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STIMULATION AND VISUALISATION OF ASSOCIATION the search for an association-stimulation-method, and bread is the fuel of this journey


In this experiment, I have given each person a different set of questions and asked them to form a line of thought which combined the answers to all the questions that were given. The answers are not scientifically proven, but they are truths in the minds of the participants. The participants didn’t know the goal of this research before they answered the questions.

Some of the results are small steps in the right direction. But the overall result is not yet satisfying. Different ways of ‘association triggering’ have to be investigated to get more interesting results.

In the coming weeks, I will investigate in many different ways to trigger the association. It will all be about bread, because this is something so common and Each set of answers contains one so present, that there must be question about bread and two or much more to it than just the first things that come to mind. And if three random other questions. By doing this, I tried to get unex- I can find a way to trigger beadpected associations and views on association, I will be able to use it for everything and anything. and around the subject ‘bread’.


WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BREAD? WHAT VALUE DOES BREAD HAVE IN A SOCIETY? WHY DO WE EAT BREAD? WHAT IS UNTRUTH WHAT INFLUENCE DOES MIGRATION HAVE ON SOCIETY WHAT IS A THEORY DOES AN ANIMAL KNOW IT WILL BE SACRIFIED WHY DO CHILDREN DRAW ON WALLS HOW DOES AN ERASER WORK HOW ARE DECISIONS BEING MADE WHAT ARE THE PHASES OF A DREAM WHAT IS A PLAYER HOW IS BOTTLED WATER DIFFERENT FROM TAPWATER WHAT IS A PROBLEM CAN PLANTS COMMUNICATE WITH EACHOTHER WHY DO WE GIVE VALUE TO IMAGES


Paula Gonzales (18) born in Puerto Rico, living in Ireland. Architecture student » WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BREAD » WHAT IS UNTRUTH » WHAT INFLUENCE DOES MIGRATION HAVE ON SOCIETY

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Untruth is when someone gives you the wrong answer or when someone doesn’t tell you the truth. Like for example if I say that migration has no influence on society, that’s untruth because migration does influence society on many levels including political, social, economic, and environmental. The value of bread may have to do something with migration because sometimes people who make bread have migrated from another country, which means that different people work with bread and also make different types of bread. Sometimes different types of bread mean that the prices of the bread will vary.


Liza Krudde (19) born in Putten, living in Utrecht. Psychology student. » WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BREAD » WHAT INFLUENCE DOES MIGRATION HAVE ON SOCIETY » WHAT IS A THEORY

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Migratie laat een maatschappij slinken en groeien. Hiermee fluctueert ook de markt zoals bijvoorbeeld in voedsel. De mensen die in deze maatschappij immigreren hebben voldoende voedsel nodig zoals water, groente, fruit en brood. Brood omdat het belangrijke vezels bevat. ‘Brood maakt groot’ is een uitspraak om aan te duiden hoe belangrijk brood is. Het is een slecht argument omdat het niet wetenschappeljik onderbouwd is. Zo’n argument kan geen theorie onderbouwen, een theorie bestaat namelijk uit een mening met wetenschappelijk onderbouwde feiten.


Lieke Hollander (22) born in Utrecht, living in Amsterdam. Bachelor of science and physiotheory-teacher. » WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BREAD » DOES AN ANIMAL KNOW IT WILL BE SACRIFIED » WHAT IS A THEORY

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Een theorie is een bepaalde denkwijze over iets. Dit kan een denkwijze zijn die bewezen is, dan is deze objectief. Een theorie kan ook een subjectieve denkwijze zijn. Hoe iemand over iets denkt. Een voorbeeld van een subjectieve theorie is de theorie dat dieren weten wat er met ze gebeurd. Dit is lastig te bewijzen en is daarom subjectief. Je kan dus een subjectieve theorie hebben die zegt dat een dier dat geofferd wordt dat niet weet. Dat is een mening van iemand over dit onderwerp. Waarde van iets is ook subjectief. Jij kan iets heel waardevol vinden, en een ander datzelfde juist niet waardevol. Bijvoorbeeld, ik vind brood niet zo waardevol, het is maar gewoon eten, maar mensen die al een week geen eten hebben gehad zullen het veel waardevoller vinden. Over het algemeen heeft brood een grote waarde in de Nederlandse samenleving, omdat bijna iedereen het dagelijks eet.


