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WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION | VOLUME 2, NUMBER 1 | RACE

|

THEBLUEREVIEW.ORG

04

The Aryan Years Butler, the press and the state of hate

07

“States’ Rights� Idaho sides with the South against civil rights

09

The Latino Vanguard A history of Idaho human rights legislation

11

13

Teaching Race Diversity from the teacher’s desk to the little chairs

Silencio en las Escuelas The invisible population: English language learners

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‡ :HJDUVRQWKH&KLQHVH and Japanese experience in Idaho ‡ :RRGZRUWK1H\DQG Smoak on Idaho tribes and treaties ‡ 3OXVSXEOLFIRUXPRQ Feb. 23 (details inside)

The Blue Review is published by the Boise State University College of Social Sciences and Public Affairs, in collaboration with Boise Weekly


2

THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

thebluereview.org


NOTE FROM THE ACADEMIC EDITOR

Racial Discrimination in Idaho: The Myth of the Colorblind State TODD SHALLAT JILL GILL

Photo of a house in Coeur d’Alene displaying “The South Will Rise Againâ€? ags, March 2013.

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JOIN WRITERS FROM

The Blue Review No. 4 FOR AN OPEN FORUM ON ‌

RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN IDAHO CONFRONTING THE MYTH OF THE COLORBLIND STATE

F r e e & o p en t o a ll

When

Friday, Feb. 21 6pm

Where:

Boise State downtown 301 S. Capitol Blvd.

What:

An open forum on race and Idaho moderated by Marcia Franklin, TBR board member and host of “Dialogue� on Idaho Public Television

Todd Shallat is academic editor of 7KH%OXH5HYLHZ and directs the Center for Idaho History and Politics at Boise State University. The Blue Review thebluereview.org @reviewblue facebook.com/reviewblue The Blue Review is a webnative journal covering politics, cities, the environment and the media from the Boise State University College of Social Sciences and Public Affairs. Publisher Boise State University Publications OfďŹ ce in the College of Social Sciences and Public Affairs

Editor Nathaniel Hoffman Guest Editor Jill Gill Academic Editor Todd Shallat Graduate Fellow Andrew Crisp Editorial Board Politics: David Gray Adler Cities: Jaap Vos Media: Seth Ashley Media: Marcia Franklin Digital Culture: Leslie Madsen-Brooks Creative: Greg Hahn Digital: Marshall D. Simmonds

Graphic Design Kelsey Hawes & Tomas Montano, Boise Weekly Web Developer Aubrey Ellis For inquiries and submissions: The Blue Review Boise State University 1910 University Dr. Boise, Idaho 83725-1936 Phone: 208-426-3772 editor@thebluereview.org

PUBLISHED BY BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AND BOISE WEEKLY

THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

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RACE & IDAHO

Some Say Potato, Most Say Aryan Nations Four decades of media coverage of white supremacists in the “Too Great for Hate” state %,//025/,1

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THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

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PUBLISHED BY BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AND BOISE WEEKLY

THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

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6

THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

Richard and Betty Butler’s gravesite in Coeur d’Alene.

