & Mart. (522) herbaceum P. Browne (6770) hirsutum Bartling ex DC. (2333) Coffea *arabica L. Cosmibuena grandiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Rusby (409) macrocarpa Benth (5863) valerii (Standl.) C. M. Taylor (548) Coussarea austin-smithii Standl. (3474) caroliana Standl. (1406) chiriquiensis (Dwyer) C. M. Taylor (8271) impetiolaris Donn. Sm. (5449) Didymaea alsinoides (Schltdl. & Cham.) Standl. (Dryer 881) Elaeagia auriculata Hemsl. (232) uxpanapensis D. Lorence (7088) Exo sterna mexicanum A. Gray (Bello 93) Faramea capulifolia Dwyer (6235) multiflora A. Rich. (3574) occidentalis (L.) A. Rich. (3033) ovalis Standl. (Bello 1755) suerrensis (Donn. Sm.) Donn. Sm. (6651) Gonzalagunia bracteosa (Donn. Sm.) B. L. Rob. (11149) ovatifolia (Donn. Sm.) B. L. Rob. (9408) panamensis (Cav.) K. Schum. (11334) rosea Standl. (754) stenostachya (Standl.) W. C. Burger (10822) Guettarda crispi flora Vahl (7338) foliacea Standl. (Bello 946) macrosperma Donn. Sm. (1632) poasana Standl. (353) tournefortiopsis Standl. (4392) turrialbana N. Zamora & Poveda (11245) Hamelia axillaris Sw. (11331) patens Jacq. (9999) Hillia allenii C. M. Taylor (2081) loranthoides Standl. (8393)

492

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons macrophylla Standl. (8464) maxonii Standl. (7083) palmana Standl. (10145) panamensis Standl. (Bello 2782) triflora (Oerst.) C. M. Taylor (1158) Hoffmannia arborescens Bonn. Sm. (Bello 1620) areolata Standl. (7130) bullata L. O. Williams (8417) congesta (Oerst.) Dwyer (851 dotae Standl. (9298) hamelioides Standl. (Bello 1099) inamoena Standl. (4748) laxa Standl. (681) leucocarpa Standl. (10545) liesneriana L. O. Williams (Bello 153) longipetiolata Pol. (10908) pallidiflora Standl. (8049) psychotriifolia (Benth.) Griseb. (6833) subauriculata Standl. (985) valerii Standl. (10833) Ladenbergia brenesii Standl. (Bello 2144) valerii Standl. (501) Manettia flexilis Brandegee (Bello 548) reclinata L. (6000) Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. (10323) Nertera granadensis (Mutis ex L. f.) Druce (483) Palicourea adusta Standl. (4598) albocaerulea C. M. Taylor (7372) garciae Standl. (Bello 184) gomezii C. M. Taylor (10552) lasiorrhachis Oerst. (3329) macrocalyx Standl. (9795) montivaga Standl. (485) padifolia (Roem. & Schult.) C. M. Taylor & Lorence (5229) standleyana C. M. Taylor (484) tilaranensis C. M. Taylor (9821) Pentagonia costaricensis (Standl.) W. C. Burger & C. M. Taylor (7659) donnell-smithii (Standl.) Standl. (7659) Posoqueria coriacea M. Martens & Galeotti (7037) latifolia (Rudge) Roem. & Schult. (197 Psychotria aggregata Standl. (481) alfaroana Standl. (3233) angustiflora K. Krause (Bello 602) aubletiana Steyerm. (1665) burgeri C. M. Taylor (9778) capacifolia Dwyer (2839) chiriquiensis (Standl.) C. M. Taylor (4614) correae (Dwyer & M. V. Hayden) & C. M. Taylor (7664) deflexaDC. (11333) dukei Dwyer (2230) elata (Sw.) Hammel (726) eurycarpa Standl. (333)

493

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

A M PMA M MA

HM HM HM HM HM

WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E

A M PA MA MA A A M MA A MA A MA MA A

BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE IN BE BE BE BE BE

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S S S S S S H S S S S S

MA MA

HM HM

WD WD

HE HE

Tm Tm

M PA

IN

BD,BF

WD WD

HE HE

V V

P

IN

WD,GR

HE

H

M

IN

BD

HE

H

M M M A M M M M

BE BE BE IN BE BE BE

BD,BF

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S Ts Ts S S S Ts Ts

M M

BE BE

BD BD

HE HE

S Ts

A

HM,BD?

AM

HE

Tm

A

BD

AM

HE

Tm

A MA

HM HM

AM AM

HE HE

Tm Tm

M A A M M MA MA A P M MA MA

BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S S H S S S S Ts Ts

Appendix 1

MO,HM


Dicotyledons goldmanii Standl. (9138) gmciliflora Benth. (3240) grandis Sw. (7574) guadalupensis R. A. Howard (1964) guapilensis (Standl.) Hammel (Bello 486) hazenii (Standl.) (9804) horizontalis Sw. (8855) jimenezii Standl. (4658) macrophylla Ruiz & Pav. (798) maxonii Standl. (10010) monteverdensis Dwyer & C. W. Ham. (470) neillii C. W. Ham & Dwyer (Bello 2171) orosiana Standl. (10550) panamensis Standl. (6672) aff. panamensis (10590) parvifolia Benth. (2273) pilosa Ruiz & Pav. (1907) pithecobia Standl. ((10389) pittieri Standl. (6774) polyphlebia Donn. Sm. (6475) pubescens Sw. (2254) quinqueradiata Pol. (8446) sarapiquensis Standl. (9401) solitudinum Standl. (5901) steyermarkii Standl. (664) stockwellii C. W. Ham. (6622) sylvivaga Standl. (5192) uliginosa Sw. (1093) valeriana Standl. (156) Randia aculeata L. (Bello 2240) armata (Sw.) DC. (5262) brenesii Standl. (565) calycosa Standl. (590) grandifolia (Donn. Sm.) Standl. (11257) matudae Lorence & Dwyer (6704) monantha Benth. retroflexa Lorence & M. Nee, cf. (4823) sp. A (9753) Raritebe palicoureoides Wernham (Bello 1025) Richardia scabra L. (10279) Rondeletia amonea (Planch.) Hemsl. (8489) aspera Standl. (6513) brenesii Standl. (6798) buddleioides Benth. (2348) chaconii Lorence (Bello 1080) monteverdensis Lorence (523 tayloriae Lorence (10549) torresii Standl. (7030) Rudgea monofructus Gomez-Laur. & Dwyer (7415) reducticalyx Dwyer (7837) Sabicea panamensis Wernham (7466) villosa Roem. & Schult. (11169) Schradera costaricensis Dwyer (8077) Sommera donnell-smithii Standl. (329)

494

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

MA MA MA MA A MA M M PMA M M A MA A M M M M A A MA MA MA A M M M M MA

BE SB BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE IN BE BE BE BE BE BE IN BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S E S S S S H E Ts S S Ts S S S E S H S S Ts S S S S H S

A A MA P A MA PM A M

HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM HM

AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD AM,BD

DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI

S Ts Ts S Ts Tl Ts L Tm

A

IN

BD

HE

S

PM

BE

GR

HE

H

M PM PMA MA A M A MA

FLY MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Ts Ts Ts Ts S Ts Ts Ts

A A

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

Ts Ts

A A

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

V V

A

IN

BD

HE

E

PMA

BE

BD

HE

Ts

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav. (375 latifolia Aubl. (10195) ovalifolia (M. Martens & Galeotti) Hemsl. (10895) Rutaceae Amyris balsamifera L. (2979) brenesii Standl. (Bello 5120 Casimiroa edulis La Lalave & Lex. (50 Decazyx macrophyllus Pittier & S. F. Blake (7449) Galipea dasysperma Gomez-Laur. & Q. Jimenez (11244) Peltostigma guatemalense (Standl. & Steyerm.) Gereau (9227) Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl (7431) Stauranthus perforates Liebm. (10421) Taxosiphon lindenii Baill. (Bello 1044 Zan th oxylum fagara (L.) Sarg. (11488) (ex insulare] juniperinum Poepp. (10934) (ex procerum) melanostictum Schltdl. (11189) monophyllum (Lam.) P. Wilson (10729) rhoifolium Lam. (Bello 4197) setulosum P. Wilson (9982) Sabiaceae Meliosma brenesii Standl. (6367) donnell-smithii Urb. (Bello 1053 glabrata (Liebm.) Urb. (1886) idiopoda S. F. Blake (267) subcordata Standl. (8496) vernicosa (Liebm.) Griseb. (8949) Sapindaceae Allophylus occidentalis (Sw.) Radlk. (Bello 1503 psilospermus Radlk. (9763) Cardiosperm um grandiflorum Sw. (1219) microcarpum Kunth (10448) Cupania glabra Sw. (7094) guatemalensis (Turcz.) Radlk. (1221) latifolia Kunth (9873) macrophylla A. Rich. (9066) sp. A (6980) Dilodendron costaricense (Radlk.) A. H. Gentry & Steyerm. (10187) Exothea paniculata (Juss.) Radlk. (3706) Matayba oppositifolia (A. Rich.) Britton (Bello 694 Paullinia austin-smithii Standl. (10619) brenesii Croat (Bello 1106) costaricensis Radlk. (2208) cururu L. (7264) faginea (Triana & Planch.) Radlk. (9302) fuscescens Kunth (8026)

495

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

PMA P PM

IN IN IN

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

H H H

P A

IN IN

BD BD

HE? HE?

Ts Ts

M

BE

AM

DI

Tl

A

BE

EX?

DI

Tm

A

HM

EX?

HE

Ts

MA

IN

EX?

HE?

Ts

A

IN

EX

HE?

Ts

M

BE

BD

DI

Tm

A

IN

EX?

HE

S

PM PMA M PM P P

IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI DI

Tm Tm Tm Tm Tm Tl

A A MA PMA M MA

IN BE IN IN IN IN

AM AM AM BD AM AM

HE HE HE HE HE HE

Tm Tm Tm Tm Tm Tl

P A

IN IN

BD BD

DI DI

Tm Tm

P P

IN IN

WD WD

HE HE

L L

M PA M MA A

IN SB IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI

Tm Tm Tl Tm Tm

P

IN

WD?

DI?

Tl

PM

BE

BD

DI

Tl

M

BE

BD

DI

Tl

M P M P M M

IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

L L L L L L

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

gmndifolia Benth. ex Radlk. (Bello 142) macrocarpa Radlk. (10141) pterocarpa Triana & Planch. (854) trisulca Radlk. (Bello 307) Serjania paniculata Kunth (7893) racemosa K. Schum. (6767) rufisepala Radlk. (11066) Thouinidium decandrum (Humb. & Bonpl.) Radlk. (7215) Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum brenesii Cronquist (2902) hirsutum Cronquist (4394) Manilkara chicle (Pittier) Gilly (9936) Pouteria austin-smithii (Standl.) Cronq. (Bello 160) caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk., aff. (4428) congestifolia Pilz (Bello 1300) exfoliata T. D. Penn. (7278) fossicola Cronquist, cf. (7497) glomerata (Miq.) Radlk. (7427) juruana K. Krause (11164) reticulata (Engl.) Eyma (9961) Sideroxylon capiri (A. DC.) Pittier (6820) persimile (Hemsl.) T. D. Penn. (Bello 698) stenospermum Standl.) T. D. Penn. (9277) Scrophulariaceae Asarina (= Lophospermum) *erubescens (D. Don.) Penn. (Kaptur 181) Bacopa salzmannii (Benth.) Wettst. ex Edwall (9429) Buchnera pusilla Kunth (10186) Castilleja arvensis Schltdl. & Cham. (1041) Gibsoniothamnus alatus A. H. Gentry (7657) epiphyticus (Standl.) L. O. Williams (9881) pterocalyx A. H. Gentry (4789) Lamourouxia viscosa Kunth (9580) Leucocarpus perfoliatus (Kunth) Benth. (6525) Russelia sarmentosa Jacq. (1213) Schlegelia brachyantha Griseb. (4025) fuscata A. H. Gentry (859) nicaraguensis Standl. (5710) parviflora (Oerst.) Monach. (4139) Scoparia dulcis L. (10297) Stemodia peduncularis Benth. (9015) Veronica polita R. E. Fr. (8541) Simaroubaceae Picramnia antidesma Sw. (941) teapensis Tul. (6832)

A MA A A

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

L L L L

MA MA PM

IN IN IN

WD WD WI

HE HE HE

L L L

P

IN

WD

DI?

Tl

P A

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

Tl Tm

P

BT

BD

HE

Tl

A A A M MA A A MA

IN IN IN IN MO IN IN IN

BD? AM? AM AM AM AM AM BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl Tl

P P M

IN IN BE

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

Tl Tm Tl

496

M

V

A

IN

WD,WT

HE

H

PM

IN

GR

HE

H

PM

IN

GR

HE

H

A PA A

BD BD BD

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

E E E

P

BD

WD,GR

HE

S

A

IN

BD

HE

H

PM

BF,BD

WD,GR

HE

S

M MA A M

BE BE BE BE

BD BD AM? BD

HE HE HE HE

L L L L

PM

IN

WD,GR

HE

H

M

IN

WD,GR

HE

H

M

IN

WD,GR

HE

H

P M

IN IN

BD BD

DI DI

Ts Ts

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Hab

sp. A (9242) sp. B (246) sp. C (2713) Picrasma excelsa (Sw.) Planch. (9001) Solanaceae Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. (462) Brachistus stramoniifolius (Kunth) Miers (10575) Browallia americana L. (8730) Brugmansia * Candida Pers. (Grayum 9852) Capsicum annuum L. (7977) rhomboidea (Dunal) Kuntze (2260) Cestrum fragile Francey (1045) irazuense Kuntze (11468) lanatum M. Martens & Galeotti (Bello 825) megalophyllum Dunal (974) racemosum Ruiz & Pav. (1151) rugulosum Francey, cf. (8504) sp. A (11086) sp. B (589) sp. C (10584) Cuatresia exiguiflora (D'Arcy) Hunz. (9300) riparia (Kunth) Hunz. (Zuchowski 346) Cyphomandra hartwegii (Miers) Dunal (9233) Jaltomata procumbens (Cav.) J. L. Gentry (1317) sp. A Juanulloa mexicana (Schltdl.) Miers (Bello 17) Lycianthes amatitlanensis (J. M. Coult. & Donn. Sm.) Bitter (1068) escuintlensis (J. M. Coult.) D'Arcy (841) furcatistellata Bitter (11035) heteroclita (Sendtn.) Bitter (7585) multiflora Bitter (705) sanctaeclarae (Greenm.) D'Arcy (1883) synanthera (Sendtn.) Bitter (136) Lycopersicon *esculentum Mill. (10121) Merin th op odium neuranthum (Hemsl.) Donn. Sm. (9533) Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. (9079) Physalis cordata Mill. (420) nicandroides Schltdl. (Dryer 863) pubescens L. (10433) Schultesianthus leucanthus (Donn. Sm.) Hunz. (11053) megalandrus (Dunal) Hunz. (6722) venosus (Standl. C. V. Morton) S. Knapp (9544) Solan dra grandiflora Sw. (Bello 429) Solarium accrescens Standl. & C. V. Morton (653) acerifolium Dunal (9307)

M M P

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

DI DI DI

Ts Ts Ts

M

IN

BD

DI

Tl

PM

IN

BD,BT

HE

Tm

M

BE

BD

HE

S

M

IN

GR,WD

HE

H

497

M

Ts

PM M

BE BE

BD BD

HE HE

S S

M M PM MA MA MA MA P PMA

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts S S Ts

M PMA

BE BE

BT BT

HE HE

Ts Ts

A

LB

AM

HE

Ts

PMA M

BE BE

BD BD

HE HE

H E

P

BD?

BD?

HE

E

MA PA M A PMA A M

BE BE BE BE BE LB BE

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S L E E

M

H

MA

BT

AM

HE

E

M

HM,BT?

AM

HE

E

M M P

BE BE BE

BD,TM BD,TM BD,TM

HE HE HE

H H H

M MA M

HM BE HM

AM BD

BT,BD

HE HE HE

E E E

PM

HM

AM

HE

L

M MA

BE BE

BT,BD

HE HE

S H

Appendix 1

BT?


Dicotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

americanum Mill. (11198) aphyodendran S. Knapp (652) arboreum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Dunal (3928) argenteum Dunal ex Poir. (5834) brenesii Standl. (10694) canense Rydb. (9672) *capsicoides All. (1162) caripense Humb. & Bonpl. ex Dunal (9697) chrysotrichum Schltdl. (10253) cordovense Sesse & Mociiio (1080) evolvulifolium Greenm. (8087) granelianum D'Arcy (1644) hartwegii Benth. (12573) jamaicense Mill. (Bello 1638) lanceifolium Jacq. (904) lepidotum Humb. & Bompl. ex Dunal (Bello 1824) macrotonum Pittier (10051) nigrescens M. Martens & Galeotti (Zuchowski 136) oxycarpum Schiede (8029) (=longicarpum Schiede) pastillum S. Knapp (9260) pensile Ruiz & Pav. (7479) pertenue Standl. & C. V. Morton (9301) phaseoloides Pol. (7300) *quitoense Lam. (10404) ramonense C. V. Morton & Standl. (11884) rovirosanum Donn. Sm. (744) rudepannum Dunal (821) rugosum Dunal (10834) siparunoides Ewan (1760) trizygum Bitter (5138) tuerckheimii Greenm. (9263) umbellatum Mill. (4252) wendlandii Hook. f. (7234) Witheringia asterotrichia (Standl.) Hunz., aff. (Bello 865) coccoloboides (Dammer) Hunz. (3413) correana D'Arcy (7358) cuneata (Standl.) Hunz. (6896) macrantha (Standl. & Morton) Hunz. (Bello 2010) maculata (C. V. Morton & Standl.) Hunz. (7280) meiantha (Donn. Sm.) Hunz. (Bello 4607) solanacea L'Her. (Fuentes 28) Staphyleaceae Turpinia occidentalis (Sw.) G. Don (4475) sp. A Sterculiaceae Guazuma ulmi folia Lam. (9662) Melochia lupulina Sw. (10511) Theobroma mammosum Cuatrec. & Jorge Leon (Bello 1290) simiarum Donn. Sm. (Bello 2802) Styracaceae Styrax argenteus C. Presl (11381) conterminus Donn. Sm. (3173) glabrescens Benth. (7353) Symplocaceae Symplocos bradei Brandegee (Fuentes 581) brenesii Standl. (8918)

MA PMA MA MA PM PM M M MA M A PA P A PM A MA M M M M M M MA M PMA PMA A MA MA M M MA

BE BE BE BE BE BE

BD BT BT

HE HE HE HE HE HE

S Ts S Ts Ts S S S Ts Ts V L S S L S S S H S L S S S S Ts Ts Ts L H S Ts L

498

BD,BT

BT BD

BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE

TM

BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE

BT BT

BT BT AM

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE DI

A M A PM A MA MA PMA

BE BE BE BE LB BE BE BE

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

S S S S H H S S

MA M

BE BE

BD BD

DI DI

Tl Tm

P

IN

TM

HE

Tm

P

IN

GR

HE

S

A A

IN IN

AM AM

HE HE

Tm Tm

PM M PM

BE BE BE

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

Tl Tm Tm

PM M

BE BE

BD BD

HE HE

Tm Tl

Appendix 1

BT,BD BD BD BD? BD BD BD BD BD BD TM BT BD BT TM

BT,BD BT BD

TM,BT

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE


Dicotyledons

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

chiriquensis Pittier (Bello 570 costaricana Hemsl. (9278) limoncillo Humb. & Bonpl. (8722) povedae Almeda (10032) tribracteolata Almeda (1117) sp A. (Bello 1874) Theaceae Cleyera theioides (Sw.) Choisy (345 Freziera candicans Tul. (9812) friedrichsthaliana (Szyszyl.) Kobuski (11074) Gordonia brandegeei H. Keng (7116) Symplococarpon purpusii (Brandegee) Kobuski (9285) Ternstroemia tepezapote Schltdl. & Cham. (9752) Theophrastaceae Clavija costaricana Pittier (Bello 1537) Deherainia sp. A (11453) Thymeliaceae Daphnopsis americana (Mill.) J. R. Johnst. (7414) Ticodendraceae Ticodendron incognitum Gomez-Laur. & L. D. Gomez (Bello 447) Tiliaceae Apeiba membranacea Spruce ex Benth. (Bello 786) tibourbou Aubl. (10744) Heliocarpus americanus L. (10877) appendiculatus Turcz. (9747) Luehea Candida (DC.) Mart. (10300) speciosa Willd. (Bello 2953) Mortonioden dron anisophyllum (Standl.) Standl. & Steyerm. (8383) costaricense Standl. & L. O. Williams (7704) guatemalense Standl. & Steyerm. (1598) Trich osp erm um grewiifolium (A. Rich.) Kosterm. (Bello 555) Triumfetta calderonii Standl. (8846) semitriloba (Zuchowski 390 Tovariaceae Toivaria pendula Ruiz & Pav. (794 Tropaeolaceae Tropaeolum emarginatum Turcz. (1239) moritizianum Klotzsch (7142) Turneraceae Erblichia odorata Seem. (11329) Ulmaceae Ampelocera macrocarpa Forero & A. H. Gentry (Bello 891) Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. (1731)

M MA M M M A

BE BE BE BD BE BE

BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

Tl Tl Tl Ts Tl Tl

M

IN

BD

HE

Ts

M M

BE BE

BD BD

DI DI

Tm Tm

M

BE

WD

HE

Tl

M

BE

BD

DI

Tl

M

BE

BD

HE

Tm

A

IN

TM

DI

S

A

BT?

TM

DI?

Ts

PM

IN

BD

DI

Tm

MA

WD

AM

DI

Tm

A P

LB BE

AM AM

HE HE

Tl Tm

MA PM

IN IN

WD WD

DI DI

Tl Tm

P P

HM HM

WD WD

HE HE

Tm Tm

A PM M

BE BE BE

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

Tl Tm Tm

A

BE

WD

DI

Tm

P M

BE BE

AM,BD TM,BD

DI HE

Ts S

PMA

IN

BD

HE

S

A MA

BD BD

WD? WD?

HE HE

V V

P

LB

WD

HE

Tm

A

WD

BD

MO

Tm

PA

WD

BD

MO

L

499

Appendix 1


Dicotyledons Trema micrantha (L.) Blume (170) Ulmus mexicana (Liebm.) Planch. (8259) Urticaceae Boehmeria aspera Wedd. (11168) caudata Sw. (8461) ulmifolia Wedd. (Hammel 15171) Discocnide mexicana (Liebm.) Chew (Bello 828) Myriocarpa bifurca Liebm. (9750) cordifolia Liebm. (9805) longipes Liebm. (1340) Phenax angustifolius (Kunth) Wedd. (Dryer 1631) hirtus (Sw.) Wedd. (Zuchowski 58) mexicanus Wedd. (9919) rugosus (Poir.) Wedd. (Zuchowski 184) senneratii (Poir.) Wedd. (11176) Pilea acuminata Liebm. (Hammel 15165) angustifolia Killip (Hammel 15169) auriculata Liebm. (Dryer 35) dauciodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd. (Hammel 15118) gracilipes Killip (Hammel 15119) hyalina Frenzl (11293) imparifolia Wedd. (8427) microphylla (L.) Liebm. (10892) parietaria (L.) Blume (10730) pittieri Killip (Hammel 15167) ptericlada Dorm. Sin. (Dryer 90) pubescens Liebm. (11306) Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. (8447) caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb. (Hammel 15173) comllina (Liebm.) Webb. (10889) eggersii Hieron. (9377) elata (Sw.) Griseb. (Hammel 15174) sp. A (11279) Valerianaceae Valeriana palmeri A. Gray (8841) scandens L. (9014) Verbenaceae Aegiphild anomala Pittier (11483) cephalophora Standl. (Bello 1020) costaricensis Moldenke (6958) elata Sw. (Bello 743) odontophylla Donn. Sm. (7304) quararibeana Rueda (Bello 4880) vdlerii Standl. (11215) Cith arexylum caudatum L. (702) costaricensis Moldenke (6958) donnell-smithii Greenm. (11101) Cornutia pyramidata L. (11479) Duranta *erecta L. (Dryer 1445)

500

Zonea

Pollb

Seed0

Sexd

Habit6

PMA

WD,IN?

BD

MO

Tm

PM

WD

WD

MO

Tl

A A P

WD WD WD

GR GR GR

MO DI MO

S S S

P

WD

GR?

DI?

Ts

PM M PA

WD WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD

DI DI MO

Ts Ts Ts

P M PM M A

WD WD WD WD WD

GR GR GR GR GR

MO MO MO MO MO

S S S S S

PMA PM M M M A PA P PM PM M A

WD? WD? WD? WD? WD? WD? WD? WD? WD? WD? WD? WD?

GR? GR? GR? GR? GR? GR? GR? GR? GR? GR? GR? GR?

DI MO DI MO MO MO DI MO MO MO MO MO

H H H H H H E H H E E H

PA PMA M A MA MA

WD WD WD WD WD WD

BD BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI MO

Ts Ts S L Ts S

P M

IN IN

WD WD

HE HE

H V

P A A A M A M

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE? HE? HE? HE? HE? HE? DI

Tm L Ts L Ts L Tm

M A MA

IN IN IN

BD BD BD

DI DI DI

Tl Tm Tl

M

BE

BD

HE

Tm

M

Appendix 1

Ts


Dicotyledons Lantana camara L. (10007) costaricensis Hayek (1208) hirta Graham (9916) trifolia L. (11523) Lippia cardiostegia Benth. (9311) Petrea volubilis L. (6824) Stachytarpheta fmntzii Pol. (9976) Verbena litoralis Kunth (1137) Vitex cooperi Standl. (Bello 1302) Violaceae Hybanthus costaricensis Melch. (Bello 47) guanacastensis Standl. (9234) Viola stipularis Sw. (9140) Viscaceae Dendrophthora haberi Kuijt (9956) Phoradendron chrysocladon A. Gray (Bello 963) corynarthron Eichler (Sargent 24) quadrangulare (Kunth) Kmg & Urb. (9663) robaloense Rizzini (Sargent 26) robustissimum Eichler (9983) tonduzii Ttrel. (9720) undulatum Eichler (9949) vernicosum Greenm. (9973) Vitaceae Cissus biformifolia Standl. (10136) martiniana Woodson & Seibert (Bello 5213) microcarpa Vahl (10137) pseudosicyoides Croat? (4792) rhombifolia Vahl (8655) verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis (11120) Vitis tiliifolia Humb. & Bonpl. (383) Vochysiaceae Vochysia guatemalensis Bonn. Sm. (Bello 1095) Winteraceae Drimys granadensis L. f. (7382)

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

PM PM PM P

IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

S S S S

M

IN

GR

HE

S

P

IN

WD

HE

L

P

IN,BD

WD,GR?

HE

S

M

IN

GR,WD

HE

H

A

BE

BD

HE

Tl

P MA

IN IN

EX EX

HE HE

S S

MA

BE

EX

HE

H

M

IN

BD

DI?

E-P

MA M P M PM P M P

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI

E-P E-P E-P E-P E-P E-P E-P E-P

MA M A A PM PMA

IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

L L L L L L

M

IN

BD

HE

L

A

BE

WD

HE

Tl

M

BE

BD

HE

Tm

PM

BT

GR

HE

H

MA P MA A

BD BD BD BD

BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE

V V V V

Monocotyledons Agavaceae Furcraea cabuya Trel. (9892) Alstroemeriaceae Bomarea caldasii (Kunth) Asch. & Graebn. (9872) edulis (Tussac) Herb. (9312) hirsuta (Kunth) Herb. (9871) obovata Herb. (Bello 365)

501

Appendix 1


Monocotyledons Anthericaceae Echeandia leucantha Klotzsch (Bello 70) Hagenbachia panamensis (Standl.) Cmden (8372) Araceae Anthurium acutangulum Engl. (8303) austin-smithii Croat & R. A. Baker (8589) bakeri Hook. f. (10868) bradeanum Croat & Grayum (11154) brenesii Croat & R. A. Baker (8996) caperatum Croat & R. A. Baker (1751) cubense Engl. (9661) cuspidatum Mast. (9463) davidsoniae Standl. (2228) durandii Engl. (9218) flexile Schott (10884) friedrichsthalii Schott (8794) hoffmannii Schott (9344) interruption Sodiro (7173) michelii Guillaumin (9186) microspadix Schott (9861) monteverdense Croat & R. A. Baker (8617) obtusilobum Schott (9184) obtusum (Engl.) Grayum (9494) panduriforme Schott (6650) pentaphyllum (Aubl.) Don (1885) pittieri Engl. (8588) protensum Schott (9043) ramonense Engl. ex K. Krause (10144) ranchoanum Engl. (10487) salvinii Hemsl. (9217) scandens (Aubl.) Engl. (7683) tenerum Engl. (Bello 1040) testaceum Croat & R. A. Baker (7563) tilaranense Standl. (7345) upalaense Croat & R. A. Baker (4819) utleyorum Croat & R. A. Baker (9042) watermaliense hort. ex L. H. Bailey & Nash (9306) Chlorospatha croatiana Grayum (10403) Dieffenbachia longivaginata Croat & Grayum, ined. (11175) oerstedii Schott (7191) Monstera adansonii Schott (Bello 21) buseyi Croat & Grayum (9494) dissecta (Schott) Croat & Grayum (6685) luteynii Madison (Bello 1468) molinae Grayum, ined. (4446) oreophila Madison (8948) standleyana G. S. Bunting (7955) tenuis K. Koch (Bello 413) Philodendron anisotomum Schott (9518) aurantiifolium Schott (Bello 2849) bakeri Croat & Grayum (6932) brenesii Standl. (9827) brunneicaule Croat & Grayum (Bello 369) crassispathum Croat & Grayum (4584)

502

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Hab

P

BE

GR

HE

H

A

BE

GR

HE

H

A PM AM A M MA P A M A MA M M A A MA M MA M A A M M PMA PM PMA PMA A MA MA A M M

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN LB LB IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E H E E H E V E E V E E E E E E V E E E E E E E E E E E H

A

IN

BD?

