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The Art of Fashion Draping

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The Art of Fashion Draping Fourth Edition

Connie Amaden-Crawford

Fairchild Books / New York

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Executive Director & General Manager

Michael Schluter

Executive Editor

Olga T. Kontzias

Assistant Acquisitions Editor

Amanda Breccia

Development Editor Assistant Art Director Production Director Senior Production Editor Ancillaries Editor Associate Director of Sales Copyeditor Cover Design Cover Art

Sylvia L. Weber Sarah Silberg Ginger Hillman Elizabeth Marotta Amy Butler Melanie Sankel Joanne Slike Erin Fitzsimmons Nick Knight/trunkarchive.com; Lady Amanda Harlech

Text Design

Michael Miranda

Page Layout

Barbara Barg Medley

Chapter Opener Illustrations Illustrations

Ryan McMenamy Connie Amaden-Crawford, Katie Morris, Samantha Neff, and Andria Bird

Copyright © 2012 Fairchild Books, a Division of Condé Nast Publications. All rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems—without written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2011929819 ISBN: 978-1-60901-227-4 GST R 133004424 Printed in the United States of America TP09

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CONTENTS

Part One

Preface Acknowledgments

xiii xvi

Introduction to Draping

1 3 21

1 2 Part Two

Draping Principles and Skills The Dress Form, Tools, and Terminology

Basic Foundation Patterns 3 The Basic Bodice 4 The Basic Fitted Skirt 5 Sleeves 6 Torso/Blouse Sloper and Basic Shift Silhouettes

33 35 75 87 103

Part Three

Intermediate Techniques 7 Bodice and Blouse Designs 8 Designing with Circular Flounces and Ruffles 9 Princess Designs 10 Dartless Designs 11 Kimono and Raglan Designs 12 Skirt Designs

115 117 147 157 189 2 13 229

Part Four

Advanced Techniques 13 Pants 14 Knit Designs 15 Collar and Neckline Designs 16 Jacket Silhouettes and Collar/Lapel Designs 17 Cowl Designs 18 Casual Dress Designs 19 Formal Dress Designs 20 Fitting Methods

283 285 301 339 365 401 411 437 467

Metric Conversion Charts

485

Index

487

v

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Extended Contents Preface

xiii

Acknowledgments

xvi

1

Part Two: Basic Foundation Patterns

Draping Principles and Skills

3

3

Draping Principles and Skills

4

Design Development Identifying the Design Details Elements of Design

5 6 7

Selecting Fabric Hand, Appearance, and Texture Selecting Fabric Quality and Weight Selecting Fabric Color Selecting Fabric Prints

8 8 8 8 8

Part One: Introduction to Draping 1

2

Elements of Fabric Processing Techniques Fibers Fabric Construction

9 9 10 1 1

Understanding Grainlines and Crossgrains Lengthwise Grain (Straight of Grain) Crosswise Grain Bias

15 15 15 15

Draping Preparation Blocking Muslin

16 16 16

Principles of Balanced Patterns Maintaining Balance (Plumb Theory)

17 17

Seam Allowances

18

Notching Guidelines Always Notch Uniform Notching Practices

19 19 20

4

33

The Basic Bodice

35

Theory of the Basic Bodice Slopers Basic Bodice Variations

36 36

The Basic Shoulder/Waist Dart Bodice Basic Front Shoulder/Waistline Bodice: Preparing the Fabric Basic Back Shoulder/Waistline Bodice: Preparing the Fabric Basic Front Shoulder/Waistline Bodice: Draping Steps Basic Back Shoulder/Waistline Bodice: Draping Steps Trueing the Basic Shoulder/Waistline Bodice Drape Pinning and Checking the Final Proof of Bodice Drape Sewing a Final Muslin Proof

37

39 40 43 46 52 53

The Basic Single Waistline Dart Sloper Basic Single Waistline Dart: Preparing the Fabric Basic Single Waistline Dart: Draping Steps Trueing the Single Waistline Dart Sloper

54 55 56 58

Converting the One-Dart Sloper into a Two-Dart Sloper and Checking Balance

61

The Sidebust and Waist Darts Sloper Basic Side Bust and Waist Dart: Preparing the Fabric Basic Side Bust and Waist Dart: Draping Steps

62 63 64

Custom Draping Custom Bodice Front and Back: Single Waistline Sloper

68 68

The Basic Fitted Skirt

75

The Basic Fitted Skirt

76

Basic Skirt Variations Basic Skirt with One Dart Flared (A-Line) Skirt

77 77 77

The Basic Fitted Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Preparing the Dress Form Basic Front and Back Skirt: Preparing the Fabric

78 78 78 80 80 81

38

The Dress Form, Tools, and Terminology

21

The Dress Form Specialty Dress Forms Draping Fabric on the Dress Form Attaching the Bustline Tape Balancing the Armhole Armhole Depth

23 24 26 27 27 27

Draping Tools and Supplies

28

The Basic Fitted Skirt: Draping Steps Basic Front Skirt: Draping Steps Basic Back Skirt: Draping Steps