Sanne Olofsen (22) born in Utrecht, living in Maastricht. Obstetritian student. » WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BREAD » DOES AN ANIMAL KNOW IT WILL BE SACRIFIED » WHY DO CHILDREN DRAW ON WALLS » HOW DOES AN ERASER WORK

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Met een gum verwijder je iets definitief. Nadat je iets hebt weg gegumt zal het nooit meer precies hetzelfde terugkomen. Als kinderen op de muur tekenen dan proberen ze hiermee iets definitiefs achter te laten. Het is veel definitiever dan bijvoorbeeld op papier. In sommige culturen worden dieren geofferd. Men (meestal)  doet dit om aan een god te laten zien dat ze ergens veel voor over hebben. Dat ze bereid zijn iets in te leveren voor iets anders. Het leven van het dier wordt dan definitief ingeleverd. Doordat dit definitief is zit er meer waarde aan en laten ze dus zien dat ze er écht veel voor over hebben. Wat voor waarde iets heeft is voor iedereen verschillend. Voor de een zit er bijvoorbeeld weinig waarde aan een brood omdat ze dit vies vinden. Voor de ander zit er heel veel waarde aan een brood omdat ze weinig voedsel hebben en misschien nog nooit de mogelijkheid hebben gehad om een brood te proeven.


Mace Dekker (54) born in Australia, living in Wijk bij Duurstede. Photographer and interior designer. » WHAT VALUE DOES BREAD HAVE IN A SOCIETY » WHAT IS UNTRUTH » HOW ARE DECISIONS BEING MADE » HOW DOES AN ERASER WORK

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Untruth is the opposite of truth. The problem with truth is; it depends on time and place which truth is the actual truth of the moment. Freedom is most important, seems to be true. But during the russian revolution thousands went out on the streets chanting “dai chleb” - give us bread. The value of bread to society in that time and place seemed far more important than freedom. Reading history books makes truth and untruth even more interesting. History is written in pencil, not in stone. Every nation uses ist own set of erasers to alter the truh of history. Simply by erasing bits  and pieces  of the carbon layered on paper makes true history an overgrown path of deception. Decisions are made on truth and untruth, but even more on what is believed or desired for the truth. Dai chleb was not a cry for freedom. The people just wanted more to eat. Changing politics on the way russian freedom was organised wasn’t needed by this truth. The opinions saying otherwise were simply erased. Carbon on paper is forgiving.The decision made on this truth gave the Russians a new leadership based on even less freedom  but they were given chunks of bread. Marxism, leninism and stalinism lived on that truth for decades. Nowdays, dai cleb is a whole different truth. Hungry people don’t care for truth, they dont care for the working priciple of erasing en don’t even care who or how decisions are made. Truth on an empty stomach stands no chance.


Kenza Karin (23) born and living in Utrecht. Conservatorium graduate and music teacher » WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BREAD » WHAT INFLUENCE DOES MIGRATION HAVE ON SOCIETY » HOW ARE DECISIONS BEING MADE » WHAT ARE THE PHASES OF A DREAM

