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Laminated Glass: Changing the Face of Glass Railing Design

Mark Jacobson, Kuraray Interlayer Solutions


Kuraray Interlayer Solutions Two Companies Combined to Create Broadest Interlayer Portfolio GLS §  Acquired from DuPont in June, 2014

TROSIFOL/PVB §  Part of Kuraray since 2004

§  An inventor of PVB and the inventor of SentryGlas® ionoplast interlayer

§  Global technology leader in PVB resin and vinyl acetate chain

§  Americas leader in architectural interlayers

§  European leader in architectural interlayer §  Clearest PVB on the market and broad range of specialties and colors

Building a global leader in the Laminated Glass Market

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Kuraray Interlayer Solutions

We supply the broadest portfolio of PVB and Ionoplast interlayers for laminated glass

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General introduction to Glass Railings

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Glass Balustrades are Functional § Structurally support hand rails § Provide safety from falling from elevated surfaces

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Glass for Aesthetics and Visibility § Glass is desirable for aesthetics § Clear, clean appearance § Excellent site lines

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Code Changes

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IBC Prior to 2015 §  Glass used as a handrail assembly or guard section shall be constructed of either single fully tempered glass, laminated fully tempered glass or laminated heat strengthened glass. §  Glazing in railing in-fill panels shall be of an approved safety glazing material. §  For all glazing types, the minimum nominal thickness shall be ¼”. §  Fully tempered glass and laminated glass shall comply with Category II of CPSC 16CFR 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1. §  Problem – Single fully tempered glass can break and fall out!

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Potential for Glass Breakage with Monolithic Glass §  §  §  §  §  §  §  § 

Inclusions Removal of top rail Product design Installation issues Building movement Construction process Laminated glass option – value engineered Heat soaking not 100% effective

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IBC 2015 Requirement •  Glass used in a handrail, guardrail or a guard section shall be laminated glass constructed of fully tempered or heat-strengthened glass and shall comply with Category II or CPSC 16CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1. •  Glazing in railing in-fill panels shall be of an approved safety glazing material that conforms to the provisions of Section 2406.1.1. For all glazing types, the minimum nominal thickness shall be ¼ inch (6.4 mm). §  Exception – Single fully tempered glass complying with Category II of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1 shall be permitted to be used in handrails and guardrails where there is no walking surface beneath them or the walking surface is permanently protected from the risk of falling glass.

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Top Rails and Guards §  Glass balusters shall not be installed without an attached handrail or guard. §  Exception: A top rail shall not be required where the glass balusters are laminated glass with two or more glass plies of equal thickness and the same glass type when approved by the building official. §  Question – should next revision of code be revised to remove subjectivity of building official by including post-glass-breakage performance? §  Consider ASTM E2353 for post-glass-breakage requirement.


Key properties to consider in laminated glass

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Stiffness and Strength

System

Lite 1

Interlayer caliper

1.6

Strength Relative to PVB Laminate

•  Ionoplast laminates show superior strength properties •  Figure shows strength relative to PVB laminate •  Good opportunities to reduce glass thickness especially for thicker laminates •  Data below from C.R. Laurence website

Pure Bending

T = 23oC 1.52 mm Interlayer Laminate Dimension = 2m

1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8

SentryGlas(R) Plus PVB Reference EVASafe(TM)

0.6 0.4

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Nominal Laminate Thickness (mm)

Line Conc. Interlayer Line load Concentrated Uniform Deflec=on Deflec=on type load kN/m load kN/m2 (mm) (mm) Lite 2 kN/m

L56S10F

6

1.52 SG

6

0.36

0.25

0.5

16.7

11.3

L56S10F

6

1.52 PVB

6

0.36

0.25

0.5

31.5

19.9


Exposed edge durability

•  SentryGlas® Ionoplast laminate’s ability over time to resist the formation of defects along the edge as a result of temperature and humidity •  PVB laminates are durable, but moisture sensitive


Quality and installation considerations with laminated glass

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Edge Alignment and Finish §  ASTM C1172 for laminated glass –  Refer to section 8.5.3, “For some laminated applications, such as, point supported glass and balustrades, where the edges of the laminate are exposed, tighter length and width tolerances may be requested by the customer. Consult the supplier to determine their capabilities.”

§  In addition to edge alignment, consider edge “smoothness” with respect to interlayer being flush with the glass edges.

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Installation Methods

Dry Glaze

Wet Glaze •  Setting Block protects edge of glass from metal contact. •  Glass is secured in place with • 

Portland Cement §  Not recommended for Laminated Glass •  Grout §  Gypsum based §  Okay with laminated but deteriorates with water infiltration, so only interior applications •  Epoxy §  More costly §  Adherence to glass could limit expansion resulting in failure •  Polyurethane §  More costly

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•  Simpler installation •  No waiting for grout to set •  Able to do inclines without damming top of shoe •  No chemical reaction with laminated glass •  Requires drainage for exterior applications.

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Glass Breakage Demonstration

§  Will break laminate with PVB and with SentryGlas®

§  Glass supplied by J.E. Berkowitz

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Breakage Characteristics


Conclusions §  Glass railings add beauty and are aesthetically pleasing in architectural application §  Code changes are driving most glass railing applications to laminated glass §  Consideration should be given to specifying glass edges as well as installation methods to accommodate differences of laminated glass vs. monolithic glass. §  SentryGlas® interlayers provide additional post-glass breakage safety and edge stability

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Thank You Kuraray Interlayer Solutions Your global Partner for Laminated Safety Glass

Methods+Materials Speaker - Mark Jacobson (Kuraray), Facades+ NYC 2016  
Methods+Materials Speaker - Mark Jacobson (Kuraray), Facades+ NYC 2016