Glossary of Draping Terms

30

Trueing the Basic Skirt Drape

83

Pinning and Checking the Final Proof of the Skirt Drape

86

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5

Sleeves

87

Basic Straight Sleeve

88

Basic Sleeve Variations Shirt Sleeve Raglan Sleeve Kimono Sleeve

89 89 89 89

Preparing the Arm

90 92

Basic Sleeve Measurement Chart

Basic Sleeve: Preparing the Sleeve Draft

93

Walking the Sleeve into the Armhole

97

Pinning and Checking the Sleeve Drape

6

99

140

Designing with Circular Flounces and Ruffles

147

Designing with Circular Flounces and Ruffles

148

Circular Flounce Designs Circular Flounce Design: Preparing the Fabric Circular Flounce Design: Draping Steps

149 149 151 152 152 153 154 154 155

Adjusting a Sleeve for More Arm Movement

100

Adjusting the Sleeve Cap Ease

102

Gathered Flounce Gathered Flounce: Preparing the Fabric Gathered Flounce: Draping Steps

Torso/Blouse Sloper and Basic Shift Silhouettes 103

Gathered Ruffle Designs Gathered Ruffle Designs: Draping Steps Various Ruffle Finishes

Torso/Blouse Sloper and Basic Shift Silhouettes

104

Semi-Fitted Shift Dress Silhouette

104

Blouse and Dress Silhouette Variations Shift Dress Silhouette Fitted Sheath Dress Silhouette

105 105 105

Torso/Blouse Sloper Torso/Blouse Sloper Front and Back: Preparing the Fabric Torso/Blouse Sloper Front: Draping Steps Torso/Blouse Sloper Back: Draping Steps Torso/Blouse Sloper Front and Back: Trueing

106 106 108 110 112

Sewing a Final Muslin Proof

113

Part Three: Intermediate Techniques 7

8

Empire Styled Blouse: Preparing the Fabric Empire Styled Blouse: Preparing the Fabric— Upper Bodice and Lower Bodice Empire Styled Blouse: Upper Bodice Draping Steps Empire Styled Blouse: Lower Bodice Draping Steps

115

Bodice and Blouse Designs

117

Bodice and Blouse Designs

118

Bodice Design Variations

118

Waist Midriff Blouse Waist Midriff Blouse: Preparing the Fabric Waist Midriff Blouse: Midriff Draping Steps Waist Midriff Blouse: Bodice Draping Steps

119 119 121 122

Bodice with Bustline Shirring Bodice with Bustline Shirring: Preparing the Fabric Bodice with Bustline Shirring: Draping Steps Bodice with Bustline Shirring: Trueing Steps

124 124 126 127

Blouse with Shoulder Pleats/Gathers Blouse with Shoulder Pleats/Gathers: Preparing the Fabric Blouse with Shoulder Pleats/Gathers: Draping Steps Blouse with Shoulder Pleats/Gathers: Trueing Up

128 128 130 131

Asymmetric Wrap Blouse Asymmetric Wrap Blouse: Preparing the Fabric Asymmetric Wrap Blouse: Right Side Draping Steps Asymmetric Wrap Blouse: Left Side Draping Steps

132 133 134 135

Bias Halter Blouse Bias Halter: Preparing the Fabric Bias Halter: Draping Steps

136 136 137

Empire Styled Blouse

140

9

1 41 142 144

Princess Designs

157

Princess Designs

158

Basic Princess Bodice Basic Princess Bodice: Preparing the Fabric Basic Princess Bodice: Center Front Princess Panel: Draping Steps Basic Princess Bodice: Side Front Princess Panel: Draping Steps Basic Princess Bodice: Center Back Princess Panel: Draping Steps Basic Princess Bodice: Side Back Princess Panel: Draping Steps

159 159 162 163 165 166

Torso/Blouse Princess Torso/Blouse Princess: Preparing the Fabric Torso/Blouse Princess: Center Front Princess Panel: Draping Steps Torso/Blouse Princess: Side Front Princess Panel: Draping Steps Torso/Blouse Princess: Center Back Princess Panel: Draping Steps Torso/Blouse Princess: Side Back Princess Panel: Draping Steps

168 168

Armhole Princess Dress Armhole Princess Dress: Preparing the Fabric Armhole Princess Dress: Center Front Princess Panel: Draping Steps Armhole Princess Dress: Side Front Princess Panel: Draping Steps Armhole Princess Dress: Center Back Princess Panel: Draping Steps Armhole Princess Dress: Side Back Princess Panel: Draping Steps

176 176

Torso Princess with Dropped Shoulder Torso Princess with Dropped Shoulder: Preparing the Dress Form Torso Princess with Dropped Shoulder: Preparing the Fabric Torso Princess with Dropped Shoulder: Center Front Princess Panel: Draping Steps

171 172 174 175

178 179 180 181 182 182 183 184

Extended Contents viii

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Six-Gore Skirt with Kick Pleats Styled Gore Skirt with Kick Pleat Variation Six-Gore Skirt with Kick Pleats: Draping Steps

245 245 245 246

187

Eight-Gore Skirt with Inverted Box Pleats Eight-Gore Skirt with Inverted Box Pleats: Draping Steps

189

Dirndl Skirt Dirndl Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Dirndl Skirt: Draping Steps