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De invloed van migratie op een samenleving verschilt per samenleving. Migreert een groep naar een gunstiger of minder gunstiger plaats? Gebeurt het gedwongen of vrijwillig? En ongeacht of het positief (gunstig en vrijwillig) of negatief is (ongunstig, gedwongen) kan de invloed even groot of klein of positief of negatief zijn! Stel dat een groep gedwongen naar een ongunstige plek migreert, dan zou die groep hechter, sterker kunnen worden. Maar dat zou ook kunnen wanneer het om een positieve migratie zou gaan. Die migrerende groep, samenleving, kan de samenleving op groter niveau (maatschappij, land) buiten sluiten en vice versa, maar ook buitenstaanders opnemen en groeien. Er zijn tal van opties! Ik zou met geen mogelijkheid kunnen zeggen welke invloed migratie op een samenleving heeft, zonder daar een boekwerk over te schrijven! Ooit vertelde een vriend dat alles wat je doet puur uit eigenbelang is. We kregen hier een verhitte discussie over. Ik wilde eerst schrijven dat beslissingen op verschillende gronden kunnen worden genomen, maar uitgaande van zijn theorie, nemen we persoonlijke beslissingen op basis van wat gunstig is voor onszelf. Ook de beslissing om je broertje te helpen verhuizen in plaats van naar Parkpop te gaan, bijvoorbeeld. In eerste instantie denk je: “ik ben zo aardig dat ik dit voor hem doe”. Waarna je je heel goed voelt over jezelf. EIGENBELANG. Hoe frustrerend. Maar op regeringsniveau hoop ik dat de eerste insteek toch is: “wat is het beste voor de wereld, gedacht vanuit iedereen?”. Oké, onmogelijk. Dan maar op grond van de democratische grondwetten. Brood is fantastisch. Het een-na-goedkoopste brood bij de AlbertHeijn is 75 cent. Voor een half brood. Eerst was het 68 cent. Dat is niet echt lekker brood, maar prima om te roosteren en iets minder prima om mee te nemen. Brood van de biologische winkel is duur, maar ook meteen onwijs lekker. Oké, dit geloof je niet, maar ik heb NU NET het brood laten aanbranden in de oven. De fases van een droom: 1. Dit is fijn. 2. Dit is een beetje vreemd. 3. Dit is een beetje vreemd en er gebeurt heel veel tegelijk. 4. Wakker: ik heb gedroomd!


Marius Schwarz (24) born in Germany, living in Amsterdam. Art student graphic design. » WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BREAD » WHY DO CHILDREN DRAW ON WALLS » WHAT IS A THEORY » WHAT ARE THE PHASES OF A DREAM

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In formulating an idea, a theory is been made. Everyone subconsciously develops theories for every question that appears in life. Experts dig deeper into questions and try to scientifically proof their theories, whereas normal people don’t necessarily need rational proofs for their ideas. They have to believe. I never read theories about dreams. I dream quite boring usually, so I don’t feel the necessity of digging into. There is sleeping, dreaming and being awake. Dreaming can strangely happen as well while being awake. I often have strong deja vus, but the people say, that it is not something experienced in the past that reappears in the moment of a deja vu, they say it’s just that ones brain works faster than usual in these moments and so it thinks that one re-experiences a memory from long time ago, but one actually just experiences what he does in that particular moment, just processes it too fast. The brain tricks itself. Young children are innocent. They are not preoccupied with all the theories human kind came up with in the centuries of its existence. They do not now yet, that they are not allowed to draw on walls for instance. It’s a reasonable restriction they have to learn first, in order to function in the society mankind developed. People live in houses, sleep and dream at night and go to work in the daytime. If they have a tension of being self expressive and rebellious they can become artists. Then they are allowed to do everything that children get taught to omit, even to paint on walls. Humankind developed a lot of extensions which are making live easier and more comfortable. We have houses, cars, medicine, libraries, the arts, the internet, universities, governments, family, money, insurances, god and so on. In this regulated world one tends to forget, that he is a being of nature. But there are some reminders left. We have to sleep, we have sex, have to eat, digest and poop. Slightly disgusting things but the nice thing about them is: they keep us aware of what we are. Bread is the purest of food, but even that needed human intelligence, an idea, a theory to be invented.