MO

H

A PA

CO CO

BD BD

MO MO

H H

P A M A A M A M

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO

BD BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

V V V V V V V V

MA MA A M A M

CO CO CO CO CO CO

BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM

MO MO MO MO MO MO

V V V V V E

Appendix 1


Monocotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

cretosum Croat & Grayum (Bello 1070) findens Croat & Grayum (Bello 2667) jacquinii Schott (Bello 20) rhodoaxis G. S. Bunting (Bello 2398) rothschuhianum (Engl.) Croat & Grayum (8409) standleyi Grayum (7905) sulcatum K. Krause (Bello 125) tenue K. Koch & Augustin (8241) tripartitum (Jacq.) Schott (Bello 362) verrucosum L. Mathieu ex Schott (8458) wendlandii Scott (Grayum 8712) wilburii Croat & Grayum (10069) Pistia stratiotes L. Spathiphyllum atrovirens Schott (Bello 147) laeve Engl. (9439) montanum (R. A. Baker) Grayum (11088) St en o sperm a tion angustifolium Hemsl. (9214) majus Grayum (11153) marantifolium Hemsl. (8053) robustum Engl. (7067) sessile Engl. (7246) spruceanum Schott (7168) Syngonium hoffmannii Schott (8997) podophyllum Schott (4587) schottianum H. Wendl. ex Schott (6957) standleyanum G. S. Busting (9472) triphyllum Birdsey ex Croat (8349) Xanthosoma mexicanum Liebm. (8527) wendlandii (Schott) Schott (9975) undipes (K. Koch & C. D. Bouche) K. Koch (Dryer 1475) Arecaceae Astrocaryum alatum H. F. Loomis (Ivey 254) Bactris dianeura Burret (Ivey 36) hondurensis Standl. (7344) Calyptrogyne brachystachys H. Wendl. ex Burret (Ivey 18) ghiesbreghtiana (Linden & H. Wendl.) H. Wendl. (9814) trichostachys Burret (Bello 141) Chamaedorea allenii L. H. Bailey, cf. (6455) costaricana Oersted (5966) dammeriana Burret (6688) deckeriana (Klotzsch) Hemsl. (Bello 1289) lucidifrons L. H. Bailey (5113) macrospadix Oerst. (9813) parvifolia Burret (9289) pinnatifrons (Jacq.) Oerst. (10017) pumila H. Wendl. ex Dammer (9341) robertii Hodel & N. W. Uhl (5456) scheryi L. H. Bailey (Bello 263) tepejilote Liebm. (8253) undulatifolia Hodel & N. H. Uhl (Bello 910) Cryosophila grayumii R. Evans (11199)

A A P A A A PA A A A A M

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO

BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM BD,AM

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

V V V V E V V V V V E V

A

IN

BD

MO

H

PA A PM

BE BE BE

BD BD BD

HE HE HE

H H H

PA A A A M A

IN IN IN IN IN IN

BT? BT? BT? BT? BT? BT?

HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E E

M M A A A

CO CO CO CO CO

BT? BT? BT? BT? BT?

MO MO MO MO MO

V V V V V

P PM MA

CO CO CO

BT BT BT

MO MO MO

H H H

A

CO

TM

MO

Ts

M A

CO CO

BD BD

MO MO

Ts Ts

M M A

BT? BT? BT?

BD BD BD

MO MO MO

S S S

A PM A A A M M M A A A M M

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI

S S S S S S S S S S S Ts S

P

CO

BD

HE

Ts

503

Appendix 1

BD


Monocotyledons Euterpe precatoria Mart. (Ivey 24) Geonoma cuneata H. Wendl. ex Spruce (2396) edulis H. Wendl. ex Spruce (4097) ferruginea H. Wendl. ex Spruce (7661) procumbens H. Wendl. ex Spruce (Bello 1565) Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Ivey 242) Neonich olsonia watsonii Dammer (11452) Prestoea acuminata (Willd.) H. E. Moore (Ivey 265) decurrens (H. Wendl. ex Burret) H. E. Moore (9392) longepetiolata (Oerst.) H. E. Moore (Bello 2161) Reinhardtia gracilis (H. Wendl.) Drude ex Dammer (Bello 2066) Synechanthus warscewiczianus H. Wendl. (10851) Bromeliaceae Aechmea mariae-reginae H. Wendl. (Fuentes 316) pubescens Baker (Bello 654) Androlepis skinneri Brongn. ex Houllet (9169) Catopsis nitida (Hook.) Griseb. (9003) nutans (Sw.) Griseb. (9611) paniculata E. Morren (Grant 1862) wangerinii Mez & Werckle ex Mez (3145) Greigia sylvicola Standl. (10691) Guzmania angustifolia (Baker) Wittm. (Bello 5214) blassii Rauh (9466) compacta Mez (Obando 227) coriostachya (Griseb.) Mez (8683) desautelsii Read & L. B. Sm. (Bello 420) dissitiflora (Andre) L. B. Sm. (Bello 245) donnellsmithii Mez ex Bonn. Sm. (Tisna 32) glomerata Mez & Werckle (9465) monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez (5008) nicaraguensis Mez & C. Baker (8993) obtusiloba L. B. Sm. (Bello 1154) plicatifolia L. B. Sm. (Zuchowski 692) polycephala Mez & Werckle ex Mez (Bello 209) scandens H. Luther & W. J. Kress (10542) scherzeriana Mez (9470) sprucei (Andre) L. B. Sm. (Bello 1258) stenostachya. L. B. Sm. (2270) subcorymbosa L. B. Sm. (9460) Racinaea adpressa (Andre) J. R. Grant (8990) Pitcairnia atrorubens (Beer) Baker (Bello 4066) brittoniana Mez (8528) heterophylla (Lindl.) Beer (10482) kalbreyeri Baker (9807) maidifolia. (C. Morren) Decne. (10484) valerii Standl. (8346) wendlandii Baker (Bello 2794) Tillandsia anceps Lodd. (9467) brachycaulos Schltdl. (Tisna 25)

504

Zone a

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habi

M

SB

BD

MO

Tm

MA MA A A

Fly SB SB IN

BD BD BD BD

MO MO MO MO

S Ts S S

A

SB

TM

MO

Tl

A

IN

BD

MO

S

M A MA

SB SB SB

BD BD BD

MO MO MO

Tm Tm S

A

IN

BD

MO

S

A

IN

BD

MO

Ts

MA A

IN IN

BD BD

HE HE

E E

M

IN

BD

HE

E

MA PM M P

MO? MO? MO? IN

WD WD WD BD

DI DI DI HE

E E E E

M

IN

BD?

HE

H

M A M MA A A MA A P M MA MA A A A A M A

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

M

BD

WD

HE

E

MA M P M P A A

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E H E H E E

A P

BD BD

WD WD

HE HE

E E

Appendix 1


Monocotyledons

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

bulbosa Hook. (10143) butzii Mez (10984) excelsa Griseb. (9007) fasciculate. Sw. (Fuentes 663) insignis (Mez) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. (9046) juncea (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. (9889) leiboldiana Schltdl. (Bello 5391) monadelpha (E. Morren) Baker (Bello 1291) multicaulis Steud. (Dryer 1317) punctulata Schltdl. & Cham. (Lepiz 164) schumanniana (Wittm.) Mez (Grant 1875) singularis Mez & Werckle (Bello 2017) spiculosa Griseb. (Grant 1867) venusta Mez & Werckle (6585) Vriesea apiculata L. B. Sm. (Bello 1255) bracteosa (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. burgeri L. B. Sm., cf. (8947) capitata (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. comata (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. (9017) gladioliflora (H. Wendl.) Antoine (Bello 5398) gramini folia Mez & Werckle (10235) greenbergii Utley (Bello 5405) hygrometrica (Andre) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. (Dryer 318) incurva (Griseb.) Read (Tisna 4) latissima (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. (Dryer 1324B) monstrum (Mez) L. B. Sm. (Dryer 1495) nephrolepis L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. (Dryer 1339) notata L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. (Grant 1870) pedicellata (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. (Bello 185) stenophylla (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. (Selby?) subsecunda Wittm. (Grant 92-1869) tonduziana L. B. Sm. (Morales 2465) umbrosa L. B. Sm. (Dryer 1389) viridiflora (Regel) Wittm. ex Mez (Morales 2464) vittata (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. (Ingram) werckleana Mez (Grant 92-1865) Burmanniaceae Apteria aphylla (Nutt.) Barnhart (9378) Burmannia kalbreyeri Oliv. (Dryer 1364 A) Gymnosiphon suaveolens (H. Karst.) Urb. (1092) Cannaceae Can n a *glauca L. (10075) *tuerckheimii Kranzl. (2734) Commelinaceae Callisia monandra (Sw.) Schult. & Schult. f. (10432) Commelina diffusa Burm. f. (10128) erecta L. (10348) texcocana Matuda (10903) Dichorisandra amabilis J. R. Grant (10759) hexandra (Aubl.) Standl. (11675) Tinantia erecta (Jacq.) Schltdl. (7980) standleyi Steyerm. (Bello 1323)

A M M P MA PM A A M M? M A M A

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

A M? M M? M A A MA M M MA

HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? BT HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT?

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E E E E E E E

MA M? MA M

HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT?

WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE

E E E E

M?

HM,BT?

WD

HE

E

M M? M? M? M M

HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT? HM,BT?

WD WD WD WD WD WD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

E E E E E E

A

IN

GR?

HE

H

M

IN

WD?

HE

H

M

IN

WD,GR?

HE

H

505

P P

H H

M

SB

GR?

HE

H

PMA P PM

SB SB SB

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

H H H

M A

SB SB

BD BD

HE HE

H V

PM M

LB LB

BD? BD?

HE HE

H H

Appendix 1


Monocotyledons Tradescantia gracillima Standl. (10129) grantii D. Hunt, ined. (11291) poelliae D. Hunt (10115) zanonia (L.) Sw. (1088) *zebrina hort ex Bosse (10199) Tripogandra purpurascens (Schauer) Handles (8797) serrulata (Vahl) Handles (8796) Convallariaceae Maian th em um monteverdense LaFrankie (8792) Costaceae Costus barbatus Suess. (1383) curvibmcteatus Maas (7110) glaucus Maas (Bello 366) malortieanus H. Wendl. (8223) montanus Maas (10581) nitidus Maas (9458) pulverulentus C. Presl (3269) scaber Ruiz & Pav. (1697) wilsonii Maas (10798) Cyclanthaceae Asplundia euryspatha Hailing (5120) microphylla (Oerst.) Hailing (9020) sanctae-ritae Galeano & Beinal (4508) sanluisana Hammel, ined. (Hammel 13964) stenophylloides Hammel, ined. (Hammel 13870) utilis (Oeist.) Hailing (4863) vagans Hailing (7496) Carludovica drudei Mast. (Hammel 15067) rotundifolia H. Wendl. ex Hook. f. (Diyei 1705) Chorigyne ensiformis (Hook, f.) R. Eiikss. (2411) Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. (Bello 252) Evodianthus funifer (Poit.) Lindm. (7420) Ludovia integrifolia (Woodson) Hailing (Bello 2862) Sphaeradenia acutitepala Hailing (9346) laucheana (Mast.) Hailing (7086) occidentalis R. Eiikss (Bello 2163) Cyperaceae Carex donnell-smithii L. H. Bailey (9135) jamesonii W. Boott (Bello 2187) polystachya Sw. ex Wahlenb. (9746) standleyana Steyeim. (10888) Cyperus hermaphroditus (Jacq.) Standl. (9606) luzulae (L.) Retz. (10171) simplex Kunth (Bello 1220) surinamensis Rottb. (9641) tenuis Sw. (9689) Eleocharis elegans (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. (10213) montana (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. (Bello 4571)

506

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit*

M A M M M

SB SB SB SB H

GR GR GR GR

HE HE HE HE

H H H H

M M

SB SB

GR GR

HE HE

H H

M

SB

BD

HE

E

M A A A M A A A M

BD BD BD

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H H H H H

A M M P M? A M

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO

BD BD BD BD BD BD

BD,BT

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

E V V V V V V

A A

CO? CO?

BD BD

MO MO

H H

M

CO?

BD?

MO

E

PA

CO

ANT?

MO

H

A

CO?

BD?

MO

V

A

CO?

BD

MO

V

A M MA

CO? CO? CO?

BD BD BD

MO MO MO

E E E

PM A PM PM

WD WD WD WD

GR GR GR GR

MO MO MO MO

H H H H

PM PA A M P

WD WD WD WD WD

GR GR GR GR GR

HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H

A MA

WD WD

GR GR

HE HE

H H

Appendix 1

BD,LB BD BD BD BD BD


Monocotyledons

Zone3

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

retroflexa (Poir.) Urb. (9698) schaffneri Boeck. (Bello 5113) sellowiana Kunth (11042) Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) M. Vahl (10170) littoralis Gaudich. (9643) Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. (9706) pumila Michx. (9645) Pycreus bipartitus (Ton.) C. B. Clarke (8596) lanceolatus (Poir.) C. B. Clarke (9427) niger (Ruiz & Pav.) Cufod. (9709) Rhyn ch ospora andresii Gomez-Laur. (Bello 2193) nervosa (Vahl) Boeck. (9592) polyphylla Vahl (5828) radicans (Schltdl. & Cham.) Pfeiff. (9384) ruiziana Boeck. (Bello 791) tuerckheimii C. B. Clarke ex Kiik. (3073) vulcani Boeck. (Bello 792) watsonii (Britton) Davidse (9736) Scleria latifolia Sw. (Bello 1844) melaleuca Rchb. f. ex Schltdl. & Cham. (10840) secans (L.) Urb. (11157) Torulinium odoratum (L.) Hooper (9679) Uncinia hamata (Sw.) Urb. (8738) Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea convolvulacea Schltdl. & Cham. (965) cyanisticta Bonn. Sm. (Bello 2169) matagalpensis Uline (10896) natalia Hammel, ined. (8675) polygonoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (6511) racemose. (Klotzsch) Uline (7936) spiculiflora Hemsl. (Bello 1054) standleyi C. V. Morton (10257) Haemodoraceae Xiphidium coeruleum Aubl. (801) Heliconiaceae Heliconia atropurpurea G. S. Daniels & F. G. Stiles (Bello 1216) aurantiaca Ghiesbr. ex Lem. (8243) irrasa R. R. Sm. (11546) latispatha Benth. (809) mathiasiae G. S. Daniels & F. G. Stiles (9438) monteverdensis G. S. Daniels & F. G. Stiles (4114) reticulata (Griggs) H. J. P. Winkl. (9216) tortuosa Griggs (8520) trichocarpa G. S. Daniels & F. G. Stiles (5896A) vaginalis Benth. (1402) Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis decumbens L. (9576) Iridaceae Sisyrin chium micranthum Cav. (8915)

MA M M

WD WD WD

GR GR GR

HE HE HE

H H H

PM P

WD WD

GR GR

HE HE

H H

PM P

WD WD

GR GR

MO MO

H H

M A M

WD WD WD

GR GR GR

HE? HE? HE?

H H H

A M A A M M M M

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

H H H H H H H H

A A A

WD WD WD

GR GR GR

MO MO MO

H H H

PA

WD

GR

MO

H

M

WD

TM

MO

H

MA M P M P A A MA

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI

L L L L L L L L

PA

SB

BD

HE

H

A A A A PA MA A M A P

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H H H H H H

PM

BE

WD,GR?

HE

H

MA

SB

GR?

HE

H

507

Appendix 1


Monocotyledons Juncaceae Juncus effusus L. (3418) Marantaceae Calathea brenesii Standl. (7786) cleistantha Standl. (8369) crotalifera S. Watson (Zuchowski 433) foliosa Rowlee ex Woodson (5420) guzmanioides L. B. Sm. & Idrobo (Bello 1190) indecora Woodson (7932) lasiostachya Donn. Sm. (10823) leucostachys Hook. f. (Bello 1217) macrosepala K. Schum. (8631) marantifolia Standl. (9491) micans (L. Mathieu) Koern. (8423) Hylaeanthe hoffmannii (K. Schum.) A. M. E. Jonker & Jonker (7615) Pleiostachya leiostachya (Donn. Sm.) Hammel (Hammel 15393) Strom an the guapilesensis (Donn. Sm.) H. A. Kenn. & Nicolson (7184) tonckat (Aubl.) Eichler (11272) Orchidaceae: See Appendix 3 Poaceae Andropogon bicornis L. (9584) glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Steams, & Poggenb. (9739) Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino (9596) Arthrostylidium merostachyoides R. W. Pohl (10026) Arundinella berteroniana (Schult.) Hitchc. & Chase (11288) deppeana Nees ex Steud. (9622) Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv. (9628) fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm. (9708) Chusquea liebmannii Fourn. (10780) longifolia Swallen (10029) patens L. G. Clark (Pohl 13248) pohliiL. G. Clark (10027) scabra Soderstr. & Calderon (10008) Coix lacryma-jobi L. (9635) Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (9175) nlemfuensis Vanderyst (9586) Digitaria abyssinica (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf (9598) ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler (9678) Eleu sine indica (L.) Gaertn. (9657) Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R. Br. (9690) tenuifolia (A. Rich.) Hochst. ex Steudel (9724) Gynerium sagittatum (Aubl.) P. Beauv. (Bello 314) Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf (9630)

508

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

M

WD

WD,GR

HE

H

MA A M A A A A A P M A

LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB LB

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H H H H H H H

A

LB

GR?

HE

H

M

LB

GR?

HE

H

A PMA

LB LB

GR GR

HE HE

H H

M M

WD WD

WD WD

HE HE

H H

M

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

M

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

A P

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

P M

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

P MA M M MA

WD WD WD WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE HE HE HE

L L L L L

PM

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

M M

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

M P

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

PM

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

P M

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

A

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

PM

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

Appendix 1


Monocotyledons Ichnanthus nemorosus (Sw.) Doell (9717) pallens (Sw.) Munro ex Benth. (Bello 495) tennis (J. Presl) Hitchc. & Chase (10157) Isachne arundinacea (Sw.) Griseb. (9695) Is ch a em um rugosum Salisb. (9646) timorense Kunth (10239) La si ads nigra Davidse (9631) oaxacensis (Steud.) Hitchc. (9659) procerrima (Hack.) Hitchc. (9654) rhizophora (Fourn.) Hitchc. (9589) ruscifolia (Kunth) Hitchc. (9617) s ta ndleyi Hitchc. (9727) Leersia ligularis Trin. (10099) Lithachne pauciflora (Sw.) P. Beauv. (7637) Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (8882) Muhlenbergia ciliata (Kunth) Trin. (10891) lehmanniana Henrard (9660) tenella (Kunth) Trin. (10893) Oplismenus burmannii (Retz.) P. Beauv. (9602) hirtellus (L.) P. Beauv. (9715) Panicum laxum Sw. (9640) maximum Jacq. (9636) polygonatum Schrad. (9729) trichoides Sw. (9637) Paspalum botterii (E. Fourn.) Chase, cf. (9600) candidum (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Floegge) Kunth (9725) conjugatum Bergius (9604) convexum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Floegge (9626) decumbens Sw. (2719) nutans Lam. (Bello 4941) paniculatum L. (9620) saccharoides Nees ex Trin. (8206) squamulatum E. Fourn. (9732) Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov. (Grayum 10192) purpureum Schumach. (9595) setosum (Sw.) Rich. (9658) Pereilema diandrum R. W. Pohl (10305) Pharus lappulaceus Aubl. (11422) parvifolius Nash (10883)

Zonea

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

M M P

WD WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE HE

H H H

MA

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

P A

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

PMA PM MA M M M

WD WD WD WD WD WD

BD BD BD BD BD BD

HE HE HE HE HE HE

S H S H H H

PM

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

A

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

PM

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

M P PM

WD WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE HE

H H H

PM PM

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

P P M P

WD WD WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE HE HE

H H H H

M M PM PM A M P MA M

WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD

H

GR,WD

HE HEH HE HE HE HE HE HE HE

H H H H H H H

M M PA

WD WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE HE

H H H

P

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

P P

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

M

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

MA

WD

TM

HE

H

P

WD

GR,WD

HE

L

A M

WD WD

GR,WD GR,WD

HE HE

H H

MA

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

Poa

annua L. (9704) Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf (8679) Rhipidocladum pittieri (Hack.) McClure (8279) Setaria paniculifera (Steud.) E. Fourn. ex Hemsl. (6172) parviflora (Poir.) Kerguelen (9623) sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C. E. Hubb. ex Chipp (10214)

509

Appendix 1

WD


Monocotyledons Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. (9587) Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze (9614) Pontederiaceae *Eichornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms Heteranthera reniformis Ruiz & Pav. (9649) Smilacaceae Smilax chiriquensis C. V. Morton (9009) dominguensis Willd. (10804) engleriana F. W. Apt (5670) kunthii Killip & C. V. Morton (5578) mollis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (10805) panamensis Morong (9067) spinosa Mill. (10797) standleyi Killip & C. V. Morton (1949) subpubescens A. DC. (11202) vanilliodora F. W. Apt (10806) velutina Killip & C. V. Morton (Grayum 5422) Triuridaceae Triuris sp. A (Lawton 1317) Typhaceae Typha domingensis Pers., cf. (6579) Zingiberaceae Hedychium *coronarium J. Konig (2885) Renealmia cernua (Sw.) J. F. Macbr. (8994) congesta Maas (Bello 1266) scaposa Maas (7609)

Zonea

Pollb

Seed0

Sexd

Habit6

PM

WD

GR,WD

HE

H

M

WD

GR

HE

H

MA

H

PA

BE

Water

HE

H

M A A MA M A M A M M M

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD BD

DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI DI

L L L L L L L L L L L

M

IN?

BD?

HE?

H-Sap

MA

WD

WD

HE

H

M

HM

BD

HE

H

M A MA

BD BD BD

BD TM TM

HE HE HE

H H H

A

CO?

TM?

D

S

M M

WD WD

BD? BD?

D D

Tl Tl

Gymnosperms Cycadaceae Zamia skinneri Warsz. ex A. Dietr. (7817) Podocarpaceae Podocarpus macrostachyus Parl. (8525) monteverdeensis de Laub. (9796)

Polypodiophyta (ferns and fern allies) Aspleniaceae Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm. f.) Bech. (Grayum 5424) auriculatum Sw. (Ivey 168) auritum Sw. (8572) cirrhatum Rich, ex Willd. (Ivey 208) cristatum Lam. (Bigelow 23) cuspidatum Lam. (7731) dissectum Sw. (Hennipman 6663) formosum Willd. (9934) gomezianum Lellinger (Obando 162) harpeodes Kunze (Bello 5195) holophlebium Baker (Bello 5377) laetum Sw. (Ivey 138) maxonii Lellinger (Martinez 405)

510

M A M A M MA M P MA M A A M

Appendix 1

E? E E E H E E E E E,H E,V H,R E,V


Polypodiophyta

Zone3

pteropus Kaulf. (Bello 4101) pululahuae Sodiro (9353) riparium Liebm. (Moran 5832) rosenstockianum Brade (Rojas 1856) serra Langsd. & Fisch. (Bello 4500) volubile N. Murak & R. C. Moran (Ivey 240) Blechnaceae Blechnum chiriquanum (Broadh.) C. Chr. (Grayum 10170) divergens (Kunze) Mett. (10381) m e (Liebm.) C. Chr. (Martinez 475) ensifor falciforme (Liebm.) C. Chr. (Bello 793) fragile (Liebm.) C. V. Morton & Lellinger (Ingram 358) glandulosum Kaulf. ex Link (Azofeifa 116) Iherminieri (Bory) C. Chr. (Koptur 148) occidental L. (8872) polypodioides Raddi (Azofeifa 118) proliferum Rosenst. (Moran 5860) werckleanum (H. Christ) C. Chr. (Grayum 10177) Salpichlaena thalassica Grayum & R. C. Moran (5383) volubilis (Kaulf.) J. Sm. (9395) Cyatheaceae Alsophila cuspidata (Kunze) D. S. Conant (Bello 5013) firma (Baker) D. S. Conant (Bello 5019) amrayanum (Hook) D. S. Conant (Goto 14) polystichoides H. Christ (Bello 5066) Cnemidaria mutica (H. Christ) R. M. Tryon (10263) Cyathea bicrenata Liebm. (Moran 5868) caracasana (Klotzsch) Domin (Grayum 10190) delgadii Sternb. (Goto 11) divergens Kunze (Burger 9716) fulva (M. Martens & Galeotti) Fee (Bello 4137) gracilis Griseb. (Moran 5874) nigripes (C. Chr.) Domin (Moran 5870) schiedeana (C. Presl) Domin (Fuentes 150) Spaeropteris brunei (H. Christ) R. M. Tryon (Moran 5846) Dennstaedtiaceae Dennstaedtia arborescens (Willd.) E. Ekman ex Maxon (Hennipman 6674A) bipinnata (Cav.) Maxon (Ivey 140) globulifera (Poir.) Hieron. (Bello 4457) wercklei (H. Christ) R. M. Tryon (Bello 4603) Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) J. Sm. (Bello 4506) Lonchitis hirsuta L. (Bigelow 38) Odontosoria gymnogrammoides H. Christ (Bigelow 118) Ormoloma imrayanum (Hook.) Maxon (Bigelow 115) Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Maxon (Bigelow 131) Saccoloma inaequale (Kunze) Mett. (Bello 4410) Dicksoniaceae Dicksonia gigantea H. Karst. (Bello 5152) karsteniana (Klotzsch) T. Moore (Rojas 1854)

A A

511

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

MA MA A A

E E H,R H E E?

M M A M MA A MA PA A MA MA

H H H,V H,E E,H H H H H H E,H

M A

L L

A A MA MA

T T T T

M

H

MA MA A M M M MA PM

T T T T T S T T

M

T

M

H

A MA A

H H H

A

H

M

H,E

M

V

M

E,H

M

H

A

H

M M

T H

Appendix 1


Zonea

Polypodiophyta Dryopteridaceae Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Ching (Bigelow 32) Didymochlaena. truncatula (Sw.) J. Sm. (Bello 4497) Dryopteris patula (Sw.) Underw. (Bigelow 120) Olfersia cervina (L.) Kunze (Moran 5848) Polybotrya alfredii Brade (Moran 5838) gomezii R. C. Moran (Grayum 5378) Stigmatopteris contracta (H. Christ) C. Chr. (Grayum 5374) heterophlebia (Baker) R. C. Moran (Bigelow 82) longicaudata (Liebm.) C. Chr. (Moran 5872) Equisetaceae Equisetum bogotense Kunth (9151) giganteum L. (6577) Gleicheniaceae Sticherus bifidus (Willd.) Ching (8943)a brevipubis (H. Christ) A. R. Sm. (Grayum 10185) hypoleucus (Sodiro) Copel. (10557) pteridellus (H. Christ) Copel. (Rojas 1894) retroflexus (J. Bommer & H. Christ) Copel. (9730) Grammitidaceae Ceradenia knightii (Copel.) L. E. Bishop (Penneys 307) Cochlidium rostratum (Hook.) Maxon ex C. Chr. (9516) serrulatum (Sw.) L. E. Bishop (8544) Enter-osora campbellii Baker (Grayum 10176) trifurcata (L.) L. E. Bishop (Ivey 295) Lellingeria isidrensis (Maxon ex Copel.) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (Grayum 10174) limula (H. Christ) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (5516) melanotrichia. (Baker) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (Bello 4335) subsessilis (Baker) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (Bello 2822) Melpomene anfractuosa (Kunze ex Klotzsch) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (Bello 1795) pilosissima (M. Martens & Galeotti) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (Jimenez 1225) xiphopteroides (Liebm.) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (5243) Micropolyp odium cookii (Underw. & Maxon) A. R. Sm. (6154) taenifolium (Jenman) A. R. Sm. (9515) truncicola (Klotzsch) A. R. Sm. (Bigelow 109) Terpsichore alfarii (Bonn. Sm.) A. R. Sm. (Grayum 10175) alsopteris (C. V. Morton) A. R. Sm. (Bello 2676) aspleniifolia (L.) A. R. Sm. (Bello 4439) atroviridis (Copel.) A. R. Sm. (Ivey 156) cultrata (Bory ex Willd.) A. R. Sm. (Bello 4564) lanigera (Desv.) A. R. Sm. (Bello 2648) lehmanniana (Hieron.) A. R. Sm. (Bello 5101) mollissima (Fee) A. R. Sm. (Moran 5861) semihirsuta (Klotzsch) A. R. Sm. (Hahn 6288)

512

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

M

H,E

A

H

M

E,H

M

E

M M

V

M A M

H H H

A A

H H

M M A M M

H H H H,V H

A

E

MA MA

E E

M M

E E

M

E

M M

E E

M

E

MA

E

M

E

M

E

A MA M

E E E

M A M A A MA A M M

E E E E E E E E E

Appendix 1

V


Polypodiophyta

Zonea

senilis (Fee) A. R. Sm. (Moran 5871) taxifolia (L.) A. R. Sm. (9146) turrialbae (H. Christ) A. R. Sm. (Bello 5158) Zygophlebia sectifrons (Kunze ex Mett.) L. E. Bishop (9075) Hymenophyllaceae Hymen ophyllu m asplenioides (Sw.) Sw. (Bello 4407) consanguineum C. V. Morton (9134) crispum Kunth (Zogg 12116) ectocarpon Fee (Ivey 153) fendlerianum J. W. Sturm (6389) fragile (Hedw.) C. V. Morton (Moran 5834) fucoides (Sw.) Sw. (5528) hemipteron Rosenst. (Grayum 10181) hirsutum (L.) Sw. (Gomez 1289) microcarpum Desv. (Ivey 235) polyanthos (Sw.) Sw. (5371) saenzianum L. D. Gomez, cf. (Grayum 10209) sieberi (C. Presl) Bosch (Rojas 1877) subrigidum H. Christ (Grayum 10183) tunbrigense (L.) Sm. (Rojas 1880) Trichomanes capillaceum L. (Ivey 278) collariatum Bosch (9205) crinitum Sw. (Rojas 1869) crispum L. (8939) diaphanum Kunth (Ivey 212) diversifrons (Bory) Mett. ex Sadeb. (Azofeifa 134) hymenophylloides Bosch (Rojas 1879) krausii Hook. & Grev. (Bello 2806) lucens Sw. (Grayum 10184) ludovicinum Rosenst. (Ingram 1755) membranaceum L. (Bello 4558) polypodioides L. (Bigelow 122) radicans Sw. (Hammel 13806) reptans Sw. (Bello 2805) rigidum Sw. (10558) Lomariopsidaceae Bolbitis nicotianifolia (Sw.) Alston (Bello 4556) oligarchica (Baker) Hennipman (6190) pergamentacea (Maxon) Ching (Bello 4556) portoricensis (Spreng.) Hennipman (Bello 4388) Elaphoglossum amygdalifolium (Mett. ex Kuhn) H. Christ (Penneys 453) auripilum H. Christ (8585) biolleyi H. Christ (8582) brenesii Mickel (5158) caricifolium Mickel (Bello 979) Caroline Mickel (Rojas 1881) ciliatum (C. Presl) T. Moore (Bello 2712) conspersum H. Christ (8580) coto-brusense A. Rojas, ined. (Ivey 131) crinitum (L.) H. Christ (9239) croatii Mickel (Martinez 439) cuspidatum (Willd.) T. Moore (9239) decoratum (Kunze) T. Moore (10013) decursivum Mickel (Grayum 5376) doanense L. D. Gomez (9459) erinaceum (Fee) T. Moore (Moran 5858) eximium (Mett.) H. Christ (9144)