247 247 249

Dartless Blouse and Dartless Shirt Silhouettes Dartless Blouse Sloper/Silhouette Dartless Shirt Sloper/Silhouette

190 191 191

Dirndl Skirt with Ruffles (Tiered Skirt) Dirndl Skirt with Ruffles (Tiered Skirt): Draping Steps Various Ruffle Finishes

251 251 252

Dartless Blouse Dartless Blouse: Preparing the Fabric Dartless Blouse: Front Blouse Draping Steps Sleeve Information

192 192 194 197

Circular Skirt Circular Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Circular Skirt: Draping Steps

253 253 255

Dartless Shirt or Dress Dartless Shirt or Dress: Preparing Shirt Silhouette Pattern Dartless Shirt or Dress: Developing a Shirt Sleeve

198

Bias Circular Skirt Bias Circular Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Bias Circular Front Skirt: Draping Steps Bias Circular Skirt: Draping Steps

258 259 260 262

Classic Shirt with One-Piece Yoke Classic Shirt with One-Piece Yoke: Preparing the Bodice Fabric Classic Shirt with One-Piece Yoke: Preparing the Yoke Fabric Classic Shirt with One-Piece Yoke: Draping Steps

204

Styled Hip Yoke Skirts Styled Hip Yoke with Circular Skirt Styled Hip Yoke with Circular Skirt: PreparingYoke Fabric Styled Hip Yoke with Circular Skirt: Draping Yoke Steps Styled Hip Yoke with Circular Skirt: Preparing the Skirt Fabric Styled Hip Yoke with Circular Skirt: Skirt Draping Steps Styled Hip Yoke with Gathered Skirt Styled Hip Yoke with Gathered Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Styled Hip Yoke with Gathered Skirt: Skirt Draping Steps

265 265

268

Asymmetric Wrap Skirt Asymmetric Wrap Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Asymmetric Wrap Skirt: Right Front Draping Steps Asymmetric Skirt: Left Front Draping Steps

275 275 277 278

Peg Skirt Peg Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Peg Skirt: Draping Steps

279 279 280

Torso Princess with Dropped Shoulder: Side Front Princess Panel: Draping Steps Torso Princess with Dropped Shoulder: Center Back Princess Panel: Draping Steps Torso Princess with Dropped Shoulder: Side Back Princess Panel: Draping Steps

10 Dartless Designs

Various Front-Yoke Designs Front Bodice Yoke Variations: Preparing the Dress Form Front Bodice Yoke Variations: Preparing the Fabric Front Bodice Yoke Variations: Draping Steps

11

12

185 186

198 199

204 205 206 209 209 210 210

Kimono and Raglan Designs

213

Kimono and Raglan Designs

214

Kimono Shirt Kimono Shirt: Preparing the Arm for the Dress Form Kimono Shirt: Preparing the Fabric Kimono Shirt: Draping Steps Variation to Achieve Extra Lift

215 215 216 218 221

Raglan Sleeve Raglan Sleeve: Preparing the Dress Form Raglan Sleeve: Preparing the Sleeve Fabric Raglan Sleeve: Preparing the Bodice/Shirt Fabric Raglan Sleeve: Bodice/Shirt Draping Steps Raglan Sleeve: Sleeve Draping Steps

222 222 223 224 225 227

Part Four: Advanced Techniques

246

266 267

269 271 271 273

283

Pants

285

Pants

286

Pant Terms and Measurements

287

229

Basic Two-Dart Pants Draft

289

Skirt Designs

230

Flared (A-Line) Skirt Flared Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Flared Skirt: Draping Steps

231 231 233

Pant Styling Pant Styling: Waistline Details Pants Styling: Leg Shapes

297 297 299

Six-Gore Trumpet Skirt Six-Gore Trumpet Skirt: Preparing the Fabric Six-Gore Trumpet Skirt: Draping Steps

235 235 238

Six-Gore Skirt with Godets Six-Gore Skirt with Godets: Draping Steps

244 244

Skirt Designs

13

14

Knit Designs

301

Knit Designs

302

Stretch and Recovery Ratios Determining the Fabric’s Stretch Ratio

303 303

Extended Contents ix

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15

Determining the Fabric’s Recovery Ratio

303

Basic Knit/Bodice Dress Basic Knit Bodice/Dress: Preparing the Fabric Basic Knit Bodice/Dress: Draping Steps

304 305 306

Basic Knit Shirt Basic Knit Shirt: Trueing and Fitting the Pattern

309 309

Basic Knit Sleeve Sleeve Variations

310 311

Knit Halter Knit Halter: Preparing the Dress Form Knit Halter: Preparing the Fabric Knit Halter: Draping Steps

312 312 312 313

Boat Neck Knit T-Top Boat Neck Knit T-Top: Preparing the Dress Form Boat Neck Knit T-Top: Preparing the Fabric Boat Neck Knit T-Top: Draping Steps Neckline Variation

315 315 316 317 319

Asymmetric Wrap Dress Asymmetric Wrap Dress: Preparing the Dress Form Asymmetric Wrap Dress: Preparing the Fabric Asymmetric Wrap Dress: Right Side Draping Steps Asymmetric Wrap Dress: Left Side Draping Steps Asymmetric Wrap Dress: Back Draping Steps and Trueing Up