JILL GILL

1DWLRQVDUHSURWHFWHGVSHHFKDVWDQGRII LQ%RXQGDU\&RXQW\DJDLQSXW,GDKRLQWKH QDWLRQDOVSRWOLJKWEHFDXVHRIH[WUHPLVWV 7KHVLHJHDW5XE\5LGJH²QRZFRQVLGHUHG DQLFRQLFHYHQWLQPRGHUQKLVWRU\²LQYROYHG 5DQG\:HDYHUZKRKDGEULHÀ\DWWHQGHG Aryan Nations events. 7KURXJKRXWWKHVRWKHUVZLWKWLHVWR ,GDKRDQGWKH$U\DQ1DWLRQVFRPPLWWHGRWKHU FULPHVLQFOXGLQJDSORWWRERPEDJD\EDULQ 6HDWWOHDEUXWDOWULSOHPXUGHULQ$UNDQVDV DQGDVKRRWRXWZLWKSROLFHLQ2KLR,Q WZRZHDOWK\IRUPHU&DOLIRUQLDEXVLQHVVPHQ moved to Sandpoint and spent thousands of GROODUVIRUGLUHFWPDLOGLVWULEXWLRQVRISRVWHUV and videos promoting Butler and the Aryan Nations. The national media spotlight again WXUQHGRQ,GDKRLQ$XJXVWZKHQIRUPHU $U\DQ1DWLRQVVHFXULW\JXDUG%XIRUG)XUURZ ZHQWRQDNLOOLQJUDPSDJHDQGVKRWXSD-HZLVK day-care center in Los Angeles. ,GDKR¶VLPDJHFRXOGQ¶WFDWFKDEUHDNHYHQ WKRXJKSHRSOHRIJRRGZLOOPDGHLWNQRZQWKDW UDFLVWH[WUHPLVWVZHUHRQO\DWLQ\IUDFWLRQRIWKH state’s population. )LQDOO\DERXWD\HDUDIWHU$U\DQVHFXULW\ JXDUGV¿UHGVKRWVDWDFDURQDFRXQW\URDGQHDU WKH$U\DQ1DWLRQVFRPSRXQGWKH6RXWKHUQ 3RYHUW\/DZ&HQWHU¿OHGDFLYLOVXLW7KHHQVXLQJWULDOLQHQGHGZLWKDPLOOLRQ YHUGLFWDQGWKHHYHQWXDOEDQNUXSWF\DQGFORVXUH RIWKH$U\DQ1DWLRQV²DJDLQZLWKVXEVWDQWLDO QDWLRQDOPHGLDFRYHUDJHRI,GDKRDQGLWVSUREOHPZLWKUDFLVWV

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Bill Morlin covered extremism and criminal justice for the 7KH6SRNDQH'DLO\ Chronicle and later, 7KH6SRNHVPDQ 5HYLHZ, for 25 years, chronicling Butler and the Aryan Nations, as well as other Northwest extremist groups. He is currently a correspondent for Salon.com and for the Southern Poverty Law Center publications +DWHZDWFK and ,QWHOOLJHQFH 5HSRUW where he writes about domestic terrorism and extremist groups.

thebluereview.org


Playing Dixie: Idaho’s States’ Rights Alliance and the 1964 Civil Rights Act Idaho’s racial reputation predates Aryans’ arrival -,//.*,//

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CECIL STOUGHTON, WHITE HOUSE PRESS OFFICE