M M M

E E E

M

E

A M

E E E E,R E E E E

513

M MA M MA MA M M A MA A M M M

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

E E E E E E E

MA MA M MA A P M A M M A M MA M MA

E V,E E E E E E E E E E V V E E

A PMA A P

E,V H E H

MA

E,V

MA M M A MA M M A MA MA MA MA MA A M M

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E,H E

Appendix 1


Polypodiophyta

Zonea

furfuraceum (Mett. ex Kuhn) H. Christ (8741) gloeorrhizum Mickel (Rojas 1888) hammelianum A. Rojas, ined. (9239) heterochroum Mickel (9347) killipianum Mickel (Fuentes 39) lanceiforme Mickel (Bello 4503) latifolium (Sw.) J. Sm. (8743) lingua (Raddi) Brack. (8583) micropogon Mickel (Bello 134) mitorrhizum Mickel (8580) moranii Mickel Haber (8584) muscosum (Sw.) T. Moore (8548) paleaceum (Hook. & Grev.) Sledge, cf. (9347) pallidum (Baker ex Jenman) C. Chr. (Rojas 1865) palmense H. Christ (9145) peltatum (Sw.) Urb. (Bello 969) pseudoboryanum Mickel (9148) siliquoides (Jenman) C. Chr. (Bello 135) smithii (Baker) H. Christ (Rojas 1901) standleyi Mickel (Grayum 3840) tenuiculum (Fee) T. Moore (Ivey 324) Lomariopsis fendleri D. C. Eaton (Bello 1953) maxonii (Underw.) Holttum (Bello 4555) vestita E. Fourn. (Grayum 10199) Lophosoriaceae Lophosoria quadripinnata (J. F. Gmel.) C. Chr. (Bello 4428) Lycopodiaceae Huperzia acerosa (Sw.) Holub (9543) bradeorum (H. Christ) Holub (11034) capillaris (Sodiro) Holub (10234) chamaeleon (Herter) B. Ollg. (Bello 1654) dichaeoides (Maxon) Holub (11282) dichotoma (Jacq.) Trevis. (Bello 4589) filiformis (Sw.) Holub (5683) funiformis (Spring) Trevis. (9185) lancifolia (Maxon) Holub (Bello 4563) myrsinites (Lam.) Trevis. (8917) polycarpos (Kunze) B. Ollg. (10234) reflexa (Lam.) Trevis. (9074) taxifolia (Sw.) Trevis. (8663) tubulosa (Maxon) B. Ollg. (Bello 1794) wilsonii (Underw. & F. E. Lloyd) B. Ollg. (Bello 4590) Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. (9583) Lycopodium clavatum L. (9541) Marattiaceae Danaea elliptica Sm. (Ivey 124) moritiziana Presl (Rojas 1849) nodosa (L.) Sm. (Bigelow 92) Marattia excavata Underw. (Moran 5829) interposita H. Christ (Martinez 459) laxa Kunze (Burger 10848) Oleandraceae Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott (9415) multiflora (Roxb.) F. M. Jarrett ex C. V. Morton (10841) pectinata (Willd.) Schott (Bello 137)

M M M A P A M M A M MA M A MA M MA M A M M PA

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

A MA A

V V V

MA

H

MA M A M A A A A A M A MA M M A

E E E E E E E E E E E H E E E

M

H

M

V

A M A

H H H

M MA M

H H H

A A MA

H H,E E

514

Appendix 1

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6


Polypodiophyta

Zone3

pendula (Raddi) J. Sm. (8787) rivularis (Vahl) Mett. ex Krug (Ivey 255) Oleandra bradei H. Christ (Ivey 312) costaricensis Maxon (10236) Ophioglossaceae Cheiroglossa. palmata (L.) C. Presl (7298) Ophioglossum reticulatum L. (10373) Polypodiaceae Campylon e ur um angustifolium (Sw.) Fee (9513) brevifolium (Lodd. ex Link) Link, sensu Leon (Bello 4473) fasciale (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) C. Presl (9238) falcoideum (Kuhn ex Hieron.) M. Mey. ex Lellinger (10119) irregulare Lellinger (Bello 2715) phyllitidis (L.) C. Presl (6436) repens (Aubl.) C. Presl (Bello 2678) sphenodes (Kunze ex Klotzsch) Fee (6199) Dicranoglossum panamense (C. Chr.) L. D. Gomez (Azofeifa 132) Micro gramma lycopodioides (L.) Copel. (8545) percussa (Cav.) de la Sota (Ivey 130) Neur odium lanceolatum (L.) Fee (2219) Niphidium crassifolium (L.) Lellinger (4947) nidulare (Rosenst.) Lellinger (8669) Pecluma alfredii (Rosenst.) M. G. Price (Ivey 127) camptophyllaria (Fee) M. G. Price (Bello 2676) divaricata (E. Fourn.) Mickel & Beitel (Moran 5931) plumula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) M. G. Price (11315) Phlebodium pseudoaureum (Cav.) Lellinger (Bello 2941) Pleopeltis angusta Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (7764) astrolepis (Liebm.) E. Fourn. (Azofeifa 77) fructuosa (Maxon & Weath. ex Weath.) Lellinger (8546) complanata (Weath.) E. A. Hooper (8546) wiesbaurii (Sodiro) Lellinger (Obando 188) Polypodium dulce Poir. (Hammel 14209) echinolepis Fee (A. Jimenez 1275) fraxinifolium Jacq. (7731) friedrichsthalianum Kunze (6758) furfuraceum Schltdl. & Cham. (Palmer 142) fuscopetiolatum A. R. Sm. (10177) giganteum Desv. (Ivey 284) lindenianum Kunze (Ivey 142 loriceum L. (Zogg 12188) loriciforme Rosenst. (Bello 2396) myriolepis H. Christ (Bigelow 59) plectolepidioides Rosenst. (Ivey 129) plesiosorum Kunze (Burger 9624) polypodioides (L.) Watt (Ivey 132 ptilorhizon H. Christ (8744) remotum Desv. (Bigelow 16)

PMA A

E,H E,H

M MA

E E

MA

E

M

H

MA A

E E

PMA M

V E

M A A MA

H E V E,V

P

E

MA A

E E,R

M

V,E

PMA M

E E

P A MA P

E E E

MA

E

M PM MA MA A

E E E E E

MA M MA A PMA P PA A M A M A M PMA PMA MA

E V,E E E V,E E E V E E E H E V,E V

515

Appendix 1

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

E,H,R

E,H,R


Polypodiophyta

Zone3

rhodopleuron Kunze (11316) triseriale Sw. (Obando 137) Pteridaceae Acrostichum danaeifolium Langsd. & Fisch. (Bello 2902) (aquatic) Adiantopsis chlorophylla (Sw.) Fee (10113) Adiantum andicola Liebm. (A. Jimenez 1205) continuum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (8871) macrophyllum Sw. (9632) patens Willd. (Obando 146) princeps T. Moore (9685) tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd (9241) trapeziforme L. (9686) urophyllum Hook. (9241A) Eriosorus flexuosus (Kunth) Copel. (Palmer 118) glaberrimus (Maxon) Scamman (Bello 2845) Mildella intramarginalis (Kaulf. ex Link) Trevis. (10799) Neurocallis praestantissima Bory ex Fee (Hammel 15090) Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link (8873) dealbata (C. Presl) R. M. Tryon (9769) ebenea (L.) Proctor (Azofeifa 123) ferruginea (Kunze) Maxon (Ivey 170) trifoliata (L.) R. M. Tryon (9680) Pteris altissima Poir. (Bello 4566) muricata Hook. (Grayum 10180) navarrensis H. Christ (Grayum 10193) paucinervata Fee (A. Jimenez 1183) podophylla Sw. (Grayum (10208) quadriaurita Retz. (Grayum 10186) speciosa Mett. ex Kuhn (Bello 5386) Schizaeaceae Anemia hirsuta (L.) Sw. (8632) oblongifolia (Cav.) Sw. (Bello 2919) phyllitidis (L.) Sw. (9713) Selaginellaceae Selaginella anceps (C. Presl) C. Presl (Bello 4413) atirrensis Hieron. (Grayum 10196) diffusa (C. Presl) Spring (Bello 4417) geniculata (C. Presl) Spring (Moran 5841) oaxacana Spring (9005) pallescens (C. Presl) Spring (9652) silvestris Aspl. (6230) tarapotensis Baker (Grayum 7593) viticulosa Klotzsch (11220) Tectariaceae Ctenitis excelsa (Desv.) Proctor (Bello 4450) hemsleyana (Baker ex Hemsl.) Copel. (A. Jimenez 1182a) Lasteopsis effusa (Sw.) Tindale (Bello 4606) exculta (Mett.) Tindale (Grayum 10203)

P PMA

V,E,R

A

H

P

H

M PM PA A P MA P MA

H H H H H H H H

M M

H V

PM

H,R

M

H

PMA PM PM PA PA

H H H H H

M M A M A MA A

H H H H H H H

P P PM

H H H

PA A A M MA P M M A

H H H H H H E E H,R

M M

H H

MA PA

H H,R

516

Appendix 1

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6 E,H


Zone3

Polypodiophyta Megalastrum acrosorum (Hieron.) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (Martinez 452) atrogriseum (C. Chr.) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (9499) lunense (H. Christ) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (Burger 10774) subincisum (Willd.) A. R. Sm. & R. C. Moran (9354) Tectaria antioquiana (Baker) C. Chr. (Grayum 10202) athyrioides (Baker) C. Chr. (Bello 4451) heracleifolia (Willd.) Underw. (Fuentes 180) nicaraguensis (E. Fourn.) C. Chr. (Bello 4102) nicotianifolia (Baker) C. Chr. (9198) plantaginea (Jacq.) Maxon (Ivey 160) subebenea (H. Christ) C. Chr. (Bittner 1265) Thelypteridaceae Thelyp teris atrovirens (C. Chr.) C. F. Reed (Zogg 12119) biolleyi (H. Christ) Proctor (Ivey 125) blanda (Fee) C. F. Reed (Grayum 5416) cheilanthoides (Kunze) Proctor (Ivey 197) curta (H. Christ) C. F. Reed (Grayum 10210) decussata (L.) Proctor (Bigelow 53) delasotae A. R. Sm. & Lellinger (Bello 4395) equitans (H. Christ) C. F. Reed (Moran 5842) falcata (Liebm.) R. M. Tryon (9803) francoana (E. Fourn.) C. F. Reed (4909) funckii (Mett.) Alston (Ivey 296) gigantea (Mett.) R. M. Tryon (5844) glandulosa (Desv.) Proctor (Bello 4382) gomeziana A. R. Sm. & Lellinger (Bello 4508) grayumii A. R. Sm. (4542) nicaraguensis (E. Fourn.) C. V. Morton (Ivey 145) obliterate! (Sw.) Proctor (Bello 4562) patens (Sw.) Small (Bello 4618) pilosula (Klotzsch & H. Karst. ex Mett.) R. M. Tryon (Martinez 448) resinifera (Desv.) Proctor (10172) rudis (Kunze) Proctor (Bigelow 1) torresiana (Gaudich.) Alston (Bello 4505) turrialbae (Rosenst.) C. V. Morton (Grayum 10207) urbanii (Sodiro) A. R. Sm. (Grayum 10211) Vittariaceae Antrophyum cajenense (Desv.) Spreng. (Bello 1069) ensiforme Hook. (9774a) lanceolatum (L.) Kaulf. (Fuentes 470) lineatum (Sw.) Kaulf. (Bello 2647) Vittaria. gardneriana Fee (Bello 4565) graminifolia Kaulf. (8742) lineata (L.) Sm. (8804) remota Fee (Bigelow 87) stipitata Kunze (9452) Woodsiaceae Diplazium atirrense (Donn. Sm.) Lellinger (Obando 219) ceratolepis (H. Christ) H. Christ (9355) cristatum (Desr.) Alston (Obando 168) diplazioides (Klotzsch & H. Karst.) Alston (Martinez 463) hians Kunze ex Klotzsch (Grayum 10194) lindbergii (Mett.) H. Christ (Bello 4054) myriomerum (H. Christ) Lellinger (Grayum 10201)

517

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

MA

H

MA M

H H

A

H

A MA P A A A A

H H H,R H H H,R H

MA A M A A M MA A MA A A A PM A M A A A A

H H H H H S H H H H,R H H H H H H H H H

P M A A A

H H H H H

A MA P MA

E E E E

A M M A MA

E E E E E

A A PA A A A A

H H H H H H H

Appendix 1


Polypodiophyta

Zonea

negectum (H. Karst.) C. Chr. (9352) obscurum H. Christ (Martinez 477) pi ant aginifolium (L.) Urb. (9240) prominulum Maxon (Grayum 10182) seemannii T. Moore (Ivey 207) solutum (H. Christ) Lellinger (Bello 4411) striatastrum Lellinger (Grayum 10197) striatum (L.) C. Presl (Bello 4560) subsilvaticum H. Christ (Penneys 452) tablazianum H. Christ (Burger 8582) urticifolium H. Christ (Bello 5265) wilsonii (Baker) Diels (Rojas 1892) Hemidictyum marginatum (L.) C. Presl (9404) Species of Asteraceae are listed as HE if male and female florets occur in the same head. Technically, some of these are monoecious, but most have female and hermaphroditic florets mixed together. GR includes seeds and fruits that do not have obvious adaptations for removal from the plant other than by dropping such as species that are eaten by seed-eating birds or carried away by ants and rodents after they reach the ground. Because of late additions and subtractions of species names from the checklist, species numbers will not exactly match those of Table 3.7 and Appendix 2. * Species introduced or escaped from cultivation. Pollinator and dispersal data are not included for these species. a Zones of distribution (Zone) P = Pacific slope 700 — 1200 m in elevation M = montane area above 1200 m on both slopes A = Atlantic slope 700 — 1200m b

Pollination (Poll) BD = bird (hummingbird) BE = bee BF = butterfly BT = bat cleist. = cleistogamous CO = Coleoptera HM = hawkmoth IN = insect (insects of several orders or insect types not known specifically) LB = large bee MO = moth (non-hawkmoth) SB = small bee

518

Pollb

Seedc

Sexd

Habit6

A MA MA MA

H H H H

MA A A PA A M M M

H H,E H H H H H H

A

H

WA = wasp WD = wind c

Seed dispersal (Seed) AM = arboreal mammal BD = bird BT = bat EX = explosive GR = gravity, unspecialized TM = terrestrial mammal WD = wind

d

e

Sexual system (Sex) DI = dioecious HE = hemaphroditic (includes andromonoecious and polygamodioecious species) MO = monoecious

Growth form (Habit) E = epiphyte H = herb — erect terrestrial herbaceous plants L = liana —large woody climbers reaching more than 5 m P = parasite S = shrub, woody plants less than 5 m Sap = saprophyte Ts = small tree, understory, 5-9 m Tm = medium tree, subcanopy, 10-20 m Tl = large tree, canopy, 20-50 m V = vine, small nonwoody climbers less than 5 m

Appendix 1


Appendix 2 Number of Species with Different Plant Growth Forms William A. Haber

Family Dicotyledons Acanthaceae Actinidiaceae Alzateaceae Amaranthaceae Anacardiaceae Annonaceae Apiaceae Apocynaceae Aquifoliaceae Araliaceae Aristolochiaceae Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae Balanophoraceae Begoniaceae Betulaceae Bignoniaceae Bombacaceae Boraginaceae Brassicaceae Brunelliaceae Burseraceae Cactaceae Campamilaceae Capparidaceae

Herb

Vine

5

20

5

Liana

1

2

Shrub 12

Tree 2 5

Epiphyte

39

1

5 14 9

8 9

1

6

11

13 9

3 15

42

17

10

144

1

4

11

1

8 4

1 16

7 8

3

2

1

1

11 3 4 1

5 1

18

2

2 1

2 6

1

3 17

3 1 51 2 4

5

12 5 14 9 19 9

4

11

Total

7

9 20 6 3 4

10 6

11 13 9


Family Dicotyledons [continued] Caprifoliaceae Caricaceae Caryophyllaceae Cecropiaceae Celastraceae Chenopodiaceae Chloranthaceae Chrysobalanaceae Clethraceae Clusiaceae Cochlospermaceae Combretaceae Connaraceae Convolvulaceae Cornaceae Crassulaceae Cucurbitaceae Cunoniaceae Dichapetalaceae Dilleniaceae Ebenaceae Elaeocarpaceae Eremolepidaceae Ericaceae Erythroxylaceae Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae Fabaceae/Mimosoideae Fabaceae/Papilionoideae Fagaceae Flacourtiaceae Gentianaceae Gesneriaceae Grossulariaceae Gunneraceae Hernandiaceae Hippocastanaceae Hippocrateaceae Hydrangeaceae Hydrophyllaceae Icacinaceae Juglandaceae Lamiaceae Lauraceae Lentibulariaceae Loasaceae Loganiaceae Loranthaceae Lythraceae Magnoliaceae Malpighiaceae Malvaceae Marcgraviaceae Melastomataceae Meliaceae Menispermaceae Monimiaceae Moraceae Myricaceae Myristicaceae Myrsinaceae Myrtaceae Nyctaginaceae

Herb

Vine

Liana

Shrub

1

Tree

Epiphyte

3 2

3 3 4

4 2

1 I \

2

5

\ 2 13

4 10 3 6 2 10 1 2

4

10

3 3 5 1 6 4

1 28

5

1

10

6

4 17

4 7 1 19

2 15

2 3 6 1

3

1 40 1 36 20 4 19

32 1

1 2 4 4 66

2 1 1

1 2

1

13 2

9

12 2 8

2

1 10 4

1

27 15

5

2 40

5 14

6 2

1

1

520

Appendix 2

1

13 93 15 7 7

1

2 4 13 28 4

13 3 2 21 16

2 6 3

7 2

2 2 4

3

1

58 2 1 2 2 3 4 1 2 4 21 66

2 2 1

17

1 29 1 50 8 39 70 4 21 7

1

2 4

22 1 3 2 18 1 1 25 3 5 1 6 4

1

1

8 13 1 4 6 2

1 22

Total

43 2 4

1

20 30 7


Family Dicotyledons [continued] Ochnaceae Olacaceae Oleaceae Onagraceae Opiliaceae Oxalidaceae Papaveraceae Passifloraceae Phytolaccaceae Piperaceae Plantaginaceae Podostemaceae Polemoniaceae Polygalaceae Polygonaceae Proteaceae Ranunculaceae Rhamnaceae Rhizophoraceae Rosaceae Rubiaceae Rutaceae Sabiaceae Sapindaceae Sapotaceae Scrophulariaceae Simaroubaceae Solanaceae Staphyleaceae Sterculiaceae Styracaceae Symplocaceae Theaceae Theophrastaceae Thymelaeaceae Ticodendraceae Tiliaceae Tovariaceae Tropaeolaceae Turneraceae Ulmaceae Urticaceae Valerianaceae Verbenaceae Violaceae Viscaceae Vitaceae Vochysiaceae Winteraceae Totals Monocotyledons Agavaceae Alstroemeriaceae Anthericaceae Araceae Arecaceae Bromeliaceae Burmanniaceae Commelinaceae Convallariaceae Costaceae

Herb

Vine

Liana

Shrub

1

Tree

Epiphyte

4 1 4 5 1 5 1 20 7

3 1 4

1

3

1 1

5 1

3 1 1 2 1

1

16 2 1

1 1 2

2

1 4 33

3

40

5 4 4

1

2

2 3

5 60 13

1

1 15

4

54 1

12

11 13

4

7

2

3

16

7

75

6

6

1

10

7

31

19 2

1

2 4 3 8 6 2 1 1 12 1 2 1 4

3 3 8 6

1

1 1 1

1

11

1 2 1 9 1 1 1

1 1

11

3 7

4

7

9

3

2

10

193

345

730

230

1

34

32

19

11

80 30

62

3 3 13

1824

1 4 2

4 2 14

10 6 1 1

1 1

81

31 2 21 3

1

6

245

148 14 6 22 13

6

11

79 2 1 3 5 8 4 4 3 1 8

2 2

1

Total

65 3 14

1

1

1 9

9

521

Appendix 2


Family Monocotyledons (continued) Cyclanthaceae Cyperaceae Dioscoreaceae Haemodoraceae Heliconiaceae Hypoxidaceae Iridaceae Juncaceae Marantaceae Orchidaceae Poaceae Pontederiaceae Smilacaceae Triuridaceae Typhaceae Zingiberaceae Totals Gymnosperms Podocarpaceae Zamiaceae Polypodiophyta Aspleniaceae Blechnaceae Cyatheaceae Dennstaedtiaceae Dicksoniaceae Dryopteridaceae Equisetaceae Gleicheniaceae Grammitidaceae Hymenophyllaceae Lomariopsidaceae Lophosoriaceae Lycopodiaceae Marattiaceae Oleandraceae Ophioglossaceae Polypodiaceae Pteridaceae Schizaeaceae Selaginellaceae Tectariaceae Thelypteridaceae Vittariaceae Woodsiaceae Totals Dicotyledons Monocotyledons Gymnosperms Polypodiophyta Totals

Herb

Vine

Liana

Shrub

Tree

8

3 35

Epiphyte 5

8

l 10

1

1 1 15 49 60 1

1

369 6

2

11 1 1 3 227

46

25

21

11

471

1

15

2

2 1

12

1

1 1

2

2 28

1 2 1 2 6 2 1 2 25 3 7 15 23

2 3

27 40

1

14 5 1

9

16 35 8 1 10 1 1 1 15 419 68 1 11 1 1 3 801

1 1

1 4 9 1 8 1 5 2 5

Total

31

1 2 1 9

20

19 13 14 10 2 9 2 5 28 30 45 1 17 6 7 2 42 26 3 9 15 24 9 20

145

19

2

2

13

177

358

245 227

81 46

193 25

1824

19

2

730 11 1 13

230 471

145

345 21 1 2

177

801 2 358

617

146

220

369

755

878

2985

522

Appendix 2


Appendix 3 Orchids of Monteverde John T. Atwood

The following annotated list is based on the database at Selby Botanical Gardens (AMOData), augmented with a list published by Haber (1991) and notes provided by R. L. Dressier. Species marked with an asterisk (*) are known only in Monteverde and

are possibly endemic. Species marked with a plus (+) are members of subtribe Oncidiinae. Representative collection numbers are included in parentheses after the species names (A = Atwood, B = Bello, H = Haber, I = Ingram, M = Morris).

Acostaea costaricensis Schltr. (H8772) Acrorchis roseola Dressier (H10242) +Ada chlorops (Endres & Rchb. f.) N. H. Williams (H3024) Arpophyllum giganteum Hartweg ex Lindl. (H8005) Barbosella geminata Luer, cf. (A89-303) B. prorepens (Rchb. f.) Schltr. (1254) Barkeria lindleyana Bateman ex Lindl. (H411) B. obovata (C. Presl) Christenson (H9692) *Baskervilla leptantha Dressier B. nicaraguensis Hamer and Garay (B538) Beloglottis costaricensis (Rchb. f.) Schltr. (H11898) B. hameri Garay (H10529) Bletia purpurea (Lam.) DC. (plant normally of lower elevations; appeared in garden in Monteverde community) *Brachionidium haberiLuei (H7027) B. pusillum Ames & C. Schweinf. (H10625) +Brassia arcuigera Rchb. f. (A89-289) +B. verrucosa Lindl. (H6970) Campylocentrum longicalcaratum Ames & C. Schweinf. (B929)

C. sp. (H10114) Cattleya skinneri Bateman (A89-95A) Chaubardiella pacuarensis Jenny Chondrorhyncha reichenbachiana Schltr. (Hi 1286) Cochleanthes aromatica (Rchb. f.) R. E. Schult. & Garay (B536) C. discolor (Lindl.) R. E. Schult. & Garay (A89-22) C. picta (Rchb. f.) Garay (1225) Corymborkis flava (Sw.) Kuntze (Hi 1277) C. forcipigera (Rchb. f. & Warsz.) L. O. Williams (H9570) Cranichis lankesteri Ames & C. Schweinf. (H9569) C. reticulata Rchb. f. (H6208) C. sylvatica A. Rich. & Galeotti, aff. (A4107) C. wageneri Rchb. f. (M4011) Crossoglossa blephariglottis (Schltr.) Dressier & Dodson (A89-280) C. eustachys (Schltr.) Dressier & Dodson, cf. (A89-65) C. fratra (Schltr.) Dressier & Dodson (H5345) C. tennis Dressier & Dodson (H5344) Crypto centrum calcaratum (Schltr.) Schltr. (A89-294)


C. lehmanii (Rchb. f.) Garay (syn.: C. gracilis Schltr.) (B629) C. latifolium Schltr. (A89-334) C. standleyi Ames (H5464) Cyclopogon olivaceus (Rolfe) Garay (H8000) C. prasophyllum (Rchb. f.) Schltr. (H9022) C. sp. A Dichaea ciliolata Rolfe (1739) D. cryptarrhena Kraenzl. (H8620) D. glauca (Sw.) Lindl. D. lankesteri Ames (previously identified as D. aff. brachypoda Rchb. f.) (A89-182) D. morrisii Fawc. & Rendle (H9368) D. oxyglossa Schltr., cf. (11592) D. poicillantha Schltr. (H8620) D. trichocarpa (Sw.) Lindl. (A89-258) Dracula erythrochaete (Rchb. f.) Luer (A89-243) Dryadella pusiola (Rchb. f.) Luer, cf. (Palmer s.n., CR36883) EUeanthus aurantiacus (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (H10022) E. conifer (Rchb. f. & Warsz.) Rchb. f., aff. (H7668) E. glaucophyllus Schltr. (H4492) E. hymenophorus (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f. (B904) E. jimenezii (Schltr.) C. Schweinf. (H8601) E. lancifolius C. Presl (syn.: E. laxus Schltr.) (A88-61) E. lentil Barringer (H1936) E. muscicola Schltr. (B1024) E. poiformis Schltr. (H8835) E. scopula Schltr. (H7560) E. stolonifer Barringer (H8925) E. tonduzii Schltr. (flowers orange-red) (H10022) E. tonduzii Schltr. aff. (flowers purple) (B997) E. wercklei Schltr. (yellow bracts) (H4733) Encyclia abbreviate! (Schltr.) Dressier (H10659) E. brassavolae (Rchb. f.) Dressier (H8563) E. campylostalix (Rchb. f.) Schltr. (B808) E. ceratistes (Lindl.) Schltr. (A89-113) E. chacaoensis (Rchb. f.) Dressier & G. Pollard (H10660) E. cochleata (Lindl.) Lemee (H9890) E. fragrans (Sw.) Lemee (H7185) E. ionocentra (Rchb. f.) Mora-Retana & J. Garcia (H5779) E. livida (Lindl.) Dressier (A89-309) E. pseudopygmaea (Finet) Dressier & G. E. Pollard (H9087) E. pygmaea (Hook.) Dressier (H8700) E. vespa (Veil.) Dressier (H5546) Epidendrum anoglossum Schltr. (H9388) E. atwoodchlamys Hagsater (89-238) E. barbae Rchb. f., cf. (= E. polychlamys Schltr., aff.) (H10690) E. bilobatum Ames (H8001) E. candelabrum Hagsater (H7363) E. carolii Schltr. (previously included as synonym of E. laucheanum', occurs in the lower community) E. ciliare L. (H7842) E. congestoides Ames & C. Schweinf. (E. schlechterianum Ames and others) (A89-4) E. criniferum Rchb. f. (H6584) E. firmum Rchb. f. (H1608) E. flexicaule Schltr. (H8935) E. glumibracteum Rchb. f. (syn.: E. purpurascens Focke?) (H9877)

524

E. lacustre Lindl. (H5342) E. lankesteri Ames, cf. (H9136) E. laucheanum Rolfe ex Bonhof (H8693) E. miserrimum Rchb. f. (H5470) E. mora-retanae Hagsater (H7245) E. muscicola Schltr. (syn.: Epidanthus muscicola [Schltr.] L. O. Williams) (H8600) E. myodes Rchb. f. (H8514) E. oerstedii Rchb. f. (B2915) E. oxyglossum Schltr. E. palmense Ames (A89-46) E. parkinsonianum Hook. (H7017) E. peperomia Rchb. f. (syn.: E. porpax Rchb. f.) (H8909) E. phragmites L. O. Williams & A. H. Heller, cf. (11593) E. pseudoramosum Schltr. (A4054) E. radicans Pavon ex Lindl. (H1101) E. ramonianum Schltr. (H8593) E. ramosum Jacq. (A4101) E. raniferum Lindl. E. resectum Rchb. f. (H7249) E. rugosum Ames, aff. (H8814) E. sanchoi Ames (H8931) E. sanctiramoni Kraenzl. (Syn.: Epidanthus paranthicus [Rchb. f.] L. O. Williams, sensu lato] (H8933) E. santaclarense Ames, cf. (H7245) E. scriptum A. Rich. & Galeotti (H2083) E. selaginella Schltr. (A89-121) E. subnutans Ames & C. Schweinf. (A89-76) E. summerhayesii Hegsater (A88-76) E. trachythece Schltr. (A4102) E. turialvae Rchb. f. (H8327) E. vincentinum Lindl., cf. (B2042) E. wercklei Schltr. (syn.: Neowilliamsia wercklei [Schitr.] Dressier) (H9738) Erythrodes bimentata Dressier (H9577) E. calophylla (Rchb. f.) Ames (B367) E. killipii Ames (H11026) E. roseoalba Dressier (B5242) E. vaginata (Hook.) Ames (H9573) E. vesicifera (Rchb. f.) Ames (H6682) Eurystyles auriculata Schltr. (H5379) E. standleyi Ames (A89-79) Gongora amparoana Schltr. (B342) +Goniochilus leochilinus (Rchb. f.) M. W. Chase (H8834) Goodyera major Ames & Correll (H7535) Govenia liliacea (La Llave & Lex.) Lindl. (possibly this is actually two species) (H10076) Habenaria floribunda Lindl. (A89-6) H. monorrhiza (Sw.) Rchb. f. (A89-335) H. sp. (seen in open swamp at about 1700 m) Hexisea imbricata (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (H9423) Huntleya burtii (Endres & Rchb. f.) Pfitz. (H8428) L chiriquensis Schltr. (earlier determined as major Cham. & Schltdl., cf.) (A89-212) Isochilus linearis (Jacq.) R. Br., cf. (A89-310) Jacquiniella equitantifolia (Ames) Dressier (A4004) /. globosa (Jacq.) Schltr. (B1173) /. teretifolia (Sw.) Britton & Wilson (including /. teres [Rchb. f.] Hamer & Garay) (A4000) Lepanthes acostae Schltr. (A89-23a) L. ciliosepala Schltr. (1586) *L. comet-hallii Luer (A89-122a) L. confusa Ames & C. Schweinf. (11529)