320 320 321 322 324

Knit Leotard Knit Leotard: Drafting Steps

327 327

Knit Bodysuit Knit Bodysuit: Drafting Steps

330 330

Knit Leggings Knit Leggings: Drafting Steps Knit Leggings: Sewing Steps

334 334 335

Knit Panties Knit Panties: Drafting Steps

336 336

Asymmetric Collar: Preparing the Fabric Asymmetric Collar: Draping Steps

16

326

Collar and Neckline Designs

339

Collar and Neckline Designs

340

Collar Terms Terms for the Collar Draping Process Neckline Details

341 341 341

Convertible Collar Convertible Collar: Preparing the Fabric Convertible Collar: Draping Steps

342 342 343

Mandarin Collar Mandarin Collar: Preparing the Fabric Mandarin Collar: Draping Steps Bowtie Collar Variation

345 345 346 347

Peter Pan Collar Peter Pan Collar: Preparing the Fabric Peter Pan Collar: Draping Steps

348 348 349

Turtleneck Collar Turtleneck Collar: Preparing the Dress Form Turtleneck Collar: Preparing the Fabric Turtleneck Collar: Draping Steps Turtleneck Collar Variation

351 351 352 353 354

Asymmetric Collar

355

Soft Wave Necklines Soft Wave Necklines: Preparing the Fabric Soft Wave Necklines: Draping Steps

360 360 361

Raised Neckline Raised Neckline: Preparing the Fabric Raised Neckline: Draping Steps

362 362 363

Jacket Silhouettes and Collar/Lapel Designs

365

Jacket Silhouettes and Collar/Lapel Designs

366

Spencer Jacket Silhouette Spencer Jacket Silhouette: Preparing the Dress Form Spencer Jacket Silhouette: Preparing the Fabric Spencer Jacket Silhouette: Draping Steps

367 367 368 369

Developing a One-Piece Jacket Sleeve Preparing the Sleeve

372 372

Developing a Two-Piece Jacket Sleeve

375

Jacket Silhouette with Notched Collar Jacket Silhouette with Notched Collar: Preparing the Fabric Notched Collar: Preparing the Collar Jacket Silhouette with Notched Collar: Preparing the Back Fabric and Jacket Notched Collar: Front Jacket Draping Steps Notched Collar: Collar Draping Steps

376

Jacket Silhouette with Shawl Collar Jacket Silhouette with Shawl Collar: Preparing the Fabric Jacket Silhouette with Shawl Collar: Preparing the Back Fabric and Back Drape Shawl Collar: Front Jacket Draping Steps Demi-Princess Jacket with Revere Collar Demi-Princess Jacket with Revere Collar: Preparing the Dress Form and Fabric Demi-Princess Jacket with Revere Collar: Front Panel Draping Steps Demi-Princess Jacket with Revere Collar: Revere Collar and Front Panel Draping Steps Demi-Princess Jacket with Revere Collar: Back Panel Draping Steps Demi-Princess Jacket with Revere Collar: Underarm/Side Seam Panel Draping Steps

17

355 357

376 378 379 380 382 385 385 387 388 392 392 394 395 396 397

Jacket with Easy Fit Jacket with Easy Fit: Preparing the Dress Form and Jacket Fabric Jacket with Easy Fit: Front and Back Jacket Draping Steps

398 398

Cowl Designs

401

Cowl Designs

402

Basic Neckline Cowl Basic Neckline Cowl: Preparing the Fabric Basic Neckline Cowl: Draping Steps

402 403 403

Cowl Blouse Designs

406

399

Extended Contents x

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Cowl Blouse Designs: Preparing the Fabric Cowl Blouse Designs: Draping Steps Underarm/Side Seam Cowl Underarm/Side Seam Cowl: Preparing the Fabric Underarm/Side Seam Cowl: Draping Steps

18

19

Casual Dress Designs

406 407

Bustier Designs: Preparing the Fabric Bustier Designs: Draping the Bustier Foundation Draping Variation for Torso-Length and/or Bra Design Bustier Designs: Draping the Outside Garment Design Bustier Designs: Sewing the Bustier Foundation and Attaching Boning Bustier Designs: Sewing the Foundation Garment Bustier Designs: Sewing the Bustier Lining Bustier Designs: Sewing the Outside Bustier Design and Attaching the Lining

408 408 409

411

Casual Dress Designs

412

Empire Silhouette Empire Silhouette: Preparing the Dress Form Empire Silhouette: Preparing the Bodice Fabric Empire Silhouette: Preparing the Skirt Fabric Empire Silhouette: Bodice Draping Steps Empire Silhouette: Skirt Draping Steps

413 413 414 415 416 418

Princess Slip Dress Princess Slip Dress: Preparing the Dress Form Princess Slip Dress: Preparing the Fabric Princess Slip Dress Panel: Center Front Panel Draping Steps Princess Slip Dress Panel: Side Front Panel Draping Steps Princess Slip Dress Panel: Center Back Draping Steps Princess Slip Dress Panel: Side Back Draping Steps