VSLUDWLRQDOVORJDQVVXFKDV³,GDKRLV7RR*UHDWWR+DWH´ DQG³,GDKRWKH+XPDQ5LJKWV6WDWH´HPHUJHGRYHU the past three decades as local human rights activists EDWWOHGZKLWHVXSUHPDFLVWVDQGWKHLPDJHSUREOHPVWKH\EURXJKWWR WKHVWDWH7KHVDGUHDOLW\KRZHYHULVWKDW,GDKRDQVKDYHORQJVXQJ YDULDWLRQVRI³'L[LH´LQVWDWHV¶ULJKWVKDUPRQ\ZLWKZKLWH6RXWKHUQHUVRQUDFH%XW,GDKRUHVLGHQWVDUHORDWKWRDGPLWWKLV³:H¶YH KDGQRVHULRXVSUREOHPZLWKUDFLVPKHUH´WKH\DUJXHGHIHQVLYHO\ ³7KH+D\GHQ/DNHZKLWHVXSUHPDFLVWVZHUHRXWVLGHDJLWDWRUVIURP &DOLIRUQLD´³(DVW&RDVWQHZVSDSHUVJDYHXVDQXQIDLUUHSXWDWLRQ´ These common refrains paint an attractive narrative that locates ,GDKR¶VLPDJHSUREOHPRXWVLGHLWVERUGHUV²,GDKRVKDUHVQRFRPSOLFLW\LQWKLVWDOHWKHVWDWHLVVLPSO\ WKHYLFWLPRIOLEHO 7KHUHLVWUXWKWR,GDKR¶VFODLP WKDWPDQ\QHR1D]LVWUDQVSODQWHG to the Panhandle from other places. California emigrant Richard Butler DUULYHGLQGUDZQE\FKHDS ODQGRSHQJXQODZVPRXQWDLQRXV LVRODWLRQDQGWKHZKLWHQHVVRIWKH population. He founded the Aryan 1DWLRQVLQFRXUWHGWKHPHGLD and turned his compound into a racists’ retreat and operations FHQWHU$VDUHVXOWQHZVSDSHUV GLGWLH,GDKRWR$U\DQDFWLYLVPLQ UHDGHUV¶PLQGV7KHZRUNRIORFDO KXPDQULJKWVKHURHVZKRKHOSHG EDQNUXSW%XWOHU¶VRUJDQL]DWLRQLQ UHFHLYHGOHVVDWWHQWLRQWKDQ they deserved. $QG\HWWKHUHLJQLQJQDUUDtive suffers from a major historical RPLVVLRQ²RQHWKDWIXHOVIDOVHLQnocence and perpetuates legislative DSDWK\RQKXPDQULJKWV3ULRUWR%XWOHU¶VDUULYDO,GDKRSRVVHVVHG Southern ties and already had a racist reputation. White SouthernHUVORQJSRSXODWHGWKHVWDWHZLWKDQHDUO\ZDYHRI&RQIHGHUDWHV ZKRGRPLQDWHG,GDKRSROLWLFVLQWKHVDQG¶VDQGODWHU2NLHVZKRÀHGGXVWDQGGHSUHVVLRQWRZRUNLWV¿HOGVLQWKHV%XW ,GDKR¶VHOHFWHGRI¿FLDOVUHDOO\VROLGL¿HGDQ,GDKR'L[LHD[LVRQUDFH GXULQJEDWWOHVRYHUIHGHUDODQWLO\QFKLQJELOOV)URPXQWLOKLV GHDWKLQ6HQDWRU:LOOLDP%RUDK5,'OHGWKHVWDWHV¶ULJKWV ¿JKWDJDLQVWWKHP+HZRQWKHDSSUHFLDWLYHDIIHFWLRQRI'L[LHFUDWV WKH6RXWKHUQSURVHJUHJDWLRQZLQJRIWKH'HPRFUDWLF3DUW\ DQG the hope of their electoral votes should he run for president. ,GDKR¶VUHSXWDWLRQDVDIHOORZIRHRIIHGHUDOFLYLOULJKWVOHJLVODWLRQGLGQRWGLHZLWK%RUDK'L[LHFUDWVDJDLQVRXJKWDOOLHVZKHQ 3UHVLGHQW-RKQ).HQQHG\FDOOHGIRUDFLYLOULJKWVELOOLQ-XQH WKDWZRXOGEDQUDFLDOGLVFULPLQDWLRQLQSXEOLFDFFRPPRGDWLRQV DQGHPSOR\PHQW1RWVXUSULVLQJO\6RXWKHUQHUVWXUQHGDJDLQWR

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PUBLISHED BY BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AND BOISE WEEKLY

THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

7


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THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

thebluereview.org


Latinos Continue to Fight Racism in Idaho

Half-century of battles over anti-discrimination legislation still shape Idaho politics (552/-21(6

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PUBLISHED BY BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AND BOISE WEEKLY

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THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

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CO URTESY OF THE FOREIGN RELATIONS ARCHIVE IN MEXICO CITY

religious community continually promoted tolerance and DFFHSWDQFH7KHSDVVDJHRIWKH,PPLJUDWLRQ5HIRUPDQG &RQWURO$FW ,5&$ RIHQDEOHGWKRXVDQGVRIXQGRFXPHQWHGZRUNHUVWROHJDOL]HWKHLUVWDWXVDQGEHFRPHHOLJLEOH IRUFLWL]HQVKLS7KHFUHDWLRQRIWKH,GDKR&RPPLVVLRQ RQ+LVSDQLF$IIDLUVEURXJKW+LVSDQLFFRQFHUQVWRWKHDWWHQWLRQRIOHJLVODWRUV0H[LFDQDFWLYLVWVVXFFHHGHGZULQJLQJ IURPWKH/HJLVODWXUHDVHULHVRIODZVLQWKHVV DQGHDUO\VIRUFLQJIDUPHUVDQGDJULEXVLQHVVHVWRSODFH PRELOHWRLOHWVLQ¿HOGVSURYLGHZRUNHUVFRPSHQVDWLRQLQVXUDQFHSD\PLQLPXPZDJHDQGPDNHVXUHODERUFRQWUDFWRUV REWDLQHGOLFHQVHVDQGSRVWHGERQGV 3RLQWLQJWRWKHVHDFFRPSOLVKPHQWV,GDKR¶VOHDGHUVFRPIRUWWKHPVHOYHVZLWKDVVXUDQFHVRISURJUHVVDQGWKHHUDGLFDWLRQRIUDFLDODQGHWKQLFELJRWU\2QFORVHUH[DPLQDWLRQ KRZHYHUWKHUHFRUGRIWKHVHJDLQVUHYHDOVWKDWHYHU\RQHRI WKHPFDPHDERXWWKURXJKVWUXJJOHDQGSROLWLFDO¿JKWVZDJHG E\0H[LFDQVDQGWKHLUVXSSRUWHUVDJDLQVWWKHVDPHSROLWLFDO DQGHFRQRPLFHOLWHVZKRWDNHFUHGLWIRUWKHVHDFKLHYHPHQWV WRGD\²DFKLHYHPHQWVZKLFKUHPDLQXQGHUFRQVWDQWWKUHDW )RUH[DPSOHZK\GLG,GDKR¶VFXUUHQWJRYHUQRUIDFHGZLWK DQDLOLQJHFRQRP\DQGEXGJHWDU\VKRUWIDOOVLQHDUPDUN WKH,GDKR&RPPLVVLRQRQ+LVSDQLF$IIDLUVDQGWKH+XPDQ

THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

Errol D. Jones, a native of Utah, is professor emeritus in the History Department at Boise State University. Jones joined the faculty of Boise State University in 1982 after teaching at universities in Texas, Utah, Mexico and Brazil. Trained in Latin American history, he specialized in the history of Mexico upon arriving at Boise State.

Migrant housing near Rupert, 1950s.

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Percentage of white students in Idaho school districts Plummer-Worley 40% Native American

0 - 20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Source: Idaho State Department of Education

Lapwai 84% Native American

Madison 1% African American

Wilder 75% Hispanic Caldwell 58% Hispanic

Bear Lake County 94% white

Jerome 48% Hispanic

A Plea for Inclusive Curricula

Add diversity training to the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s school reform wish list .(,7+/$1'(5621 ³'RQ¶W)DLO,GDKR´SOHDGVDSXEOLFVHUYLFH DQQRXQFHPHQWWKDWGHFULHVWKHORZQDWLRQDO UDQNLQJVRI,GDKR¶VVFKRROVDQGSRRUFROOHJH completion rates of its students. According to ,GDKR¶V*R2QSURJUDPWKHVWDWH¶VHGXFDWLRQDO V\VWHPUDQNVWKRXWRIVWDWHVLQJHWWLQJ VWXGHQWVIURPKLJKVFKRROWRFROOHJH6RZKDW¶V DWWKHKHDUWRIWKHSUREOHP"(GXFDWLRQUHIRUP KDVERLOHGRQWKHIURQWEXUQHURISROLWLFDOGHEDWHV ZLWKOLWWOHDFFRPSOLVKHG$PLGUDJLQJEDWWOHVRYHU WHDFKHUWHQXUHQHZ&RPPRQ&RUHVWDQGDUGV DQGRQOLQHFODVVHVVRPHWKLQJFUXFLDOKDVEHHQ PLVVHG,GDKR¶VUHODWLYHSDXFLW\RIPXOWLFXOWXUDO curriculum materials and teacher training. This LVGLUHFWO\LPSDLULQJVWXGHQWV¶JUDGXDWLRQUDWHV QRWWRPHQWLRQWKHLUDELOLW\WRWKULYHLQWKHHYHU GLYHUVLI\LQJZRUOGEH\RQG²ERWKZKLWHFKLOGUHQ DQGVWXGHQWVRIFRORU<HWWKHLPSRUWDQWLVVXHRI diversity education and its central role in student DFKLHYHPHQWRUIDLOXUHLVODUJHO\DEVHQWIURP SXEOLFDQGOHJLVODWLYHGLVFXVVLRQVLQ,GDKR %HFDXVHWHDFKHUVFDQ¶WWHDFKZKDWWKH\ GRQ¶WNQRZWKLVHVVD\ZLOOIRFXVRQZK\,GDKR¶V educational system should provide effective and VXI¿FLHQWGLYHUVLW\WUDLQLQJWRFXUUHQWDQGIXWXUH WHDFKHUV(YHQPRUHLPSRUWDQWO\LWZLOOVWUHVVWKH negative repercussions of not providing educators ZLWKHIIHFWLYHDQGVXI¿FLHQWPXOWLFXOWXUDOFXUULFXOXPWUDLQLQJ%HFDXVHDVLJQL¿FDQWLQÃ&#x20AC;X[RIWHDFK-