Simone Post (24) born in Utrecht, living in Eindhoven. Design student. » WHY DO PEOPLE EAT BREAD? » WHAT IS A PLAYER » HOW IS BOTTLED WATER DIFFERENT FROM TAPWATER

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Een player is iemand die heel veel verschillende vriendjes/vriendinnetjes heeft, omdat hij niemand echt dichtbij wil laten komen, hij heeft als het waren een muurtje/ korst om zich heen gebouwd. We eten brood omdat het juis zo verukkelijk is als het net gebakken is en zo’n knapperig vers korstje heeft. En de korst/omhulsel/bescherming is ook precies het verschil tussen gebotteld water en water uit de kraan.


Jojanneke Drapers (24) born in Maarssen, living in Spain. Spanish language student. » WHY DO PEOPLE EAT BREAD? » WHAT IS A PLAYER » HOW ARE DECISIONS BEING MADE

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Players zijn mensen die snelle beslissingen nemen, zonder teveel rekening te houden met de consequenties op lange termijn. De meeste beslissingen worden genomen door er wat langer over na te denken en alle voors en tegens af te wegen. Brood is iets wat veel gegeten wordt door mensen die iets langer over dingen nadenken, dus vaak juist niet door players, omdat die liever ongezondere dingen eten en niet nadenken over, in dit geval, hun gezondheid op lange termijn.


Lena Bakonalim (24) born and living in Germany. Bookbinder and designer. » WHY DO PEOPLE EAT BREAD? » WHAT IS A PROBLEM » CAN PLANTS COMMUNICATE WITH EACHOTHER

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If you have problem then you have a problem. for example if you are out of milk and it is holiday and all the shops are closed and you really want to eat müsli you are in trouble. the only thing you can do is go to a café and steal milk or ask your neighbour. so actually problems are not definitely problems because you can always find a way to deal with them. human beings are very good in that. Bread has lots of carbohydrates which gives energy for the day and it tastes good. especially german bread which is very substantial so you don’t need to eat a lot of it to be full. but we could also eat potatoes in the morning, i don’t know why nobody is doing that. but people eat müsli which is amazing. They always want to know what is new in the plant world. the latest trend in leaf treatment or mega soils. by using a technique called florahumetration they can send their wishes to a human brain so that the people know what to give the plants so that they can grow beautifully, play their favorite game called photosynthesis and in the end we can make bread,pick potatoes or have some müsli.


Anna Neubauer (24) born and living in Germany. Dutch language and literature student. » WHY DO PEOPLE EAT BREAD? » WHAT IS A PLAYER » CAN PLANTS COMMUNICATE WITH EACHOTHER

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A player is an essential part of any sports game, without whom it could not function, just as bread is crucial for us humans to function properly, because it is an essentiel part of our diet. Plants are part of our diet, too, and there are millions of different types of plants, like there are millions of different people. The same way we invented the writing, phones and the internet, plants have their own way to communicate with each other.


Mila Chorbadzhieva (24) born in Bulgaria, living in Eindhoven. Design student. » WHY DO PEOPLE EAT BREAD? » WHY DO WE GIVE VALUE TO IMAGES » CAN PLANTS COMMUNICATE WITH EACHOTHER

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We give value to images because we perceive our world mainly through them. We eat bread because it is basic food which is just as essential to our survival as images are. We can also eat bread because we are vegetarian, and we think that in this way we do not harm any living creature. However, studies show that plants can communicate with each other, which actually makes them quite smart living creatures.