420 420 421

Halter Dress with Fluid Drape Halter Dress with Fluid Drape: Preparing the Dress Form Halter Dress with Fluid Drape: Preparing the Neckband Fabric Halter Dress with Fluid Drape: Preparing the Dress Fabric Halter Dress with Fluid Drape: Neckband Draping Steps Halter Dress with Fluid Drape: Front and Back Dress Draping Halter Dress with Fluid Drape: Trueing Up

430 431

Bias-Cut Slip Dress Bias-Cut Slip Dress: Preparing the Dress Form Bias-Cut Slip Dress: Preparing the Fabric Bias-Cut Slip Dress: Draping Steps

432 432 433 433

Formal Dress Designs

437

Formal Dress Designs

438

“Sculptured” Dress “Sculptured” Dress: Preparing the Dress Form “Sculptured” Dress: Preparing the Fabric “Sculptured” Dress: Front Dress Draping Steps “Sculptured” Dress: Back Dress Draping Steps

439 439 440 441 444

Empire Twist Neckline Dress Empire Twist Neckline: Preparing the Dress Form, Collar Band, and Midriff Empire Twist Neckline Dress: Preparing the Fabric Empire Twist Neckline Dress: Draping Steps

446 446 447 448

Bustier Designs Bustier Designs: Draping the Bustier Foundation Bustier Designs: Preparing the Dress Form

450 451 451

423

One-Shoulder Bustier Dress One-Shoulder Bustier Dress: Preparing the Torso-Length Foundation One-Shoulder Bustier Dress: Preparing the Dress Bodice Fabric One-Shoulder Bustier Dress: Bodice Draping Steps One-Shoulder Bustier Dress: Skirt Draping Steps

20 Fitting Methods

451 453 455 456 457 457 459 460 462 462 463 464 466

467

Fitting Methods

468

424 425 426

Fitting Blouse, Dress, or Jacket Designs Checking the Pattern Details Evaluating the Garment Design Fit

469 469 471

427

Fitting Sleeves and Armholes Evaluating the Armhole Fit Checking Sleeve Grainline and Hang Armhole Balance and Shape Placement of the Sleeve Cap Notches Checking Sleeve for Twisting or Pulling Sleeve Cap Ease Armhole Size: Sleeve Is Too Tight or Too Loose

474 474 474 475 475 476 476 477

Fitting Knits Stretch and Recovery Ratios Checking the Pattern Details

479 479 479

Fitting Pants Checking the Pant Balance Evaluating the Front and Back Crotch to Waist Distance (Crotch Depth) Evaluating the Waistline Shape Evaluating Twisting Leg Problems Double-Checking for the Desired Hem Circumference Creating the Leg Shape Desired Creating the Leg Length Desired Checking the Pant Ease Evaluating the Center Back Waist Fit Evaluating the Center Front Crotch Fit Examining the Back Crotch Area

480 480

Fitting Skirts Checking the Skirt Pattern Balance Evaluating the Hang of the Skirt and Waistline Shape Checking the Skirt Ease

483 483 484 484

427 427 428 429

481 481 481 481 481 481 482 482 482 482

Metric Conversion Charts

485

Index

487

Extended Contents xi

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PREFACE The Art of Fashion Draping, Fourth Edition, is written for educators, students, and design professionals to assist in learning design skills through draping techniques. The information progresses from draping principles to basic draping techniques to intermediate techniques and concludes with more complex techniques and applications. The fourth edition continues to provide easy-to-read text with step-by-step draping instructions and illustrations to guide the designer in creating fashionable, professionallooking designs. This text also provides comprehensive projects of current draping methods. This new edition is practically a brand-new book with completely updated and enlarged illustrations highlighted with color to show more precisely what to do at each step of the draping process.

More than 15 creative new design projects and over 100 new technical illustrations have been added. Chapter 13, Pants, has been expanded to include more detailed instructions and information on pant waistline details and leg shapes. Chapter 14, Knit Designs, has been significantly expanded to include knit stretch and recovery ratios and more design variations. Dresses have been separated into two chapters, Casual Dress Designs (Chapter 18) and Formal Dress Designs (Chapter 19) to highlight design details that are appropriate for day and evening wear, respectively. Chapter objectives have been updated to help guide instructors to the important features of each chapter.

A goal in preparing this new edition was to include new and up-to-date designs. The following design projects have been added to this edition: armhole princess dress and dropped shoulder princess design (both in Chapter 9), dartless shirt or dress (Chapter 10), six-gore trumpet skirt (Chapter 12), two-dart pants draft (Chapter 13), boat neck knit t-top, asymmetric knit wrap dress, knit leggings (all in Chapter 14), soft wave and raised collar necklines (Chapter 15), Spencer jacket, one-piece jacket sleeve, two-piece jacket sleeve, jacket with easy fit (all in Chapter 16), halter dress with fluid drape (Chapter 18), and empire twist neckline dress and contoured draped dress (Chapter 19).

Starting with Part One, Introduction to Draping, readers become familiar with the elements of fabric that make draping an excellent way to create fashion designs, understand grainlines, and learn how to prepare to start draping on the dress form. Best practices for seam allowances and notching are thoroughly explained. The tools

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and equipment that designers use for draping are presented, along with a glossary of professional terms.