Appendix 3


L. elata Rchb., cf. (A88-6) L. eximia Ames (A89-194) L. horrida Rchb. f. (A89-112) L. infundibulum Luer (A89-250) L. jimenezii Schltr. (A89-194) L. johnsonii Ames L. macalpinii Luer (A89-194a) L. mentosa Luer (A89-114) L. minutilabia Ames & C. Schweinf. (A245) L. monteverdensis Luer & Escobar (A89-115) L. pygmaea Luer (A89-185)

L. ramonensis Schltr.

L. standleyi Ames, cf. (H7781) L. turialvae Rchb. f., aff. (A89-158) Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. (A4010) +Lockhartia amoena Endres & Rchb. f. (syn.: L. dipleura Schltr.) (H8526) +L. hercodonta Rchb. f. ex Kraenzl. (H9552) +L. micrantha Rchb. f. (B880) +L. oerstedii Rchb. f. (H5705) Lycaste brevispatha (Klatt) lindl. (MSBG89-610) L. leucantha Lindl. (H7511) L. powellii Schltr. (H7155) +Macroclinium lineare (Ames & C. Schweinf.) Dodson (1819) +M. ramonense (Schltr.) Dodson (H5533) Malaxis brachyrrhynchos (Rchb. f.) Ames (H7257) M. hastilabia (Rchb. f.) Kuntze (vegetative and ecological differences suggest that there are at least 2, perhaps 3 species in this complex in Monteverde) (H10795) M. histionantha (Link, Klotzsch, & Otto) Garay & Dunsterville (A4114) M. monsviridis Dressier (H9315) M. simillima (Rchb. f.) Kuntze (H9314) Masdevallia calura Rchb. f. (A89-119) M. chasei Luer (H8942) M. chontalensis Rchb. f. (H9091) M. erinacea Rchb. f. (H10624) M. molossoides Kraenzl. (A4052) M. nidifica Rchb. f. (H10555) M. pygmaea Kraenzl. (Morales 4425) M. rolfeana Kraenzl. (H9063) M. schizopetala Kraenzl. (11543) M. striatella Rchb. f. (8942) M. zahlbruckneri Kraenzl. (B857) Maxillaria acervata Rchb. f. (Syn.: M. foliosa Ames & C. Schweinf.) (H8936) M. acutifolia Lindl. (H8468) M. adendrobium (Rchb. f.) Dressier (H8055) M. a7ba (Hook.) Lindl. (H9457) M. ampliflora C. Schweinf. (Dryer 1602) M. anceps Ames & C. Schweinf. (H3851) M. angustisegmenta Ames & C. Schweinf. (H8815) M. angustissima Ames, Hubbard, & C. Schweinf. (Boyle 89-79) M. appendiculoides C. Schweinf. (B460) M. attenuata Ames & C. Schweinf. (H6464) M. bicallosa (Rchb. f.) Garay (B1488) M. bracteata (Schltr.) Ames & Correll (H9033) M. bradeorum (Schltr.) L. O. Williams (syn.: M. semiorbicularis Ames & C. Schweinf.) (H5561) M. brunnea Linden & Rchb. f. (syn. M. brenesii Schltr.) (H9053) M. campanulata C. Schweinf. (A4085) M. chartacifolia Alues & C. Schweinf. (B1312)

525

M. confusa Ames & C. Schweinf. (B2634) M. costaricensis Schltr. (Boyle 89-60) M. crassifolia (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (A89-344) M. cryptobulbon Carnevali & J. T. Atwood (H6104) M. ctenostachya Rchb. f. (Mora 19) M. dendrobioides (Schltr.) L. O. Williams (H8937) M. dichotoma (Schltr.) L. O. Williams (H5713) M. diuturna Ames & C. Schweinf. (Boyle 89-86) M. endresii Rchb. f. (record needs to be confirmed) (H3987) M. exaltata Kraenzl. (H7869) M. flava Ames, Hubbard & C. Schweinf. (A89-818) M. fulgens (Rchb. f.) L. O. Williams (H9498) *M. naberi J. T. Atwood (Haber & Cruz 7474) (yellow-flowered) M. inaudita Rchb. f. (H9082) M. lankesteri Ames (close to M. wercklei [Schltr. 1 L. O. Williams but flowers twice as large) (H8701) M. linearifolia Ames & C. Schweinf. (1236) M. longiloba (Ames & C. Schweinf.) J. T. Atwood (M&A4083) M. lueri Dodson (B510) M. microphyton Schltr. (H8695) M. minor (Schltr.) L. O. Williams (H8602) M. monteverdensis J. T. Atwood & G. Barboza (previously misdetermined as M. biolleyi [Schltr.] L. O. Williams) (H10425) M. nasuta Rchb. f. (H7469) M. neglecta (Schltr.) L. O. Williams (H8697) M. nicaraguensis (Ames & Garay) J. T. Atwood (B614) M. pachyacron Schltr. (H8927) M. parvilabia Ames & C. Schweinf. (A89-32) M. pittieri (Ames) L. O. Williams (Penneys 88) M. ponerantha Rchb. f., aff. (M4041) M. pseudoneglecta J. T. Atwood (H7601) M. punctostriata Rchb. f. (M&A4006) M. ramonensis Schltr. (B1469) M. reichenheimiana Endres & Rchb. f. (H8698) M. ringens Rchb. f., cf. (H10230) M. sanguinea Rolfe (H6752) M. schlechteriana J. T. Atwood (H8945) M. sigmoidea (C. Schweinf.) Ames & Correll (H8827) M. tonduzii (Schltr.) Ames & Correll (H7541) M. trilobata Ames & C. Schweinf. (M4021) M. umbratilis L. O. Williams (H9084) M. uncata Lindl. (A89-174) M. valerioi Ames & C. Schweinf. (H8055) M. variabilis Bateman ex Lindl. (A89-27) M. wercklei (Schltr.) L. O. Williams (H8701) +Mesospinidium horichii I. Bock (M. endresii of various authors, but not (Kraenzl.) Garay ex H. R. Sweet; determination based on photo in R. Laval collection) +M. warscewiczii Rchb. f. (H7926) +Miltoniopsis warscewiczii (Rchb. f.) Garay & Dunst. (A4017) Myoxanthus schroederianum (Luer) Luer (Grayum 6652) Nidema boothii (Lindl.) Schltr. (H9389) Oerstedella centradenia Rchb. f. (H8913) O. centropetala (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f. (H6543) O. endresii (Rchb. f.) Hagsater (H9050) O. exasperata (Rchb. f.) Hagsater (H8813)

Appendix 3


O. pansamalae (Schltr.) Hagsater (H7650) O. wallisii (Rchb. f.) Hagsater (including O. pseudowalUsii (Schltr.) Hagsater) (H1482) +Oncidium ansiferum Rchb. f. (live plant at Selby) (SEL 1990-803) +O. bracteatum Warsz. & Rchb. f. (H9224) +O. bryolophotum Rchb. f. (previously as Oncidium heteranthum Poepp. & Endl.) (H8908) +O. cheirophorum Rchb. f. (H9021) +O. dichromaticum Rchb. f. (syn.: O. cabagrae Schltr.) (H4886) +O. globuliferum Kunth (H6872) O. klotschianum Rchb. f. (H9051) +O. luteum Rolfe (M&A4066) +O. obryzatoides Kraenzl. (H9223) +O. panduriforme Ames & C. Schweinf. (A88-22) +O. parviflorum L. O. Williams (H8413) +O. schroederianum (O'Brian) Garay & Stacy (H7577) Ornithocephalus cf. gladiatus Hook. (A89-323) +Osmoglossum egertonii (Lindl.) Schltr. +Otoglossum chiriquense (Rchb. f.) Garay & Dunst. (H8538) Palmorchis trilobulata L. O. Williams, cf. (H10547) Pescatorea cerina (Lindl. & Paxton) Rchb. f. (H11497) Phragmipedium longifolium (Warsz. & Rchb. f.) Rolfe (H7886) Platystele caudatisepala (C. Schweinf.) Garay P. lancilabris (Rchb. f.) Schltr. (A89-151) P. microtatantha (Schltr.) Garay (H9558) P. ovalifolia (Focke) Garay & Dunst. (H6496) P. oxyglossa (Schltr.) Garay (H7808) Pleurothallis abjecta Ames, aff. (Boyle 89-31) P. amparoana Schltr. (A89-126) P. bothros Luer (I1252-B) P. calyptrostele Schltr. (H6796) P. cardiothallis Rchb. f. (H7792) P. carpinteme Schltr. (H7799) P. cogniauxiana Schltr. (H4628) P. convallaria Schltr. (B383) P. costaricensis Rolfe (H9096) P. crescentilabia Ames (H8095) P. crocodiliceps Rchb. f. (syn.: P. arietina Ames) (H9098) P. cuspidata Luer (11341) P. dentipetala Rolfe ex Ames (H7700) P. deregularis (Barb. Rodr.) Luer (M4002) P. dolichopus Schltr. (A4114) P. eumecocaulon Schltr. (H8770) P. excavata Schltr. (H9031) P. floribunda Poepp. & Endl. (H7804) P. grandis Rolfe (H9083) P. homalantha Schltr. (including P. nemorum Schltr.) (H8816) P. immersa Linden & Rchb. f. (H8975) P. imraei Lindl. (B1736) P. janetiae Luer (B382) P. palliolata Ames (H8611) P. papillifera Rolfe (A89-132) P. phyllocardia Rchb. f. (B3405) P. pompalis Ames (A89-325) P. racemiflora Lindl. ex Lodd. (B4209) P. rowleei Ames (H8934) P. ruscifolia (Jacq.) R. Br. (H8805) P. saccata Ames (H3228)

526

P. sanchoi Ames (H8706) P. segoviensis Rchb. f. (there may be as many as four different entities in Monteverde lumped as P. segoviensis) (H9557) P. segregatifolia Ames & C. Schweinf. (H8606) P. sempergemmatus Luer (identified previously as P. uncinata (Fawc.) Luer) (A89-269) P. sicaria Lindl. (A89-169) P. simmleriana Rendle (A89-40) P. strumosa Ames (M&A4028) P. thymochila Luer (B181) P. tonduzii Schltr. (H7541) P. tribuloides (Sw.) Lindl. (H9883) P. tuerckheimii Schltr. (A4117) Polystachya foliosa (Hook.) Rchb. f. (H2934) P. masayensis Rchb. f., cf. (H10154) Ponthieva maculata Lindl., cf. (possibly-P. brenesii Schltr.) (H8219) P. mcemosa (Walter) C. Mohr (M&A4007) P. tuerckheimii Schltr. (M&AA4117) Prescottia cordifolia Rchb. f. (B1088) P. stachyodes (Sw.) Lindl., cf. (A4063) Psilochilus macrophyllus (Lindl.) Ames, cf. (A89-68) Restrepia subserrata Schltr. (H6678) Restrepiopsis ujarensis (Rchb. f.) Luer (A89-9) +Rossioglossum schlieperianum (Rchb. f.) Garay & G. C. Kenn. (A89-226) Sarcoglottis hunteriana (Rchb. f.) Schltr. (H10528) Scaphosepalum anchoriferum (Rchb. f.) Rolfe (B795) Scaphyglottis acostae (Schltr.) C. Schweinf. (A89-5) S. amparoana (Schltr.) Dressier (H3685) S. bifida (Rchb. f.) C. Schweinf. (A4059) S. densa (Schltr.) B. R. Adams (H7992) S. jimenezii Schltr. (H9047) S. lindeniana (A. Rich & Galeotti) L. O. Williams (this probably includes two different species) (H6691) S. mesocopis (Endres & Rchb. f.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Hemsl. (H6693) S. micrantha (Lindl.) Ames & Correll (H10657) S. prolifera Cogn. (H7855) S. pulchella (Schltr.) L. O. Williams (B1440) S. sessiliflora B. R. Adams (11709) +Sigmatostalix hymenantha Schltr. (B2079) +S. macrobulbon Kraenzl. (B878) S. picta Rchb. f., sensu lato (H6060) +S. racemifera L. O. Williams (Boyle 89-84) Sobralia amabilis (Rchb. f.) L. O. Williams (H7011) S. atropubescens Ames & C. Schweinf. S. bradeorum Schltr. (H6779) S. dissimilis Dressier (A89-343) S. helleri A. D. Hawkes (H7252) S. macro Schltr. (H8662) S. mucronata Ames & C. Schweinf. (H10152) S. powellii Schltr. (H9182) S. warscewiczii Rchb. f., cf. (A89-322) Solenocentrum costaricense Schltr. (H9574) Stanhopea wardii Lodd. ex Lindl. Stelis aprica Lindl., aff. (A89-354) S. argentata Lindl., cf. (H8414) S. crescentiicola Schltr., aff. (M4003)

Appendix 3


S. gracilis Ames (A4074) S. longipetiolata Ames, aff. (A4003) S. microchila Schltr. (A89-145) S. pardipes Rchb. f. (A89-203) S. parvula Lindl., cf. (A89-134) * Stellilabium barbozaej. T. Atwood (Atwood et al. 5051) *S. boylei J. T. Atwood (A89-28) *S. bullpenense J. T. Atwood (A89-100) *S. campbellorum J. T. Atwood (A89-101) *S. monteverdense J. T. Atwood (A89-99) Stenorrhynchos (Coccineorchis] bracteosum Ames & C. Schweinf. (H9743) S. (Coccineorchis) navarrense Ames (H4007) S. speciosum (Jacq.) Rich. (A4106) S. (Coccineorchis) standleyiAm.es (H11672) +Systelloglossum acuminatum Ames & C. Schweinf. (H10684) +S. costaricense Schltr. (H7100) Telipogon spp. (fide W. Haber and G. Barboza) Teuscheria sp. (B1443)

527

+ Ticoglossum krameri (Rchb. f.) Lucas Rodr. ex Halb. (B1645) Trevoria glumacea Garay (Atwood s.n.) + Trichopilia suavis Lindl. & Paxton (B1921) + T. turialbae Rchb. f. (B760) Trichosalpinx blaisdellii (S. Watson) Luer (H8824) T. cedralensis (Ames) Luer (H9027) T. foliata (Griseb.) Luer (A89-297) T. memor (Rchb. f.) Luer (H8824) T. rotundata (C. Schweinf.) Luer Trigonidium lankesteri Ames (H8085) Trisetella triaristella (Rchb. f.) Luer, cf. (H5474) Vanilla planifolia Andrews (H8471) Warrea costaricensis Schltr. (Ivey 230) Warreopsis parviflora (L. O. Williams) Garay (H4484) Xylobium elongatum (Lindl. & Paxton) Hemsl. (H9090) X. powellii Schltr. (A88-56) Zootrophion endresianum (Kraenzl.) Luer (H7351)

Appendix 3


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Appendix 4 Bromeliads of Monteverde Harry E. Luther

The following annotated list of 28 species of Bromeliaceae is based largely on the collections of S. Ingram and K. FerrellIngram from the preserve Triangle area deposited at the herbarium of the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens and the files maintained at the Mulford B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center. A total of 65 species have been found in the larger area of the Monteverde reserve (Appendix 1). The species are arranged first by subfamilies, then alphabetically by genus and species. Taxa proposed to be reclassified in the newly erected genera Racinaea and Werauhia are noted in parentheses.

Subfamily Bromelioideae Leaves mostly serrate-margined, ovary inferior, fruit a fleshy berry, seeds unappendaged. No taxa from this subfamily are known from the preserve Triangle; they are mostly from lower elevations in Costa Rica.

Subfamily Pitcairnioideae Leaves mostly serrate-margined, ovary mostly superior, fruit a dry capsule, seeds caudate or winged.

Pitcairnia atrorubens (Beer) Baker. Inflorescence dense and cylindrical; plant stemless, terrestrial or epiphytic. Pitcairnia brittoniana Mez. Inflorescence laxly secund-flowered; plant a hemiepiphytic vine.

Subfamily Tillandsioideae Leaves always entire, ovary superior, fruit a dry capsule, seeds plumose. Catopsis nitida (Hook.) Griseb. Completely green, tubular epiphytes. Guzmania angustifolia (Baker) Wittm. An epiphyte with an elongate, leafy stem, red bracts and yellow petals. G. compacta Mez. Red-striate, soft foliage with a capitate, yellow or red and yellow inflorescence. G. coriostachya (Griseb.) Mez. Inflorescence conelike, tan with nocturnal, cream flowers. G. nicaraguensis Mez & C. F. Baker ex Mez. Red-striate leaves and a short, cylindrical inflorescence of red bracts and yellow petals; the rosette is leafy and compact. G. plicatifolia L. B. Sm. The only Costa Rican Guzmania with conspicuously plicate leaf blades and a compound inflorescence; the inflorescence has red bracts and yellow flowers.


G. scandens H. Luther & W. J. Kress. This rhizomatous epiphyte can be distinguished by a combination of narrow plicate leaves and a simple inflorescence with purplish bracts and yellow-green flowers. G. stenostachya L. B. Sm. Usually a rather lax and untidy rosette of leaves; the inflorescence is slenderly cylindrical with red bracts and yellow petals. Tillandsia adpressa Andre var. tonduziana (Mez) L. B. Smith. A pseudobulbous canopy epiphyte with soft leaves and a drab, small-flowered, compound inflorescence (Racinaea schumanniana [Wittmack] J. R. Grant). T. excelsa Griseb. A variable rosette-forming epiphyte with soft, straplike green or reddish leaves and a showy, branched inflorescence of red bracts and lavenderpurple petals. T. insignis (Mez) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. A small, erect, caulescent epiphyte with a simple inflorescence of red bracts and very dark blue-violet petals. Clusters of sterile plants may not be recognized as a bromeliad, appearing more like a gigantic moss. T. punctulata Schltdl. & Chamisso. A bulbous rosette with green leaf blades and nearly black leaf sheaths; the inflorescence is simple or compound with red and green bracts and violet petals tipped with white. Vriesea bracteosa (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. The green, capitate inflorescence with two-flowered, nearly aborted branches is similar to other members of the "Thecophylloid" complex of Vriesea (Utley 1983). The leaves are usually erect and unmarked. (With the exception of V. incurva, the following members of the genus Vriesa have earlier been classified in the genus Werauhia [J. R. Grant}.) V. capitata (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. Very similar to V. bracteosa but leaves are usually narrower and somewhat silver beneath. V. comata (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. This spe-

530

cies is very similar to V. bracteosa, but usually somewhat smaller and more compact. V. graminifolia Mez & Werckle. Usually densely clustering with narrow triangular leaf blades and a short secundflowered inflorescence. V. hygrometrica (Andre) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. Another "Thecophylloid" but with colorfully tesselated leaf blades. V. incurva (Griseb.) Read. A gray or silver, pseudobulbous canopy epiphyte with a pendent inflorescence of pink bracts and yellow-green petals. V. notata L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. A rather small 'Thecophylloid" usually with reddish suffused or tesselated leaf blades. To accurately determine any of these related Vrieseas species, one should refer to Utley (1983). V. pedicellata (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. Leaves often suffused with red, and the lateral branches may have up to five flowers instead of the usual two of most "Thecophylloids." V. stenophylla (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. This "Thecophylloid" is usually somewhat caulescent (Werauhia stenophylla [Mez & Werckle] J. R. Grant). V. tonduziana L. B. Sm. From a rosette of spreading, dark green leaves is produced a stout, swordlike inflorescence; the nocturnal flowers are exerted from the underside of the bracts. V. umbrosa L. B. Sm. Similar to V. pedicellata but usually with plain green leaves and a denser cylindrical inflorescence. V. viridiflora (Regel) Wittm. ex Mez. Rather like a smaller, more delicate version of V. tonduziana} the scape is relatively much longer. V. vittata (Mez & Werckle) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr. The brownbanded leaf blades and the simple, few-flowered inflorescence distinguish this species. V. werckleana Mez. The largest epiphyte in the preserve, with a rosette of dark green leaves to over 1 m in diameter; the compound inflorescence produces pale green, nocturnal flowers visited by bats.

Appendix 4


Appendix 5 Host Plants of Selected Cercopoidea from Monteverde Daniel C. Peck

Plant determinations were made by William A. Haber.

Species Clastopteridae Clastoptera sp.

Nymph

Adult

X X

Aphrophoridae Cephisus siccifolius

X

X

X

X

X

Cercopidae Mahanarva costaricensi

X

X X

Iphirhina quota

X

X X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

Prosapia sp. near bicincta

X X X X

X

X

X X X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

Host Family

Host Species

Rubiaceae Verbenaceae

Spermacoce assurgens Verbena litoralis

Euphorbiaceae Rutaceae Solanaceae

Croton sp. Zanthoxylum insulare Acnistus arborescens

Heliconiaceae Marantaceae Acanthaceae Boraginaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae Aquifoliaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae

Heliconia tortuosa Calathea sp. Justicia oerstedii Bourreria costaricensis Piper amalago Piper auritum Piper sp. Pothomorphe umbellata Ilex haberi Kyllinga brevifolia Kyllinga sp. Cynodon nlemfuensis Digitaria abyssinica Ichnathus nemorosus Lasiacis sp. Paspalum conjugation Pennisetum clandestinum Pennisetum purpureum Sporobolus spp.


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Appendix 6 Preliminary List of Psylloidea Known from Costa Rican Cloud Forests (1200-2000 m). David Hollis

Species Carsidaridae Paracarsidara sp. Homotomidae Syn oza corn u tiven tris Synoza (2 spp.) Phacopteronidae Pseudophacopteron sp. Calophyidae *Calophya monticola *Calophya (4 spp.) Mastigimas schwarzi Psyllidae: Togepsyllinae Syncoptozus bifurcatus Psyllidae: Aphalarinae Burckhardtia montana *Gyropsylla clypeata *Gyropsylla (2 spp.) * Neaphalara fortunae Genus and species unknown Psyllidae: Paurocephalinae Haplaphalara (6 spp.) Paurocephala (2 spp.) Psyllidae: Euphalerinae *Euphalerus certus Euphalerus (2 spp.)

Host Species Quararibea sp. (Bombacaceae) Ficus hartwegii (Moraceae) Ficus mcbrideii Ficus tuerckheimii Unknown Mauria heterophylla (Anacardiaceae) Loranthaceae and Rutaceae Cedrela tonduzii (Meliaceae) Unknown Unknown Ilex lamprophyla (Aquifoliaceae) Aquifoliaceae Araliaceae Nectandm membmnacea (Lauraceae) Melastomataceae, also Clusiaceae Roupala montana (Proteaceae) Lonchocarpus atropurpureus (Leguminosae) Gaiadendron punctatum (Loranthaceae) Oryctanthes spicatus (Loranthaceae)


Host Species

Species Psyllidae: Diaphorininae Caradocia delongi Caradocia sp. * Katacephala (4 spp.) Tuthillia latipennis Tuthillia sp. Psyllidae: Ciriacreminae Auchmerina hirsute. Euceropsylla breviforceps Euceropsylla martorelli Euceropsylla stylicauda Euceropsylla rotundiforceps Euceropsylla russoi Euceropsylla orizabensis Euceropsylla torus Euceropsylla (8 spp.) Limbopsylla nigrivenis Limbopsylla sp. Manapa tumida Manapa sp. Mitrapsylla (2 spp.) Platycorypha princeps Triozidae Hemitrioza (2 spp.) Izpania acona Izpania sp. Leuronota inusitata Leuronota (3 spp.) Leuronota flexinota * Leuronota flavipennis Leuronota tumida * Leuronota forcipata *Leuronota robusta *Leuronota (2 spp.) Leuronota longigena *Leuronota (5 spp.)

Tapirira brenesii (Anacardiaceae) Billia hippocastanum (Hippocastanaceae) Eugenia spp., Calyptranthes pittierii and other Myrtaceae Myrcianthes fragrans (Myrtaceae) Unknown Inga Inga Inga Inga Inga

skutchii, I. paterno (Leguminosae) spp. oerstediana oerstediana oerstediana

Inga skutchii Cojoba sophorocarpum (Leguminosae) Cojoba costaricensis Leguminosae: Mimosoideae Guatteria tonduzii (Annonaceae) Guatteria oliviformis Inga sp. Unknown Leguminosae Myroxylon balsamum (Leguminosae) Unknown Citharexylum donnell-smithii (Verbenaceae) Unknown Clusia spp. (Clusiaceae) Clusia spp. Unknown Weinmannia pinnata (Cunoniaceae) Weinmannia pinnata, W. wercklei Alfaroa costaricense (Juglandaceae) Alfaroa costaricense Oreamunnea mexicana (Juglandaceae) Unknown Sapium oligneuron (Euphorbiaceae), Zanthoxylum insulare (Rutaceae) Sapium oligoneurum (Euphorbiaceae) Myrcianthes fragrans (Myrtaceae) Calyptranthes pittierii (Myrtaceae) Unknown Lauraceae Pseudolmedia sp. (Moraceae) Unknown Nectandra membrancea (Lauraceae) Unknown Quercus costaricensis (Fagaceae) Dendropanax sp. (Araliaceae) Pentacalia andicola (Compositae) Arctostaphylos arbutoides (Ericaceae) Diospyros digyna (Ebenaceae) Cinnamomum hammelianum (Lauraceae) Nectandra salicina (Lauraceae) Myrtaceae Solanum storkii (Solanaceae) Pseudobaccharis trinervis (Compositae) Lauraceae, Clethraceae, Clusiaceae, Ebenaceae, Styracaceae, Loranthaceae, Moraceae, Juglandaceae, Betulaceae, Cunoniaceae Myrtaceae

*Neolithus sp. Rhegmoza tinctoria Rhegmoza sp. Rhinopsylla antennata Schedoneolithus sp. *Trichochermes magna Trichochermes sp. Trioza arribensis Trioza dentata Trioza longigenae * Trioza nomei Trioza panamensis Trioza psyllihabitus Trioza sp. * Trioza sp. * Trioza sp. Trioza sp. Trioza sp. Trioza (2 spp.) * Trioza (20 spp.) Triozoida ingens * = species known to induce gall formation.