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PUBLISHED BY BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AND BOISE WEEKLY

THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

11


RACE & IDAHO VWXGHQWSRSXODWLRQFRQWLQXHVWRGLYHUVLI\²LQFOXGLQJWKHUHODWLYHO\ UHFHQWLQÀX[RIUHIXJHHVWXGHQWVIURPDOORYHUWKHZRUOGVSHDNLQJ PDQ\GLIIHUHQWODQJXDJHV²LWQHHGVWREHPDLQVWUHDPHGLQWROHFWXUH halls as standard fare for all educators. ,GDKRXQLYHUVLWLHV¶LQYROYHPHQWLQ75L2SURJUDPVIRUKLJK VFKRROVWXGHQWVKDVEHHQDERRQ75L2HPSOR\VSHRSOHZLWKYDVW H[SHULHQFHZRUNLQJZLWKORZLQFRPHVWXGHQWVRIDOOUDFHV² students a year across the state. They are also generally familiar ZLWKKRZWRFRPPXQLFDWHHIIHFWLYHO\DQGPRWLYDWHWKHVHVWXGHQWV WRVXFFHVVIXOO\VHHNKLJKHUHGXFDWLRQ%XWDJDLQIURQWOLQHIDFXOW\ LQWKHVWDWH¶VWHDFKHUFROOHJHVVKRXOGEHDUPHGZLWKVXFKVNLOOVWRR ,QVWHDG,GDKRVHHPVWREHFXWWLQJFRUQHUVZLWKWHDFKHUHGXFDWLRQ,Q'HQQLV&DUWZULJKWGLUHFWRURIHGXFDWLRQSURJUDPV DW7KH&ROOHJHRI,GDKRWROGWKHIdaho Press-Tribune³7HDFKLQJLV PXFKPRUHFRPSOH[QRZEXWZLWKPDQ\RIWKHDOWHUQDWHURXWHVWR FHUWL¿FDWLRQWKHVWDWHKDVHQFRXUDJHGSXWWLQJWHDFKHUVLQWRFODVVHV PRUHTXLFNO\ZLWKOHVVSUHSDUDWLRQZKLFKPDNHVQRVHQVHWRPH´ /HVVSUHSDUDWLRQFHUWDLQO\LQFOXGHVVHQGLQJQHZWHDFKHUVZKR aren’t prepared to meet the needs of diverse student populations into increasingly diverse school districts.