Part Two introduces basic projects wherein the designer learns the principles and techniques of draping. Methods to create the foundation patterns for the basic bodice, skirt, torso blouse silhouette and shift, and sleeve give the designer a sound understanding of manipulating, molding, and shaping fabric into basic garments on the dress form. The sense of seeing and feeling a simple design, which cannot be achieved by creating patterns flat on the table, is accomplished.

Step-by-step principles discussed in Part Two enable the designer to understand the placement of the grain, darts, tucks, and pleats on the figure as well as necessary ease amounts, shaping waistlines, and balancing patterns. Instructions for the basic sleeve are also included in this section. Here, to save time and maintain accuracy, the basic sleeve is drafted. Sleeves are pinned and checked for balance, fit, and hang when the design is placed on the dress form. The basic shift silhouette has been updated with a torso/ blouse block along with blouse and dress silhouette variations. This project focuses on understanding the many creative styles and uses for the torso/blouse block.

Understanding the many uses and applications of these foundation patterns is an important key to good design theory. Here the basics have been expanded and presented in the same step-by-step format, but with more clarity and thoroughness. The educator has several choices as to which basic, or all the basics, to teach within the curriculum. In addition, the custom bodice has been updated to help future designers who want to be able to design for private clientele.

The projects in Part Three, Intermediate Techniques, guide the designer into foundation skills to create various bodices, blouses, princess designs, dartless designs, skirts, and sleeves. Projects explore how to define the style and silhouette over the bust, hip, and waist by emphasizing the use of folds, darts, pleats, and fullness. The steps discuss how to drape the fabric from neck to hem, maintaining a smooth and easy-flowing design, while at the same time not overworking a piece of fabric.

Part Four, Advanced Techniques, illustrates projects for the designer to apply his or her skills to designing and creating more unusual, complicated cuts. This part presents pants, knit designs, neckline details, jacket and collar designs, cowls, bias dresses, and sculptured dresses, among others. The step-by-step guidelines help guide the designer to learn a great deal of finesse and many techniques in finishing accurately draped styles.

Preface xiv

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By popular demand, a new chapter on fitting methods, Chapter 20, has been added to the fourth edition. Outlined within this chapter are solutions to fitting problems for bodices, blouses, dresses, jackets, sleeves, knits, skirts, and pants by using the drapefitting method. The drape-fitting steps give guidelines in how to evaluate each garment in the designer’s collection on a fitting model. The designer will also learn how to evaluate various fitting areas, such as darts, shoulder seams, side seams, ease amounts, sleeve caps, and crotch shapes. Details in learning to shape silhouettes, darts, and princess seams and make sleeves move more freely are clearly illustrated in this chapter.

This text promises to be an excellent teaching tool for courses in fashion design and costume design. It is valuable for students in a fashion design introductory course or for those who are taking only a single course in fashion draping. In fact, The Art of Fashion Draping will interest anyone who desires to learn more about fashion design.

Many years of experience in fashion design rooms, production rooms, and college classrooms have taught me that solid, competent draping skills result in good design. It is my sincere wish that the skills learned throughout this text will provide readers a solid foundation for a successful career in fashion design.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express appreciation for the assistance, information, and love given to me by colleagues, students, many friends, and business associates. Their many ideas and suggestions have been useful in presenting this expanded fourth edition with greater clarity, new design projects, and updated illustrations. This edition would not have been possible without a dedicated staff of editors, researchers, computer graphic professionals, and reviewers.

I am particularly indebted to the Fairchild team, including Executive Editor Olga Kontzias, Assistant Acquisitions Editor Amanda Breccia, Development Editor Sylvia Weber, Senior Production Editor Elizabeth Marotta, and Assistant Art Director Sarah Silberg. Their leadership and attention to this project were integral to publishing this fourth edition.

I appreciate the feedback from the following fashion educators selected by the publisher: Rose Baron, Pratt Institute; Lynn Blake, Lasell College; Catherine Burnham, Brigham Young University; Melanie Carrico, University of North Carolina, Greensboro; Monica Haban, Art Institute of San Diego; Laura Kidd, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale; Belinda Orzada, University of Delaware; Carol Salusso, Washington State University; and Wendie Soucier, Art Institute of California, San Diego.

Also, I want to thank my art staff, Katie Morris, Samantha Neff, and Andria Bird, who rendered the fashion floats and technical sketches. Over 1,500 new illustrations could not have been completed without their many hours of dedicated work. Jimmy Hebert and Jason Amaden have been invaluable in teaching me the InDesign and Illustrator programs. I am especially indebted to Jason Amaden for building me a new, more powerful, large-screen computer to handle the task of preparing this new edition.

A special thanks to my colleagues and contributors—Rosebud Badour, Shirley Biehl, Coralie Jones, Jacquie Hemingway, Kay Lancaster, and Laura Wyatt—who reviewed the drafts of the Fourth Edition, helping to create this inspiring new book.

Most important, thanks to Wayne, my husband, best friend, and business partner, whose loving support makes it all possible to develop this major revision.