534

Appendix 6


Appendix? Eusocial Wasps (Hymenoptem: Vespidae: Polistinae) Collected from Monteverde Sean O'Donnell

Taxon Polistini Polistes aterrimus P. instabilis Mischocyttarini Mischocyttarus atrocyaneus M. basimacula M. labiatus M. mastigophorus M. mixtus M. pallidipectus Epiponini Agelaia areata A. panamensis A. xanthopus A. yepocapa Epipona niger Polybia aequatorialis P. diguetana P. raui P. rejecta P. simillima. Synoeca septentrionalis

Elevational Distribution (m) Above 1540 Elevational migrant (does not nest in Monteverde) Up to 1350 Up to 1400 Up to 1500 Above 1450 1400-1500 1350-1540 Up to 1400 Up to 1500 1400-1550 1300-1450 Up to 1540 1300-1700 Up to 1450 1480-1700 Up to 1400 1100 Up to 1350


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Appendix 8 Amphibians and Reptiles of Monteverde J. Alan Pounds M. P. Fogden

Scientific Namea

Common Name

Distribution1^

Habitat Stratum0

CLASS AMPHIBIA Order Gymnophiona Family Caeciliidae Demophis mexicanus Gymnopis multiphcata Order Caudata Family Plethodontidaed Bohtoglossa robusta Bohtoglossa "subpalmata"6 Nototnton picadoi (1) Oedipma poelzi O umformiss Order Anura Family Bufonidae Atelopus vanus Bufo coccifer B comferus B haematiticus B mannus B melanochlons B penglenes Family Centrolenidae Centrolenella prosoblepon Cochranella euknemos (2) C granulosa (2)

Gray Caecihan Purple Caecihan Ring-tailed Salamander Monteverde Salamander Moss Salamander Poelz's Worm Salamander Highland Worm Salamander

S S

56

123 2 3 45 6 34 4 4 2 34

E E E E E

Harlequin Frog Dry Forest Toad Green Climbing Toad Leaf Litter Toad Giant Toad Foothill Stream Toad Golden Toad

1234 5 6 123 2 3 45 6 6 123 6 4

E

Emerald Glass Frog Cascade Glass Frog Granular Glass Frog

1234 5 6 1 6 1

T C

C S,T S,T M

A M

T T C T T T S

M M

C C C

M E


Scientific Namea

Distribution13

Common Name

Habitat Stratum0

CLASS AMPHIBIA Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (2) H. fleischmanni (2) H. valerioi (2) H. vireovittatum (2) Family Hylidae Agalychnis annae A. callidryas Anotheca spinosa Hyla angustillineata H. fimbrimembra H. loquax H. miliaria H. pseudopuma H. rivularis H. ruficoculis H. tica H. uranochroa Phyllomedusa lemur Smilisca. phaeota S. sordida Family Leptodactylidae Eleutherodactylus altae E. andi E. angelicus E. biporcatus E. bransfordii E. caryophyllaceus E. cerasinush E. crassidigitus E. cruentus E. cuaquero E. diastema E. fitzingeri E. hylaeformis E. melanostictus E. podiciferus E. ridens E. rugulosus E. underwoodih Leptodactylus pentadactylus Family Microhylidae Hypopachus variolosus Nelsonophryne aterimma Family Ranidae Rana /orreri1 R. vibicaria R. warszewitschii

Bare-hearted Glass Frog Fleischmann's Glass Frog Reticulated Glass Frog Green-striped Glass Frog

234

A

1234 56 56

Golden-eyed Leaf Frog Red-eyed Leaf Frog Crowned Frog Pin-striped Treefrog Highland Fringe-limbed Treefrog Orange-and-Yellow Swamp Frog Giant Fringe-limbed Treefrog Meadow Treefrog Mountain Stream Frog Rufous-eyed Stream Frog Lichen Stream Frog Red-eyed Stream Frog Lemur Frog Masked Treefrog Drab River Frog

6 6 23456 2345 1256 234 2345 3456 56 1 6

Coral-spotted Rain Frog Salmon-bellied Rain Frog Tilaran Rain Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog Bransford's Litter Frog Leaf-breeding Rain Frog Clay-colored Rain Frog Spot-shouldered Rain Frog Golden-groined Rain Frog Monteverde Rain Frog Common Dink Frog Fitzinger's Rain Frog Montane Dink Frog Quark Frog Piglet Litter Frog Pygmy Rain Frog Middle American Stream Frog Underwood's Litter Frog Smoky Jungle Frog

56 456 123456 6 123456 6 6 123456 3456 4 123456 2 3 56 345 345 12345 456 6 12345 6

Sheep Frog Black Narrow-mouthed Toad

123

Forrer's Leopard Frog Green-eyed Frog Spot-thighed Frog

12

2345

E

5 34 4

C C C

E

6 E E

E E E E E

M M M M

C C C C C C

M

C C C C C C C C C

M M M

E E

M M A M M

E

E E E

M E

E

123

E

C C T T T C C C C C C C C C T C T T T

A

S S

M M A

T T T

56

34 123456

C

CLASS REPTILIA Order Squamata, Suborder Sauria Family Anguidae Celestus cynaochloris C. hylaiush Diploglossus bilobatus Family Corytophanidae Basiliscus plumifrons B. basiliscus Corytophanes cristatus Family Gekkonidae Phyllodactylus tuberculosush

Green-bellied Caiman Lizard Rain Forest Caiman Lizard Galliwasp

12

Emerald Basilisk Common Basilisk Casque-headed Lizard

1

Tuberculate Leaf-toed Gecko

1

538

Appendix 8

6 56 6 6

C C T C C C C


Scientific Namea

Distribution13

Common Name

Habitat Strati

CLASS REPTILIA Family Gymnothalmidae Anadia ocellata Family Iguanidae Ctenosaura similis Family Phrynosomatidae Sceloporus malachiticus Family Polychrotidae Dactyloa insignis (3) Norops altae (3) N. biporcatus (3) N. capita (3) N. cupreus (3) N. humilis (3) N. intermedius N. lemurinus (3)h N. limifrons (3) N. oxylophus (3) N. sericeus (3) N. tropidolepis (3) N. woodi (3) Polychrus gutturosus Family Scincidae Mabuya unimarginata Sph en om orph us ch erriei Family Teiidae Ameiva festiva A. undulata Family Xantusiidae Lepidophyma flavimaculatum Suborder Serpentes Family Boidae Boa constrictor Family Colubridae Amastridium veliferum Chironius exoletus C. grandisquamis Clelia clelia C. scytalina Coluber mentovarius (4) Coniophanes fissidens C. piceivittis Den drophidion nuch alis D. paucicarinatum D. percarinatum D. vinitor Drymarchon corais Drymobius margaritiferus D. melanotropis Elaphe triaspis (5) Enulius sclateri Erythrolamprus bizonus E. mimush Geophis brachycephalus G. godmani G. hoffmani G. ruthveni Hydromorphus concolor Imantodes cenchoa I. gemmistratus I. inornatus Lampropeltis triangulum Leptodeira septentrionalis

Bromeliad Lizard

C

6

Ctenosaur

1

C

Green Spiny Lizard

123

C

Giant Banded Anole Montane Anole Green Tree Anole Short-snouted Anole Dry Forest Anole Ground Anole Gray Lichen Anole Red-throated Trunk Anole Slender Forest Anole Stream Anole Indigo-throated Anole Cloud Forest Anole Blue-eyed Anole Green Canopy Lizard

2 3 4 56 E

34 1 2

56 6

1 1234 5 6 23 6 2 56 12 56 12 234 1234 5 6

Bronze-backed Climbing Skink Cherrie's Litter Skink

123 23

Central American Whiptail Barred Whiptail

12

Tropical Night Lizard

E E

C C C C C C C C C C C C

C C C T

56 56

T T

6

T

Boa Constrictor

12

C

Ridge-nosed Snake Green Keelback Ebony Keelback Mussurana Montane Mussurana Dry Forest Racer Glossy Litter Snake Twin-striped Litter Snake Pink-tailed Forest Racer Cloud Forest Racer Brown Forest Racer Banded Green Racer Black-tailed Cribo Speckled Racer Green Frog-eater Olivaceaous Rat Snake Collared Snake Double-ringed False Coral Split-ringed False Coral Gray Earth Snake Yellow-bellied Earth Snake Hoffman's Earth Snake Ruthven's Earth Snake Tropical Seep Snake Blunt-headed Tree Snake Many-banded Tree Snake Peppered Tree Snake Tropical Kingsnake Cat-eyed Snake

6 1234 5 12 56 6 34 5 1 1 6 12 1 2 3 4 56 1 6 123 123 6 123 56 123 6 2 3 4 56 34 2 6 1 6 1234 5 6 1 3 56 234 2 6

T C C T T T T T T C C C T T T C T T T S E S S S C C C T C

539

Appendix 8

E


Scientific Namea

Distribution13

Common Name

Habitat Stratum0

CLASS REPTILIA Leptodrymus pulcherrimus Leptophis ahaetulla L. mexicanus L. nebulosus Liophis epinephalus Mastigodryas melanolomus Ninia maculata N. psephota Oxybelis aeneus O. brevirostris O. fulgidus Pseustes poecilonotus Rhadinaea calligaster R. decorata R. serperaster Scaphiodontophis annulatus (6) Scolecophis atrocinctus Sibon annulatus S. dimidiatus S. longifrenis Spilotes pullatus Stenorrhina freminvillii Tantilla armillata T. ruficeps (7) T. schistosa T. supracincta (8) T. reticulate^ Trimetopon gracile T. pliolepis T. simile T. slevini Urotheca decipiens (9) U. euryzona (10) U. guentheri (9) Xenodon rhabdocephalus Family Elapidae Micrurus alleni M. nigrocinctus Family Typhlopidae Typhlops costaricensis Family Viperidae Bothrops asper Bothriechis lateralis B. nigroviridis B. schegelii

\ l

Green-headed Racer Green Parrot Snake Mexican Parrot Snake Bronze-striped Parrot Snake Fire-bellied Snake Salmon-bellied Racer Spotted Wood Snake Upland Wood Snake Brown Vine Snake Short-snouted Vine Snake Green Vine Snake Bird-eating Snake Green Litter Snake Pink-bellied Litter Snake Striped Litter Snake Skink-eater Harlequin Snake Caribbean Banded Snail-eater Pacific Banded Snail-eater Licheny Snail-eater Mica Scorpion-eater Striped Crowned Snake Orange-bellied Crowned Snake Red-tailed Crowned Snake Tricolored Crowned Snake Reticulate Crowned Snake Slender Dwarf Snake Faded Dwarf Snake White-bellied Dwarf Snake Slevin's Dwarf Snake Long-tailed Litter Snake Halloween Snake Orange-bellied Litter Snake False Fer-de-lance

12 234 6 123 456 123 6 2 34 12 6 123 456 6 3 45 6 2 3 456 6 12 23 56 23 4 6 2 12 12 123 2 6 6 6 23 1 234 4 2 345 2 6 2 3 45 12

Allen's Coral Snake Central American Coral Snake

123

T T

2 3

S

Costa Rican Blind Snake Terciopelo Green Palm Viper Green-and-black Palm Viper Eyelash Viper

E

E E

E E E

6

1 56 123 456 23 4 6 12

E E

T C C C T T T T C C C C T T T T C C C C C T T T T T T T T T T T T T T

T C C C

a Species with numbered superscripts are listed in previous checklists under the following names: 1, Chiroptriton picador, 2, Centrolenella; 3, Anolis; 4, Masticophis; 5, Senticolis; 6, Scaphiodontophis venustissimus; 7, Tantilla melanocephala; 8, Tantilla annulata; 9, Rhadinaea; 10, Pilocercus. b Numbers correspond to altitudinal zones: (1) Pacific slope (690-1300 m); (2) Pacific slope (1300-1450 m); (3) upper Pacific slope to the vicinity of the Continental Divide (1450-1600 m); (4) Continental Divide, including the highest peaks (to about 1850 m), down to 1450 m on the upper Caribbean slope; (5) Caribbean slope (950-1450 m); (6) Caribbean slope (600-950 m). Underlining of a zone number indicates that a species was rare in that zone (or there were no recent records) prior to the declines (see sec. 5.1.1,p. 151). E = endemic species = restricted to the uplands of Costa Rica and western Panama (west of the Canal Zone). Scorings are conservative (underestimating the number of endemics) inasmuch as further study may show extralimital populations of some upland forms to be separate species (e.g., Phyllomedusa lemur in eastern Panama; J. Savage, pers. comm). For these scorings I have relied on numerous works (Myers and Rand 1969, Savage and Heyer 1969, Duellman 1970, 1990, Savage 1972, 1975, Starrett and Savage 1973, Wake and Lynch 1976, Savage and Talbot 1978, Lynch 1979, Scott et al., 1983, Peters et al. 1986, Savage and Villa 1986, Wake 1987, Villa et al. 1988, Campbell and Lamar 1989, Donnelly 1994, Guyer 1994). Presence-absence patterns are given for anurans only (for the study area of Pounds et al. 1997; see text). A = absent in 1990 but reappeared in 1991-94; M = missing throughout 1990-94. C S = subterranean; T = terrestrial; and C = climbing on aboveground vegetation (i.e., semiarboreal or arboreal). d All tropical salamanders are bolitoglossine plethodontids (supergenus Bolitoglossa; Wake 1987). e Bolitoglossa "subpalmata" is probably a separate species from the nominal form (D. Wake, pers. comm.). Currently being described as a new species of Nototriton by D. Wake. %Oedipina uniformis is a separate species from the lowland forms of O. "uniformis" such as that listed for La Selva by Donnelly (1994). h New (not included on previous checklists). iThis is the only species that has reappeared in the study area of Pounds et al. since 1990-94. It reappeared in 1997.

540

Appendix 8


Appendix 9 Birds of the Monteverde Area M. P. Fogden

Modified from Fogden (1993) to conform to American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) order and nomenclature (through the 7th ed., AOU 1998) and to reflect the six Holdridge Life Zones in the Monteverde region (see Table 3.1, Fig. 1.4). Lite Zone0

Scientific Namea

Common Name

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn L Mntn Prmtn Moist Wet Wet Rain Rain

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

Tinamidae (tinamous) Tinamus major Nothocercus bonapartei Crypturellus soui

Great Tinamou Highland Tinamou Little Tinamou

Podicipedidae (grebes] Tachybaptus dominicus Podilymbus podiceps

Least Grebe Pied-billed Grebe

F

F

*

F

c

U U

c

U

Phalacrocoracidae (cormorants) Phalacrocorax brasilianus

Neotropic Cormorant

R

U

Anhigidae (darters) Anhinga anhinga Fregatidae

Anhinga

R

(frigatebirds)

Fregata magnificens

Magnificent Frigatebird

*

*

*


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea

Common name

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn LMntn LMntn Prmtn Rain Rain Wet Wet Moist

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

Ardeidae (herons and allies] Tigrisoma fasciatum Ardea herodias(l) Ardea alba(l) Egretta caerulea (I) Bubulcus ibis Butorides virescens Nycticorax nycticorax

Fasciated Tiger-Heron Great Blue Heron Great Egret Little Blue Heron Cattle Egret Green Heron Black-crowned Night-Heron

U

C

C

R * ? R

U

? R U R C U U

Ciconiidae (storks] Mycteria americana

Wood Stork

*

*

U

U F R

Cathartidae (New World vultures) Coragyps atratus Cathartes aura(l) Sarcoramphus papa

Black Vulture Turkey Vulture King Vulture

C C

C C

U F *

R U

R F

R C

R

R

*

R

R

R R R U

R R R F

R R R

R

F R

F U

* R R

R R

U U

U U

F R

F R

F R

F R

R

R

F

R F

F

C C R

Accipitridae (kites, hawks, and eagles] Pandion haliaetus(l] Chondrohierax uncinatus Elanoides forficatus(l, e) Elanus leucurus Harpagus bidentatus Ictinia plumbea(\] Circus cyaneus Accipiter superciliosus Accipiter striatus(l) Accipiter cooperii(l] Accipiter bicolor Leucopternis princeps(e] Leucopternis albicollis Asturina nitida Buteogallus anthracinus Buteogallus urubitinga Harpyhaliaetus solitarius Buteo platypterus(\) Buteo brachyurus(l] Buteo swainsoni(l] Buteo albicaudatus Buteo albonotatus Buteo jamaicensis Spizaetus tyrannus(e] Spizaetus ornatus

Osprey Hook-billed Kite Swallow-tailed Kite White-tailed Kite Double-toothed Kite Plumbeous Kite Northern Harrier Tiny Hawk Sharp-shinned Hawk Cooper's Hawk Bicolored Hawk Barred Hawk White Hawk Gray Hawk Common Black-Hawk Great Black-Hawk Solitary Eagle Broad-winged Hawk Short-tailed Hawk Swainson's Hawk White-tailed Hawk Zone-tailed Hawk Red-tailed Hawk Black Hawk-Eagle Ornate Hawk-Eagle

*

? R

F R

U R

F R

F R

U

R R

C

R C * F * * U U R R F F R U R F F R *

R R C F * U U R F F U ? U F F R

*

Falconidae {falcons] Micrastur ruficollis Micrastur semitorquatus Herpetotheres cachinnans Falco sparverius(l) Falco rufigularis Falco peregrin us (1)

Barred Forest-Falcon Collared Forest-Falcon Laughing Falcon American Kestrel Bat Falcon Perigrine Falcon

542

U ? U U U

Appendix 9

F R R R U *


Life Zoneb

Scientific Name8

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn L Mntn Prmtn Moist Wet Wet Rain Rain

Common name

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

Cracidae (curassows and guans) Ortalis cinereiceps Penelope purpurascens Chamaepetes unicolor Crax rubra

Gray-headed Chachalaca Crested Guan Black Guan Great Curassow

U

Crested Bob white Black-breasted Wood-Quail Tawny-faced Quail

F

R

U F

F

F

F F

F

F

F

F R

F

C U U ?

R

Odontophoridae (New World quail] Colinus cri status Odontophorus leucolaemus Rhynchortyx cinctus

R

F

Rallidae (rails and gallinules] Laterallus albigularis Laterallus exilis Aramides cajanea Amaurolimnas concolor Porzana Carolina (1) Porphyrula martinica Gallinula chloropus

White-throated Crake Gray-breasted Crake Gray-necked Wood-Rail Uniform Crake Sora Purple Gallinule Common Moorhen

R

* *

U R

Eurypygidae (sunbitterns] Eurypyga helias

Sunbittern

U

R

R

R

U

U

Jacanidae (jacanas) Jacana spinosa

Northern Jacana

U

Scolopacidae (sandpipers and allies] Tringa solitaria (1) Actitis macularia(l) Bartramia longicauda(l] Numenius phaeopus(l]

Solitary Sandpiper Spotted Sandpiper Upland Sandpiper Whimbrel

R U

R F

*

R F

Laridae (terns] Sterna fuscata(l)

*

Sooty Tern

Columbidae (pigeons and doves] Columba flavirostris Columba fasciata (e) Columba subvinacea(e] Columba nigrirostris(e] Columbina inca Columbina passerina Leptotila verreauxi Leptotila cassini Geotrygon chiriquensis Geotrygon lawrencii Geotrygon costaricensis

Red-billed Pigeon Band-tailed Pigeon Ruddy Pigeon Short-billed Pigeon Inca Dove Common Ground-Dove White-tipped Dove Gray-chested Dove Chiriqui Quail-Dove Purplish-backed Quail-Dove Buff-fronted Quail-Dove

543

C U

C C F

U U C

C

F

F

Appendix 9

C C

C C

R U

F

F C C F

C ?

R R U U

F

F

U


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea

Common name

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn L Mntn Prmtn Wet Moist Wet Rain Rain

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

R

F

C

R

?

U C

C U C F

Psittacidae (parakeets, macaws, and parrots] Aratinga finschi Aratinga canicularis Am ambigua(e] Bolborhynchus lineola(e] Brotogeris jugularis Touit costaricensis(e] Pionopsitta haematotis Pionus senilis(e] Amazona albifrons Amazona autumnalis

Crimson-fronted Parakeet Orange-fronted Parakeet Great Green Macaw Barred Parakeet Orange-chinned Parakeet Red-fronted Parrotlet Brown-hooded Parrot White-crowned Parrot White-fronted Parrot Red-lored Parrot

R C C

R R

R

R

R

R

U C

U C

R

R

F

F

C ?

F R

F

Cuculidae (cuckoos and anis] Coccyzus erythropthalm us (I) Coccyzus americanus(l) Coccyzus minor [\] Piaya cay ana Morococcyx erythropygus Crotophaga sulcirostris

Black-billed Cuckoo Yellow-billed Cuckoo Mangrove Cuckoo Squirrel Cuckoo Lesser Ground-Cuckoo Groove-billed Ani

F F C

Barn Owl

U

Tropical Screech Owl Bare-shanked Screech-Owl Crested Owl Spectacled Owl Central American Pygmy-Owl Mottled Owl

?

R

U

? U

U

F

F

F

R * F R C

R

R

R

F

F

F

R

C

Tytonidae (barn owls] Tyto alba Strigidae (typical owls] Otus choliba Otus clarkii Lophostrix cristata Pulsatrix perspicillata Glaucidium griseiceps Ciccaba virgata

F

F

F

F U

U

F

F

F ?

U R F R

U ? C ?

?

? F ? U C

Caprimulgidae (goatsuckers] Lurocalis semitorquatus Chordeiles minor (I) Nyctidromus albicollis Caprimulgus carolinensis(l] Caprimulgus saturatus

Short-tailed Nighthawk Common Nighthawk Common Pauraque Chuck- will's-widow Dusky Nightjar

C ?

C R U

Apodidae (swifts] Cypseloides niger(l] Cypseloides cryptus Cypseloides cherriei Streptoprocne rutila Streptoprocne zonaris Chaetura pelagica (I) Chaetura vauxi Chaetura cinereiventris Panyptila cayennensis

Black Swift White-chinned Swift Spot-fronted Swift Chestnut-collared Swift White-collared Swift Chimney Swift Vaux's Swift Gray-rumped Swift Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift

R

R

?

?

F R U C

U C

R C

C

C

C

R C

U C

R

C

C R

C U U

Trochilidae (hummingbirds] Threnetes ruckeri Phaethornis guy(e]

Band-tailed Barbthroat Green Hermit

544

R F

Appendix 9

C

C

C

F C


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea Phaethornis longuemareus Eutoxeres aquila(e) Doryfera ludovicae(e) Campylopterus hemileucurus(e) Florisuga mellivora(e) Colibri delphinae(e) Colibri thalassinus(e) Anthracothorax prevostii(e) Klais guimeti

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn L Mntn Prmtn Wet Wet Rain Rain Moist

Common name Little Hermit White-tipped Sicklebill Green-fronted Lancebill Violet Sabrewing

Elvira cupreiceps(e) Microchera albocoronata(e) Lampornis hemileucus

White-necked Jacobin Brown Violetear Green Violetear Green-breasted Mango Violet-headed Hummingbird Black-crested Coquette Green Thorntail Canivet's Emerald Violet-crowned Woodnymph Fiery-throated Hummingbird Blue-throated Goldentail Steely-vented Hummingbird Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Stripe-tailed Hummingbird Coppery-headed Emerald Snowcap White-bellied Mountain-

Lampornis calolaema

Purple-throated Mountain-

Lophornis helenae Discosura conversii Chlorostilbon canivetii Thalurania colombica(e) Panterpe insignis(e) Hylocharis eliciae(e) Amazilia saucerrottei Amazilia tzacatl Eupherusa eximia(e)

?

R

R

C

U C

R C

U C

*

U C

*

C

C

C

* * R

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

C U U U

C F U R

U F R * C

U F

U U R C

U U

U F

U U

F

F

C

C

F

U C

U C

F

F

U

F

C

C

C

F

F

C

C R F

C ?

F

C

C

F

C

C

C F

R

gem gem

Heliodoxa jacula Heliothryx barroti Heliomaster constant!! Calliphlox bryantae Archilochus colubris(l) Selasphorus scintilla (e)

Green-crowned Brilliant Purple-crowned Fairy Plain-capped Starthroat Magenta-throated Woodstar Ruby- throated Hummingbird Scintillant Hummingbird

U U

U F

C

U

R

U F

R

F

R

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

F

R

Trogonidae (trogons) Trogon violaceus Trogon aurantiiventris Trogon massena Trogon clathratus Pharomachrus mocinno(e)

Violaceous Trogon Orange-bellied Trogon Slaty-tailed Trogon Lattice-tailed Trogon Resplendent Quetzal

U C F F R

F C C R ?

C R F

F R C

R

U U F

Momotidae (motmots) Momotus momota Baryphthengus martii Electron carinatum Electron platyrhynchum

Blue-crowned Motmot Rufous Motmot Keel-billed Motmot Broad-billed Motmot

F

?

Alcedinidae (kingfishers) Ceryle torquata Chloroceryle amazona Chloroceryle americana

Ringed Kingfisher Amazon Kingfisher Green Kingfisher

545

*

Appendix 9


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea Bucconidae

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn LMntn Prmtn Wet Wet Rain Rain Moist

Common name

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

(puffbirds)

Micromonacha lanceolate. Monasa morphoeus

Lanceolated Monklet White-fronted Nunbird

R

U U

C

C

Galbulidae (jacamars) Galbula ruficauda

Rufous-tailed Jacamar

*

Red-headed Barbet Prong-billed Barbet Emerald Toucanet Collared Aracari Yellow-eared Toucanet Keel-billed Toucan

R C

Ramphastidae (New World barbets and toucans] Eubucco bourcierii(e) Semnornis frantzii(Q] Aulacorhynchus prasinus(e] Pteroglossus torquatus Selenidera spectabilis(e] Ramphastos sulfuratus

C *

C

F

C

C

C

C *

C C

R

F F C ? F R

u

C ? C

Picidae (woodpeckers and allies) Melanerpes pucherani Melanerpes hoffmannii Sphyrapic u s vari u s ( 1 ) Picoides villa sus Veniliornis fumigatus Piculus simplex Piculus chrysochloros Dry oc opus lineatus Campephilus guatemalensis

Black-cheeked Woodpecker Hoffman's Woodpecker Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Hairy Woodpecker Smoky-brown Woodpecker Rufous-winged Woodpecker Golden-olive Woodpecker Lineated Woodpecker Pale-billed Woodpecker

R

R R F

U U

F

F

C

F U F R

F U F F

F C C

F

F

U R

F

R R

Furnariidae (ovenbirds] Synallaxis brachyura Cranioleuca erythrops Premnoplex brunnescens Margarornis rubiginosus(e] Pseudocolaptes lawrencii Hyloctistes subulatus Syndactyla subalaris Anabacerthia variegaticeps Phylidor rufus Automolus ochrolaemus Thripadectes rufobrunneus Xenops minutus Sclerurus mexicanus Sclerurus albigularis Dendrocolaptidae

Slaty Spinetail Red-faced Spinetail Spotted Barbtail Ruddy Treerunner Buffy Tuftedcheek Striped Woodhaunter Lineated Foliage-gleaner Scaly-throated Foliagegleaner Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Streak-breasted Treehunter Plain Xenops Tawny-throated Leaftosser Gray-throated Leaftosser

C C *

C C F U

F

F

F F U

C

F

U F

? ?

R F F U U

F

F

u

U U ?

R

R

(woodcreepers]

Dendrocincla fuliginosa Dendrocincla homochroa Sittasomus griseicapillus Deconych ura longica u da Glyphorynchus spirurus(e) Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae Dendrocolaptes picumnus Xiph orhynch us erythropygius

Plain-brown Woodcreeper Ruddy Woodcreeper Olivaceous Woodcreeper Long-tailed Woodcreeper Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Strong-billed Woodcreeper Northern BarredWoodcreeper Black-banded Woodcreeper Spotted Woodcreeper

546

F F

U C

R C *

U

Appendix 9

F U

U R C

R C

R F

U

U

C

C


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn L Mntn Prmtn Moist Wet Wet Rain Rain

Common name

Lepidocolaptes souleyetii Streak-headed Woodcreeper F Lepidocolaptes affinis Spot-crowned Woodcreeper Campylorhamphus pusillusfa) Brown-billed Scythebill

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

F

R

R

U

?

Thamnophilidae (antbirds) Thamnophilus doliatus Thamnophilus atrinucha Thamnistes anabatinus(e] Dysith amn us men tails Dysithamnus striaticeps Myrmotherula fulviventris Myrmotherula schisticolor Cercomacra tyrannina Myrmeciza exsul Myrmeciza laemosticta Myrmeciza immaculata(e] Gymnopithys leucaspis Phaenostictus mcleannani

Barred Antshrike Western Slaty-Antshrike Russet Antshrike Plain Antvireo Streak-crowned Antvireo Checker-throated Antwren Slaty Antwren Dusky Antbird Chestnut-backed Antbird Dull-mantled Antbird Immaculate Antbird Bicolored Antbird Ocellated Antbird

U

F U

C

C

C

U R

C

U

C

U

C R R

C

u R

R C F R C C U R C F F

Formicariidae (antthrushes and antpittas] Formicarius nigricapillus Formicarius rufipectus Pittasoma michleri Grallaria guatimalensis Hylopezus dives Grallaricula flavirostris

Black-headed Antthrush Rufous-breasted Antthrush Black-crowned Antpitta Scaled Antpitta Thicket Antpitta Ochre-breasted Antpitta

R

R

R

F U U R U

F ? R U U

Rhinocryptidae (tapaculos] Scytalopus argentifrons

Silvery-fronted Tapaculo

C

C

F

Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers] Ornithion brunneicapillum Elaenia flavogaster Elaenia frantzii(e) Serpophaga cinerea Mionectes olivaceus(e] Mionectes oleagineus Leptopogon superciliaris Phylloscartes superciliaris Phyllomyias burmeisteri Zimmerius vilissimus(e) Lophotriccus pileatus Todirostrum sylvia Todirostrum cinereum Todirostrum nigriceps Rhynchocyclus brevirostris Tolmomyias sulphurescens Pla tyrin chus mystace u s Pla tyrin chus coron atus Terenotriccus erythrurus Myiobius sulphureipygius Mitrephanes phaeocercus

Brown-capped Tyrannulet Yellow-bellied Elaenia Mountain Elaenia Torrent Tyrannulet Olive-striped Flycatcher Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Slaty-capped Flycatcher Rufous-browed Tyrannulet Rough-legged Tyrannulet Paltry Tyrannulet Scale-crested PygmyTyrant Slate-headed TodyFlycatcher Common Tody-Flycatcher Black-headed TodyFlycatcher Eye-ringed Flatbill Yellow-olive Flycatcher White-throated Spadebill Golden-crowned Spadebill Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Sulphur-mmped Flycatcher Tufted Flycatcher

547

*

F U

F C R R

R C

C

C

C

U C C C

F U C F

F C R C C

U

R

?

C R

C R

F F C R R F C

F C ? U F U

U

C

C F

C R

C

? U

U

Appendix 9

U F

F

F

C

C

C

R

U

U

C C


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea Contopus cooperi(l) Contopus lugubris(e] Contopus sordidulus(l) Con topus virens (1) Contopus cinereus Empidonax flaviventris(l] Empidonax virescens(l] Empidonax alnorum(l) Empidonax traillii(l) Empidonax minimus (I) Empidonax flavescens Sayornis nigricans Colonia colonus Attila spadiceus Rhytipterna holerythra(e] Myiarchus tuberculifer Myiarch us nu ttingi Myiarchus tyrannulus Pitangus sulphuratus Megarynchus pitangua Myiozetetes similis Myiozetetes granadensis Myiodynastes hemichrysus Myiodynastes maculatus(\] Myiodynastes luteiventris(l] Legatus leucophaius Tyrannus melancholicus Tyrannus tyrannus(l) Tyrannus forficatus (1)

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn LMntn LMntn Prmtn Moist Wet Wet Rain Rain

Common name Olive-sided Flycatcher Dark Pewee Western Wood-Pewee Eastern Wood-Pewee Tropical Pewee Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Acadian Flycatcher Alder Flycatcher Willow Flycatcher Least Flycatcher Yellowish Flycatcher Black Phoebe Long-tailed Tyrant Bright-rumped Attila Rufous Mourner Dusky-capped Flycatcher Nutting's Flycatcher Brown-crested Flycatcher Great Kiskadee Boat-billed Flycatcher Social Flycatcher Gray-capped Flycatcher Golden-bellied Flycatcher Streaked Flycatcher Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Piratic Flycatcher Tropical Kingbird Eastern Kingbird Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

F

F

F

F F

F F

F F

F ? U U

F R U U

R

F

F R

F U

c

R F F C C

U

F R C R F C C

U U R C F U F

F R U U

c F

F U F F C

F

F R R U

F R C F

R

R

C R * F

C

C

C

c

C U

U

R

R

R

?

R

R

F

U

C

R C

U R

F F F F ? U U R

C C C F

c

U

F

? U U ? F

U * F

F R F F U F R U U R C F ? F C F

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn 1

Genera Incertae Sedis Schiffornis turdinus(e] Pachyramphus versicolor(e] Pachyramphus cinnamomeus Pachyramphus albogriseus Pachyramphus aglaiae Tityra semifasciata Tityra inquisitor

Thursh-like Schiffornis Barred Becard Cinnamon Becard Black-and-white Becard Rose-throated Becard Masked Tityra Black-crowned Tityra

C

F U

Cotingidae (cotingas] Cotinga amabilis Cephalopterus glabricollis(e] Procnias tricarunculata(e]

Lovely Cotinga Bare-necked Umbrellabird Three-wattled Bellbird

U

R C

U U C

U U ?

