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Timeline of the dissemination of medical knowledge


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imeline of the dissemination of medical knowledge

Wellcome Library, London.

Ebers Papyrus

0

BC

BC

0 32

E

50 15 BCE

Or the Book of the Dead, written

0

ca

Believed to have been written ca

Sumer – though there is suggestion of synchronous development in Egypt and China

Papyrus of Ani 30

First Written Language

E

Edwin Smith Papyrus

Wellcome Library, London.

In the reign of Ptolemy. The Alexandrian library may have preserved 400,000 to 700,000 papyrus rolls—the largest collection of recorded information in the ancient world.

ca

Believed to have been written

Royal Library of Alexandria Founded

0 16

Aulus Cornelius Celsus

0

BC

Composed the earliest surviving major medical treatise written in Latin: De Medicina

E

Wellcome Library, London.

75 12 BCE

Trephination is thought to have been performed in order to release evil spirits from the body, which were believed to be responsible for causing illness.

The Last Day of Pompeii, Karl Briullov Public Doman. Wikimedia Commons.

BCE)

10 5

Science Museum, London. Wellcome Images.

(Beginnings of Corpus Hippocraticum, ca 430

40

Hippocrates

E BC

E

Tools, such as pieces of flint and sharp animal teeth, were used to cut into the skull, even in the Neolithic period.

12 21 BCE

Wellcome Library, London.

79

Life of Sushruta ca

60

Libraries Buried at Pompeii and Herculaneum

0

BC

E

00

BC

E

00 12 0

BC

E

00 12 5

BC

E

00 13 0

BC

E

00 13 5

BC

E

00 14 0

E

BC

14 5

00

BC

E

50

CE

BC

E

00 15 0

E

0 BC

15 50

E

BC

16 0

00

CE

15 B 0

10 B 0

00

00

0

12 9

ca

15 0

00

00

BC

Oldest Surgical Procedure

5 37 E 0 - BC

50

Though cave paintings appear from 30,000 BCE, one drawing ca. 15000 BC depicts a mammoth with a leaf-shaped dark area where the heart should be, perhaps the first anatomical drawing.

Galen Born

46

One of the oldest known ancient Mesopotamian medical texts is a collection of 15 prescriptions written in Sumerian on a clay tablet.

ca

Cave Paintings

Wellcome Library, London.

ca

Medical Clay Tablet

The Invention of Paper in China

Wellcome Library, London.


National Library of Medicine.

The Black Death

2 85 ca

Schola Medica Salernitana (Salerno)

10 25

0 70

Wellcome Library, London.

ca

41 0

(1098 – 1179)

Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (ca 980 – 1037)

Illustrations Integrated with Printed Text

Illustrated medical text

Illustrations in printed books became increasingly integrated into text

52

10 41

Invention of Movable Type in China

11 50

Wellcome Library, London.

CE

70 01 B

E

0 BC

75 0

BC

E

00 80

BC

E

00 85

BC

E

00 90

BC

E

00 95

BC

E

00 10 0

BC

E

00 10 5

E

0 BC

11 00

E

BC

11 50

0

14 9

10 0

9

0

ca

Wellcome Library, London.

12 14

90 1

The First Printed Herbal with Illustrations An edition of the Herbarium Apulei by Apuleius Platonicus

Public Domain. Wikimedia Commons.

0

5

Dark Ages

50

Ortus Sanitatus (Garden of Health) 8 14

9

Courtesy of Michael Moran, MD

70 14

0

‘De arte phisicali e de cirugia’ by John Ardene

Wrote The Canon of Medicine

Making Parchment, Public Domain. Wikimedia Commons.

Printing Press Developed By Johannes Gutenberg

Wrote Causae et Curae

Transition from Papyrus to Parchment

30

By Pope Nicholas V

8

27 5

Library of the Vatican Established 4 14

Middle Ages Begin

Profoundly influenced medical illustration

9

Hildegard of Bingen

National Library of Medicine.

The first printed medical book to have anatomical illustrations

14 81

0

41 0

85

Fall of the Roman Empire

Meggs, Philip B., A History of Graphic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998.

Johannes de Ketham’s Fasciculus medicinae

91 14

ca

Articella Texts

2

Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen

Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519)

0 13

First Recorded Use of Paper in England

53 14

Wellcome Library, London.

5 14

Works of Johannitius (Hunayn ibn Ishaq) Translated

Killed 30 to 60 percent of Europe’s population

47 13

Sushruta Samhita translated from Sanskrit to Arabic

The Oxyrhynchus Papyrus, a fragment of the Hippocratic Oath written in Greek, is preserved in the Wellcome Institute Library, London.