—Connie Amaden-Crawford

xvi

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The Art of Fashion Draping

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Basic Front Shoulder/Waistline Bodice: Preparing the Fabric Front

1 Measure the length for the front bodice along the straight of grain from the neckband to the waist and add 5 inches. Using this measurement, cut a piece of muslin, along the straight of grain. Snip and tear the

2 Measure the width for the front bodice from the center front of the dress form to the side seam. Add 5 inches to this measurement. Using this measure-

Measure length

Center front

fabric at this length.

Measure width

ment, cut the width of this piece of muslin, along the crossgrain. Snip and tear the fabric at this width.

3 Draw the center front grainline 1 inch from the torn edges and press under. NOTE: The selvage is toward the left hand and the torn edge is toward the right hand.

4 Using an L-square ruler, draw a perfect crossgrain Bust-level line

Center front

level line.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

line in the center of the fabric panel. This is the bust-

Apex

Front

12 13

5 Measure and mark the apex. a

Measure the apex on the dress form the distance from the center front to the apex.

b

Measure and crossmark the apex this distance on the bust level of the fabric.

Front

7 Draw in the center of the princess panel line. a Divide in half the distance from the apex to the side seam at the bust level. b

Draw a line parallel to the center front grainline at this divided position, squaring down from the bust level, using an L-square ruler.

7 8 4 5 6 1 2 3

12 13

Center front

Measure and crossmark this side seam distance on the bust level of the fabric.

Apex

b

Center of princess panel

Measure from the apex to the side seam at the bust level on the dress form and add 1â „8 inch ease. 9

a

Side seam

6 Measure and mark the side seam.

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Basic Front Shoulder/Waistline Bodice: Draping Steps

Trim and clip

1 Pin the apex mark on the fabric to the apex position on the dress form.

3 Pin the center of the princess panel line. a

Put a pin on the center of the princess panel position at the waistline on the dress form and use it as a guide for the following steps.

b

Pin the center of the princess panel line of the fabric exactly in the center of the princess panel of the dress form.

c

Anchor pins at the waistline and the crossgrain.

2 Pin the center front grainline fold of the fabric to the center front position of the dress form. Anchor pins at center front neck and center front waist. An additional pin may be needed at the bust-level tape.

4 Pin the front crossgrain parallel to the floor (not the bust-level tape). NOTE: The reason for centering the princess panel line is to verify that the crossgrain line is perfectly aligned. Check that the lengthwise grain is parallel to the center front and that the crossgrain is parallel to the floor.

5 Trim the fabric 2 inches below the waistline. Also, clip the waistline fabric at the center of the princess panel from the bottom edge up to the waist seam tape. NOTE: Over-clipping the waistline will result in a tight waistline fit and the lack of necessary ease (1â „8Â inch is the needed ease).

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Mark

7 Pin, smooth, and drape the remainder of the waistline. Smooth the fabric across the waist tape until the fabric passes the side seam. Pin at the side seam/waist corner. Leave a 1⁄8-inch pinch at the waistline. Also, do not mold the rib cage area.

8 Pin and drape the side seam and the beginning of the shoulder. a

Smooth the excess fabric past the side seam. Be careful not to pull or mold the fabric across the rib cage area.

b

Smooth the fabric up and over the dress form armplate to the shoulder. Create a ¼-inch–¼-inch pinch at the screw level (middle at ridge) of the armhole. This ensures that the armhole does not become too tight. Pin in place. Leave all excess fabric in the shoulder area.

6 Pin and drape the front waist dart. The excess fabric that falls between the center of the princess panel and the center front waist position will become the front waist dart. Be careful not to overstretch the waistline or the rib cage area. a

b

Crossmark the princess seam at the waistline. Smooth the fabric from center front to the princess seam at the waistline and crossmark. Crease the fabric at the waistline/princess seam crossmark. Pin the excess fabric on the princess seam. The excess fabric is creased at the princess seam crossmark and folded toward the center front. Taper the dart to nothing toward the bust apex.

NOTE: It is not necessary to make the ¼-inch– ¼‑inch pinch if using a foam form or any amount of arm.

9 Drape the front neckline. Trim and clip the neckline at intervals. Smooth the excess fabric around the neck area.

Chapter 3: The Basic Bodice 41

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Bias-Cut Slip Dress Sweet elegance with this dreamily romantic but superchic bias-cut dress that is designed for fluid fabrics like charmeuse, crepe de chine, or even a silky jersey. Because of the inherent stretchability of bias fabric, designers such as Donna Karan used it to create new dress styles for the 1990s and Madeleine Vionnet from the 1920s. The bias-cut slip dress has won approval in the retail market at all levels. It can be slipped on over the head, which makes it easy to get into and out of, and it is comfortable to wear. This bias-cut slip dress design is sleeveless, with a neckline beginning above the bust. It is held in place with thin spaghetti straps. This dress is cut on the bias, resulting in a closer fit that stretches and conforms to the movements of the body. The slip dress is an alternative to the bodysuit. It may be worn alone or with a soft cardigan, a tailored blazer, or leggings.