Pipridae (manakins] Manacus candei Corapipo altera(e) Chiroxiphia linearis

White-collared Manakin White-ruffed Manakin Long-tailed Manakin

c

C

C

U

c

Oxyruncidae (sharpbills] Oxyruncus cristatus(e]

Sharpbill

U

Vireonidae (Vireos) Vireo flavifrons(\] Vireo solitarius(l)

Yellow-throated Vireo Blue-headed Vireo

548

U

Appendix 9

U R

R R

U

U


Life Zoneb

Scientific Name3 Vireo leucophrys Vireo philadelphicus(\] Vireo olivaceus(l] Vireo flavoviridis (I) Hylophilus ochraceiceps Hylophilus decurtatus Vireolanius pulchellus(e) Cyclarhis gujanensis(e)

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn L Mntn Prmtn Moist Wet Rain Rain Wet

Common name

Brown-capped Vireo Philadelphia Vireo Red-eyed Vireo Yellow-green Vireo Tawny-crowned Greenlet Lesser Greenlet Green Shrike-Vireo Rufous-browed Peppershrike

F F F F C

C F F U F C

C R F R

F

F

F

F C

R C R

C C

F

R

C F

C F

U

U

R R C

R R U

Zone 6 Wet,

Prmtn T

R F R C C F

R F U C C C

R C

C

R * R R

R U F

R

F

R R U

R R F

C U F C

C F C C

F C C C F F

C

American Dipper

C

C

Tawny-faced Gnatwren Long-billed Gnatwren

C F

C F

C

U

F

Corvidae (jays] Calocitta formosa Cyanocorax morio Cyanolyca cucullata

White-throated Magpie-Jay Brown Jay Azure-hooded Jay

C

Hirundinidae [swallows] Progne subis(l] Progne chalybea Tachycineta thalassina(l] Pygochelidon cyanoleuca Stelgidopteryx serripennis(\] Stelgidopteryx ruficollis(l] Riparia riparia (1) Petrochelidon pyrrhonota(l) Hirundo rustica(l]

Purple Martin Gray-breasted Martin Violet-green Swallow Blue-and-white Swallow Northern Rough-winged Swallow Southern Rough-winged Swallow Bank Swallow Cliff Swallow Barn Swallow

R R * F R

R R R

R F R

R R R

Troglodytidae (wrens) Campylorhynchus zonatus Thryothorus atrogularis Thryothorus nigricapillus Thryothorus thoracicus Thryothorus rutilus Thryothorus rufalbus Thryothorus modestus Troglodytes aedon Troglodytes ochraceus(e] Henicorhina leucosticta Henicorhina leucophrys Microcerculus philomela Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus

Band-backed Wren Black-throated Wren Bay Wren Stripe-breasted Wren Rufous-breasted Wren Rufous-and-white Wren Plain Wren House Wren Ochraceous Wren White-breasted Wood-Wren Gray-breasted Wood-Wren Nightingale Wren Song Wren

U F C C

R F C C F

* C C

U C

C

C

C F F

Cinclidae (dippers] Cinclus mexicanus Sylviidae (gnatcatchers] Microbates cinereiventris Ramphocaenus melanurus Turdidae (Thrushes] Myadestes melanops(l] Catharus aurantiirostris

Black-faced Solitaire Orange-billed NightingaleThrush

549

C

Appendix 9

U C

C

C


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea Catharus fuscater Catharus frantzii Catharus mexicanus Catharus minimus (I) Catharus ustulatus(l] Hylocichla mustelina(l) Turdus plebejus (e) Turdus obsoletus(e] Turdus grayi Turdus assimilis

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn LMntn LMntn Prmtn Moist Rain Rain Wet Wet

Common name Slaty-backed NightingaleThrush Ruddy-capped NightingaleThrush Black-headed NightingaleThrush Gray-cheeked Thrush Swainson's Thrush Wood Thrush Mountain Robin Pale-vented Thrush Clay-colored Robin White-throated Robin

? C

u F

C

C

C

C

U

F

U

C

U

R C U F

R C R C

C F

C C

U C

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

C

C

R C U C F C R

? C F R F C F

R

?

U C C C R C

R C C C R C

Mimidae (mockingbirds and thrashers) Dumetella carolinensis(l)

Gray Catbird

Bombycillidae (waxwings) Bombycilla cedrorum(l)

?

Cedar Waxwing

R

Ptilogonatidae (silky flycatchers) Phainoptila melanoxantha

Black-and-yellow Silkyflycatcher

F

Parulidae (wood warblers) Vermivora pinus(\) Vermivora chrysoptera (I) Vermivora peregrina (1) Parula pitiayumi Dendroica petechia(l) Dendroica pensylvanica (I) Dendroica caerulescens(\) Dendroica coronata(l) Dendroica virens(l) Den droica townsen di (I) Den droica occiden talis (1) Dendroica fusca (I) Dendroica discolor (I) Dendroica cerulea(l) Mniotilta varia(\) Setophaga ruticilla(\) Helmitheros vermivorus(l) Seiurus aurocapillus(\) Seiurus noveboracensis(l) Seiurus motacilla(\) Oporornis formosus (1) Oporornis Philadelphia (I) Oporornis tolmiei(\) Geothlypis trichas(\] Geothlypis semiflava Geothlypis poliocephala Wilsonia pusilla(l)

Blue-winged Warbler Golden-winged Warbler Tennessee Warbler Tropical Parula Yellow Warbler Chestnut-sided Warbler Black-throated Blue Warbler Yellow-rumped Warbler Black-throated Green Warbler Townsend's Warbler Hermit Warbler Blackburnian Warbler Prairie Warbler Cerulean Warbler Black-and-white Warbler American Redstart Worm-eating Warbler Ovenbird Northern Waterthrush Louisiana Waterthrush Kentucky Warbler Mourning Warbler MacGillivray's Warbler Common Yellowthroat Olive-crowned Yellowthroat Gray-crowned Yellowthroat Wilson's Warbler

550

C

F C

F U U

U

u

R * R

* R

R U

R C

R C

R U

R C

R R

U R F R R F

U R F

U

F R R F R

F R R F R

C F U R F R R

R F R R

R R

U U F U

U U F U

R C

? C

u F F F U U

u R

C

C

C

C

Appendix 9

R F

R

C

C

U

C

C


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea Myioborus miniatus Myioborus torquatus Basileuterus culicivorus Basileuterus rufifrons Basileuterus tristriatus Phaeothlypis fulvica u da Zeledonia coronata

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn L Mntn Prmtn Moist Wet Wet Rain Rain

Common name Slate-throated Redstart Collared Redstart Golden-crowned Warbler Rufous-capped Warbler Three-striped Warbler Buff-rumped Warbler Wrenthrush

U

U

C F

C F

Bananaquit

F

C * U

C

C

C

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

C C

C

C F

F

C

C

C

U

F C F

F C F

F F F

F C F

R ? C C F F F

C C C C F

U

U

F

F

C

Coeribidae (bananaquit) Coereba flaveola

F

F

Thraupidae (tanagers] Chlorospingus ophthalmicus Chlorospingus pileatus Chrysothlypis chrysomelaena(e] Chlorothraupis carmioli(e] Lanio leucothorax Habia ruble a Piranga flava(e] Piranga rubra(\] Piranga olivacea(l) Piranga ludoviciana(l] Piranga leucoptera Ramphocelus sanguinolentus Ramphocelus passerinii Thraupis episcopus Thraupis palmarum Bangsia arcaei(e] Euphonia af finis Euphonia luteicapilla Euphonia hirundinacea Euphonia elegantissima Euphonia anneae(e] Chlorophonia callophrys(e] Tangara florida Tangara icterocephala(e] Tangara guttata Tangara gyrola(e] Tangara lavinia Tangara larvata Tangara dowii(e] Dacnis venusta(e] Chlorophanes spiza(e] Cyanerpes lucidus Cyanerpes cyaneus

Common Bush-Tanager Sooty-capped Bush-Tanager Black-and-yellow Tanager Olive Tanager White-throated ShrikeTanager Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Hepatic Tanager Summer Tanager Scarlet Tanager Western Tanager White-winged Tanager Crimson-collared Tanager Passerini's Tanager Blue-gray Tanager Palm Tanager Blue-and-gold Tanager Scrub Euphonia Yellow-crowned Euphonia Yellow-throated Euphonia Blue-hooded Euphonia Tawny-capped Euphonia Golden-browed Chlorophonia Emerald Tanager Silver-throated Tanager Speckled Tanager Bay-headed Tanager Rufous-winged Tanager Golden-hooded Tanager Spangle-cheeked Tanager Scarlet-thighed Dacnis Green Honeycreeper Shining Honeycreeper Red-legged Honeycreeper

C

C F

U F U

F F U

F U U

F

R C U

F *

F C

* R C U

U C

C

C

C

C

C

U

C

C

C

U

* U

F

U

U U

R

R C

R C

R

F R C R U

U

c

F

u

F C U C R F

U

e F *

C F R

Emberizidae (emberizids) Volatinia jacarina Sporophila aurita Oryzoborus funereus Amaurospiza concolor Tiaris olivacea Haplospiza rustica Acanthidops bairdii(e]

Blue-black Grassquit Variable Seedeater Thick-billed Seedfinch Blue Seedeater Yellow-faced Grassquit Slaty Finch Peg-billed Finch

551

C ? R

C R

U R R

Appendix 9

U

C C C C


Life Zoneb

Scientific Namea Diglossa plumbea(e] Lysurus crassirostris Pselliophorus tibialis(e] Atlapetes albinucha Buarremon brunneinuchus Arremon aurantiirostris Arremonops conirostris Melozone leucotis Aimophila ruficauda Melospiza lincolnii(l} Zonotrichia capensis

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Prmtn Prmtn L Mntn L Mntn Prmtn Wet Rain Rain Wet Moist

Common name Slaty Flowerpiercer Sooty-faced Finch Yellow-thighed Finch White-naped Brush-Finch Chestnut-capped BrushFinch Orange-billed Sparrow Black-striped Sparrow White-eared GroundSparrow Stripe-headed Sparrow Lincoln's Sparrow Rufous-collared Sparrow

R R F F

F U

F F

C

C

U ? C

* R C

Grayish Saltator Buff-throated Saltator Black-headed Saltator Slate-colored Grosbeak Black-faced Grosbeak Black-thighed Grosbeak Rose-breasted Grosbeak Blue-black Grosbeak Blue Grosbeak Indigo Bunting Dickcissel

U F

U F

Eastern Meadowlark Great-tailed Crackle Bronzed Cowbird Giant Cowbird Black-cowled Oriole Orchard Oriole Baltimore Oriole Yellow-billed Cacique Scarlet-rumped Cacique Chestnut-headed Oropendola Montezuma Oropendola

F F F U

F F F

C

F ?

U

U

U

U

R

R

F

F

F F

F

Zone 6 Wet, Prmtn T

F F F F F C

F C

R

C

F

C

U

F F R

Cardinalidae (cardinals and saltators) Saltator coerulescens Salt at or maximus Saltator atriceps Saltator grossus Caryothraustes poliogaster Pheucticus tibialis(e] Pheucticus ludovicianus(l] Cyanocompsa cyanoides Guiraca caerulea Passerina cyanea(l] Spiza americana[l)

F

U

U U ?

U R

F R

F

F F R R R

F U R ?

Icteridae (blackbirds] Sturnella magna Quiscalus mexicanus Molothrus aeneus Scaphidura oryzivora Icterus dominicensis Icterus spurius(l] Icterus galbula (I) Amblycercus holosericeus Cacicus uropygialis(e] Psarocolius wagleri(e) Psarocolius montezuma a

* *

R

552

Appendix 9

C

F F ? R F F F F

R

C

F R R

Migratory status: (1) = long-distance migrant; (e) = elevational migrant (based on Stiles 1985). Status codes: R, rare; U, uncommon; F, fairly common; C, common; *, known to occur; ?, status uncertain.

b

R R ? R


Appendix 10 Mammals of Monteverde Robert M. Timm Richard K. LaVal

Scientific Name

Common Namea

Marsupialia Didelphidae Caluromys derbianus

Marsupials American opossums Woolly Opossum Zorro Colorado Water Opossum Zorro de agua Common Opossum Zorro pelon or Zarigiieya Mexican Mouse Opossum Zorro ici or Zorrici Alston's Opossum Zorro ici or Zorrici Gray Four-eyed Opossum Zorricilla or Zorillo

Chironectes minimus Didelphis marsupialis Marmosa mexicana Micoureus alstoni Philander opossum Insectivora

Shrews

Soricidae Cryptotis nigrescens

Shrews Blackish Small-eared Shrew Musarana, Antitorinco, or Topo Small-eared Shrew Musarana Small-eared Shrew Musarana

Cryptotis sp.d Cryptotis sp. Chiroptera6

Abimdanceb

Distribution0

Uncommon

1, 2, 3

Uncertain

1

Abundant

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Common

2, 3, 5, 6

Uncommon

2, 3, 6

Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 5

Common

2, 3, 4, 6

Rare

4

Rare

3

Rare Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

Bats f

Emballonuridae Mormoopidae Pteronotus gymnonotus Pteronotus parnellii

Sac-winged bats Mustached bats Big Naked-backed Bat Parnell's Mustached Bat


Scientific Name

Common Namesa

Phyllostomidae Phyllostominae Lonchorhina aurita Micronycteris hirsuta Micronycteris microtis% Micronycteris schmidtorum Micronycteris sylvestris Mimon bennettii/cozumelae Phylloderma stenops Phyllostomus discolor Phyllostomus hastatus Tonatia sp. Trachops cirrhosus Vampyrum spectrum Glossophaginae Anoura cultrata Anoura geoffroyi Choeroniscus godmani Glossophaga comm.issa.risi Glossophaga soricina Hylonycteris underwoodi Lonchophyllinae Lonchophylla robusta Carolliinae Carollia brevicauda Carollia castanea Carollia perspicillata Stenoderminae Artibeus aztecus Artibeus jamaicensis Artibeus intermedius Artibeus lituratus Artibeus phaeotis Artibeus toltecus Centurio senex Chiroderma sp. Ectophylla alba Enchisthenes hartii Sturnira lilium Sturnira ludovici Sturnira mordax Vampyrodes caraccioli Vampyressa pus ilia Platyrrhinus vittatus Desmodontinae Desmodus rotundus

Leaf-nosed bats Gleaning bats Sword-nosed Bat Hairy Big-eared Bat Little Big-eared Bat Schmidt's Big-eared Bat Tri-colored Big-eared Bat Big-eared Bat Peters' Spear-nosed Bat Pale Spear-nosed Bat Greater Spear-nosed Bat Round-eared Bat Fringe-lipped or Frog-eating Bat False Vampire Bat Nectar-feeding bats Handley's Tailless Bat Geoffrey's Tailless Bat Godman's Long-nosed Bat Commissaris' Long-tongued Bat Pallas' Long-tongued Bat Underwood's Long-tongued Bat Nectar-feeding bats Panama Long-tongued Bat Short-tailed bats Silky Short-tailed Bat Allen's Short-tailed Bat Short-tailed Fruit Bat Fruit-eating bats Highland Fruit-eating Bat Jamaican Fruit Bat Davis' Fruit Bat Big Fruit Bat Pygmy Fruit-eating Bat Lowland Fruit-eating Bat Wrinkle-faced Bat Shaggy-haired Bat Caribbean White Bat Little Fruit-eating Bat Yellow-shouldered Bat Anthony's Bat Talamancan Bat Great Stripe-faced Bat Little Yellow-eared Bat Greater Broad-nosed Bat Vampire bats Common Vampire Bat Vampiro Hairy-legged Vampire Bat Vampiro Funnel-eared bats Mexican Funnel-eared Bat Disk-winged bats Spix's Disk-winged Bat Vespertilionid bats Doubtful Oak Bat Brazilian Brown Bat Big Brown Bat Southern Red Bat Tacarcuna Bat Southern Yellow Bat Elegant Myotis Hairy-legged Myotis Black Myotis Montane Myotis

Diphylla ecaudata Natalidae Natalus stramineus Thyropteridae Thyroptera tricolor Vespertilionidae Antrozous dubiaquercus Eptesicus brasiliensis (= andinus] Eptesicus fuscus Lasiurus blossevillii (= borealis] Lasiurus castaneus Lasiurus ega My otis elegans My otis keaysi Myotis nigricans My otis oxyotus

554

Appendix 10

Abundance13

Distribution0

Uncommon Rare Uncommon Uncertain Rare Rare Rare Common Rare Uncertain Uncommon Rare

5, 6

Uncommon Common Uncommon Common Common Common

2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2,

Rare

2, 3, 6

Common Uncommon Rare

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Rare Common Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Abundant Rare Rare Rare Uncommon Uncommon Abundant Common Rare Rare Common

2, 6 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

2

1, 2, 3, 4, 6 6 2 2 6

1, 2 6 6

1, 2, 3, 4, 6 2, 3, 4, 6 3, 4, 6 2, 3, 4, 5 2, 3 , 4 2, 3 , 4 2, 3, 6 3, 4, 5

126

1, 2, 6

2

1, 2, 3 , 4 6

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 6 6

1, 1, 1, 2,

2, 3, 4 2 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 3, 4, 5, 6

2

2, 3 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 5, 6

Rare

2

Uncertain

1

Uncommon

2, 3, 4, 6

Rare Uncommon Uncommon Rare Rare Rare Uncommon Abundant Common Rare

2, 2, 2, 2,

3 3, 4 3, 4 4

4

2, 4 6

2, 3, 4, 5 1, 2, 3 , 4 1, 2


Scientific Name

Common Namesa

Abundance13

Distribution

My otis riparius Molossidae Eumops auripendulus Molossus sinaloae Tadarida brasiliensis

Riparian Myotis Free-tailed bats Shaw's Mastiff Bat Sinaloan Mastiff Bat Brazilian Free-tailed Bat

Rare

1, 2

Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain

6

Primates

Primates

Cebidae Alouatta palliata

New-World monkeys Mantled Howler Monkey Mono congo Black-handed Spider Monkey Mono Colorado White-faced Capuchin Mono carablanca

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Rare

3, 4, 5, 6

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Rare

1

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Rare

2, 3, 4

Abundant

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncertain

2, 6

Extirpated Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 5, 6

Rare

2, 3

Uncommon

1

Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 6

Common

2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Abundant

1, 2, 3

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncommon

1, 2

Ateles geoffroyi Cebus cap acinus

Xenarthra

Edentates

Bradypodidae Bradypus variegatus

Three-toed sloths Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth Perezoso de tres dedos Two-toed sloths Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth Perezoso de dos dedos Armadillos Northern Naked-tailed Armadillo Cusuco zopilote Nine-banded Armadillo Cusuco Anteaters Silky Anteater Serafm de platanar or Tapacara Giant Anteater Oso caballo or Hormiguero Northern Tamandua Oso hormiguero

Choloepidae Choloepus

hoffmanni

Dasypodidae Cabassous centralis Dasypus novemcinctus Myrmecophagidae Cyclopes didactylus Myrmecophaga tri dactyl a Tamandua mexicana

Lagomorpha

Rabbits

Leporidae Sylvilagus brasiliensis

Rabbits and hares Forest Rabbit Conejo Cottontail Rabbit Conejo

Sylvilagus floridanus

Rodentia

Rodents

Geomyidae Orthogeomys cherriei

Pocket gophers Cherrie's Pocket Gopher Taltusa or Tartusa Squirrels Alfaro's Pygmy Squirrel Ardillita Neotropical Red Squirrel Ardilla or Chisa negra Variegated Squirrel Ardilla or Chisa rosilla Pocket mice Desmarest's Spiny Pocket Mouse Rata Long-tailed rats and mice Sumichrast's Vesper Rat Raton

Sciuridae Microsciurus alfari Sciurus granatensish Sciurus variegatoides Heteromyidae Heteromys desmarestianus Muridae Nyctomys sumichrasti

555

Appendix 10

1, 2 2


Scientific Name Oligoryzomys fulvescens Oligoryzomys vegetus Oryzomys albigularis Oryzomys alfaroi Oryzomys bolivaris (= bombycinus) Ototylomys phyllotis Peromyscus nudipes Reithrodontomys creper Reithrodontomys gracilis Reithrodontomys sp.1 Rheomys raptor Scotinomys teguina Sigmodon hispidus Tylomys watsoni Erethizontidae Coendou mexicanus Agoutidae Agouti paca Dasyproctidae Dasyprocta punctata

Common Names3

Abundance13

Distribution0

Pygmy Rice Mouse Raton Pygmy Rice Mouse Raton Tome's Rice Rat Raton Alfaro's Rice Rat Raton Long-whiskered Rice Rat Raton Big-eared Climbing Rat Raton Naked-footed Mouse Raton Chiriqui Harvest Mouse Raton Slender Harvest Mouse Raton Harvest Mouse Raton Goldman's Water Mouse Raton Alston's Brown Mouse Raton Hispid Cotton Rat Raton Watson's Climbing Rat Rata azul Porcupines Prehensile-tailed Porcupine Puercoespm Pacas Paca Tepezcuintle Agoutis Agouti Guatusa

Rare

2, 3

Rare

2, 4

Uncommon

3, 4

Uncommon

2, 3

Rare

6

Uncertain

1, 2

Abundant

1, 2, 3 , 4 , 5

Uncommon

4

Common

1, 2, 3, 6

Rare

4

Rare

2, 3, 4, 6

Uncommon

2, 3, 4, 6

Rare

1, 2

Common

2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncommon

1, 2

Common

1, 2, 3, 5

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 6

Common

1, 2, 3 , 4 , 5

Rare

2, 3, 5, 6

Rare

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Common

1, 2, 3, 5, 6

Abundant

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Common

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Carnivora

Carnivores

Canidae Canis latrans

Coyotes, foxes, and dogs Coyote Coyote Gray Fox Tigrillo or Zorragris Skunks, weasels, and otters Striped Hog-nosed Skunk Zorro hediondo Tayra Tejon or Tolomuco Grison Grison or Tejon Southern River Otter Perro de agua or Nutria Long-tailed Weasel Comadreja Raccoons Olingo Martilla White-nosed Coati Pizote Kinkajou Martilla or Mico de noche Raccoon Mapachin

Urocyon cinereoargenteus Mustelidae Conepatus semistriatus Eira barbara Galictis vittata Lutra longicaudis Mu stela frenata Procyonidae Rassaricyon gabbii Nasua narica Potos flavus Procyon lotor

556

Appendix 10


Scientific Name

Common Names3

Felidaei Felis concolor

Cats Puma Puma or Leon de montana Ocelot Manigordo or Ocelote Little Spotted Cat Tigrillo or Gato tigre Margay Cancel Jaguarundi Tcholomuco Jaguar Tigre

Felis pardalis Felis tigrina Felis wiedii Felis yaguarondi Panthera one a

Artiodactyla

Deer and peccaries

Dicotylidae Tayassu pecari

Peccaries White-lipped Peccary Chancho de monte or Cariblanco Collared Peccary Saino or Zahino Deer Brocket Deer Cabro or Corzo White-tailed Deer Venado cola blanca

Pecari tajacu Cervidae Mazama americana Odocoileus virginianus

Perissodactyla

Tapirs and horses

Tapiridae Tapirus bairdii

Tapirs Baird's Tapir Danta

Abundance13

Distribution0

Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncertain

1, 3, 4, 6

Uncommon

2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncommon

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Rare

3, 4, 5, 6

Extirpated Common

3, 4, 5, 6

Uncommon

1, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uncommon

1, 2

Uncommon

3, 4, 5, 6

Abundant

Commensal

Abundant

Commensal

Species introduced into the area by humansk Mus musculus Rattus rattus

House Mouse Raton Black or Roof Rat Raton

a The common name(s) for each species is in English and Spanish. Spanish names are used within the Monteverde area. Because nonmammalogists cannot easily distinguish bats, there are few local common names in Spanish, other than "murcielago" or "vampiro." b Abundance categories: Abundant = often observed and/or captured in appropriate habitats; Common = frequently observed in appropriate habitats; Uncommon = only occasionally observed in appropriate habitats; Rare = very few records for Monteverde; Extirpated = previously known from the area but no longer in the region due to overhunting and habitat destruction; Uncertain = of unknown abundance. Distribution numbers indicate Holdridge (1967) life zones (see Fig. 1.5). d An undescribed species (Woodman 1992, Woodman and Timm 1993). Undoubtedly other species of molossids occur in the area, but have yet to be detected. f This family is widespread in the tropical lowlands, and we suspect that several species will be found at the lower elevations in the area. sThe species referred to as Micronycteris megalotis in the literature was a composite of two valid species: Micronycteris microtis, which occurs from Mexico through Central America to northern South America, and M. megalotis, which occurs throughout much of the northern half of South America. All previous literature references to M. megalotis in Costa Rica should be attributed to M. microtis. h Previous lists report the medium-sized squirrel from Monteverde as being Sciurus deppei. S. granatensis and S. deppei are similar in appearance and difficult to distinguish in the field. Both species are medium-sized brown squirrels, although S. granatensis is larger (total length for S. deppei, 343-387 mm; for S. granatensis, 382-440 mm). The distinguishing field characters are presence of a small white throat patch in S. deppei; the throat of S. granatensis is orange. The tail of S, deppei is narrower and darker than that of S. granatensis, and the tail hairs throughout the length of the tail in S. deppei are tipped with white, whereas the tail of S. granatensis is bushier and tipped with tan, orange, or reddish hairs. *A new species being described by R. Timm. JA variety of generic names for species of cats are in use, reflecting different opinions as to their systematic relationships. Wozencraft (1993) used Puma concolor for the Puma, Leopardus pardalis for the Ocelot, Leopardus tigrinus for the Little Spotted Cat, Leopardus wiedii for the Margay, and Herpailurus yaguarondi (frequently spelled yagouaroundi] for the Jaguarundi. k These introduced Old-World rodents will cross forested tracts but are found in abundance only around human habitations and rarely occur in natural areas.

557

Appendix 10


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References

Literature Cited American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American birds (7th ed.). American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, B.C. Campbell, J. A., and W. W. Lamar. 1989. The venomous reptiles of Latin America. Comstock, Ithaca, New York. Croat, T. B. 1978. The flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, California. Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York. Dinerstein, E. 1986. Reproductive ecology of fruit bats and the seasonality of fruit production in a Costa Rican cloud forest. Biotropica 18:307-318. Donnelly, M. A. 1994. Amphibian diversity and natural history. Pages 199-209 in L. A. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, editors. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Duellman, W. E. 1970. The hylid frogs of Middle America. Monographs Museum of Natural History University of Kansas No. 1. University of Kansas, Lawrence. . 1990. Herpetofaunas in Neotropical rainforests: comparative composition, history, and resource use. Pages 455—505 in A. H. Gentry, editor. Four neotropical rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut. Fogden, M. P. 1993. An annotated checklist of the birds of Monteverde and Penas Blancas. Published by the author, Monteverde, Costa Rica.

Guyer, C. 1994. The reptile fauna: diversity and ecology. Pages 199-209 in L. A. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, editors. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Haber, W. A. 1991. Lista provisional de las plantas de Monteverde, Costa Rica. Brenesia 34:63—120. Haber, W. A., and K. S. Bawa. 1984. Evolution of dioecism in Saurauia (Dilleniaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 71:289-293. Holdridge, L. R. 1967. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica. Kress, W. J., and J. H. Beach. 1994. Flowering plants reproductive systems. Pages 161-182 in L. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, editors. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Lynch, J. D. 1979. The amphibians of the lowland tropical forests. Pages 189-215 in W. E. Duellman, editor. The South American herpetofauna: its origin, evolution, and dispersal. Monographs Museum of Natural History University of Kansas No. 7. University of Kansas, Lawrence. Mabberley, D. J. 1987. The plant-book. A portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Myers, C. W., and A. S. Rand. 1969. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with comments on faunal change and sampling. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 10:1-11.


Peters, }. A., B. Orejas Miranda, R. Donoso Barros, and P. E. W. Diamond and T. E. Lovejoy, editors. Conservation of tropical forest birds. International Council for Bird Vanzolini. 1986. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Preservation, Cambridge. Pounds, J. A., M. P. L. Fogden, J. M. Savage, and G. C. Gorman. Utley, J. 1983. A revision of the middle American 1997. Tests of null models for amphibian declines on a thecophylloid Vrieseas (Bromeliaceae). Tulane Studtropical mountain. Conservation Biology 11:1307-1322. ies in Zoology and Botany 24:1-24. Savage, J. M. 1972. The Harlequin Frogs, genus Atelopus, Villa, J., L. D. Wilson, and J. D. Johnson. 1988. Middle of Costa Rica and western Panama. Herpetologica American herpetology: a bibliographic checklist. University of Missouri Press, Columbia. 28:77-94. . 1975. Systematics and distribution of the Mexican Wake, D. B. 1987. Adaptive radiation of salamanders in and Central American stream frogs related to EleuMiddle American cloud forests. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74:242-264. therodactylus rugulosus. Copeia 1975: 254-306. Savage, J. M., and W. R. Heyer. 1969. The tree frogs (family Wake, D. B., and J. F. Lynch. 1976. The distribution, ecol ogy, and evolutionary history of plethodontid salaHylidae) of Costa Rica: diagnosis and distribution. manders in tropical America. Science Bulletin of the Los Revista de Biologia Tropical 16:1-127. Angeles County Museum of Natural History 25:1-65. Savage, J. M., and J. J. Talbot. 1978. The giant anoline liz ards of Costa Rica and western Panama. Copeia Woodman, N. 1992. Biogeographical and evolutionary re1978:480-492. lationships among Central American small-eared shrews of the genus Cryptotis (Mammalia: Insectivora: Savage, J. M., and J. Villa. 1986. Introduction to the herSoricidae). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas, petofauna of Costa Rica. Contributions to Herpetology Lawrence. No. 3:1-207. Scott, N. J., J. M. Savage, and D. C. Robinson. 1983. Check Woodman, N., and R. M. Timm. 1993. Intraspecific and interspecific variation in the Cryptotis nigrescens spelist of reptiles and amphibians. Pages 367-374 in D. H. cies complex of small-eared shrews (Insectivora: SoriJanzen, editor. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. cidae), with the description of a new species from Standley, P. C. 1937. Flora of Costa Rica. Field Museum of Colombia. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 74:1-30. Woodson, R. E., and R. W. Schery. 1943-1980. Flora of Natural History, Botanical Series 18:1-1616. Panama. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Starrett, P. H., and J. M. Savage. 1973. The systematic sta Vols. 30-67 (various numbers). tus and distribution of Costa Rican glass frogs, genus Centrolenella (family Centrolenidae), with description Wozencraft, W. C. 1993. Order Carnivora. Pages 279-348 of a new species. Bulletin of the Southern California in D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder, editors. Mammal Academy of Sciences 72:57-78. species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference (2nd ed.) Smithsonian Institution Press, WashStiles, F. G. 1985. Conservation of forest birds in Costa ington, D.C. Rica: problems and perspectives. Pages 141-168 in A.