GRADING THE CURRICULUM $ORQJZLWKLPSURYLQJWHDFKHUWUDLQLQJWKH6WDWH%RDUGRI(GXFDWLRQFRXOGUHTXLUHDPRUHGLYHUVHVWXGHQWFXUULFXOXP$QREYLRXV DQGHVVHQWLDOHOHPHQWPXVWEHWKH86FLYLOULJKWVPRYHPHQW ,GDKRLVRQHRIVHYHUDOVWDWHVWKDWGRHVQRWPDQGDWHLQFOXVLRQRI WKLVVXEMHFWLQWKHFXUULFXOXP$FFRUGLQJWRWKH6RXWKHUQ3RYHUW\ /DZ&HQWHU³,QPRVWVWDWHVWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVIRUWHDFKLQJDERXW WKHFLYLOULJKWVPRYHPHQWDUHJURVVO\LQDGHTXDWHWRQRQH[LVWHQW 7KHDYHUDJHVFRUHDFURVVDOOVWDWHVDQGWKH'LVWULFWRI&ROXPELDZDV SHUFHQWIRUDQDYHUDJHJUDGHRI)´$VRQHRIVWDWHVWKDWUHTXLUHVQRLQVWUXFWLRQZKDWVRHYHUDERXWWKHFLYLOULJKWVPRYHPHQW ,GDKRUHFHLYHGDVFRUHRISHUFHQW²RQHRIWKHORZHVW)¶VSRVVLEOH (YHQ0LVVLVVLSSLIDUVXUSDVVHGWKLVHDUQLQJD& 7KLVLVDVPDOO\HWVLJQL¿FDQWVLJQRIWKHZHDNYDOXH,GDKRSODFHV RQGLYHUVLW\HGXFDWLRQIRUDOORILWVFKLOGUHQ5HTXLULQJEDVLFNQRZOHGJHDERXWWKHFLYLOULJKWVPRYHPHQWZRXOGKHOSVWXGHQWVPDNH VHQVHRIWKHLUZRUOGDQGSURYLGHVWXGHQWVRIFRORULQSDUWLFXODUZLWK DPRUHGLUHFWWLHWRWKHFRXUVHRI86KLVWRU\EXWPRUHLVQHHGHG 7KHKLVWRU\RISHRSOHRIFRORULQFOXGHVPRUHWKDQVODYHVUDLOURDG ZRUNHUVDQGFRWWRQSLFNHUV,WLVLPSRUWDQWWKDWERWKVWXGHQWVRIDOO UDFLDODQGHWKQLFEDFNJURXQGVOHDUQWKDWSHRSOHRIFRORULQYHQWHG WKHODQWHUQWKHVWRSOLJKWWKHIRXQWDLQSHQWKHVDGGOHDQGPDQ\ RWKHUHYHU\GD\LWHPV7KH\QHHGWRNQRZWKDWQRQZKLWHLQGLYLGXDOVKDYHFRQWULEXWHGWRPHGLFLQHSROLWLFV¿JKWLQJIRUWKLVFRXQWU\ agriculture and science. 7KHFXUULFXOXPLVQ¶WWKHRQO\DUHDWKDWVKRXOGEHGLYHUVL¿HG6R WRRVKRXOGWKHUDQNVRIHGXFDWRUV,GDKR¶VLQVWLWXWLRQVRIKLJKHU OHDUQLQJKDYHYHU\IHZSHRSOHRIFRORUWHDFKLQJPXOWLFXOWXUDOGLYHUVLW\FRXUVHVQRWWRPHQWLRQZRUNLQJLQDQ\¿HOG$FRXSOHRI,GDKR XQLYHUVLWLHVDUHWU\LQJ²DQGVXFFHHGLQJ²WRUHFUXLWIDFXOW\RIFRORU 7KH8QLYHUVLW\RI,GDKRLVOHDGLQJWKHZD\$FFRUGLQJWR,QWHULP 3UHVLGHQW'RQ%XUQHWWKLVIDFXOW\LQFOXGHV¿YH$IULFDQ$PHULFDQV +LVSDQLF/DWLQRVIRXU1DWLYH$PHULFDQV$VLDQVDQGRWKHUVFODVVL¿HGDV³WZRRUPRUHUDFHV´,GDKR6WDWH8QLYHUVLW\FRXQWV WKUHHIXOOWLPHWHQXUHWUDFNRUWHQXUHGSURIHVVRUVZKRDUH$IULFDQ $PHULFDQDFFRUGLQJWRWKHIRUPHUKXPDQUHVRXUFHVGLUHFWRU 7KHVWDWH¶VODUJHVWXQLYHUVLW\%RLVH6WDWHGHQLHGDSXEOLFUHFRUGV UHTXHVWIRUWKHGHPRJUDSKLFGDWDWKRXJKDFFRUGLQJWRGDWD UHSRUWHGWRWKH1DWLRQDO&HQWHUIRU(GXFDWLRQ6WDWLVWLFV%RLVH 6WDWHKDVWHQXUHGRUWHQXUHWUDFN/DWLQRSURIHVVRUVIRXU1DWLYH $PHULFDQ$VLDQDQGWZREODFNSURIHVVRUV