Bias-Cut Slip Dress: Preparing the Dress Form Referring to the illustrated design, pin or place style tape on the dress form at the desired neckline and armhole shape. Remove the bust-level tape (bra) from the dress form.

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45"

45"

Front 45"

45"

Back

Bias-Cut Slip Dress: Preparing the Fabric 1 For the length and width of the dress, measure and cut two perfect 45-inch squares.

2 Draw a true bias line diagonally across the pieces

Bias-Cut Slip Dress: Draping Steps 1 Pin the bias line of the fabric to the center front position of the dress form. The fabric piece should extend at least 3 inches above the styled bustline.

of fabric.

Chapter 18: Casual Dress Designs 433

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Bias-Cut Slip Dress: Draping Steps, continued

2 Smooth, clip, and pin the fabric across the neckline styleline. Approximately 2 inches from center front, clip the fabric from the top edge down to the neckline styleline. Pin the neckline styleline seam at the clip.

3 Create a slight flowing flare below the bust. Because the fabric is on the bias and is soft, the bust area can be molded into a close-to-body fit. As this bias drape is molded over the bustline, a slight flare will be created below the bust that extends to the hemline.

4 Smooth, clip, and pin approximately 2 inches from the first clip of the neckline styleline. Mold and smooth the remainder of the bust area. Continue to smooth the fabric across the neckline styleline seam, over the bust, and toward the side seam.

5 Clip, smooth, and fit the side seam down to the waistline. As the side seam is being fitted, a second slight flare will be created from the hip line in the middle of the princess panel. Drape in the remainder of the side seam below the waistline.

6 Mark all key areas of the dress form on the center front panel: a

Front bustline styleline seam.

b

Waistline at side seam: Place a waistline notch.

7 Pin the bias line of the fabric

c

Side seam: Lightly mark.

to the center back position

d

Hem: Follow the bottom of the dress form or a rung.

of the dress form. The fabric piece should extend at least

Do not remove the drape from the

3 inches above the styled

dress form.

bustline.

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8 Smooth, clip, and pin the fabric across the back neckline styleline. Approximately 2 inches from center back, clip the fabric from the top edge down to the back neckline styleline. Pin the neckline styleline seam at the clip.

9 Create a slight flowing flare below the back neckline styleline. As this bias drape is being molded over the back neckline styleline, a slight flare will be created at the princess seam that extends to the hemline.

10 Smooth, clip, and pin approximately 2 inches from the first clip of the back neckline styleline. Mold and smooth the remainder of the back neckline area. Continue to smooth the fabric across the neckline styleline seam toward the side seam.

11 Clip, smooth, and fit the side seam down to the waistline. As the back side seam is being draped, pin it to the front side seam. As the side seam is being fitted, a second slight flare will be created from the hip line in the middle of the princess panel. Drape in the remainder of the side seam below the waistline.

12 Match the back side seam to the front side seam, pinning and fitting the dress until the desired side seam shape is achieved.

13 Mark all key areas of the dress form on the center front panel: a

Back bustline styleline seam.

b

Waistline at side seam: Place a waistline notch.

c

Side seam: Lightly mark.

d

Hem: Follow the bottom of the dress form or a rung.

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Center back

Center front

Bias-Cut Slip Dress: Draping Steps, continued

Back dress

14 Drape and measure the amount of spaghetti strap-

Front dress

15 True up the front and back dress. Remove the fabric

ping needed for this design. Add an inch for seam

drape from the dress form. True up all seams, add

allowance.

seam allowances, and trim excess fabric. Pin the front drape to the back drape.

16 Return the finished drape to the dress form and check for accuracy, fit, and balance.

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Fitting Blouse, Dress, or Jacket Designs When evaluating the fit of a particular design, the following details of the design and pattern must be checked. If these areas are not correct, the finished garment will gap, twist, and/or pitch, depending upon which detail is incorrect.

Checking the Pattern Details Many fitting issues occur when the pattern does not have the following details or they have not been prepared properly: Plumb Lines

Correct: See the section Maintaining Balance (Plumb Theory) in Chapter 1, Draping Principles and Skills, to understand basic draping principles.

Back armhole should be ½" longer than the front armhole.

Center back

Check: The center front of the body and the center back of the body should always be vertical, perpendicular to the floor. Therefore, the grainlines of the garment should be parallel to these lines. Otherwise, the garment will twist or pull.

Place a pin at the underarm/side seam corner. Pivot pattern until center front and center back are parallel.

Check: The front and back side seams should be the same shape and length. Side seams of a fitted bodice, blouse, shirt, dress, or jacket should be the same angle from the straight of grain. The front pattern piece should be ½ inch wider than the back pattern piece to allow for bust shaping. If the front is the same size as the back or smaller, the finished garment will twist, pitch, or pull.

Pattern is balanced when side seams are the same shape and length and center front and center back are parallel.

Front pattern should be ½" larger than the back.

Center front

Front to Back Balance

Correct: To make the front larger than the back, add or subtract the side seam and readjust the armholes (see Armhole Balance and Shape, page 475 in this chapter). Chapter 20: Fitting Methods 469

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The Art of Fashion Draping  

Teaches different methods of draping fabric on a dress form.