560

References


Index

(Note: an/after a page locator indicates a figure; a t indicates a table.) aboriginal people. See indigenous people Acanthopanax, 452 Acrididae, 98 Acrocinus longimanus (Harlequin Beetle), 114 Actinidiaceae, 252 adaptive radiation, 75 Agallinae, 103 age at first reproduction, 428 and vocalizations of Long-tailed Manakins, 215 Agelenidae, 140 aggression among hummingbirds, 199 in female frogs, 164 in mice, 238 Agouti paca (Paca), 24 Agoutis, 425 agriculture, 42, 43, 353, 373, 401, 406-407. See also beef production; dairy production development of, 391-392, 408 dual-purpose farms, 398-399, 406 ecocentric, 390 organic farming, 360, 380, 401, 402-403, 405 philosophies of, 390 subsistence, 391

sustainable, 389-390 truck farming, 403 agroecology, 369 Aguacate Group, 21, 22 air pollution. See pollution Aleocharinae, 108, 110 Alex C. Walker Educational and Charitable Foundation, 380 Alfaro's Pygmy Squirrels. See Microsciurus alfari Alliance for the Monteverde Institute, 370 Alouatta palliata (Mantled Howler Monkey), 233 Alston's Brown Mouse. See Scotinomys teguina altitude, 95, 97. See also migration, altitudinal and density of wasps, 131 and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, 154, 155t and distribution of beetles, 111, 112, 115, 118 and distribution of hymenopterans, 126-127, 138 and distribution of mammals, 225, 240

and distribution of orchids, 74 and distribution of phorid flies, 123 indicators, 8

561

Index

and pollination systems, 246, 252253

and soil organic matter, 28 and species richness, 201-202 Alzateaceae, 60 Amblyopinini, 109, 229 ambrosia beetles, 117-118 ammonia, 324, 326, 328 amphibians abundance of, 158 biodiversity of, 423 declines in, 149, 151-153, 161163, 169, 172-173 geography and history of, 155-157 population ecology of, 157—163 sources of mortality in, 159-161 species list of, 537-538 andisols, 27 Andrews, Jean, 383 androdioecy, 251 andromonoecy, 251 anoles. See lizards; specific names of anoles antbirds, 185 antennae, of beetles, 111 anticancer compounds, 452 ants, 423 army, 130, 133, 185 attack by flies, 123 beetles associated with, 110


ants [continued] carpenter, 134 distribution of, 127 interaction with myrmecophytes, 291-293 nectar-collecting, 277 pest, 134 predatory, 134-135 seed dispersal by, 72, 256-257 in soil, 337 aphids, 100, 101 Aphrophoridae, 102 Apidae, 249 Apocrita, 125 aquatic habitats, of amphibians and reptiles, 166-169 Araceae, 51, 345 Arachis pintoi (Perennial Groundnut), 402 arachnids, 139-142 Araliaceae, 70, 73, 452 arboreal soil. See tree soil Arecaceae, 253 Arenal Conservation Area, 353, 372— 373

Arenal Fault, 21 Arenal Hydroelectric Project, 353, 362

Arenal-Monteverde Protected Zone, 367, 380 Arenal volcano, 368, 380, 408, 409 Arenal watershed, 394 Arias, Oscar, 353 Artibeus lituratus (Big Fruit Bat), 231 Artibeus toltecus (Lowland Fruiteating Bat), 263 artificial insemination, 393, 397, 400 artisans, 370, 383 asexual reproduction, 88 Asociacion Insituto de Monteverde, 369

Asteraceae, 50, 51, 248 Ateles geoffroyi (Black-handed Spider Monkey), 233 Atelopus varius (Harlequin Frog), 123, 151-153, 161, 162 mating in, 164 Atlantic Slope Forest, 41 atmospheric deposition, 324, 325, 342

Attini, 133-134 Auchenorrhyncha, 100 Audubon bird counts, 183 Aulacorhynchus prasinus (Emerald Toucanet), 187f, 250, 260, 426 foraging behavior, 186 sexual dimorphism in, 214 autecological method, 179, 203 autotoxicity, 71 avocado family, 443 Azteca, 291 backs wimmers, 100 bacteriocidal activity, of plant compounds, 452 Baird's Tapir. See Tapirus bairdii

Balanophoraceae, 58 banana production, 353 Bare-hearted Glass Frog. See Hyalinobatrachium colym biphyllum Bare-necked Umbrellabird. See Cephalopterus glabricollis bark patterns, 47-48 roughening, 341 texture, 49t Barnens Regnskog, 380 Basidiomycetes, 61 Bassaricyon gabbii (Olingo), 236 bats, 425 fruit-eating, 231, 263, 269, 434-435 pollination by, 72, 247 reproduction, 227, 263 species list of, 553-555 species richness, 225-226 of various life zones, 231-232 beans, 414 beef production, 392 herd management, 400 history and development, 398-399 sustainability of, 399 bees, 423 Africanized honey, 138-139 distribution of, 127 ground-nesting, 136—137 importation of, 139 pollination by, 249, 274-275 stingless, 137-138 beetles, 96, 106-118 bark, 109, 117-118 dietary types, 107-108 host plants of long-horned, 115 migration of, 438 pollination by, 248, 251 in soil, 337 Begonia, intersexual mimicry in, 279-281 behavioral plasticity, 213 beliefs, 389 bellbirds. See Three-wattled Bellbird Big Fruit Bat. See Artibeus lituratus Bignoniaceae, 49 bigyny, in bark beetles, 117 bills, sexual dimorphism of, 214 biodiversity, 15, 352, 353, 372, 420. See also species diversity estimates of, 151 within and between habitats, 50 preserving, 432 reduction of, 394, 395 status of, 423-424 biogeography, of plants, 67-69 biological oxygen demand, 402, 405 biomass loss, 335 biotic movement, 21 birds, 180t, 194-195, 201-202. See also names of specific birds behavior of, 179, 188-190, 205-206 brood parasites, 422 conservation management of, 203204

562

Index

crop size, 260 demography, 196, 203 diets of, 160, 210-212, 258-259 guilds of, 199-200 habitats of, 424, 437t, 448-450 interactions with other taxa, 200201

migration in, 183-184, 194 mixed-species flocks of, 205-207 molting, 195 persistance of species, 153 pollination by, 200, 247, 276 population dynamics, 195—196, 198, 419 raptorial, 425 reproduction, 190-191, 198 seed dispersal by, 66, 257, 263, 288-289, 294-295, 435 sources of mortality in, 196—198 species at risk of extinction, 202 species list of, 541-552 species richness and distribution, 162, 179-180, 181, 182-184 bird watching, 355, 364 Black-faced Solitaire. See Myadestes melanops blackflies, gut fungi of, 83 Black-handed Spider Monkey. See Ateles geoffroyi Blakea, reproductive biology of, 273276

blooming. See flowering Bolitoglossa subpalmata (Monteverde Salamander), 153f Bolivia, 377 Bombacaceae, 60, 248 Bos indicus (Zebu), 398, 400 Bosque Eterno de los Ninos. See Children's Eternal Forest Bosqueterno, 351, 356, 374 Bos taurus, 398 botfly larvae control of, 395 effect on House Wrens, 197 branch characteristics, and litter, 342 branch fragmentation, 67 Bransford's Litter Frog. See Eleutherodactylus bransfordii brassicas, 397, 411 breeding behavior, in Brown Jays, 212

breeding sites, of transparent butterflies, 120 breeding systems, of Inga, 85-87 Brillante Tract, 357 bromeliads (Bromeliaceae), 45, 57, 73-74, 345 amphibians and reptiles associated with, 168 species list of, 529-530 Bronzed Cowbird. See Molothrus aeneus brood development, in army ants, 133

brood parasites, 422


Brown Jay. See Cyanocorax morio bryophytes, 60, 78-79, 321, 332 decay rate for, 334 epiphyllous, 80 nutrient retention by, 328 Buen Amigo project, 390 buffer zones, 430 Bufo periglenes (Golden Toad), 11, 149, 150f, 151-153, 157, 161, 170, 171-172, 357,425 declines in, 172-173 oviposition and parental care, 164 bumblebees, 127 Burmanniaceae, 59 burning, 325, 328, 399, 411-412 Buskirk, William, 179 buttresses, 48 butterflies, 118-122, 120-121 biodiversity of, 423 effect of wind on, 438 migration of, 118-119 pollination by, 248 caching, 257 Cactaceae, 50 caddisflies, 97-98 as indicator species, 429 caecilians, 163, 168 calcium, 321, 324, 326, 342 extractable in soil, 305 calling rate, 189 Campbell, John, 357-358, 369, 390t, 393 Canadian International Development Agency, 353 Canis lantrans (Coyote), 233 Canivet's Emerald. See Chlorostilbon caniveti cannibalism, by tadpoles, 164, 173 canopy ants in, 135 habitats, 345 height, 41, 44, 45, 305 nutrient retention by, 325-326 organic matter in, 322 retention of inorganic nitrogen, 328 roots, 339-341 spiders in, 140 canyons, 44 carbon, 322, 335 content of soils, 35t transfer of, 329 Caribbean continental plate, 20 Carlson, Bob, 169 carnivores, 430 Carollica perspicillata, 258 Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina), 366 caterpillars, 118, 277 Catharus frantzii (Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush), 425 cation exchange capacity, of soils, 28 cats, 358 domestic, as predators of birds, 197

Cattle Egret. See Egretta caerulea Cavendishia, 267 cavity nesting, 191 and predation, 196 species, 192t Cebus capucinus (White- faced Capuchin), 233, 236 Cecropia, 291, 292f, 307 mortality, 319 Central American Bank for Economic Integration, 363 Centro de Educacion Creativa, 371 Centropogon solanifolius, 278-279 Cephalopterus glabricollis (Barenecked Umbrellabird), 358, 367, 430 Cerambycidae, 114 Cercopidae, 409-410 Cercopoidae, 101 host plants of, 531 chachalacas, 232 charral, 47 cheese production, 391, 393. See also dairy production chemical defense, 121-122 chemical prospecting, 431 Chepe Rojas farm, 42 Cherrie's Pocket Gopher. See Orthogeomys cherriei Chico Friends in Unity with Nature, 364 children, publications for, 372 Children's Eternal Forest, 170, 203, 351, 361-367, 374 origins and development, 362-364 Children's International Rainforest, 203 Children's Rainforest U.S., 363-364 Children's Tropical Forests U.K., 364 Chiriqui Harvest Mouse. See Reithrodontomys creper chironomids, 96, 446 Chiroptera, 225 Chiroxiphia linearis (Long-tailed Manakin), 180f age at breeding, 196 diet breadth, 260 foraging behavior, 187 male cooperation, 189, 204-205 vocalizations of, 215-126 Chlorophonia, seed dispersal by, 289 Chlorospingus ophthalmicus (Common Bush- Tanager), 188, 204, 205 Chlorostilbon canivetii (Cani vet's Emerald) digestive physiology, 188 and guilds, 199 Chortis block, 20 Chrysomelidae, 117-119, 423-424 cicadas (Cicadidae), 100, 101 Cicadellidae, 102-103 cj's-l,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn3,8- diol, 452

563

Index

clays, 27 cleptoparasitism, 125, 126 cliff edge effect, 130 climate, 15-20 and breeding cycles of amphibians and reptiles, 166 and distribution of hymenopterans, 127 climate change, 162-163, 168, 421, 422,428 and amphibian declines, 161-162, 169 climbers, 53—54 clonal reproduction. See asexual reproduction cloud formation, 20 immersion, 19 seasonality of cover, 16 water, 17-20, 29, 324 chemistry, 325, 326 pollutants in, 161 Cloud Forest Anole. See Norops tropidolepsis cloud forests, 95 comparison of different, 68 leeward, 313-320 vegetation of, 41 windward, 304-313 Clusia, 305, 312, 452 clutch size, in birds, 191-192, 193t coatis, 233 Cocos plate, 20, 21 coevolution, of plants and animals, 259, 266 coffee pests of, 117, 402 production, 42, 407 agroecology of, 401-402 history and development, 400401 organic, 402-403 sustainability of, 402, 406 varieties of, 402 as a weed, 62 cognitive ability, in birds, 205 cold fronts, 20 Coleoptera. See beetles Collared Peccary. See Pecari tajacu colonization, 256, 290, 422. See also recolonization and fruiting phenology, 283-286 of gaps, 310, 312 and seed dispersal, 264-265 colony founding, in eusocial wasps, 129 color of birds, 181 of hymenopterans, 126 of Ithomiinae, 121 of wasps, 131 colostrum, as a fertilizer, 403 Colpachi. See Croton niveus Comite de Artesanias Santa ElenaMonteverde, 383-384 Commelinaceae, 51


Common Bush-Tanager. See Chlorospingus ophthalmicus Common Dink Frog. See Eleutherodactylus diastema Common Vampire Bat. See Desmodus rotundus communication, in Long-tailed Manakins, 215 community development, 370 community ecology of birds, 199-201 of mammals, 226-228 community relations, 359-360, 374 competition among hummingbirds, 216 among pollinators, 253-254, 262 between resident and migrant birds, 184 composting, 396 Conepatus semistriatus (Striped Hognosed Skunk), 233 Conostegia, 312, 444 conservation, 352, 372-373 of amphibians and reptiles, 169170

of birds, 202-203 concepts of, 420-423 by Costa Rican government, 352353

failures of, 374, 379, 381 grassroots, 5, 354, 424-428 of insects, 95 of plants, 69, 74, 255-256 problems, 424-428 species inventories, 429 of tapirs, 242 cooling trends, 170 cooperation in Brown Jays, 189, 212-213 in Long-tailed Manakins, 204-205 Coope Santa Elena, 354-355, 365, 380, 383, 401 copulation, in long-horned beetles, 114

copulatory success, in male birds, 189

Cordillera de Tilaran, 21, 22-23 paleoecology of, 26—27 core zones, 430 Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 360

corridors, 361, 371, 385, 427, 438 and altitudinal migration, 439442

windbreaks as, 448-450 Costaceae, 51 Costa Rica, map of, 6f Council on International Educational Exchange, 225 count circles, 183 courtship feeding, 214 in Long-tailed Manakins, 204, 215126

in Resplendent Quetzals, 184 Coyote. See Cam's lantrans

crafts cooperative, 383-384 Creoles, 391 crickets, 98-99 Criocerinae, 116 crops, 404t. See also agriculture crop size, of birds, 260 Croton niveus, 366 crown shape, 49, 306 cultural control, 390 Cupressus lusitanica (Cypress), 366, 449

Cyanocorax morio (Brown Jay) breeding in, 189, 196 fledging success, 198 flock sizes, 195 foraging behavior, 188 nesting, 191, 193, 229 sociality, 212-213 Cyatheaceae, 60 Cyclanthaceae, 51 Cynodon nlemfuensis (East African Star Grass), 393, 409 cypress. See Cupressus lusitanica cytotoxicity, of plant compounds, 452 dairy plant, 374, 390, 393, 405 effect on the Quebrada Guacimal, 446-448 dairy production, 43, 354, 366, 379, 381, 391, 399 characteristics of farms, 395t feeds, 396, 407 herd management, 393, 397 history of, 392-394 pests in, 409-410 sustainability of, 394-396, 405-406 damselflies, 97, 423 dance flies, 123 day length, 16 dead organic matter, 321-322 debt swapping, 362-363, 367, 377 decomposition, 24, 27, 28-29, 328, 334-335, 341 deer, 225f, 234 Deer Mouse. See Peromyscus nudipes defense mechanisms, of long-horned beetles, 114 deforestation, 40, 153, 168, 183, 231, 232, 235, 352, 362, 422 associated with farming, 394, 399 effect on birds, 198, 202, 213 effect on mammals, 223 effect on precipitation, 32 effect on soils, 29 and habitat disruption, 189, 420, 425-426 historical, 408 and nutrient inputs, 393 demographics, 422, 431 of birds, 196 divergence, 189 variability in amphibians, 169 Dendropanax arboreus, 452 Desmodus rotundus (Common Vampire Bat), 232f, 233 564

Index

Dicksoniaceae, 60 Didymopanax pittieri, 307, 308, 312 diet breadths and seed dispersal, 259260

of Emerald Toucanets, 214 and reproduction in mice, 228 selectivity among birds, 208, 210212

specialization, 200, 205-206, 260 of spittlebugs, 102 differentiation, of amphibian species, 156

digestive physiology of birds, 188, 206 of long-horned beetles, 115 of seed dispersers, 262, 289 dioecy, 251 Diptera, 96, 122-124 migration of, 438 disease and amphibian declines, 161, 169, 170

susceptibility to, 422 dispersal, barriers to, 156, 422, 425 Disteniidae, 114 disturbed areas as habitats, 168 vegetation in, 47, 51-52, 61 diversity. See biodiversity; species diversity downslope force, 32 dragonflies, 96-97, 423 drosophilids, 270 dry season, 18, 41, 171, 328 and agriculture, 391 forage, 400 and fruiting phenology, 227 and litterfall, 329 dung beetles, 107 dwarf forests. See elfin forests Dynastes hercules (Hercules Beetle), 106, 107f, 111 earthquakes, 24 Earth Summit, 433 earthworms, 337 easements, 371, 381-382 East African Star Grass. See Cynodon nlemfuensis Ecitoninae, 133 economic development, 374, 376 ecosystem management, 430 ecosystem research, 303 ecosystem services, 420 ecosystems, disruption of, 420 ecotourism, 3, 202, 352, 353, 367, 368, 371,372, 373, 374, 378,430 development of, 355 effect on bird populations, 433 and employment, 355, 376, 401 number of tourists, 359, 360, 368f problems associated with, 424 training of guides, 360 ectoparasites, as prey of beetles, 110 Ecuador, 377


edge effects, 422 edge species, 449 education, 352, 355, 369, 373, 375 about pesticide application, 403 at the community level, 377-378 by Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, 360 by Monteverde Conservation League, 364-365 in public and private schools, 370372

at Santa Elena High School Cloud Forest Reserve, 368 Education Abroad Program, 225 Egretta caerulea (Cattle Egret), 395 Eira barbara (Tayra), 233 El Buen Amigo cooperative, 366 Elephant Ear. See Xanthosoma robustum Eleutherodactylus angelicus (Tilaran Rain Frog), 161 Eleutherodactylus bransfordii (Bransford's Litter Frog), 167 Eleutherodactylus diastema (Common Dink Frog), 158 elevation. See altitude elfin forest, 45, 70, 90 ontogeny of stature, 304-308 El Nino, 231 affect on phenological patterns, 65 response of frogs to, 166 embryo mortality, in amphibians, 161, 164-165, 173 Emerald Toucanet. See Aulacorhynchus prasinus employment ecotourism as a source of, 355, 376 by Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, 359 seasonal, 400, 401 endemism, 420 of amphibians and reptiles, 156, 157t of bees, 138 of plants, 50, 52t, 61 Endomychidae, 107 energy consumption, in hummingbirds, 199 Enlace Verde Project, 381-382 environmental awareness, 371 environmental regulations, 405 Ephemeroptera, 96 epipedon, 27 epiphylls, 57, 80 epiphytes, 41, 43, 50, 53-54, 54-57, 72-73, 312, 321 amphibians and reptiles associated with, 168-169 bryophytes as, 79 death of, 334 evolution of, 75-78 families of, 519-522 as food resources for birds, 188 longevity of fallen, 344-345 mycorrhizae of, 338-339 nutrient retention by, 332, 341

pollination of, 247, 252, 267-268 as refuges for spiders, 140-141 seed dispersal, 258 soils associated with, 34 species in different cloud forests, 68 trees growing as, 70 water storage in, 76 epiphytic matter, 333f, 334 biomass of, 321-322, 332 microbes in, 336 Eremolepidaceae, 57, 81 Ericaceae, 50, 58, 73, 253, 345 mycorrhizae associated with, 60 pollination by hummingbirds, 267268

erosion, 22, 23, 32-33, 365, 396, 411, 425f and farming, 394-395, 399, 402, 414 reduction by windbreaks, 397 escape hypothesis, 256 Estacion Biologica, 90 ethnobotany, 452 Eumolpinae, 116 Euphonia clutch sizes, 191-192 foraging behavior, 186, 188 seed dispersal of mistletoes, 289 Euphorbiaceae, 317 Eurypyga helias (Sunbittern), 193 eusociality, in hymenopterans, 125 eutrophication, 446 evapotranspiration, 8, 29, 30-31 evolutionary divergence, 254 experimental design, 429 exploitation, 245 Explorers Club, 358 exports, 401 extinction, 167, 428 birds at risk of, 202 evaluating, 157, 422, 423 local, 420, 428 of rare species, 421 Fabaceae, 42, 49, 253 flowering and fruiting patterns, 66 pollination of, 248 seeds of bull's eye, 72 Fagaceae, 253 falcons, 186, 196 Family Life Program, 370 farming. See agriculture; beef production; dairy production faults, 21, 22 feeding behavior. See also foraging of beetles, 110, 112, 114, 116 of heteropterans, 99 of homopterans, 100 of lepidopterans, 119, 120 feeding mechanisms, of aquatic insects, 96 feeds, 396, 400 Felis concolor (Mountain Lion), 224 Felis pardalis (Ocelot), 234 Felis wiedii (Margay), nest predation by, 229 fenceposts, 397, 398f

565

Index

ferns, 45, 53, 60, 89, 191 resources for identification, 64 species in different cloud forests, 68 fertility, in birds, 196, 198 fertilization, soil, 400 fertilizers, 411 management, 396 use in coffee production, 402 Ficus. See figs Fieldiana series, 64 field stations, 90, 431 figs, 271-273, 444 strangler, 71-72, 73 fig wasps, 111 fire ants, 134 First World Congress of Herpetology, 172

fitness, in birds, 191 flea beetles, 116 fleas, 229 fledging, 194-195, 208 Fleischmann's Glass Frog. See Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni flies, 122-124. See also specific types of flies and floral sex, 278-279 migration of, 438 flight, of wood nymphs, 119 floaters, 207 flocks, mixed species, 184-186, 196, 203, 205-207 floral heating, 268 floral sexuality, 246, 251-252 alteration by fly larvae, 278-279 floral traits, 268, 281 flower flies, 124 flowering and bird migration, 194 constraint by temperature, 255 effect of nectarivore foraging, 201 in Elephant Ear, 269 of figs, 272 of hummingbird-pollinated plants, 66

of Inga, 86 phenological displacement, 254 and reproduction in birds, 190 in trees, 65, 281-283 fluorescent dye technique, 241 foliage, nutrient concentrations of, 329, 330t foliicolous plants, 80 food availability and breeding in birds, 190 for mammals, 231 forages alternative, 397, 398 management of, 400 foraging. See also feeding behavior behavior, 206-207, 214 efficiency, 207 of frugivorous birds, 200 in hummingbird guilds, 199 by mixed-species flocks, 184-186, 206-207


foraging [continued] success and climate, 162 in tapirs, 242 foraging success hypothesis, 206 forest floor, microtopography, 24 forest plots, 90 Forest Rabbit. See Sylvilagus brasiliensis Forestry Law, 412 forests acquired for conservation, 372 comparison of precipitation among, 326, 327t, 328 composition of, 252, 304-320, 316-318, 434-435 loss of, 9. See also deforestation successional, 48t types of, 39, 306f, 318t Forests on Farms and Corridors Project, 366-367 Formicidae, 125, 132-136 Forsyth, Adrian, 365, 372 fossil fuels, 324 Friends Committee on Unity with Nature, 380 Friends of Monteverde Cloud Forest, 361

Friend's School, 369, 371, 373 frijol tapado, 414-415 Fringe-lipped Bat. See Trachops cirrhosus froghoppers, 101-102, 393, 409-410 Froglog, 173

frogs courtship and mating in, 163-164 oviposition and embryo mortality, 173

population crashes in, 156f predators of, 159-160 response to El Nino, 166 frugivores. See also fruit handling abundance of, 43 7t opportunistic, 259 fruit abundance and bat reproduction, 227 abundance and quetzal migration, 194

color, 257 size and shape, 260-261 fruit handling, 258-259 in birds, 214, 289 fruiting, 227, 283-286 and bird pollination, 201 of figs, 273 patterns of trees, 65, 281-283 fruit production, 403 functional groups, of aquatic insects, 96

Fundacion Centro Ecologico Bosque Nuboso de Monteverde, 369 funding, 362, 364, 367, 377 for research, 431 fungi, 60-61, 125, 410, 424. See also mushrooms, mycorrhizae as coffee pests, 402 and farming, 391

grown by ants, 133-134 in gut of invertebrates, 83-85 mice as dispersers of spores, 240 and mutualisms with beetles, 110111, 117, 118 and roots, 323 fungicides, 402 Fusarium, 410 Galictis vittata (Grison), 233 gall formation, 128 gall wasps, 126 gaps, 308, 346 clumping of, 313 colonization of, 285, 290, 310-312 rate of regeneration, 312-313 variation among, 309 gemmae, 80 Gender and Women's Studies Program, 370 gene flow, 255 and habitat fragmentation, 422 and seed dispersal, 266 genetic diversity, 290, 420 genetic improvement, 397, 400 geographic isolation, 156, 422. See also habitat fragmentation geologic history, 20 geomorphological activity, 23 German Herpetological Society, 358 germination, 265, 285, 442 Gesneriaceae, 51, 252 Giant Anteater. See Myrmecophaga tridactyla Gilricidia sepium, 403 glass frogs, breeding systems of, 163164

global warming, 171, 231-232, 425, 428

and amphibian declines, 169 Golden Toad. See Bufo periglenes Golden Toad Laboratory for Conservation, 174, 430 government incentives, 367 grasses, 61-63 and cattle grazing, 399 grasshoppers, 98-99 grassroots organizations, 351, 354, 374

Gray-breasted Wood-Wren. See Henicorhina leucophrys Gray Fox. See Urocyon cin ere oargen teus Gray Lichen Anole. See Norops intermedius grazing, rotational, 393, 395, 399 Great-tailed Crackles. See Quiscalus mexicanus Green-eyed Frog. See Rana forreri Green Hermit. See Phaethornis guy greenhouse effect, 170 Grison. See Galictis vittata group living, of treehoppers, 104 growth of elfin forests, 305 of lizards, 158, 168 566

Index

Gryllidae, 98 Guacimal Land Company, 353, 356, 357

Guanacaste National Park, 440 Guanacaste Province, 399 guans, 232, 435 guilds, 199-200, 282 of birds, 449 of hummingbirds, 216-218 of plants, 253-254 Guindon, Wilford, 4, 372 gullies, 32 gut passage rate, 188 habitat diversity, 439 preferences and seed dispersal, 265

and productivity in wrens, 208 saturation, 189 use of amphibians and reptiles, 166-169 use of treehoppers, 104 habitat destruction associated with dairy farming, 394 effect on birds, 197 effect on tapirs, 234, 242 habitat fragmentation, 189, 234-235, 422, 448 due to deforestation, 426 effect on birds, 202 Hadley cell circulation, 19 halteres, 122 Hampea, 444 mortality, 319 Harlequin Beetle. See Acrocinus longimanus Harlequin Frog. See Atelopus varius Harpellales, 83 harvesting intervals, 396 haustoria, 58 hawkmoths, pollination by, 66, 248 hawks, nest predation by, 196 heat sensitivity, of reptiles, 168 Heliocarpus, mortality, 319 hemiepiphytes, 55, 70, 73, 273 Hemiptera, 96, 99-106 Henicorhina leucophrys (Graybreasted Wood-Wren), 187f herbicides, 402 herbs, 51-52 families of, 519-522 seed dispersal, 258 species, 46t Hercules Beetle. See Dynastes hercules Hesperiidae, 119 Heteroptera, 99-100 Hippoboscidae, 123 Hispid Cotton Rat. See Sigmodon hispidus histosols, 27 epiphytic, 34 hog production, 405, 407, 415 Holdridge, Leslie, 352 homesteading, 357, 363, 367


Homoptera, 100-101 biodiversity of, 423 honey bees, Africanized, 138-139 horticulture, history of, 408 host specificity of beetles, 110, 117 of psyllids, 105 hotels, 355 House Wren. See Troglodytes aedon hover flies, 124 human activity. See also deforestation; habitat destruction effect on bird populations, 433 humidity, in the canopy, 346 Hummingbird Gallery, 355 hummingbirds breeding season of, 190 digestive physiology, 188 foraging in, 195, 216-218, 250 guilds of, 199-200 incubation in, 193 interactions with plants, 203 migration in, 184, 194, 201 molting in, 195 nesting in, 191 pollination by, 65, 247, 253, 267268

population densities of, 198 hunting, 202, 224, 232, 235, 391, 424, 425, 430 of birds, 198 effect on tapirs, 234, 242 hurricanes, 20, 304 Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Bare- hearted Glass Frog), 165 Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Fleischmann's Glass Frog), 149, 164 hybridization, between bee races, 139

hydraulic conductivity, of soil, 28 hydroelectricity, 363, 380 hydrologic inputs, wind-driven, 19-20 hydrology, 29-33 Hyla angustillineata (Pin-striped Treefrog), 157 Hyla pseudopuma (Meadow Treefrog), oviposition and parental care, 164 Hyla uranochroa (Red-eyed Stream Frog), recolonization in, 158 Hymenoptera, 124-139 distribution of, 126-129 migration of, 438 Ichneumonidae, 124 Icones series, 64 idiobionts, 124 inbreeding, 104, 117, 256 inceptisols, 27 incubation, in birds, 193 Indian Pipe, 58 indicator species, 429 indigenous peoples, 391, 408^09, 452 Inga, 85-87, 277-278

insects. See also names of specific insects aquatic, 96-98 distribution of, 95 migration of, 438 institutional infrastructure, 431 Interamerican Foundation, 379, 383 interception loss, 30 intercropping, 403 International Children's Rain Forest, 170. See Children's Eternal Forest International Organic Crop Improvement Association, 402 International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 352, 431

Intertropical Convergence Zone, 16, 18 invertebrates in the canopy, 346 gut fungi of, 83-85 in organic matter, 336-337 ion deposition, 326, 327t, 328t, 330t irrigation, 353, 380, 391, 403 isopods, ants that prey on, 135 Ithomiinae, 120-121 Jaguar, 224, 234 James, Mary and Walter, 10 jelly fungus, 125 katydids, 98-99 Kern, Eha, 363 Kikuyu Grass. See Pennisetum clandestinum killer bees, 139 Kinderregenwald Deutschland, 364 Kinkajou. See Potos flavus kin selection, 189, 204, 212 Kinsman, Sharon, 363 kitchen gardens, 412 knowledge, 389 koniobionts, 124 Kriebel, Ann, 380 La Bella Farm, 380 labor availability, 400, 401 La Campesinita, 384 La Cruz Reserve, 366 Lactophilus, 446 lagoons, hog waste, 405, 406f, 415 Lake Arenal, 380 lakes, 26-27 land prices, 385 landslides, 23, 24-26, 313, 430 land use, 324, 430 patterns, 428 zoning, 360, 381 larvae alteration of floral sex by fly, 278279

of aquatic insects, 96 of beetles, 106-107, 115 of flies, 123, 124 as food source for birds, 208 hymenopteran, 124-126 567