Danny Stevens (24) born and living in New Zealand. Photography student. » WHAT VALUE DOES BREAD HAVE IN A SOCIETY » WHAT IS UNTRUTH » DOES AN ANIMAL KNOW IT WILL BE SACRIFIED

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An animal might not understand the concept of sacrifice but can be aware that its life is in danger. Human beings sacrifice animals so that they may survive, by eating them, or using them to make clothing and tools. Bread is valuable to society because as a food source it allows people to survive, it is relatively cheap, and also does not require the life of an animal. An untruth is a denial of reality or an attempt to hide a fact. for example - A person may try to make an animal feel safe and comfortable before sacrificing it, therefore presenting the animal with a false reality. A person might steal their friend’s sandwich and then brush away the crumbs to hide it.


‘Brood maakt groot’ is een uitspraak om aan te duiden hoe belangrijk brood is. Het is een slecht argument omdat het niet wetenschappeljik onderbouwd is. »2« The value of bread has to Over het algemeen do with migration because heeft brood een grote different people from difwaarde in de Nederferent countries work with landse samenleving, bread and make different types of bread. The prizes omdat bijna iedereen of bread will then vary. »1« het dagelijks eet. »3«


Voor de een zit er bijvoorbeeld Ik vind brood niet zo weinig waarde aan een brood omwaardevol, het is maar gedat ze dit vies vinden. Voor de woon eten, maar mensen die ander zit er heel veel waarde aan al een week geen eten heb- een brood omdat ze weinig voedsel hebben en misschien nog nooben gehad zullen het veel it de mogelijkheid hebben gehad waardevoller vinden. »3« om een brood te proeven. »4«

Nowdays, dai cleb is a whole different truth. Hungry people don’t care for truth, they dont care for the working priciple of erasing en don’t even care who or how decisions are made. Truth on an empty stomach stands no chance. »5«


Freedom is most important, seems to be true. But during the russian revolution thousands went out on the streets chanting “dai chleb” - give us bread. The value of bread to society in that time and place seemed far more important than freedom. Dai chleb was not a cry for freedom. The people just wanted more to eat. »5«


With florahumetration, plants can send their wishes to a human brain so that the people know what to give the plants so that they can grow beautifully, play their favorite game called photosynthesis and in the end we can make bread. »10« We can eat bread because we think that in this way we do not harm any living creature. However, studies show that plants can communicate with each other, which actually makes them quite smart living creatures. »12«


Bread has lots of carbohydrates which gives energy for the day and it tastes good. especially german bread which is very substantial so you don’t need to eat a lot of it to be full. but we could also eat potatoes in the morning, i don’t know why nobody is doing that. »10« A player is an essential part of any sports game, without whom it could not function, just as bread is crucial for us humans to function properly, because it is an essentiel part of our diet. »11«

We eat bread because it is basic food which is just as essential to our survival as images are. »12«


In this regulated world one tends to forget, that he is a being of nature. But there are some reminders left. We have to sleep, we have sex, have to eat, digest and poop. Slightly disgusting things but the nice thing about them is: they keep us aware of what we are. Bread is the purest of food, but even that needed human intelligence, an idea, a theory to be invented. Âť7ÂŤ


Een player is iemand die niemand echt dichtbij wil laten komen, hij heeft als het waren een muurtje/korst om zich heen gebouwd. We eten brood omdat het juist zo verukkelijk is als het net gebakken is en zo’n knapperig vers korstje heeft. »8«

Players zijn mensen die snelle beslissingen nemen, zonder teveel rekening te houden met de consequenties op lange termijn. Brood is iets wat veel gegeten wordt door mensen die iets langer over dingen nadenken, dus vaak juist niet door players. »9«