12

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³SHRSOHRIFRORUQHHGWRHPXODWH ZKDWZKLWHJUHDWJUDQGSDUHQWVGLGZKHQWKH\FDPHWRWKLVFRXQWU\ SXOOWKHPVHOYHVXSE\WKHLUERRWVWUDSVDQGPDNHVRPHWKLQJRI WKHPVHOYHV7KH\KDGQRKDQGRXWV´+RZHYHUFXOWXUDOO\NQRZOHGJHDEOHSHRSOHNQRZWKDWZKLWHDQFHVWRUVGLGLQIDFWUHFHLYHKHOS WKDWSHRSOHRIFRORUZHUHUDUHO\DOORZHGWRDFFHVVLQFOXGLQJFLWL]HQVKLSWKHYRWHMXULHVRIWKHLUSHHUVXQLRQMREVRSHQKRXVLQJDQG UHDG\EDQNORDQV 3DXO.LYHODZULWHUDFWLYLVWDQGHGXFDWRUUHPLQGVXVRIWKH GLVFULPLQDWLRQZLWKLQIHGHUDODLGSURJUDPVDIWHU:DU:RUOG,, LQFOXGLQJWKH*,%LOOWKH9HWHUDQV$GPLQLVWUDWLRQKRXVLQJKHDOWK FDUHSURJUDPV³7KHEHQH¿WVIURPWKHVHSURJUDPVZHUHSULPDULO\ DOWKRXJKQRWH[FOXVLYHO\ DYDLODEOHWRZKLWHPHQ´.LYHOZULWHVRQ KLVZHEVLWH,UD.DW]QHOVRQSROLWLFDOVFLHQWLVWDW&ROXPELD8QLYHUVLW\JRHVIXUWKHULQKLVERRN:KHQ$I¿UPDWLYH$FWLRQ:DV:KLWH LOOXVWUDWLQJKRZSHRSOHRIFRORUZHUHV\VWHPDWLFDOO\ER[HGRXWRI DFFHVVWRWKHIHGHUDOVDIHW\QHWDQGDVVLVWDQFHSURJUDPVWKDWEXLOW WKHSRVWZDUPLGGOHFODVV 7KHFRQWURYHUVLDO¿JXUHRI:LOOLH/\QFKIDWKHURI³O\QFKLQJ´ UHFRJQL]HG,QWHUQDOL]HG5DFLDO,QIHULRULW\DVHDUO\DV,Q³7KH 0DNLQJRID6ODYH´/\QFKUHFRXQWVKLVPHWKRGIRUVODYHRZQHUV WRGRPLQDWHDQGEUHDNEODFNVDUJXLQJWKDWWKHUHZRXOGEHORQJ ODVWLQJSV\FKRORJLFDOUHSHUFXVVLRQVLIZKLWHVODYHRZQHUVSK\VLFDOO\ DQGPHQWDOO\DEXVHGWKHLUFKDWWHO6LPLODUSV\FKRORJLFDOUHSHUFXVVLRQVDUHSUHVHQWZKHQ,GDKR¶VHGXFDWLRQDOV\VWHPIDLOVWRWDNH multiculturalism seriously. $QGKRZZLOO,GDKR¶VZKLWHJUDGXDWHVGRZLWKLQ$PHULFD¶V LQFUHDVLQJO\GLYHUVHZRUNSODFHV"7KH\PD\HYHQWXDOO\¿QGWKHPVHOYHVDWDGLVDGYDQWDJHZKHQWKH\FDQQRWEHFDXVHRILQWHUQDOL]HG UDFLDOVXSHULRULW\FRPPXQLFDWHHIIHFWLYHO\ZLWKSHRSOHRIFRORURU WKRVHIURPGLIIHUHQWODQGV3HUKDSVRQHRIWKHUHDVRQV,GDKRLV RXWRIVWDWHVLQVHQGLQJKLJKVFKRROVWXGHQWVWRFROOHJHKDVWRGR ZLWKDIHDURUGLVFRPIRUWZKLWHVWXGHQWVKDYHRIOHDYLQJDKRPRJHneous area to participate in higher education.

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THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

communities and to the nation provides an essential element WKDWFDQKHOSWKHPEUHDNWKHF\FOHRIJHQHUDWLRQDOSRYHUW\²D EXUGHQPDQ\RIWKHPIDFH:LWKRXWVXFKDQHGXFDWLRQWKH\PD\ JURZWRVHHWKHPVHOYHVDVLQIHULRUWRWKHLUZKLWHFRXQWHUSDUWV 7KLVLVLQGHHGKDSSHQLQJIRUVRPH,GDKRVWXGHQWVDVHYLGHQFHG