Index

La Selva Biological Station, 431 Las Juntas Fault, 21 Lauraceae, 53, 69, 253, 316, 317, 430

association with birds, 260 density-dependent mortality, 263-264 flowering and fruiting patterns, 66 pollination of, 249 recolonization by, 442-444 seed dispersal in, 283f, 289-291, 426-427 sex ratios in, 87-88 La Ventana, 438 leaching, 396 leaf adaptations, 76 leaf beetles, 117-119, 423 leafcutting ants, 133-134 leaf diversity, 49-50 leaf flushing, 65-66 leafhoppers, 100, 102-103 leaf litter ants, 135 leaf miners, 108f, 116 leaf tents, of bats, 227 f, 228 Leiton family, 379, 390t Lejeuneaceae, 79 lek mating, 189, 215 lenticels, 340 Lepidoptera, 118-122 Leptanillophilini, 110 lianas, 54, 56f, 72 families of, 519-522 pollination of, 252 seed dispersal, 258 lichens, 60-61 life zones, 8, 41-44, 439 bird species in, 181, 182-183 distribution of bats in, 231-232 light, availability of, 345 Limon Province, 224 Linyphiidae, 140 lithophytes, 45 litter, 329-334 decomposition, 24, 27, 328, 334 dynamics, 335, 341-342 litterfall biomass of, 343f nutrient concentration of, 330t litter size, in mice, 228, 238 liverworts, 80 lizards abundance of, 159f breeding systems of, 163 declines in, 158, 170 distribution and thermobiology, 168

long-horned beetles, 114-115 Long-tailed Manakin. See Chiroxiphia linearis Long-tailed Weasel. See Mustela frenata Loranthaceae, 50, 57, 81 Los Llanos, 90 lower montane forest, 43 Lowland Fruit-eating Bat. See Artibeus tolteca


lupeol, 452 Lutra longicaudis (Southern River Otter), 233 Mac Arthur Foundation, 359 madero negro. See Gilricidia sepium magnesium, 391 maize, 409 Malathion, 410 male-male competition among lek-mating birds, 189 in frogs and toads, 163, 164 in long-horned beetles, 114 mammals. See also names of specific mammals arboreal, 239-240 change in abundance of, 232—234 interactions with other taxa, 228, 229

pollination by, 249-250 reproductive ecology, 226-228 research on, 235 seed dispersal by, 257 species diversity of, 223, 224-225 species list of, 553-557 systematics, 225-226 manganese, 391 Mantled Howler Monkey. See Alouatta palliata manure management, 395, 396 Margarodidae, 105 Margay. See Felis wiedii marketing, coffee, 401 Marmosa mexicana (Mexican Mouse Opposum), 229, 235 mate choice, in female birds, 189 maternal investment, of treehoppers, 104

mating behavior, of long-horned beetles, 114 mating systems, of Brown Jays, 212

maturation, in birds, 189 mayflies, 84 Meadow Treefrog. See Hyla pseudopuma Megalopodinae, 115-116 Melastomataceae, 70 pollination of, 249 seed dispersal in, 256 Meliaceae, 49 Meliosma subcordata, 262 Meliponinae, 137-138 Membracidae, 103-104 Mendenhall, Hubert and Mildred, 356

metamorphosis, 106, 122 Mexican Mouse Opposum. See Marmosa mexicana mice, 236 aggression in, 238 pollination by, 275-276 Miconia, 312 microbes, biomass of, 336 microbial infestation, of fruit, 211

microclimate, 33 and invertebrate abundance, 337 micro-satellites, 204 Microsciurus alfari (Alfaro's Pygmy Squirrel), 236 midges, 83, 429 migration altitudinal, 255, 361, 367 in birds, 183 and corridors, 439442

in insects, 96, 130 in mammals, 229, 231 and seed dispersal, 263 in birds, 183-184, 194 corridors, 427 in froghoppers, 410 in insects, 438 in lepidopterans, 118-119, 120 seasonal in mammals, 231 milk quality, 397 mimicry, 121-122 in hymenopterans, 126 intersexual, 251, 279-281 in long-horned beetles, 114 in wasps, 130, 131-132 mineralization, 334 mineral supplements, 396, 400 mineral weathering, 27 Ministry of Agriculture and Ranching, 393, 410 Ministry of Education, 360 Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy, and Mines, 353 Ministry of the Environment and Energy, 353 Missouri Botanical Garden, 39 mist, 18 mistletoes, 81-82 colonization of host trees, 265 as food for birds, 200 seed dispersal, 288-289 mites, 139 nectar-feeding, 250 in soil, 337 moisture availability, and frog habitats, 166 molecular techniques, 431 Molothrus aeneus (Bronzed Cowbird), 419 molt, in birds, 195 Monge, Juan Jose, 390t monitoring systems, 203, 429, 431 monkeys, 233 Montane Anole. See Norops altae Montanoa guatemalensis (Tubu), 366, 449 Monteverde maps of, 7f, 8f regions of, 5-9 research in, 9, 11-13 settlement of, 3-5, 10-11, 353-356 Monteverde 2020, 378-379 Monteverde Butterfly Garden, 355, 374, 382-383, 390t

568

Index

Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, 351, 374,439 and economic growth, 376 education, 360 origins and development, 357-360 Monteverde Conservation League, 170, 198, 203, 351, 358, 361367, 397, 430, 441, 448 education by, 364-365 origins and development, 362-364 Monteverde Flora Project, 39-40 Monteverde Institute, 373 origins and development, 369-370 Monteverde Reserve Complex, 351, 367,439 map of, 6f Monteverde salamander. See Bolitoglossa subpalmata mortality. See also embryo mortality rates of trees, 319 sources of in amphibians and reptiles, 159-161 mosquitoes, 122 as fungi hosts, 84 moss, 78-79 amphibians and reptiles associated with mats of, 168 use in bird nests, 191 Moss, Martha, 372 moths, 118-122 pollination by, 248 Mountain Lion. See Felis concolor Mountain Robin. See Turdus plebejus mushrooms, 61 Mussuranas, 161 Mustela frenata (Long-tailed weasel), nest predation by, 229 mutualism, 245, 273 loss of, 421 Myadestes melanops (Black-faced Solitaire) diet breadth, 260 habitat preferences of, 266 migration in, 184, 263 seed dispersal by, 263, 284, 285f seed passage rate, 262 mycorrhizae, 323, 338-339 Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Giant Anteater), 223, 224 myrmecophytes, 291-293 Myrsinaceae, pollination of, 249 Nadkarni plots, 90 Naked-footed Mouse. See Peromyscus nudipes Nasua narica (White-nosed Coati), 233 nest predation by, 229 national financial crisis, 393 National Geographic Society, 356 national park system, 352, 353 natural disturbances, 308-310 and pollination, 253 and regeneration, 313 natural history walks, 360


natural resource use, 389 Nature Conservancy, 358, 371 Nazca plate, 20 nectar, 267 -foraging bats, 228 -foraging birds, 199 production, 268t role in pollination, 250 nectaries, 250f, 277-278 neoteny, 76 nest building, 125 in bees, 136-137 in birds, 190-191 in eusocial wasps, 129 materials and locations, 192t nest fidelity, 137 nest predation, 196-197, 229 nests of mouse opposums, 235 sanitation, 214 Netherlands, The, 365, 367, 377 Nippon Kodomo no Jungle, 364 nitrates, in cloud water, 161 nitric oxides, 324, 325, 326, 328 nitrogen, 329, 331t, 342 availability, 332 in canopy and on forest floor, 322 content of soils, 35t inorganic, 328 nitrogen-fixing bacteria, 72 nocturnal activity of hymenopterans, 127 of scarab beetles, 111 noise, from hog farms, 415 nomadic phases, 133 Norops altae (Montane Anole), 158, 161 Norops intermedius (Gray Lichen Anole), 158 Norops tropidolepsis (Cloud Forest Anole), 158, 161 nortes, 308 nuclear species, 206, 207 nurse logs, 312 nutrient cycling, 320-335, 329 and deforestation, 393 nutrients in fine litter, 333t replenishment of, 342 in soils, 29 sources for epiphytes, 341 storage of, 315 use of, 339 nutrient starvation, in elfin forests, 304 Nycteribiidae, 123 Nyctomys sumichrasti (Sumichrast's Vesper Rat), 237-238 Nymphalidae, 119-120 oaks, 26, 69, 248, 249 Ocelot. See Felis pardalis Ocotea tenera, 266 fruit size, 260 seed dispersal, 290-291 Ocotea tonduzii, 316

Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer), 225 f, 234 Odonata, 96, 97, 423 Oedipodinae, 98 Oligoryzomys fulvescens (Pygmy Rice Mouse), 226, 22 7f, 241 Olingo. See Bassaricyon gabbii Ophioninae, 127 opossums, 226 opportunistic breeding, 228 orchids, 45, 50, 51, 55, 56, 57, 69, 74-75, 258, 345, 428 biodiversity of, 424 pollination of, 249 resources for identification, 64 species in different cloud forests, 68 species list, 523-527 organic farming. See under agriculture organic matter, 315t, 321-322, 414 decomposition, 28-29 invertebrates in, 336-337 moisture content of, 316f in soil, 27 Organization for Tropical Studies, 5, 11, 225, 303, 352, 359, 375, 431,446 history of research by, 11 Orthogeomys cherriei (Cherrie's Pocket Gopher), 233 Orthoptera, 98-99 Oryzomys albigularis (Tome's Rice Rat), 229 outbreeding in beetles, 117 in treehoppers, 104 outdoor lighting, 112, 424 effect on nocturnal insects, 95 oviposition in beetles, 112, 115, 117 in frogs and toads, 164-165 in transparent butterflies, 120 oxisols, 27 Paca. See Agouti paca Pacific Slope Forest, 41, 435-436 Paederinae, 108 paleoecology, 26-27 Palmer, Charles, 10 Palo Verde National Park, 44 Panax, 452 paper wasps, 129 parasites of amphibians, 160 of birds, 197 and climate, 162 flies as, 122 plants as, 57-58 parasitoids, 124-125, 128, 277 distribution of, 127 loss of, 427 parental care in bark beetles, 117 in birds, 191, 194-195, 208 in frogs and toads, 164

569

Index

pastures, 428 birds nesting in, 192t burning of, 399, 411-412 management of, 398 and orchid conservation, 74 patterns of recolonization in abandoned, 442-444 pests of, 391, 393, 395t, 409-410 Pecari tajacu (Collared Peccary), 234 peccaries, 234 Peck, Daniel, 390t Penas Blancas, 90 peneplains, 22 Pennisetum clandestinum, 393, 395, 409 pensiones, 355 Perennial Groundnut. See Arachis pintoi Peromyscus nudipes (Deer Mouse; Naked-footed Mouse), 241 as beetle host, 229 population dynamics of, 228 reproduction of, 238-239 Perryiinae, 125 pesticides, 403, 410 and dairy farming, 395 management of, 407 use in coffee production, 402 use in Santa Elena, 414 pests biological control of, 390 management of, 397, 402 pasture, 391, 393, 395t as threat to biodiversity, 420 pet trade, 198 Phaethornis guy (Green Hermit), vocalizations of, 190 Pharomachrus mocinno (Resplendent Quetzal), 43, 355, 358, 371, 426, 432, 435, 443 conservation of, 203 densities of, 195 diet breadth, 260 incubation in, 193 migration in, 184, 194, 263, 427, 439-442 nest predation, 229 phenology, 64-65, 401, 430. See also flowering; fruiting pheromones alarm, 123 in scale insects, 105 Pholcidae, 140 Phoridae, 123-124 phosphates, in cloud water, 161 phosphorus, 329, 331t, 342, 391, 414 availability, 332 photoperiod, and reproduction, 227, 228 photosynthesis, effect of epiphyllous plants on rate of, 80 photosynthetically active radiation, 309, 310 Phyllostomidae, 434-435


phylogeny, 75, 282 Phytolacca rivinoides, 264, 283-286 phytophagy, 125, 126 phytotoxemia, 409 Pieridae, 120 pines, 69 Pin-striped Treefrog. See Hyla angu stillin ea ta pioneer plants. See colonization Piperaceae, 338, 345 piping, 24 pit vipers, 163, 168 plant-animal interactions, 117, 245, 246-256, 261-262 patterns in, 262-263 plants ecology and distribution of, 66—67, 424

growth forms, 50-61, 519-522 pioneer. See colonization regeneration via fragments, 88 resources for identification, 63-64 role in hydrology, 30 secondary, 47 seed dispersal and reproductive success, 263-266 as source for medicinal compounds, 431, 432, 452-453 species list of vascular, 457—518 species richness and diversity, 50 in swamps, 24 types, 39, 41 water storage capacity, 31 plate tectonics, 20 Platypodidae, 117-118 Plecoptera, 96 Poaceae, 51 Poco Sol, 367 Podocarpaceae, pollination of, 249 pointer hypothesis, 199, 216-218 politics, 366 pollen availability and bee activity, 137 delivery of, 251-252 dispersal, 255, 259 records, 26 pollination, 86, 201, 246, 247t, 253, 435

during adverse weather, 65 by bats, 247 by bees, 139, 249 by beetles, 248 by birds, 200, 247, 276 by butterflies and moths, 248 competition for, 262 deceit, 279-281 by flies, 124, 248 and floral sexual systems, 251-252 by mammals, 249-250 patterns, 254-255 by rodents, 228, 241 role of nectar, 250 by wind, 249 pollinator effectiveness, 252 pollinator preference, 280

pollution, 161, 324, 352, 367, 428, 446

from coffee processing, 402 and pasture burning, 411 polygyny, in bark beetles, 117 polymorphism, in wasps, 132 Pompilidae, 125 Ponerinae, 133, 134 pools, and frog breeding, 164, 173 population biology, 170, 266, 429 of bees, 139 of birds, 195-198, 419 of mice, 228 of plants, 66-67 population bottlenecks, 422 population declines, 421 population density and chemical defense, 122 of frogs, 166-167, 173 in mice, 238 of treehoppers, 104 population sizes, effective, 422 Portland Audubon Society, 362 potassium, 324, 326, 391 turnover time for, 334 Potos flavus (Kinkajou), 239f poultry production, 405 sustainability of, 407 Powell, George, 179, 355, 356f, 357, 371

precipitation, 8, 17-20, 29, 34t, 41, 391 daily variation, 171 ionic activity of, 326t, 327t in life zones, 183 nutrient inputs, 324-325, 332 patterns, 162 seasonality of, 16 predation avoidance of, 186 of birds, 196, 197t, 208 as a selective pressure, 207 predators, 430 effect of habitat fragmentation on, 422

prehistoric cultures, 408—409 premontane forest, 42, 43 preservation, 352, 432-433. See also conservation prey choice, role in evolution of wasp colors, 131 prey density, 161, 166, 168 principal components analysis, 310

productivity, of elfin forests, 304 Productores de Monteverde, 393 Pro sap ia, 409-410 Psammisia rami flora, 267 psyllids (Psylloidea), 101, 104-105 species list and hosts of, 532-534 publicity, 355 Pygmy Rice Mouse. See Oligoryzomys fulvescens Quakers, 3, 4, 351, 354, 356-357, 369, 377, 378, 380, 391 and dairy industry, 392-393

570

Index

Quebrada Guacimal, 446-448 quebradas. See ravines, tributary quetzals. See Resplendent quetzals Quiscalus mexicanus (Great-tailed Crackle), 419 rainfall, 41. See also precipitation Rainforest Alliance, 363 Rain Forest Partners, 364 rain frogs breeding systems of, 163 changes in populations in, 167 oviposition and parental care, 164 rainshadow, 42 Rana forreri (Green-eyed Frog), 157 rare species, 421, 425, 429 rats, pollination by, 275-276 ravines, tributary, 22 recolonization, 157, 422 after landslides, 26 of Lauraceous trees, 442-444 recycling, 360 Red-eyed Stream Frog. See Hyla uranochroa redstarts, foraging behavior, 188 Reduviidae, 99-100 reforestation, 364, 365-367, 371, 373, 400, 450 regeneration, 88, 309, 313 Reithrodontomys creper (Chiriqui Harvest Mouse), 228, 241 as beetle host, 229 Reithrodontomys gracilis (Slender Harvest Mouse), 237 release calls, 163 reproduction age at first, 428 in army ants, 133 asexual, 88 in birds, 190-191 in mice, 228, 238-239 photoperiod and suppression of, 227 in spittlebugs, 102 in wood nymphs, 119-120 reproductive behavior, of scale insects, 105 reproductive ecology, of amphibians and reptiles, 163-166 reproductive isolation, 77 reptiles abundance of, 158-159 biodiversity of, 423 changes in populations of, 153, 157-166, 170 effect of habitat changes on, 424 geography and history of, 155-157 habitat use, 167-168 sources of mortality in, 161 species list of, 538-540 research, 224, 360-361, 431 reserves, designing, 202 residential expansion, effect on conservation, 424 Resplendent Quetzal. See Pharomachrus mocinno


resprouting, 318, 319, 39 restoration ecology, 431 retranslocation, 329, 331 rhizobia, 400 ridges, 44 rills, 32 Rio Perlas Blancas, 19, 22 ripple bugs, 100 Rittenmeir, Carl, 10 river channels, 32 roads, 391 robber flies, 123 rock ridges, 44-45 Rockwell, Marvin, 390t rodents. See also specific names of rodents; types of rodents beetles associated with, 109-110 climbing, 240t pollination by, 228, 241, 276t seed preferences of, 286 vocalizations in, 236-238 roots biomass and nutrient pools of, 322-323 growth of adventitious, 339-341 interaction with soil, 314 rove beetles, 108-111, 229 Rubiaceae, 70 Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush. See Catharus frantzii runoff, 19, 29, 30, 31, 353 salamanders, 153 breeding systems of, 163 declines in, 172-173 habitats of, 168-169 San Gerardo, 90, 367, 380-381 San Luis, 353, 385, 391, 401 settlement of, 232 San Luis Biological Station, 361 Santa Clara Ecological Reserve, 43

Santa Elena Development Association, 374 Santa Elena High School Cloud Forest Reserve, 351, 367-369 saprophytes, 58-59 Sapindaceae, 49 Sapium pachystachys, 305 sarcophagid flies, 160 Satyrinae, 119, 120-121 Save the Rainforest, 364 sawflies, 125 scale insects, 105-106 scarab beetles, 111-113 pollination by, 268-271 scatter hoarding, 257 Scelionidae, 124 Schefflera, 452 scientists, 373 Sciurus variegatoides (Variegated Squirrel), 233 Scolytidae, 117-118 scorpions, 139, 140f Scotinomys teguina (Alston's Brown Mouse), 236, 237f

seasonally, 281, 391 and colonization, 283 effect on bee activity, 137 effect on wasp life history, 130 and litterfall, 329 of reproductive cycles in amphibians and reptiles, 166 responses of birds to, 194-195 of seed dispersal, 263-264 sea-surface temperature, 162 sedimentation rates, 23 sediment load, 32 seed coat thickness, 287 seed dispersal, 255, 284, 426-427, 428 by arboreal mice, 240 by bats, 227 by birds, 186, 200, 201, 283f, 294295

in Blakea and Topobea, 276-277 events after, 286-287 and gene flow, 266 in Lauraceae, 289-291 manipulation of behavior, 261-262 in mistletoe, 81 modes of, 256-257, 258 and plant reproductive success, 263-266 and timing of fruiting, 282 seed dormancy, 265 seed morphology, 257 seed passage rates, 262 seed predation, 263, 264, 285, 286 seed set, limited by pollination, 254 seed size, 287 selection, 282 floral, 254, 280 r versus K, 239 in wasps, 132 Senecio cooperi, 339 sensible heat, 18 sentinels. See indicator species serpentarium, 355 settlers, 373, 389 Seventh Day Adventist School, 371, 373

sex ratios, 422 of flowers, 278 of frogs, 166 of trees, 87-88 sex switching, in plants, 87 sexual dimorphism among scale insects, 105 in birds, 189, 214 in scarab beetles, 111 shading, by epiphyllous plants, 80 sheetwash erosion, 32 shrews, 224, 226, 235 shrubs families of, 519-522 seed dispersal by bats, 258 species, 46t, 48t, 52, 53f Sigmodon hispidus (Hispid Cotton Rat), 236 silos, 397 sinks, 431 House Wrens as, 448

571

Index

skippers, 119 skunks, 233 slash/mulch systems, 414-415 Slender Harvest Mouse. See Reithrodontomys gracilis slopes, oversteepening of, 24 slurry systems, 396 Small Organic Producers Association, 403 snag density, 200 snakes declines in, 153, 170 frog-eating, 158-159, 159f, 428 as predators of lizards, 161 sociality of treehoppers, 103-104 of wasps, 129 soil in abandoned farm land, 442 carbon and nitrogen content of, 35t

compaction, 411 fertility, 338, 396, 410 formation and classification, 27 improvement, 367 of leeward cloud forests, 313-315 loss equation, 394 microbes in, 336 pH, 28, 391 physical and chemical properties, 27-29 root biomass in, 322 on trees. See tree soil Solanaceae, 50, 249 solar angle, 16 solar heating, 18 solar radiation, 8, 16, 17f, 162 song rate, of birds, 190 sonograms, 215, 236 sound production, by orthopterans, 98

Southern River Otter. See Lutra longicaudis Spanish Conquest, 408-409 specialization, 428 species declines, 232 species diversity, 390 alpha, 183 beta, 183, 420, 423 of mammals, 223, 224-225 of psyllids, 105 species interactions, 420 species richness, 420, 423 of amphibians and reptiles, 151 of birds, 182-184, 201 comparison of regions, 67t of hymenopterans, 127 of plants, 50, 51t of trees in windbreaks, 450 Species Survival Commission, 172 Sphecidae, 125 Sphingidae, 248 spiders, 139-142, 270 spittlebugs, 100, 101-102, 391, 393, 409-410 control of, 395, 397


springs, 24 squatters, 363 squirrels, 233, 236 standards of proof, 169 staphylinids, 109-110, 229 statary phases, 133 stellar plot, 90 stemflow, 325, 326, 339 Sternorrhyncha, 100 Stiles, F. Gary, 179 stilt roots, 48-49 stink glands, of heteropterans, 99 stoneflies, 84 storms, 430 and bird mortality, 197 effect on elfin forests, 305 and epiphytic litter, 332 and tree damage, 319 and treefall, 308 stranglers, 59-60, 71-72, 73. See also figs streamflow, 29 stream incision, 24 streams, 31, 447t Streblidae, 123 Striped Hog-nosed Skunk. See Conepatus semistriatus Stuckey, Joseph, 390t Sturnira ludovici, 263 subduction, 20, 21-22 subsistence agriculture, 391 succession, 198 succulence, 76 Sumichrast's Vesper Rat. See Nyctomys sumichrasti Sunbittern. See Eurypyga helias survivorship in birds, 196 of tadpoles, 165 sustainability, 389 of dairy production, 394-396 of dual-purpose and beef farms, 399 improving, 396-397, 399-400 sustainable development, 352, 369, 372, 380, 384, 385 swamp forest, 45 swamps, 23-24 swarming, in army ants, 133 Sweden, 377 Swedish International Development Agency, 363 Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Forest Rabbit), 233 Symphyta, 125 syrphid flies, 124, 410 systematics, 225-226, 431 Tachinidae, 123 tacotal, 47 tadpoles, 160 cannibalism by, 164, 173 feeding ecology, 165-166 tanagers, 185, 188, 204, 205 guilds of, 200 tapirs, 234, 242, 358

Tapirus bairdii (Baird's Tapir), 234, 242

Task Force on Declining Amphibian Populations, 172 Tayassu pecari (White-lipped Peccary), 234 local extirpation of, 224 Tayra. See Eira barbara teachers, 370 tectonic uplift, 21-22 temperature, 17, 428 in the canopy, 346 and flowering, 255, 269, 270f historical, 26 and life zones, 41 of soil, 315 temporales, 20, 308 Terciopelo, 168 termites, 110 terracettes, 24 terracing, 402 territoriality of frogs, 164 of hummingbirds, 199 of mice, 238 Tettigoniidae, 98 Thelypteridaceae, 60 Theridiidae, 140 thermobiology, and distribution of lizards, 168 thermoregulation, in wasps, 132 thigmomorphogenesis, 307 Three-wattled Bellbird, 181f, 435, 443

densities of, 195 diet breadth, 260 foraging behavior, 186, 188 migration in, 184, 263, 428 seed dispersal by, 265 vocalizations of, 190 throughfall, 325, 326 ion fluxes in, 330t ticks, 400 control of, 395 Tilaran Rain Frog. See Eleutherodactylus angelicas toads, population crashes in, 156f Tome's Rice Rat. See Oryzomys albigularis top carnivores, 430 Topobea, reproductive biology of, 273-276 tortoise beetles, 116 toucanets, 186, 435 toucans, 435 tour guides, training of, 360 tourism. See ecotourism Tourist Institute, 356 Tovomitopsis psychotriifolia , 452

Trachops cirrhosus (Fringe-lipped Bat), 225 trade winds, 18, 19, 313, 397, 427 and agriculture, 391 traditional medicine, 452

572

Index

frans-d-tocotrienoloic acid, 453 transition season, 18 transition zones, 430 transpiration, 29 in elfin forests, 304-305 traplining, 199, 217 treefalls, 308-310, 318 tree ferns, 53, 60 use in bird nests, 191 treefrogs breeding systems of, 163 oviposition sites of, 173 treehoppers, 100 social behavior of, 103-104 treelets, species distribution, 52, 53f tree nurseries, 371 trees, 8-9 bark and trunk patterns, 47-48 biodiversity of, 424 breeding systems of Inga, 85-87 crown shape, 49, 306 damage to, 67, 318-320 densities of, 316-317 epiphytic cover, 321 families of, 519-522 flowering and fruiting, 65, 281-283 growing as epiphytes, 70 growth, 307 of leeward cloud forests, 315 outcrossing in, 255 planting, 397 pollination of, 252-253 resources for identification, 64 seed dispersal in, 289-291, 426 sex ratios of, 87-88 species, 44t, 46t, 48t, 52-53, 68, 435, 436t in swamps, 24 windbreaks as habitats for, 450451

tree soil, 70, 71, 315, 321, 323 dynamics, 341-342 invertebrates in, 336-337 Trichomycetes, 83, 84f, 85f Trichoptera, 96, 97 Troglodytes aedon (House Wren) age at breeding, 196 clutch sizes, 191 effect of botfly larvae on, 197 effect of wind on breeding, 195 nest predation, 229 as a population sink, 448 postfledging care in, 194 survivorship in, 198 territory sizes, 195 Troglodytidae, 208-210 trophic groups, 201, 430 tropical forest, 8^ 42, 43-44 Tropical Rainforest Programme, 431 Tropical Science Center, 170, 351, 352, 356 Trostle, John, 369 truck farming. See under agriculture trunk patterns, 47-48


tunnel systems, in bark beetles, 117 Turdus plebejus (Mountain Robin), diet breadth, 260 Tylomys watsoni (Watson's Climbing Rat), 241 Typhlocybinae, 103 ultisols, 27 ultraviolet radiation, 161, 428 umbrella species, 430 understory flowering and fruiting in, 65 light availability in, 310 pollination systems, 252 species richness of, 450 Universal Soil Loss Equation, 394 University of California Education Abroad Program, 369 University of Maryland, 382 University of New York-Buffalo, 382 Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox), 233 U.S. Peace Corps, 365 Vaccinium poasanum, 267 VanDusen, Katy, 390t Vargas, Carlos, 390t Vargas, Guillermo, 364 Vargas, Jose Luis, 390t Variegated Squirrel. See Sciurus variegatoides Varsan, 405 vegetable production, 401 organic, 403, 405 sustainability of, 406-407 vegetarianism, 371 vegetation. See plants Vespidae, 125, 129-131 veterinary care, 399 Villalobos, Christina, 390t vines, 54 families of, 519-522 seed dispersal by bats, 258 species, 46t Vinicio, Marco, 390t Viscaceae, 50, 57, 81 vitamin E derivatives, 452-453 vocalizations of bats, 226 of birds, 189, 190, 193, 204

in frogs and toads, 163-164 of rodents, 236-238 volcanism, 21-22, 22 warblers, 185 warming trends, 162 wasps, 126, 423 eusocial, 129-131, 535 fig, 111, 272 migration of, 438 waste pulp, from coffee processing, 402 waste treatment, 405, 406 water availability and establishment of mistletoes, 82

and frog breeding, 164, 173 flow, 31 monitoring, 32-33 quality, 96, 97, 447t seed dispersal by, 256 storage by bryophytes, 78 by epiphytes, 73, 76 in forests, 30 temperature and insect abundance, 97 vapor release, 18 water bugs, 100 waterlogging, 304 watershed protection, 356, 367, 372 water striders, 100 Watson's Climbing Rat. See Tylomys watsoni weather, 15-20 bird adaptations to, 194-195 effect on nutrient cycles, 321 and litterfall, 331 mortality of birds due to, 197 and pollination, 252 and seed dispersal, 262 weathering, 396 weeds, 61-63, 410 control in coffee production, 402 wetness indicators, 8 wet season, 18 White-faced Capuchin. See Cebus capucinus whiteflies, 100

573

Index

White-lipped Peccary See Tayassu pecan White-nosed Coati See Nasua nanca White-tailed Deer See Odocoileus virgimanus wind See also trade winds and agriculture, 391 bird adaptations to, 194 and butterfly migration, 119 effect on flying insects, 438 effect on forests, 304, 305 effect on plants, 39 and epiphytic organic matter, 332 and litterfall, 329 pollination by, 249, 252 seed dispersal by, 256 speed, 306 windbreaks, 365-367, 372, 391, 396, 397,403,430 as corridors, 448-450

as tree habitats, 450-451 wings, evolution of transparent, 121 Withermgia, 262, 264, 283-286 Wolfe, Jim, 390t women, 370, 374, 383-384 wood borers, 114-115 woodcreepers, 185 wood density, 306-307, 443f, 445 f f 446f wood nymphs, 119-120 wood-quail, incubation in, 193 Woods, Monty, 370 wood strength, 305 World Conservation Union, 172 World Wildlife Fund, 353, 358, 362, 380 worms, microfilarial, 197 wrens See also Troglodytes aedon foraging behavior, 186 productivity m, 208-210 Xanthosoma robustum (Elephant Ear), 268-271 yeast, role in digestion of longhorned beetles, 115 Youth Challenge International, 368 zinc, 391 Zmgiberaceae, 51 Zygothnca neolmea, 278-279

Monteverde: Appendixes, References and Index  

Edited by: Nalini M. Nadkarni and Nathaniel T. Wheelwright

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