Variations on this textual Q/A method. » Finding out which (type of) questions give the most interesting associations and which questions don’t. Finding the best way to formulate the bread question. With this information, more specific sets of questions can be formulated. I have already started doing this towards the end of the last experiment and you can already see differences when the questions are asked differently or when there is a different type of questions attached. » Instead of giving questions, just give words. Then the participant will be asked to form a story, or a theory with the given set of keywords. Here it is also important that the words together are carefully picked and could maybe be derived from the questions. But it would also be interesting to let people make up real stories, like dreams, with a completely random set of words. » The participants can also be asked to tell a story based on a few given objects, sounds, smells or images, instead of words. Here it is important to try

out which kind of things work the best. Maybe the outcome won’t be a story, but a smell or a taste or a drawing or a sound or a movement. » Asking the partcipant to tell a story related to bread and a given emotion. This is a slightly more direct approach, but might give more personal insights because it is based on feelings instead of rationality. Giving people an emotion to go with the story, might help them to dig up forgotten stories. » Asking the participants to play the wikipediagame while talking. The participants get two keywords and they have to give all the steps inbetween that connect them. One by one. This is a method that could be used when the story-telling based on words doesnt come too smoothly. » The wikipediagame can also be done with images instead of words. It is also possible to get sets of images which the participants have to put in certain orders or structures to form stories or theories or relations.


Activities to stimulate stories and thoughts » Baking a bread together with a participant, but replacing one or two ingredients with a random other ingredient to see what will come from it and also as a way to start talking. » Building with bread, or doing anything but use it as bread. » Look at bread in different contexts. Trying to find it in a context where it is less common. The zoo is already a place where a lot of bread is used, but we don’t think about it right away. Also the parc where it is used to feed ducks and birds. » Using the kind of pictures a phycic uses to trigger the subconcious, but then asking people to try to see a bread in it. In what way could it be a bread? Or anything bread related? the other way around you can also

use pictures of bread and see what you can see in it besides bread. » Playing a game where a person asks many different questions to another and they have to make every answer somehow breadrelated. » It is also possible to ask someone not to use the word bread and then ask them a bunch of questions where they have to find different ways of describing bread. » Going to Germany for the summer might be a good oppertunity. The breadculture is there just as big (maybe even bigger) as in the Netherlands, but they have very different kinds of bread. In the past this has already led to some discussion with me. This could be an interesting starting point towards something else.


The world explained, a microhistorical encyclopaedia “In our everday efforts to make sense of the world in which we live, we navigate between ‘specialised knowledge we have acquired thorugh learning’; ‘things we know through experience’; and ‘zones we have not entered before, and where we cannot rely on prior knowledge’. When we are confronted with a situation we cannot immediately explain, we start making our own connections. We tie various reference points from these three zones together in order to satisfy our need for things to make sense. We thus create something new: a personal theory. People do not reveal their personal theories easily. But they can be stimulated to do so by asking them a question to which there is no straightforward answer, or confronting them with a set of questions that together open up a field of tensions. Trying to resolve or escape these tensions, people will make their own associative connections between the different questions and divergent areas of knowledge on which they draw. A theory that tries to make connections across different areas of knowledge can be envisioned as a movement of looking for meaning in a particular direction. A set of intersecting questions may of course make different people think in divergent directions. Their answers cannot be predicted. If only a few questions are brought into play, the answers may

be very similar, and remain closest to a univocal, linear mode of thinking. But with a multiplicity of questions, appealing to different areas of knowledge, the possibilities multiply. The intersection of multiple questions generates a centrifugal epistomology, where thoughts begin to flow and move outwards rather than only circulating around learnt knowledge. A question diagramme can therefore function like a little machine that sets thought in motion, and that makes it possible to bring out the personal theories that otherwise would be difficult to disclose. Microhistory - a genre of historiography, developed by Italian historian Carlo Ginzburg and others in the 1970s and 80s, focusing on history at the micro-level of lived experience. Where historians had previously directed attention either to the powerful, ruling elites, or to the driving force of depersonalised economic and social structures, microhistorians insisted that any societal structure ‘is the result of interaction and of numerous individual strategies.’ They recognised a dynamic relation between the individual and society: structures shape and limit the individual’s possible actions, but individuals, thorugh their use of culture, also change these structures in turn. The dynamic force of history, they suggested, is the continuous reshaping of culture in everyday life. The aim of microhistorians has been to catch this dynamic in action.”



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