Wellcome Library, London.

Fall of Byzantium

92 14

Earliest Surviving Text of the Hippocratic Text

Middle Ages End


t

15 25

imeline of the dissemination of medical knowledge William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History

Proliferation of Printers’ Shops

Robert Hooke Published Micrographia

In 200 European cities by 1500

William Harvey Published on Blood Circulation Badianus Manuscript Written By an Aztec Indian; translated by another in 1552

Public domain. Wikimedia Commons.

(1514 – 1564)

15 30

15 25

Hippocratic Corpus published in Greek Paracelsus Discovered Errors in Galen’s Work

Wellcome Library, London.

2 16

Wellcome Library, London.

Govard Bidloo Published Anatomia humani corporis

8

Invention of Color Printing

William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History

19 17

Dutch physician, anatomist, poet and playwright Govard Bidloo published Anatomia humani corporis

Courtesy of Rainer M. Engel, MD

8 16

14 15

Wellcome Library, London.

17 00

0

5 BC

E

00 30

BC

E

00 35

BC

E

00 40

BC

E

00 45

BC

E

00 50

E

0 BC

55 0

BC

E

00 60

BC

E

00 65

E

BC

70 0

0

16 0

0

15 0

75 17

Latin Edition of Corpus Hippocraticum Published

6

Vesalius

15 2

ca

William Harvey published Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus in Frankfurt

25 15

15 0

0

Complete Works of Galen Published in Greek

Robert Hooke published Micrographia: Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses


Hugh Young

(1870 – 1945)

Published Young’s Practice of Urology, Based on a Study of 12,500 Cases (1849 – 1919)

William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History

National Library of Medicine Opened

Published his famous Principles and Practice of Medicine

Max Brödel

Badianus Manuscript Discovered

5

19 29

(1894 – 1969)

19 37

Joseph Lister

YOU

First Index Catalogue Published

Badianus Manuscript Translated and Published

Billings and Fletcher catalogued what became the National Library of Medicine

Translated by Emily Walcott Emmart Published by Johns Hopkins Press

4 19

0

8

18 8

Are visiting the AUA William P. Didusch history exhibit

18 9

3

5

In France under the supervision of Felix Guyon (1831 – 1920) and Joaquin Albarran (1860 – 1912)

19 4

8

First Urology-only Journal Published

15 19

18 67

(1906 – 1991)

National Library of Medicine

Published his articles on antisepsis in the Lancet

5 18

4 18

94 17

Gray’s Anatomy Published

Frank H. Netter, MD CIBA Pharmaceuticals published The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations

William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History

Courtesy of Herbert Schwartz, MD

Published Pediatric Urology

(1827 – 1912)

Medical Repository (1797 – 1824)

Their texts were plain and small, suitable for medical classrooms

In the Vatican Library by Professor Charles Clark

Meredith Campbell, MD

William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History

2

Drs. Charles & John Bell Illustrated Medical Texts

Campbell’s Urology Published

4

Took charge of the Surgeon General’s Library in Washington

Published the first pediatric textbook, Diseases of the Urinary Tract in Children

19 30

Became the medical illustrator for the Brady Urological Clinic at the Johns Hopkins Hospital

19 26

(1895 – 1981)

(1838 – 1913)

18 6

0 18 2

Courtesy of Patrick Walsh, MD

5 19

17 97

John Shaw Billings

Maclise Anatomical Texts

First Medical Journal Published in the U.S.

Courtesy of John Herman, MD

92 18

2 From a merchant in Luxor

(1876 – 1938)

William P. Didusch

Edwin Smith Papyrus Purchased

Wellcome Library, London.

96 17

By Alois Senefelder, German actor and author, as a cheap way to publish plays

In a tomb in Thebes

6 18

Invention of Lithography

More Paper Machine-Made than Hand-made

6 18

98 17

William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History

Ebers Papyrus Discovered

Edwin Beer, MD

Medical illustrator came to Hopkins from Germany

18 9

Published An Inquiry into the Cause and Effects of Variolae Vaccinae

4

(1729 – 1823)

(1870 – 1941)

2

Edward Jenner

19 6

William Osler

00

00 20

0 15 0

0 10 0

0 50

0

20

19 0 E

0 BC

50

E

0 BC

10 0

BC

E

0 15 0

BC

E

00 20

E

BC

25

00

18 0

0

0

0

Timeline of the Dissemination of Medical Knowledge  
Timeline of the Dissemination of Medical Knowledge  

Timeline from the William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History's 2014 Exhibit, "Knowledge Unbound: Literature of Medicine"

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