1RQZKLWH+LVSDQLFSRSXODWLRQV of select Idaho School districts Twin Falls 26% Wilder 77% Boise 22% Caldwell 61% Pocatello 19% Jerome 51% 16% Blackfoot 40% Emmett 16% Blaine County 40% Meridian Moscow 14% Nampa 37% Mtn. Home 31% E\DUHFHQWFROOHJHOHYHOFRXUVHWKDW,WDXJKWLQZKLFKWZRVWXGHQWVRIFRORUIHOWWKHLUJURXSZDVDWDQLQWHOOHFWXDOGLVDGYDQWDJH EHFDXVHHYHU\RQHLQYROYHGLQWKHLUJURXSSURMHFWZDVDVWXGHQW of color. 'RHVDQLQIHULRULW\FRPSOH[GHYHORSZLWKLQHYHU\VWXGHQWRI FRORULQ,GDKR"2IFRXUVHQRWEXWZKDWSHUFHQWDJHLVDFFHSWDEOH"5DFLDOLQHTXDOLW\LQ$PHULFD¶VVFKRROVZDVRQFHRYHUWDQG EODWDQW7RGD\LWPRUHRIWHQPDQLIHVWVDVLJQRULQJWKHQHHGVRI VWXGHQWVIURPGLYHUVHEDFNJURXQGVDQGHUDVLQJWKHLUKHULWDJH :KDW¶VWKHVROXWLRQ"7KHVWDWHRI,GDKRDQGLWVLQVWLWXWLRQV RIKLJKHUHGXFDWLRQVKRXOGRIIHUTXDOLW\GLYHUVLW\FRXUVHVHDUO\ DQGRIWHQ7KHVHFRXUVHVVKRXOGEHGHVLJQHGWRKHOSSURVSHFWLYH educators more effectively teach a culturally inclusive curriculum. There are progressive institutions around the country that DOUHDG\XQGHUVWDQGZKDWQHHGVWREHGRQH)RUH[DPSOH6W 0DU\¶V8QLYHUVLW\WKH8QLYHUVLW\RI&RORUDGR'HQYHUDQGWKH University of Missouri-Kansas City are among many schools ERDVWLQJHGXFDWLRQGHJUHHVRUFHUWL¿FDWLRQVLQ³FXOWXUDOO\ UHVSRQVLYHWHDFKLQJ´*HQHYD*D\DSLRQHHULQWKLV¿HOGZKR SXEOLVKHGDQDZDUGZLQQLQJERRNRQWKHVXEMHFWOLVWV¿YHEHVW teaching practices that are designed to improve the academic success “of ethnically diverse students.” These essentially echo ZKDW,¶YHGLVFXVVHGDERYH GHYHORSLQJDFXOWXUDOGLYHUVLW\ NQRZOHGJHEDVH GHVLJQLQJFXOWXUDOO\UHOHYDQWFXUULFXOD  GHPRQVWUDWLQJFXOWXUDOFDULQJDQGEXLOGLQJDOHDUQLQJFRPPXQLW\ FURVVFXOWXUDOFRPPXQLFDWLRQVDQG FXOWXUDOFRQJUXLW\ LQFODVVURRPLQVWUXFWLRQ LHWHDFKLQJLQDPXOWLFXOWXUDOZD\  $V,GDKRDQVGHEDWHKRZWRUHIRUPWKHLUWURXEOHGHGXFDWLRQ V\VWHPDQGDVFRPPXQLW\JURXSVSOHDG³'RQ¶W)DLO,GDKR´ZH PXVWORRNDWPRUHWKDQWHFKQRORJ\WHVWLQJDQG&RPPRQ&RUH VWDQGDUGV:HQHHGVHULRXVGLVFXVVLRQDERXWFHQWUDOO\LQFRUporating culturally inclusive material into our teacher preparaWLRQDQGFODVVURRPFXUULFXOD$VRQHDGIRU³'RQ¶W)DLO,GDKR´ DVVHUWV³WKHUH¶VDZLGHJDSEHWZHHQWKHKDYHDQGKDYHQRW VWXGHQWV´$VL]DEOHQXPEHURI,GDKR¶VNLGVWKHDGFRQWLQXHV ³DUHIDOOLQJEHKLQGDQGWKH\QHYHUFDWFKXS´$FXOWXUDOO\LQFOXVLYHFXUULFXOXPFDQKHOSLPPHQVHO\/HW¶VDWOHDVWPDNHLWSDUW of the dialogue.

Keith Anderson attended the Utah State University School of Graduate Studies and later the University of Idaho, where in May 2006, he received a Ph.D. in Educational Leadership. He played football at Boise State and has published two novels, A Field Day and $%ODFN6RXO5LVHV

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THE BLUE REVIEW | VOL. 2, NO. 1 | WINTER 2014 PRINT EDITION

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